Today, not every florist keen on novelties can boast that in his garden there is such a plant as a soft cuff. Planting and caring for this perennial does not require any special skills and knowledge, but it has excellent decorative qualities. The leaf of this rather modest plant at various times inspired the architects who designed the athletics arena of the Moscow Institute of Physical Culture and the waiting room of the Kursk railway station in the capital. On the botanical characteristics and features of planting and care for a soft cuff when growing it in open ground, this article will tell.
The soft cuff (Alchemilla mollis) is a perennial plant of the Rosaceae family (Rosaceae) with a rather short rhizome and a large, powerful root system. This herbaceous perennial is universal: it remarkably "feels" in the sun, in the shade of trees and in partial shade. On cultivated soils with good drainage it grows especially actively, but also on other types of land, with regular irrigation and fertilizing, it develops well.
The elevated grassy part of it can reach 40 cm. The fan-shaped leaves tapering to the base with a wavy edge are collected in a rounded compact bush. From the beginning of summer until the onset of autumn the cuff blossoms soft. Planting and caring for her are quite simple, and even a novice gardener can easily cope with this. The plant "throws out" flower stalks up to 70 cm long, on which there are many small greenish-yellow flowers forming airy and lush paniculate inflorescences. With green leaves goes into the winter, the cuff is soft. Care for these plants is to sprinkle the core of the bush with humus or foliage and spud earth. Such measures will help prevent the “fallout” or loosening of the cuff next season.
This plant propagates both by dividing the rhizome and by seed.
Why is she called that?
Indeed, why is the plant, rather modest at first glance, called Alchemilla, which in Arabic means “alchemy”? The fact is that medieval scholars turned their attention to such an amazing property of the leaves of a cuff - to hold dew drops on its surface. Alchemists could not explain why the water does not flow, and considered the cuff a mystical plant. They used the droplets of dew collected from the leaves of this herb in their experiments to create the elixir of youth and the production of the philosopher's stone.
The second word in the scientific name is mollis, which translates as "with a fluffy, soft edge." Decorated with a jagged wavy edge, the leaves of this plant really resemble vintage cuffs with lace scallops, which is why they call it a cuff.
In the XVIII century, scientists attributed to the genus cuffs only one type - soft. Modern scientists to the family Rosaceae (Rosaceae) and the genus Alchemilla include more than 350 species. On the territory of our country one can find 170 kinds of cuffs, more than 30 of them - in its European part. The main area of distribution of plants of this species is in temperate climatic zones of North America and Eurasia. In Africa, South America and New Zealand, some alpine species are found. It is also interesting that today in the European and North American gardens it is widely cultivated cuff soft. Planting and caring for it are simple, as the plant is very unpretentious both to the soil and to the lighting conditions. Due to such features, flower growers are happy to use this rather decorative perennial when making flower gardens and flower beds in their gardens.
One of the ways in which the cuff multiplies is soft - planting seeds. For young plants, seed material is planted in a container with pre-prepared soil. After planting, they are transferred for germination in a cool room. Tanks leave there until such time as shoots appear. Grown up seedlings must be seated in separate containers so that a full-fledged root system can be formed. For normal growth and development of young plants, individual containers should be well drained, for example, perlite or pebbles. Propagation by seeds is best done in the fall, then the next spring, the seedlings planted in a permanent place will not only take root well, but will also delight in their flowering.
Divide the bush
The ability to get a few new plants appears in gardeners in early spring and autumn: you can separate the grown-up and overgrown bush, which formed a soft cuff. Planting and caring for separated seedlings do not pose a problem: the most difficult thing is to extract a thick lump of roots from the soil and divide it. The resulting delenki are planted in the soil prepared in advance prepared and enriched with peat. If you carry out the cuff division in the spring, then in the middle of summer, the grown and grown seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place, leaving at least 30 cm between them.
Varieties and use of plants in landscape design
The cuff grows in the form of a low bush (maximum height does not exceed 30 cm) of spherical rounded shape.
The most attractive plant looks in the early morning when dew drops gather on the leaves. - a large drop is poured in the center, and tiny droplets, shining with all the colors of the rainbow, supplement it all over the leaf.
The uniqueness of the plant lies in its ability to independently release water droplets from the pores on the leaves, so this picture can be seen on warm summer nights.
Varieties and varieties
In the genus cuff there are many species, but they are very similar to each other.
