For a combination of amazing charm and poisonousness, this plant in the language of flowers means insincerity. Legends have told to this day that elves painted the tender bells of the foxglove with a speck so that people enchanted by the tender beauty of the bright bells could distinguish the poisonous plant. All about foxglove: planting and care in the open field, vegetative propagation and cultivation from seeds, varieties and species.
Digitalis perennial: varieties and varieties
Vintage names foxglove are associated with a glove. In Europe, the flower was called witch gloves, dead man's bells (thimbles), bloody fingers, the Virgin Mary glove. In Russia, the plant has received the names of: forest bells, wolf foxglove, foxellops, wineglass. Photos of different varieties of foxglove convince of high decoration and magnificence of the flower.
The foxglove plant (Digitalis) belongs to the family of Norichnikovs. It was first described in the mid-16th century by a botanist and physician Fuchs. Then the plant got its name - "digitalis", which has been preserved for him to this day.
The natural habitat of perennial foxglove is found in Europe, Western Asia, the northern countries of the African continent, in Turkey. The genus includes annual species, biennials and perennials. All types of foxglove, altogether 25, are distinguished by high sizes (from 0.3 m to 1.5 m), lush flowering, and the original form of a bush.
The flower is very undemanding to the conditions of growth: in nature, digitalis can be found along the banks of streams and rivers, along roadside ditches and in the rocky foothills. The plant has a slender, powerful stem, which crowns the spike inflorescence, consisting of bell-shaped flowers of various colors. The lower lip of the bluebells is usually decorated with contrasting specks. Flowering culture begins in mid-summer, pumped in the fall. Numerous seeds ripen in boxes and remain viable for up to 3 years.
Important! All parts of foxglove are very poisonous. When growing plants should be careful.
Numerous varieties are most common in culture. A perennial plant is grown as a biennial. Digitalis purple has many varieties, blooming pink, white, lilac, carmine flowers, hairy pubescent. In the flower throat there are darker stripes and dots, which give an inexpressible charm to delicate bells digitalis.
Long inflorescence for a long time keeps decorative. Interesting varieties of digitalis purpurea, bred by breeders:
- "Alba" - pure white flowers without specks.
Currently, breeding work aimed at breeding varieties of digitalis
with long flowering and small size.
Other cultures are known in culture. foxglove species:
- Digitalis yellow - found in nature in Europe. A tall perennial (up to 1 m) crowns the ear of amazing yellow bells. Modern varieties of foxglove yellow have a smaller size and longer flowering. The plant is suitable for cultivation in containers and vases, as well as for indoor content when grown in pot culture.
Despite the fact that the foxglove is a very resistant plant, it tolerates frosty winters and a short summer drought perfectly, there are some requirements for choosing a place for a flower in a garden, compliance with which will allow you to grow lush, ornamental shrubs with bright colors.
In the spring, after the snow melts, it is necessary to remove excess moisture from the bushes of digitalis. Soaked roots will affect the normal growth of the plant, in this case flowering may linger, not start at all, or the flowers of the plant will be crushed and lose their decorative effect.
Planting foxglove in a sunny place guarantees abundant, bright and long flowering. In the penumbra, the planting of digitalis of specially bred varieties that tolerate penumbra and can bloom beautifully under the canopy of trees should be placed.
Adorable foxglove, in addition to regular watering, requires timely care: removing weeds, loosening the soil under the bushes and making the necessary nutrients.
Important! In early autumn, the condition of the plant roots should be checked: the roots of digitalis usually become bare. In order to preserve the plant in winter, in the fall it is necessary to make a bedding of the soil to the bare roots. In winter, the care of the plant continues: the condition of the roots must be checked several times, if necessary, their insulation.
Caring for a plant is simple, so newcomer growing foxglove will take little trouble, and a flowering bush admires the beauty of natural creations and adorns the garden beautifully. Photos of garden foxes are truly awesome.
Fertilizer and feeding foxglove
The fertilizer of perennial foxglove bushes is carried out in spring and summer, for which special nutrients are used. It is allowed to feed the plant with organic and mineral fertilizers. Complex mineral fertilizers with microelements is useful to make in the period of plant growth in dosages prescribed by the manufacturer.
Digitalis reproduces beautifully by dividing the bush, with its siblings in the spring.
Separated offsprings are planted in a permanent place - at this time young bushes require careful care and timely, uniform watering.
Digitalis perennial - seed growing one way of breeding this beautiful plant. It should be noted that digitalis reproduces itself very well by self-sowing. Growing from seed is practiced when breeding new varieties, as well as when a large number of seedlings of a given culture is needed.
Diseases and pests
Pests affecting the plant: aphid, mole. Treatment - systemic drugs for these pests.
Of the diseases affecting the plant, copper starvation and decay are most relevant. In the first case, the plant is shed with a solution of copper sulfate, treatment of digitalis from rot is carried out with special antifungal drugs.