Differences are manifested in the time of the beginning and end of the flowering period, the size of the formed bush, the degree of pubescence of the shoots and leaves. Also, the shape of the blades of the leaf and their number, the number of teeth on the leaf, its outlines may slightly differ.
In landscape design, the following four types of cuffs are most commonly used:
- Hoppe's cuff,
- cuff soft.
The first three species are less in demand because of their miniature (the height reaches a maximum of 20 cm), therefore their main purpose is to decorate the rockeries and create compositions with inert materials.
For example, an alpine cuff with elegant finger-cut leaves is often chosen as one of the main elements of alpine slides.
As for the soft cuff, it is especially loved by designers because of the formation in a short time of lush undergrowth, long and abundant flowering. The plant can be planted in shady places, big rabatki, borders, to decorate the paths or the edges of reservoirs.
Combinations with other plants
Cuff soft becomes spectacular background for other plantsthat look favorably surrounded by calm greenery. During the flowering period, roses, peonies and delphinium look especially colorful against the background of the cuff.
Also, you can make interesting combinations with hosts, cornflowers or cloves.
In addition to the background, this unpretentious plant can be an accent of the garden when landing along the paths and near resting places. If there are empty places in flower beds after the end of flowering of bulbous plants, the cuff becomes a spectacular filling of space.
Choosing a place for landing
The optimal place for planting cuffs are soft, loose soil with a high content of humus.
When planting plants in loam-rich organic matter on well-moistened and under the open sun areas care for the cuff is reduced to a minimum. For better growth, the soil can be pre-filled with compost or humus.
In this case, for a sufficiently long period it will not be necessary to feed the plant.
Summer plant astilba: planting and care, reproduction by cuttings and seeds, pests and diseases, the fight with which to lead. Read about this and more here.
When planting seedlings cuff should place the plants at a distance of 30 cm from each other.
The need for such removal of the bushes from each other is associated with the rapid growth of the cuff and the complexity of its transplantation.
Grown up bushes are extremely problematic to transfer to another place due to the peculiarities of the root system - with a rather short rhizome of the cuff, multiple lateral roots are developed, which thickly twist the earth and even grow into the paths and occupy the territory of neighboring plants.
On the photo marking for landing cuff
Peculiarities of care
Cuff soft is very unpretentious in the care. It can grow in partial shade and in the open sun. The plant will be especially attractive for those who do not like to fight weeds, as no grass grows under the overgrown bushes.
Leaving the cuff in one place without a transplant is possible for 10 years.
Care of the cuff is pruning the peduncles and leaves. Peduncles should be removed immediately after flowering to ensure a repeated cycle in September. The leaves of the cuff are cut in the fall, preparing the plant for the winter cold.
Preparing for the winter
In order for the plant to endure winter well, with the onset of autumn it follows mulch. The best material for this procedure is peat. Also, the foliage fallen from trees can be used.
In the middle lane, an expanded adult plant can hibernate even in the open form without first pruning the leaves, which die off after the first frost, turning into a natural shelter from the winter cold.
The best breeding options are seeds.
There are two variants of breeding a cuff - by dividing a bush or sowing seeds:
- The first method can be implemented both in spring and in autumn. For planting a bush previously excavated entirely. Usually this is a very laborious and inconvenient process due to the dense interweaving of plant roots. In this regard, more often the cuff is propagated through the seeding of seeds.
- The seeds sown into the ground develop quickly enough, after a year the planting material will be ready for planting. Due to the good germination of seeds in early spring, when the weather is cool, the optimal time for sowing is the end of autumn. A feature of the cuff is the ability to form seeds even without opening the anthers and pollination of the flower by insects (this phenomenon is called apomixis).
What is the plant afraid of?
This herbaceous perennial is sufficiently resistant to disease. In some cases, when planting a cuff for woody plants, leaves may be struck by a black leg (it looks like rust).
You can fix the problem simply by transplanting a bush to another place.
In addition to the black leg, powdery mildew can affect the cuff. This phenomenon is observed extremely rarely and is possible only when the plant is planted in dry, poor soil.
In Latin, the name of the plant sounds like "Alchemilla" (Alchemilla). This is due to the fact that at one time the alchemists used the cuff as a component of the elixir of youth.
Today, the shrub, in the leaves of which tannins, vitamins and microelements are present in large quantities, also finds use in traditional medicine.
The plant is successfully used to treat gastric colic, enterocolitis, bronchitis, pneumonia and tuberculosis, in order to improve intestinal motility. A decoction of the leaves helps with diabetes and edema.
Nasal bleeding and runny nose, eye inflammation can be treated as an infusion. A cuff is also used to heal wounds with furunculosis and other skin inflammations (compresses are made from leaves ground to gruel).
Cuff soft - a unique multi-faceted plant. She is able not only to decorate the garden, but also to become a real family healer.
Creating different compositions, it is possible to present a shrub each time in a new reading - as an independent element of the landscape or an elegant unobtrusive background.
Cuff soft: varieties and varieties
Perennial soft cuffs have a large root system, and the height of the culture reaches 35-40 cm. The leaves of the plant are simply gorgeous: they have a fan-shaped shape and taper towards the base. After the rain, you can observe how small droplets gather on them extraordinarily beautiful. In addition, through the stoma the leaves of the soft cuff emit excess moisture, which is located in drops along the edge of the leafy plate. The flowers of the plant are small, gathered in fluffy paniculate inflorescences. Its flowering period lasts from June to August, but sometimes it can re-bloom in September.
This genus of plants has a huge number of species, but they are very similar to each other. There are such basic types of cuffs:
- Cuff soft. The flowers of this species are rather small, they have a green-yellow color. The most famous variety is Robusta (fast-growing, similar to a wild species).
Due to its stunning appearance, they are all actively used in modern landscape design.
Planting cuffs in open ground
Fantastically beautiful leaves will surprise you with a soft cuff. Planting and caring for it are fairly simple, as it is an unpretentious and well-growing culture.
The cultivation of these perennials is best carried out with soft diffused sunlight and midday shading. Loose, soft soils rich in humus will be favorable for planting.
Landing is made in a moist outdoor ground. In order to develop the plant more actively, humus and compost can be introduced into the soil. The distance between the seedlings should be about 30 cm, because the soft cuff grows very quickly, and the process of transplanting it is rather complicated (due to the peculiarities of the root system).
To grow soft cuffs brought you great results, you should follow a few simple rules and tips for care:
- at the end of the flowering period, caring for these plants involves cutting the yellow leaves and inflorescences,
- In the fall, plants are mulched with peat or fallen leaves (this will help the cuffs easily transfer the cold winter season).
Attention! Excessive watering of the plant can cause root rot. Provide a soft cuff for good drainage system.
Reproduction cuff soft can be done in two ways:
The reproduction of these perennial plants by dividing the bush is carried out in spring or autumn. The bush is carefully dug, divided and transplanted to new places.
Seeds are sown in a well-moistened soil. Already a year later, the seedlings can be moved to the open ground and continue to grow there. The optimal time for planting will be late autumn.
Diseases and pests
Fortunately, this plant is fairly disease resistant. Improper care for a soft cuff often leads to powdery mildew on it. When planting under the trees, it can hit black rust. Also, the leaves of the plant can damage snails or slugs.
Increased humidity and lack of sun often cause mold on the stems and leaves of the soft cuff. Plant transplantation to a suitable place and treatment with fungicides will help to get rid of this.
Cuff soft: combination with other plants
In landscape design quite often use a cuff soft in combination with other plants. Many cultures perfectly harmonize with it. For example, beautiful combinations are formed from a cuff of soft and white daisies, blue cornflowers, red geyher, blue delphiniums, etc. They create a very bright decorative cover that requires almost no maintenance.
Cuff soft in landscape design
It is hard to even imagine modern landscape design without the use of different types of cuffs.
In flowerbeds, it perfectly smoothes the sharp transitions between different bright colors and is a “welcome guest” in the plantations of the pastel palette of shades. Placing it around the contour of the lawn is not recommended. It is best to plant a soft cuff in the foreground of flower beds, which are adjacent to the paths or ponds. In addition, it is often used in ceremonial compositions. This plant can easily decorate rockeries, alpine slides, rabatki.
Use in landscape design
The soft cuff was considered a weed plant not so long ago. She was torn out and with all her strength they tried to remove her from the garden. Now its value in gardening has changed. It is recommended to plant for decorating the garden and various flower beds, as well as mixborders. Therefore, before planting an unpretentious shrub, you should familiarize yourself with its reproduction, planting methods and care tips.