Digitalis perennial: combination with other plants
Combinations of digitalis with similar perennials, equal in size to the bush, look decorative in mixed mixborders. Growing plants next to tree crops and shrubs, allows you to create amazing landscape composition. In landscape design they often use digital fox as a tapeworm on green lawns.
Perennial perennial in landscape design
Low-growing varieties of foxglove perennial are increasingly used in landscape design in the design of pools, ponds, alpine slides, rabatok and flower beds. Flowering plants in the second half of summer is ideal for the creation of seasonal flowerbeds, which collected the cultures of different period of flowering. In park landscape design, digitalis is often used for planting next to mature trees.
Features of digitalis
Digitalis is an herbaceous biennial or perennial plant, while in the Western Mediterranean you can meet digitalis in the form of a half-shrub or shrub. The shoots are unbranched and rigid, their height varies from 0.3 to 1.5 m. Greenish large whole-leafed plates have a lanceolate and oblong shape, they are sharp, alternately arranged, gradually turning into bracts. Two or one-sided apical racemes consist of large irregular-shaped flowers, painted in light red, yellow or purple. The bell-shaped flowers have a special device when a fly, a bumblebee, a bee or a wasp are taken in them, then pollen drops it, then such an insect moves to another flower, carrying the pollen onto itself.
This is how pollination occurs. This plant blooms in June, and blooms - in the first autumn weeks. The fruit is a box, inside which there are many small seeds of brown color, they remain viable for 2-3 years. One bush can produce about 2 million seeds. Any kind and variety of foxglove is poisonous, in connection with this they are forbidden to plant on the beds of children's institutions. Some species of digitalis are grown as ornamental plants, while others are better known as medicinal. The composition of the foliage of most species includes glycosides, they are used in nontraditional and traditional medicine. This plant is resistant to frost and drought, as well as undemanding to care and soil composition.
Species and Varieties
The most commonly used in landscape design are the following varieties: Purple foxglove is known to almost all growers. The shrub, 1.2–2 m high, is distinguished by a pubescent stem and leaves, large racemes and tubular bell-shaped flowers. Petals can have apricot, cream, purple, lilac, pink, yellow or white color with dark purple spots. The corolla of the flower can be clean or covered on the inside with a mesh pattern. Flowering lasts about one and a half months.
The variety “Tapsi” is a perennial plant with large elongated leaves of a gray shade and stems 40–80 cm high. The wrist inflorescences consist of 10–25 curved pink-crimson bell-shaped flowers. The plant is afraid of frost, therefore it needs shelter for the winter. Flowering occurs in June. Digitalis grandiflora is a shrub up to 120 cm tall and above. Leaves pubescent at the edges have veins. Graceful drooping racemes consist of light yellow flowers with a diameter of 4-6 cm. Inside they are dotted with brown veins and spots, and the outside have a slight pubescence. Flowers blooming in June or July decorate the plant for more than a month. Merton is a hybrid plant up to 80 cm high.
Its stems are covered with dark shiny leaves and bloated tubular flowers. They are distinguished by a speckled pharynx and petals of the color of mashed strawberries. The blooming variety pleases in May - June. The foxglove is rusty - it is an ornamental plant in height from 70 to 120 cm. The oblong-lanceolate leaves have a slight pubescence. Inflorescences consist of numerous, but not very large flowers, similar to orchids. They can be rusty, yellow-gray or light yellow with a pink bloom. The corolla is decorated with lilac or reddish veins. The plant blooms in the second half of June, and blooms until August.
Sowing seeds at home is done in March. To do this, seedlings are filled with soil mixture for indoor plants, which can be bought at a flower shop. The soil is moistened and the seeds are evenly distributed over it. Do not sprinkle them on top, but should be sprayed from the dispenser with water at room temperature. The container is covered with plastic wrap and cleaned in a warm place until the seeds are pecking. As soon as the first seedlings ascend, the film is removed, and the boxes are exposed to a bright place. With the appearance of cotyledon leaves, sprouts need to be thinned. Seedlings with 4-6 true leaves are swooped in separate pots. When growing seedlings foxglove it is necessary to ensure that the soil does not dry out. Watering a plant like moderate. As the flower grows and develops very slowly, seedlings are planted in the open ground only in the fall. The distance between the plants should be from 35 to 40 cm
Growing this plant, no need to make special efforts. The main actions are watering, which is required only in great heat, when rains rarely occur. Following the irrigation should follow the loosening of the soil. But this should be done carefully, since the rhizome of the foxglove lies close to the top of the substrate. to contents
Use in pharmacology
Virtually all types of digitalis are poisonous: substances in their flowers and leaves have a negative effect on heart rate, blood circulation and cause nausea, dizziness and convulsions. But this is only if it comes to mind to chew 2–3 full inflorescences and the same number of leaves at a time.