Description of the plant and an overview of the best varieties
Soft cuff in nature acts as a perennial plant, grassy type. The bush belongs to the genus Rosaceae. Its root system goes deep into the ground. Ground growth of shrubs is not more than 40 cm. A slight growth is compensated by the original appearance.
Листва у манжетки выделяет веерообразной формой, но к центру несколько сужается. После дождя в центре листочка собирается капелька воды и отдает ярким блеском. Своим внешним видом листовая пластинка представлена в виде воронки. The most original and beautiful type of ornamental plants - in the early morning. At this moment, the dew falling out overflows in the rays of the rising sun. A distinctive feature of the cuff is that it tends to separate water droplets independently from the surface of the leaf plate. Therefore, very often in warm summer nights you can see leaves covered with small droplets of moisture.
The bloom of the cuff comes from the beginning of June and lasts a long enough period - until the end of August.
The inflorescences are located on a high stem, gather in small inflorescences, are represented by an interesting greenish-yellow shade. As the flowers bloom, they gradually begin to lean toward the ground, and new buds quickly grow in their place. In nature there are about 350 different varieties. They are practically no different from each other in appearance. The only feature is the flowering period.
The following grades of cuff are distinguished:
- Soft - the most famous and used in decorating gardens and garden plots. The most interesting species are distinguished: Thriller, Golden Bouquet, Robustika, Senor, Gold Strike.
- Alpine miniature - low shrubs, reaching 20 cm. Its leaves are divided into small petals, and the lower part of the leaf is supplemented with a fluffy pile. It starts flowering from the second decade of May to mid-June.
- Siberian is a miniature shrub not exceeding 25 cm.
- Hoppe - like the alpine species has interesting leaves, does not grow more than 20 cm in height.
- Ordinary - has folded foliage. Blossoms small, inconspicuous buds, a short period of time. Extremely rarely used in decorating.
- Krasnochereshkovaya - the name comes from the fact that the plant is painted in red on the cuttings, foliage and on the stalks. The bush does not grow more than 15 cm. The leaves are pubescent with a slightly noticeable blue down.
- Glittering - outwardly similar to an ordinary cuff, but different neat shrubs and upright flowers. It blooms twice in the period from May to June, and after a break under good conditions from August to the end of September.
Thus, the plant is not allocated crying colors, and lures the original shape of the sheet plate and unpretentious conditions of detention.
Growing conditions cuff soft
Many gardeners believe that for the cultivation of cuff soft special care is not required. Do not judge and throw the plant to the mercy of fate. The shrub can grow, as in the twilight of the trees, and in the open sun. Before planting it is recommended to choose fertile, loose, nutrient-rich soil and mineral fertilizers. Best suited to fresh soil, fertilized with rotted humus. If there is a small percentage of clay in the soil, the bush will benefit from it.
The recommended acidity level for the cuff is pH-6.
The plant can grow in direct sunlight, but in this case it will require a large amount of moisture for normal appearance. An ideal place for elegant growth and development is a plot with diffused light in the morning and evening moments, and in the midday heat with good shading.
If you choose a penumbra, then watering can be almost done. The cuff will have enough moisture that was acquired after precipitation. Otherwise, in a sunny place you will have to water every day as the soil dries under the hot rays of the sun. Cuff is not afraid of severe frosts, well and endure them tolerate. But in order to better protect the root system, straw mulching is recommended for the winter.
Thus, a slight care for the plant is directly needed. The main thing is to place in a favorable place and feed before planting. After periodically monitor the need for nutrient moisture and mineral fertilizers.
Preparing a site for landing
For planting suitable place with neutral acidity, with high saturation of humus. It is imperative that the soil is loose. This is necessary so that the roots develop faster, take root, receive a sufficient amount of nutrient moisture and necessary oxygen.
During the preparation of the site for planting, air permeability and soil moisture should be monitored.
The main thing is not to allow excessive moisture, from which fungus-type pathogenic bacteria develop in the soil. When planting seedlings of the cuff, each should be placed at a distance of at least 30-35 cm from each other. Such a gap is necessary due to the fact that the shrub grows quickly and begins to interfere with the neighboring plant. In addition, the close location does not successfully transplant the plant to a new place of residence.
When rooting shrubs, they are problematic to move to another place. A slightly developed root system has sprawled lateral auxiliary roots. They extend over fairly large distances, weaving in neighboring rhizomes and filling the territory near the plants located. Therefore, it is recommended to land at once on one plot, without hoping to change the place of residence in the future.
Reproduction and planting
Cuff breeds in several ways. It is necessary to decide before planting what is the best way to plant. Some gardeners tend to seed, while others are advised to grow by dividing the shrub or cuttings. Each gardener must independently determine the appropriate way for him.
There are the following types of breeding cuff soft:
- Seeds - produced in two ways. Using the first method - planting in open ground, the farmer sows the seeds on the farmland in early spring. When grown for seedlings - seedlings are planted in prepared containers in early November. The pots must have a wet substrate and a certain temperature of air created by the covered film on the pot. After exactly 2 weeks, the pot with seedlings should be taken out into the open air, but it should also be covered with a film. Make a container with planting material should be only in early spring. It is necessary that the seeds undergo a natural stratification, then the young shoots will have a high immunity and increased resistance to diseases. After pots are brought in with seeds sustained in the street, young sprouts very quickly begin to hatch. After 3 weeks, seedlings can dive into larger flowerpots. Transplantation into open ground is carried out at the moment when the root system develops well.
- Cuttings - on the shrub after flowering in June, you can separate the sprouts from the main trunk with a rosette. To release young roots, it is recommended to dig up the end of the plant stem into wet soil and place it in a room with diffused light. After 14 days, the bush can be transplanted to a permanent place of residence, the root system should already be sufficiently developed to withstand the time of transplantation.
- The division of the bush - reproduction in this way can be carried out at any time. The disadvantage of the method is damage to the root system of the cuff, which leads to prolonged painful rooting.
Thus, it is best to use seeds to obtain a new specimen. The reproduction process, although somewhat longer, results in healthy, well-immune plants that can be planted anywhere in the backyard.
In order for the plant to develop quickly and rejoice in saturated forms, it is recommended to carry out simple plant care in a timely manner. Proper plant maintenance is reduced to the application of the following rules:
- Watering is recommended based on weather conditions. If the summer is given wet, then additional irrigation is not required, otherwise, when it is mostly hot, then watering is mandatory.
- Top dressing - carried out in the springtime, through the introduction of humus to the base of the plant. Other minerals will not be required for further growth of the shrub.
- Pruning - it is recommended to carry out almost constantly, as the inflorescences flowering. Such buds should be removed so that new ones will grow in their place.
- Preparing for winter - the plant is recommended to cover by putting mulch under the shrub.
Heavy in the care of the cuff is not, therefore, planting and growing will not cause any special problems. The main thing is to perform all the procedures on time and consistently, and not all in one day.
Although the cuff is considered to be a frost-resistant plant, it is still recommended to be prepared for winter.
In order for the shrub to tolerate a strong lowering of the temperature, it is required initially to disintegrate crushed peat at the base of the root system. For better warming you should completely cover the entire surface of the earth.
In addition, it is necessary to cover the top of the plant with fallen leaves or if you do not cut off the dead foliage of the shrub itself, then it will cover the root system on its own. When snow falls on the area where the shrub grows pile a lot of snow. In this case, the plant will be securely shrouded in snow mass and will not freeze out during severe frosts.
In addition to decorative purposes cuff is used as a fodder plant, necessary for feeding domestic animals. Such animals include, for example, goats, cows, rabbits. She also has honey qualities and medicinal properties.
Traditional medicine uses a cuff as a medicinal herb. It is used for various purposes for the preparation of decoctions and tinctures:
- The decoction is recommended for the treatment of female gynecological diseases. It is used as a treatment for diseases of the kidneys and the urogenital system. Effectively acts with illnesses associated with the upper respiratory tract, nasopharynx and bronchi. Broth provokes astringent property, has an anti-inflammatory effect on the body. Especially effective treatment is revealed in cases of intestinal disorders, constipation or diarrhea, as well as increased flatulence.
- Baths with decoctions, lotions and compresses provide wound healing properties, provoke the regeneration of the upper layers of the epidermis with acne, ulcers of various etiologies and inflamed boils.
- The crushed leaves of the cuff attached to the affected area are able to stop the bleeding, and also stimulate the rapid healing of incised wounds.
- Tea with leaves of the shrub has a beneficial effect on patients with diabetes.