Some types of digitalis are used to produce drugs for cardiac arrhythmias, circulatory failure, tachycardia, and other similar cardiovascular disorders. In particular, the leaves and flowers of the purple and woolly varieties of the plant emit the substance digotoxin, which later becomes the basis of many drugs. In the first-aid kits you can find such drugs with digitalis as "Cordigit" (pills), "Digotoxin" (powder), "Celanid", "Lanthoside", as well as powders and tinctures from the leaves of this plant.
Planting and care for digitalis (in brief)
- Landing: sowing seeds in the ground - at the end of April or at the beginning of May, sowing seeds for seedlings - at the beginning or middle of March, planting seedlings in the ground - at the end of May or early June.
- Bloom: from June to late summer.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: loose, moisture-permeable, fertile, on the site where the water will not stagnate.
- Watering: moderate, but frequent and only during a long drought.
- Top dressing: 1-2 times per season with a solution of complex mineral fertilizers.
- Reproduction: seeds, including self-sowing, as well as a vegetative way - shoots.
- Pests: several types of aphids.
- Diseases: rot, spotting, powdery mildew and viral mosaic.
- Properties: medicinal poisonous plant.
Digitalis flower - description
The foxglove may be a herbaceous perennial or biennial, and in the Western Mediterranean it may be a shrub or even a shrub. Stems from foxglove hard, 30 to 150 cm high, unbranched. Large light green leaves, entire, alternate, sharp, oblong and lanceolate, gradually moving into the bracts. Large, irregularly shaped yellow, reddish or purple flowers are collected in one-sided or bilateral apical brush. The foxglove flowers, similar in shape to bells, are arranged in such a way that the pollen always shoots insects that get into them, and then bees, flies, wasps and bumblebees transfer the pollen to other flowers, carrying out pollination. The flowering of foxglove begins in June and ends at the beginning of autumn. The fruit of the plant is a box in which a large number of small brown seeds ripen, which remain viable for two to three years. A single plant can carry up to 2,000,000 seeds.
All foxgloves are poisonous, so they are not grown in flower beds of children's institutions. Some types of foxglove are decorative, and some are better known as medicinal plants. The foxglove of many species contains glycosides used by folk and traditional medicine.
Herbaceous foxglove is undemanding to the composition of the soil and to care, drought-resistant and cold-resistant. In this article we will tell you how to plant and care for digitalis, what types of plants are medicinal, how many years of digitalis are grown from seeds, and offer you a lot of other information about digitalis.
Sowing seeds of foxglove.
The foxglove seeds are sown on seedlings in early or mid-March, pre-soaking them for a week in water, which they change every 6 hours. It is not necessary to close the seeds deeply, just lightly sprinkle them on top of the sand, then cover the container with glass or film and place in a warm place with soft diffused light.
The foxglove can give the first sprouts in two weeks.
Caring for seedlings foxglove.
Seedlings develop very slowly at first, but as soon as the first leaves are formed, pick out the seedlings in individual cups or in a deeper and more spacious box at a distance of 7-10 cm. Caring for digitalis seedlings is no different from caring for any other seedlings: watering as far as drying of the substrate, careful loosening of the soil, protection from direct sunlight and drafts.
A couple of weeks before planting in the open ground, they begin to conduct tempering procedures, which should prepare the seedlings for the conditions of the garden. Seedlings are exposed to fresh air every day, gradually increasing the duration of their stay in the garden or on the balcony. As soon as the seedlings can spend the day outside the premises, they can be planted in open ground.
When to put a foxglove in a ground.
In the garden, seedlings are planted when the threat of returning spring frosts, that is, in late May or early June, passes away. By this time, usually the soil is already well warmed up, and 5-6 leaves have opened on the seedlings. Digitalis prefers open sunny areas, although it grows well in partial shade. However, it is undesirable to plant digitalis under deciduous trees, because in tree trunks the moisture is always longer, and the foxglove in such conditions can soak or not bloom. And in the fall the falling leaves interfere with the plant.
How to plant a foxglove.
The soil digitalis needs loose, fertile and moisture-permeable, in which water will not stagnate. Заранее перекопайте грунт на участке на глубину штыка лопаты с одновременным внесением на каждый м² 4-5 кг компоста или перегноя. Посадка наперстянки осуществляется на расстоянии 15-20 см между сеянцами в ряду при междурядьях шириной 25-30 см. Сделайте в почве лунки размером чуть больше корневой системы рассады и перевалите сеянцы из стаканчиков в лунки вместе с земляным комом. Если рассада в ящике, вынимайте ее месте с землей и осторожно располагайте в лунке. После посадки поверхность участка уплотняют и поливают.
In the first year, the foxglove forms a rosette of leaves, and flowering will begin only next year.
Cultivation of foxglove involves the usual procedures for florists - watering digitalis, loosening the soil around the plants, removing weeds from the plot, feeding and processing from pests or diseases, if necessary.
Watering of foxglove is carried out only in conditions of a prolonged drought, but in a normal summer with rains it is not necessary to water the plant. After watering or rain, the soil around the plants should be shallowly and carefully loosened around the plants - the root system of digitalis is located horizontally in the ground, close to the surface, so it is easy to damage.