- The use of crushed plants in the form of drops helps in the treatment of rhinitis, as well as inflammation of the eyes.
In addition to therapeutic purposes, the cuff is actively used in cooking. Freshly cut leaves are ground and added to salads, soups or sauces. If you dry the leaf plates, and then grind them, you get a fragrant and tasty seasoning. If the plant is properly prepared and dried, then its structure will be saturated with vitamin C, which has a beneficial effect on the body as a whole.
The plant belongs to the Rosaceae family, is a perennial culture. It received its name from the 2 words "Alchemilla", which translates as "alchemy" and "mollis", which means "soft edges". The complete translation of the plant sounds like the "grass of the alchemists" or "alchemical grass." Its name is explained by the fact that even in ancient names, scientists - alchemists noticed the ability of this culture to hold dew drops on the surface of their leaves.
In curious people, this property caused many questions, because in theory the water is obliged to drain. In those days, such properties of the plant were regarded as mystical, and therefore the culture was given such a name.
With regards to the second part of the term - “mollis”, the designation “soft edges” indicates the appearance of this plant. And this is in fact the case, since the leaves of this culture are bordered with fluffy lace, which gives the plant a unique appearance. That is why flower growers choose this crop as a decorating material for flowerbeds.
Characteristic features of culture are:
- It has a rather short root, but at the same time it is rather massive and powerful. The root system of the cuff has many branches.
- It is quite undemanding. This means that it can be planted in partial shade and in sunny open spaces.
- Discerning to the type of soil. However, there is one condition: the ground must have good drainage.
- Reaches a height of about 40-45 cm. The leaves are shaped like a fan.
- The flowering of this herbaceous culture occurs in the summer, starting from the first days of June. Occasionally, a re-flowering of the plant can be observed in early September.
- During flowering, the heroine of our article “throws out” flower stalks, reaching a height of about 60-75 cm.
- The plant has a racemose inflorescences. Blooms yellow-green flowers.
- A poker plant is not suitable for care; it consists only in timely conducted dressings, soil hilling and watering.
- There are over 150 varieties of cultivars. In general, more than 300 different plants belong to the genus Rosaceae.
- The most often plants of the Rosaceae group are found on the territory of Eurasia, North and South America, and Russia.
Grades cuff soft
This plant culture gained its popularity due to the interesting shape of its leaves. They are quite large, reaching a diameter of more than 11-12 cm. However, the flowers of our plant are not particularly large, especially in comparison with its leaves. Inflorescences are collected in small paniculate brushes. When moisture hits the surface of the leaves, it collects in small droplets, creating an amazing sight when they shimmer in the rays of the sun.
Contrary to the fact that the cuff has a large species diversity, the differences between the bulk of them can only be found by a professional florist. There are some varieties that are visually distinguishable, are as follows:
- Siberian cuff. The resulting name is associated with the region of growth. The most extensive area of growth of this plant - Siberian meadows. It is characterized by rather massive roots. The height of some of these plants is capable of reaching 30 cm. The leaves at the Siberian cuff have an edge both from the front side and from the inside.
- Alpine cuff. It is a relatively small plant with lobed leaves, which are located in the form of specific hummocks. In summer, yellow leaves appear on its leaves. However, the inflorescences of this culture - not the most valuable. The main thing in it is not that. The most beautiful leaves in this herbaceous plant.
- Manzhetka Hoppe. It is very similar to the Alpine, differs only in size - it is a little smaller.
- Krasnozhereshkovaya cuff. The name of this species appeared due to the reddish color on the stalks and on the leaf petioles. Its bushes have a relatively small height, most often not more than 15 cm. This herb has very beautiful leaves. They have a bright green color, and on the obverse and seamy sides, they seem to be starched in a soft blue color. The plant begins to bloom from the first days of May to the first of July. With the end of the flowering period, the inflorescences of the red-radicular cuff turn a pale red color. Due to its beauty, this plant is often used in landscape design. It is used as a living curb, as well as in alpine slides and mixed flower beds.
- Padded cuff. It stands out from subspecies by large yellow-green leaves and large flowers. The most common varieties are Robusta. This species is known as fast-growing, among all other varieties most similar to wild-growing grass, Manzhetka Auslese, Manzhetka Señor.