Once or twice during the growing season, the foxglove is fed with complex mineral fertilizer in a liquid form - a solution of minerals is added to the water for irrigation.
During flowering, remove wilted flowers and buds - this measure will prolong the flowering process, and foxglove will not lose its attractiveness until the autumn.
When transplanting digital fox, no problems should arise - as already mentioned, the root system of the plant is superficial, so it is easy to dig up a bush. The plant is placed in a previously prepared hole, which should be slightly larger than the root system of a bush with an earthen clod. After transplanting a bush watered.
Pests and diseases of digitalis.
Of the diseases, digitalis most often affects rot, spotting, powdery mildew and viral mosaic. In case of a strong defeat with powdery mildew and blotches, it is better to remove the diseased specimen from the site, and treat the rest of the plants with the fungicide solution. Unfortunately, viral diseases, such as mosaic, as well as root rot and decay of the peduncle, are incurable, therefore, the affected plants must be removed and burned.
Of the pests, digitalis affects several species of aphids, against which digitalis is treated with the preparations Biotlin, Antitlin and Spark. Aphid is a carrier of incurable viral diseases, so it must be destroyed at the first sign of appearance.
As you can see, in general, planting foxglove and care in the open field are not at all burdensome.
Perennial foxglove after flowering
The root system of the foxglove, located close to the surface, is sometimes exposed, and in order for it to tolerate the winter normally, in the fall, the roots should be sprinkled with nutrient soil. Perennial foxglove is cold-resistant, but it can freeze in a snowless winter. Cut off faded and yellowed peduncles and cover the outlet with dry leaves, sawdust or spruce branches. Particularly in need of shelter young plants.
Digitalis purpurea (Digitalis purpurea)
originally from Western, Southern and Central Europe. This perennial, often grown as a biennial plant, reaches a height of 150 cm. Its stems are erect, few branches and densely pubescent, with a rosette of basal leaves. Stem leaves on winged long petioles are alternately arranged, while the upper leaves are sessile, rounded, crenate along the edge, velvety on top and with felt pubescence on the underside. White, carmine, pink, cream or purple with short hairs and dark brushstroke inside the corolla flowers up to 5 cm long are gathered in a racemose one-sided inflorescence up to 80 cm long. This species blooms from early to late summer. In the culture for a long time. There are several varieties of digitalis purpurea - large-flowered, spotted and gloxinia. Of the hybrids of the foxglove gloxenia-shaped, the Shirley variety is interesting - a plant up to one and a half meters in length, flowering for a long time with open, drooping, pink-colored, purple or cream flowers from the inside, gathered in a unilateral inflorescence. Popular is also the hybrid mix Excelsior with peduncles up to 180 cm in height, on which very large flowers are arranged in a spiral. Often in the garden the foxglove is grown from the Pelorik mix, whose flower stalks, studded with large flowers, also grow to 180 cm. It attracts attention and select one-color variety of purple foxglove Pink champagne up to 120 cm high,
Digitalis grandiflora (Digitalis grandiflora = Digitalis ambigua)
grows in nature in Ukraine, Western Europe, the Mediterranean, the European part of Russia and in South-Western Siberia. The plants of this species rarely exceed 120 cm in height. They have oblong-lanceolate leaves, pubescent along the veins and along the edges. Yellow flowers with brown veins inside the corolla, reaching a length of 6 cm, are collected in a drooping brush. Outside on the flowers light pubescence. In culture, this species since 1561,
Digitalis rusty (Digitalis ferruginea)
- one of the most attractive species of digitalis, reaching a height of 70 to 120 cm, although in some cases it can grow up to 2 m. The leaves of this species are oblong-lanceolate, bare or slightly pubescent. Flowers up to 4 cm in length resemble an orchid with a pronounced lower lip. The color of flowers is diverse - from a pale yellow shade with a pink bloom to a greyish yellow, which turns into rusty or golden brown. Inside the corolla is decorated with purple or reddish-brown veins. Collected flowers in large brush, bloom which lasts from the second half of June to August. In the culture of foxglove rusty since 1597,
Digitalis woolly (Digitalis lanata),
Perhaps the most nondescript type of digitalis growing in nature in Moldova. This digitalis is medical, not decorative, and has its own advantages and advantages. The plant has a single peduncle, on which small brownish-yellow flowers with purple veins unfold. The axis of the inflorescence is covered with thick pubescence, which is why the plant got its name. Flowering of foxglove woolly begins in July and lasts about one and a half months,
Digitalis yellow (Digitalis lutea)
grows in the south-west of Europe, reaching a height of 80 to 100 cm. This plant has no pubescence on either oblong-oval leaves or on the stalks. Yellow flowers up to 2.5 cm long bloom in July. In culture, the view from 1597. The most famous variety is Gelb Janus with delicate yellow flowers.
In culture, the foxglove is also grown dark, or unclear, Tapsi, Merton, Nevada, ciliate and some other species and hybrid forms.
Medicinal properties of digitalis.
Since ancient times, with the help of foxglove, healers treated epilepsy, abdominal and chest dropsy, used it to relieve pain in skin diseases, as well as a remedy for constipation and to cleanse the body. However, with improper dosage, vomiting, diarrhea, and often death were observed. Therefore, for a whole century, humanity has forgotten about digitalis.
In traditional medicine, digitalis has been used since the eighteenth century. It was then that her unusual properties were discovered. The main medicinal raw materials are the leaves of the plant, which are harvested in the first year. They contain 62 glycosides, including gitoksin and digitoxin, lanatozidy A, B, C, D, E and others. These biologically active substances are very important in the fight against many cardiovascular diseases. Digitalis is used:
- - to strengthen the walls of blood vessels,
- - to improve the blood supply to muscles and tissues,
- - for normalization of hemodynamics,
- - from cardiosclerosis,
- - from tachycardia, hypertension, myocardial dystrophy, mitral defects,
- - from atrial fibrillation.
Most often, as a medicinal plant, they use a woolly foxglove. Organic acids, cardiotonic and steroid glycosides are obtained from it. In medicine, the foxglove also uses purple, ciliated and rusty, which, although to a lesser extent, also contain biologically active substances.
From the leaves of foxglove make powder, which is part of the candles and tablets. In folk medicine, infusion of foxglove is also used.
Digitalis - contraindications.
Literally all types of foxglove are poisonous, so it is absolutely not recommended to self-medicate. It is forbidden to use drugs from digitalis to people with diseased lungs, stenocardia, pericarditis, myocarditis, myocardial infarction, gastric tachycardia, as well as children and pregnant women. Digitalis poisoning is manifested by nausea, vomiting, severe abdominal pain, skin rashes, cramps, respiratory failure, malfunctioning of the heart. At the first sign of poisoning with a digitalis, an ambulance should be called immediately. With prolonged use of drugs from the plant, accumulation of toxic substances in the body occurs, which can lead to loss of appetite, anorexia and hallucinations.
Magic around foxglove perennial
Not many people know that this plant was called the witch finger in ancient times. This name he received due to toxic substances that are contained in the flower. And also the composition of this plant includes:
- Vitamin complexes.
Therefore, perennial foxglove was widely used in alternative medicine and in performing various magical rituals. This flower was used by both white magicians and black sorcerers.
Description of the plant and the types of foxglove with photos
This plant has received this name due to the unusual shape of its buds. They clearly resemble protective thimbles on your fingers for sewing. Stems are usually straight and rather wide.
Buds are located very close to each other. And cover almost the entire stem, forming to the top, something remotely resembling a pyramid.
Color gamma buds fascinates with its diversity. The foxglove perennial buds are:
Buds are covered with tiny specks, dark color. Buds begin to bloom very slowly, they are opening every day more and more. The flowering period occurs at the beginning of summer, and the buds only fade when late autumn comes. Pay attention to the photo, here you can see the ideal shape of the leaves of the plant with clear deep veins. The color of the leaves of the flower is a rich green color, but without a reflection. They are not shiny, but as if a bit dull.
Please note that before planting a flower in the open ground this perennial, you should decide on the choice of variety. This is necessary precisely because the varieties of foxglove are completely different in color and height of the stems. Here are some of the most popular varietal types of digitalis, perennial:
- Purple foxglove. This is a bush perennial. Its height, as a rule, reaches 120–200 centimeters. When compared with other varieties of this plant, the stem is slightly pubescent. Leaves also look down. The buds of foxglove of this variety look like brushes, the flowers look like bells. The color scheme of buds is very extensive. This plant is different from other dark specks. This sort of bloom perennial fossil with the right care in the open ground for at least one and a half months.
- Variety Tapsi - It is also a perennial flower. The foxglove leaves of this variety have, as a rule, an elongated shape, saturated bluish color. Flower stalks grow no higher than 0.4–0.8 meters. Flower buds are collected in a single inflorescence having a pyramidal shape. The hue most often of buds varies from a delicate pink to a rich crimson color. What is important to note such a feature as poor resistance to frost. Perennial of this variety should be very carefully prepared for the winter. To delight us with its magnificent flowering the flower will begin, like all other varieties at the beginning of the summer period.
- Grape flowering foxglove. This is quite a tall perennial shrub, its height can reach 1.2 meters in height. The leaves, like the first variety of plants look a bit down. Have the outlines of crisp streaks. It is worth noting that the inflorescences of this variety are very beautiful, and attract the eye. The plant color is light tones of a yellow shade. This variety has characteristic streaks not only on the foliage, but also on the buds. The blotches remain the same as for all varieties. With its proper care, the foxglove begins to bloom in the open in early summer, when it blooms, it begins to bloom for the second time already in July, before the beginning of autumn.