The foliage of the plant is endowed with the property of guttation, moisture is released through the stomata of the leaves, it is dispersed in small droplets along the edge of the leaf plate, and what is interesting, they do not drain, thanks to the pubescence and the special structure of the leaf, remain in place like beads.
Alchemists considered this phenomenon a miracle and used dew to make the elixir of life and youth. And those who were passionate about magic prepared a love potion from the roots of a plant.
The form of the sheet inspired many architects and artists to create masterpieces, its outlines were the basis of the ornaments of the Gothic style.
Cuff: varieties and types
The cuff is peculiar, it cannot be confused with any other plant, in the spring it is one of the first to peek out from under the snow and serve as a decoration for the garden until the end of October.
Some species bloom long and abundantly, others are distinguished by the color of stems and foliage. By the way, the palmate, rounded or lobed, leaves covered with small pile is the main decorative advantage of the cuff.
The plant received its Russian name due to the external similarity of the leaf with the old starched lace cuffs with festoons. And in Europe, with the advent of Christianity, for some similarity in the form of foliage with the attire of saints, the cuff was called the mantle of the Virgin Mary.
Всего в природе насчитывается порядка 300–350 практически не различающихся между собой видов, в наших краях их около 170, а если говорить о популярных и распространенных разновидностях, то их совсем немного, мы же выделим 5 из них:
Манжетка мягкая (A. mollis)
Стелющийся травянистый многолетник – лидер в области озеленения, чаще всего именно ее используют при декорировании садов и парков.
Данный вид манжетки вырастает до 40 см в высоту, куст в диаметре тоже около 40 см, очень быстро разрастается, особенно на богатых, умеренно влажных, хорошо дренированных почвах. The soft cuff does not like drought; it can withstand only short dry periods.
Most sources say that this species blooms from early June to July, and from experience it can be noted that in good conditions the plant will delight in flowering as early as May, then with timely cutting of peduncles the next flowering period will occur, it will last until the end of August.
Varieties: Senor, Gold Bouquet, Gold Strike, Thriller (Thriller). Robusta variety (Robustika) differs more accurate form of a bush and large inflorescences. This species includes variegated plant forms used as ground covers to decorate tree trunks.
The length of the peduncles can reach 70 cm, but during the period of active flowering they wilt and do not seem so tall. In lush panicled inflorescences collected many elegant, small greenish-yellow flowers. The leaves of the cuff are soft fan-shaped, funnel-shaped taper to the base.
Winter-green view of the cuff, which does not require pruning, one can say more - autumn pruning may lead to the subsequent lack of flowering. The soft cuff is propagated during the growing season by dividing the bush, cuttings or seeds.
This species grows well both in the sun and in the shade, so you can freely fantasize in determining the place for planting and choosing companions. Good neighbors for the soft cuff will be hosts, ferns, lupins, blue delphiniums and bells, roses, daylilies, etc. Feel free to think of your options, but note that the cuff is able to suppress small, low-growing plants.
Miniature Alpine Cuff (A. alpinа)
Neat spherical bushes no higher than 20 cm. The Alpine cuff is distinguished by deeply dissected foliage, with a silvery pile on the reverse side, on top it seems that they are framed with a white border. The plant blooms from mid-May to the second half of June with small greenish-yellow flowers, you can propagate the Alpine cuff vegetatively and with seeds.
This species is not bad in rockeries, gravel dumping, or in containers next to onion plants - narcissus, tulips, hyacinths, etc. In nature, the alpine cuff grows in rich in humus and calcareous soils.
From the miniature plant species, in addition to the alpine one can note two more interesting options - Siberian cuff (A. sibirica) and Hoppe (A. hoppeana)their maximum height is 20 cm.
Cuff ordinary (A. vulgaris)
This species has folded leaves, does not bloom profusely from the second half of May to mid-June. Because of the decaying inflorescences, the decorativeness of the entire bush is lost, it looks untidy. An ordinary cuff is damaged by slugs and is a rather aggressive plant; therefore, it is used extremely rarely for landscaping.
Red-leaf cuff (A. erythropoda)
The name of the species was due to the red color of the pedicels, foliage and cuttings. The plant is up to 15 cm tall, the leaves are green with a barely noticeable bluish fuzz. It blooms from mid-May and almost all of June. Propagated by dividing the roots and cuttings. This species can be planted in mixed compositions, as a curb and in rockeries.