- Merton's foxglove. This kind of color is considered a hybrid. The height of its stems does not exceed 0.8 meters. Unlike other varieties, the foliage on the stem of this plant is extremely fast-growing. And has glossy reflections. Buds elongated slightly swollen. Have a rich color of strawberry puree. This is a very early variety in its bloom. In the open field with proper care, the flower will begin to bloom in May. But it will also bloom very early in late June.
- Fox Rusty Rusty. This plant is considered to be decorative. Its height, as a rule, from 0.7–1.2 meters. The leaves have an elongated shape, like other varieties, they look down. This kind of flower when blooming is very similar to orchid buds. But they are not as large as other varieties, most often their diameter does not exceed 4 centimeters. The color range is different, its flowering begins later than other varieties. But it is also wonderful for a flower bed to always delight us with its colors and never cease to bloom. One grade will replace another, and the bed will always be well-dressed.
Preparation of seedlings for the winter period
Some varieties of this plant very nicely winter without additional shelters. But there are, of course, varieties, when planting which should be taken into account immediately that they need proper care and shelter for the winter.
More often to create favorable conditions, no special adaptations are required, it will be possible to manage with fallen leaves only. If during the summer period and the care of digitalis, the root system has grown so much that it looks out of the soil cover, then they should be properly sprinkled with earth. This is required so that the roots do not freeze in the cold winter.
If plants are planted in a tank or pot, and you take them to a room for wintering, they will begin to bloom, as a rule, in the very first months of spring. So we looked at such a wonderful flower as foxglove, growing it and proper care.
Digitalis species and varieties
Among all kinds of very popular is Foxglove purple. This is a perennial plant, but often grown only for 2 years. Its erect shoots weakly branched, covered with down and can grow up to one and a half meters.
A leaf rosette forms at the bottom of the stem. Most of the foliage on the shoot is regular, petiolate, the upper leaves sit without a petiole. The flowers are quite large, form a large inflorescence, which can be almost a meter long. The color of the flowers is mostly pink or cream tones, it can also be white.
This species has several varieties and served to form many hybrids, for example, foxglove Gloxin color, Excelsior, Peloric.
Digitalis grandiflora The wild growth zone is mainly Europe and the southern part of Siberia. Infrequently above a meter. It has elongated foliage. The inflorescences are yellow, large flowers are covered with a little fluff.
Digitalis rusty very beautiful view, which on average grows to a meter, but individuals occur and higher. The flowers of this species are smaller than the previous ones, but more spectacular, resembling an orchid. The color of the petals can vary greatly depending on the variety.
Digitalis woolly This species is primarily used in medicine, not gardening, as it is rather nondescript.
This is, comparatively, a low species, which is expelled by a single flower stem with small yellowish flowers. The peduncle is densely covered with down, which is why this digitalis is named.
Digitalis Yellow can grow up to a meter tall. It is characterized by the absence of down on the foliage and shoots. Small flowers have a yellow color.
Digitalis Ciliated low view with a covered escape shoot. Foliage lanceolate, dentate, small. The inflorescence is small - only up to 10 cm, consists of white, slightly yellowish flowers, bluebells.
Digitalis small-flowered biennial growing in warm European countries. Throws out high peduncles, on which are formed inflorescences consisting of flowers of brown chocolate color.
Digitalis planting and care in the open field
Having seedlings of foxglove, its planting in the soil is carried out when a constant positive temperature is established, with no night falls below zero. At the bushes seedlings to this point should be about 5 leaves.
Picking up the site is better to pay attention to the well-lit places, but light penumbra also come down. Do not plant a flower near the trees, as they retain moisture, which can adversely affect flowering.
The soil for planting should be light, quite nutritious and not retain moisture. Some time before planting, the flowerbed will need to be dug up, adding 4 kilograms of humus per square meter. When disembarking adhere to a distance close to 25 cm.
Pits for seedlings dig a little more roots. To transplant seedlings from the containers into the ground, you need to carefully, slightly compacting the soil, and then you need to water it. In the first year of growing, only leaves form on the plant, and from the second, flowers appear.
Bacopa is also a member of the plantain family. С рекомендациями по уходу и выращиванию этого цветка можно ознакомиться в этой статье.
Перед приходом зимы растения нужно утеплить. Если корневище оголилось, то его надо укрыть плодородным субстратом, а затем добавить утеплитель. Особенно важно не забыть утеплить молодые особи, поскольку они уязвимы к морозам.
Наперстянка многолетняя выращивание из семян
Чтобы получить для размножения наперстянки рассаду, нужно в начале весны опустить семечки на 7 дней в воду, которую нужно сменять каждые шесть часов. Далее семена кладут на грунт и немного накрывают песком. After that, the container is covered with glass and left warm under ambient lighting.
After 15 days, the first shoots should begin to hatch.
Seedling development will be slow. With the formation of a pair of true leaflets in sprouts, it is necessary to pick a pick into separate containers. And the rest of the seedlings need to be kept under diffuse lighting, from time to time watering and avoiding drafts.
You can also simply sow the seeds in the soil, which is also done in the spring. In addition, digitalis is easily propagated by self-seeding.
Digitalis medicinal properties
Digitalis is a medicinal plant that, due to its medicinal properties, strengthens blood vessels, has a good effect on muscles, in some circumstances, and on the heart.
In folk medicine, digitalis infusions were used to treat epilepsy, reduce pain, and skin diseases. But they resorted to this plant very carefully, because it is poisonous and therefore in folk medicine it has long been practically not used, because overdose can even lead to death. Because of this, it is strongly not recommended to self-medicate, as well as prepare tinctures from this plant.
Taking medicines with digitalis is prohibited for people suffering from diseases of the lungs, heart, stomach, pregnant women and children.
Poisoning with this plant and drugs, including it, is accompanied by vomiting, abdominal pain, problems with breathing and heart function.
If you take drugs with foxglove for a long time, then toxins in the body begin to accumulate, which adversely affect the body.
When and how much does foxglove bloom
Digitalis at the cottage photo
At the top of the stem flowers appear, collected in unilateral or bilateral brushes. Flowers are large, bell-shaped, drooping: they generously shower pollen on insects that climb into them. Then they transfer the pollen to other plants, thereby carrying out pollination. The color of flowers is yellow, reddish, pale pink, purple.
Flowering lasts all summer, capturing the beginning of September. After flowering, a fruit appears - a box with many small seeds. One plant can produce about 2,000,000 seeds. Their germination lasts 2-3 years.
Be careful: all types of digitalis are poisonous. Despite this, some of them grow decoratively, and some are medicinal plants. Due to the presence of glycosides in their leaves, digitalis is used in folk and traditional medicine.
The plant is unpretentious in the care, tolerates drought and cold.
How to plant a foxglove with seeds in the ground
Sow seeds of foxglove in open ground in the spring, as soon as possible, as soon as the earth ripens - from late March to late April, if they are late, you can in May. It is better if the bed is prepared in advance, the soil is well dug up and managed to settle. It is necessary to level the surface with a rake, break the breasts and scrape the sides of the beds.
- Small seeds should not be embedded deep, so make shallow rows so that the embedment depth is no more than 1-2 cm.
- Sow in rows, keeping a distance of 25-30 cm between them.
- Distribute seeds as seldom as possible, sprinkle a little with earth.
- If the weather is cool, cover the crops with lutrasil, watch for the emergence of shoots.
Digitalis growing from seed when planting photos of shoots in open ground
- Dilute thick shoots so that the plants can fully develop, leaving a distance of 8-10 cm.
- Later, plant the bushes at a distance of 20-25 cm to get a continuous flowering row, or 40-50 cm for a single arrangement of bushes.
The foxglove reproduces perfectly with self-sowing, so you can not take care of the seed, but simply choose the best fall plants in the spring and plant them in a permanent place (but only if your fox is not a hybrid).
Digitalis of seeds at home
Homemade seed fossil photo seedling
Sow seeds of foxglove on seedlings from the beginning to the middle of March.
- Fill the containers with light, loose soil, spread the seeds over the surface of the soil, sprinkle with sand.
- You can spray crops with growth stimulant solution to speed up and improve germination.
- Cover your crops with glass or plastic to create a greenhouse effect.
- Germinate in a warm place with diffused light.
- Plenichok ventilate, moisten the soil.
- Shoots will appear in a couple of weeks, the shelter is better to remove.
- Seedlings will grow slowly. With the advent of two true leaves, spread out in separate pots or in a more spacious box, keeping a distance of about 10 cm between plants.
- It is not difficult to care for seedlings: water as the soil dries, carefully loosen the soil, protect it from direct sunlight and drafts.
- In the open ground seedlings are planted with the establishment of this heat: the end of May and the beginning of June. A couple of weeks before this hardened seedlings. Every day you take to the fresh air, each day increasing the time of stay.
Best of all, foxglove will grow in a sunny open area. It will normally feel in the shade, but it is important not to allow moisture stagnation, otherwise the plant will not bloom or even die.
The soil requires nutrient, loose, without stagnant water.
How to plant seedlings in the ground
How to plant seedlings foxglove in the ground photo
Dig the area to the depth of the spade's bayonet, bring in compost at the rate of 4-5 kg per square meter. Make the holes to the size of the root system and cross over the foxglove together with the earth clod. Observe the distance between plants in a row of 20-25 cm, between rows - 25-30 cm. Seal the soil, water.
In the first year of life will grow green mass, and flowering will come next season.
How to propagate the foxglove lateral processes
Digitalis root photo
Digitalis propagated by basal processes. After flowering, cut off faded buds. After 2-3 weeks, young shoots will appear at the base of the root. When they have 7-8 leaves, carefully separate them from the main plant and transplant. By the beginning of the cold they will take root, and next season they will bloom.
How to care for digitalis in the garden
Digitalis flower hybrid photo of Dalmatian variety
Water only during a long drought, the plant can be content with precipitation.
After watering and rain, gently loosen the soil. Do not go deep, because the root system is superficial, it is easy to damage.
Feed a couple of times per season with complex mineral fertilizers. Bring them in with watering.
Remove wilted inflorescences so that the plant looks decorative. Leave only the most lush inflorescences to collect seeds.
Foxglove after flowering
If necessary, collect the seeds. When the seed pods are fully ripe, they will turn a dark yellow, brown tint. The best seeds are in boxes located at the bottom. Take them off before they burst. Sprinkle seeds on a newspaper and dry in a room with good ventilation. Store in paper bags in a dark, dry place.
Often, the roots of a plant can protrude to the surface — for the winter, sprinkle them with nutrient soil. Cut the stems, leaving about 10-15 cm above the surface. Zamulchuyte soil with sawdust, dry leaves, cover with spruce branches.
Digitalis purpurea perennial Digitalis purpurea
Digitalis purpurea perennial Digitalis purpurea photo
Perennial. The height of the plant is 1.5 m, with about 80 cm covered with flowers. Stem erect, branching weakly, densely pubescent. The lower part of the stem is covered with oblong long-leaf leaves arranged alternately, the upper leaves are sessile, rounded, all leafy plates are pubescent. The length of the corolla is 5 cm. The color may be white, cream, pink, magenta, fiery red, inside the corolla a smear of a darker shade. Inflorescence is one-sided.
The species of species is gloxin-like and spotty digitalis.
The Shirley - one-sided inflorescence consists of drooping rims of pink color with a cream or purple spot inside,
Excelsior Hybrids Mixed - flowers are large, arranged in a spiral, white, pink, red color,
Digitalis purple variety Alba Digitalis purpurea ‘Alba’ photo
Alba - white flowers, grows well on wet soils,
Snow Thimble - a plant height of 1.2 m, white flowers,
Digitalis in the landscape design in the photo grade Digitalis purpurea Pantaloons Pam s Choice Split
Pam’s Choise - snow-white beaters with spots inside the cherry shade,
Pam’s Choice Split Corolla - a carved corolla shaped like an orchid,
Pink champagne - attracts with delicate colors,
Digitalis variety Digitalis ‘Illumination Apricot’ photo
Apricot - apricot flowers,
Glittering Prizes Mix - colors from white to burgundy,
Digitalis in the design of the garden in the photo grade Digitalis purpurea Dwarf Red
Dwarf Red - a plant about 70 cm tall, bright pink flowers,
Foksi - plant height is 80 cm, flowers are white, pink, purple, bright red.
Digitalis grandiflora Digitalis grandiflora or Digitalis ambigua
Digitalis grandiflora Digitalis grandiflora or Digitalis ambigua photo
The plant is 1.2 m tall. The leaves are lanceolate, the oblong edges of the leaf plates and veined hairs. The length of the corolla is 6 cm. They are yellowish, there are streaks of dark brown color inside, the surface of the corolla is pubescent.
- Carousel - foxglove height of about 120 cm with cream flowers,
- Apricot beauty - reaches a height of 1.4 m, the color of the corolla corresponds to the name,
- White giant - tall foxglove with white flowers,
- Spotted giant - white flowers with spots of purple color,
- Yellow - has yellow flowers,
- Lilac giant - flowers of lilac color
- Krapinka - bright crimson flowers with burgundy spots.
Digitalis rusty digitalis ferruginea
Digitalis rusty Digitalis ferruginea photo
Plant height is 70-120 cm. The leaves are oblong, bare or slightly pubescent. The corolla has a pronounced lower lip - like an orchid flower. Color from pale yellow with a pinkish tinge, yellow gray, rusty, golden brown. Inside the rim there are streaks of purple, red-brown hue.
Digitalis yellow Digitalis lutea
Digitalis yellow Digitalis lutea photo
Height is 80-100 cm. The leaves and stems are bare. Oval-oblong sheet plates. Flowers have
Gelb Janus - the most popular variety of species with flowers of soft yellow color.
Digitalis in landscape design
Digitalis rusty in landscape design photo
Tall species and varieties serve as a backdrop in linear flower beds and mixborders, plant them to cover unsightly walls. Sredneroslye are good for decorating flowerbeds, with the help of undersized frame borders, paths.
Digitalis in landscape design photo flowerbed
You can land in flowerpots or pots to decorate the terraces, balconies.
Create a garden of foxgloves in the garden - it will look gentle, romantic, natural.
What colors to plant digital photo of mixborder
Shrubs and trees: viburnum, dog rose, honeysuckle, rhododendron, shade-tolerant plants: host, primula, geranium, aquilegia, dicentre, universal neighbors: irises, ornamental onions, peonies, poppies, angelica, valerian.
In cut form flower stalks delight about a week. They look good in high ceramic and glass vases.