Cuff sparkling (A. splendens)
This look is similar to an ordinary cuff, but unlike it grows into a neat bush with upright pedicels. Blossoms twice - from May to June and from August to September. Looks good in mixed beds and as a curb.
We note several other species in terms of plant preferences and habitat:
- shaded and damp habitat areas for crescent (A. semilunaris) and bulwarde (A. cymatophylla) cuff,
- wetlands like cuffs holocaust (A. glabricaulis) and little town (A. subcrenata),
- bluish (A. glaucescens), mountain (A. Monticola) and globular-crowded (A. Conglobata) cuffs love open spaces and are resistant to dry, gravelly soil,
- cuff lumpy (A. gibberulosa) different enviable tolerance to drought and sandy soils,
- unpretentious types are considered bristly (A. substrigosa) and close (A. propinqua) cuffs, however, it is worth noting that with a critical lack of moisture, the stalks of the plants wilt,
- mountain, bristly and graceful (A. gracilis) cuffs are quite stable species, they practically do not trample down, therefore they are ideal for a lawn.
Cultivation, reproduction and care
There is an opinion that it is not necessary to care for a cuff, it grows well by itself. But our experience shows that you should still adhere to some rules of plant maintenance.
For a good development of the cuff is needed loose, fertile soil and regular moderate watering. A place for a plant is better to pick the sun; partial shade is possible. The cuff is a winter-hardy plant, however, winter mulching will not be superfluous, for this the foliage of large-leaved trees will do.
Any of all the presented species may become an aggressor, therefore, faded inflorescences should be removed, thus you will not allow self seeding. By the way, timely pruning stimulates the next wave of flowering.
Useful properties of the cuff
The cuff is also considered a fodder, honey-bearing and medicinal plant. In folk medicine, the cuff is used in many areas:
- decoction of the plant helps in the treatment of female diseases, is useful in diseases of the kidneys and urinary system, it is also used for bronchitis and diseases of the upper respiratory tract, the decoction has a astringent and anti-inflammatory effect for problems with intestines, flatulence and diarrhea
- compresses, lotions and cuffed baths relieve ulcers, blackheads and boils,
- the crushed fresh leaves of the plant stop the bleeding and accelerate the healing of wounds with cuts,
- tea with cuff leaves is useful for diabetes.
The cuff is used in cooking, young leaves (sometimes shoots) go to soups and salads. Dried, shredded foliage is an excellent seasoning for various dishes. Properly harvested, the plant is rich in vitamin C.
Cuff in landscape design (photo)
The cuff fits perfectly into the landscape natural style, and is also a good option for a shady garden. As mentioned earlier, the plant copes with the decor of various stone structures.
Surprisingly, the cuff has a place even in ceremonial compositions, its hemispherical shape gives a rhythm and supports the leading edge of a flower bed.
Cuff successfully acts as a retinue, it is good in any combination, thanks to its color, the plant smoothes particularly bright contrasts. Especially beautiful cuff looks in the foreground of longline compositions and near reservoirs. Thanks to the decorative foliage and soft waves of inflorescences, the plant successfully hides the unsightly trunks of tall flowers.
But it is worth remembering that it is advisable to plant the cuff in an open field in a place where no alterations are planned, and you should not plant it too close with other plants, this will make it difficult to care for them. The optimal distance is 40 cm.
An enviable list is obtained useful and decorative properties of the perennial, which has long been considered a weed, is not it? Here is a beautiful plant cuff soft and, as you can see, planting and caring for it is absolutely not worth the trouble!
Cuff soft - characteristics of culture
The soft cuff (Alchemillamollis) belongs to the perennial cultures of the Rosaceae family. The plant got its name from two words “Alchemilla”, which means “alchemy” and “mollis”. And this is not surprising, since even ancient scientists noticed the ability of a culture to hold dew drops on its surface. This caused them a lot of questions, as usually water should drain. Similar properties of the plant were regarded as mystical, so the culture got its name. As for the second part of the name - “mollis”, it translates as “soft edges” and characterizes the appearance of the soft cuff. And this is true, because the leaves of culture are framed with fluffy lace, giving the plant an original appearance. Therefore, florists prefer to use a soft cuff for decorating flower beds.
The distinctive characteristics of the culture are as follows:
- The soft cuff has a rather short root, but at the same time it is quite powerful and massive. The root system contains many branches.
- As noted above, the culture is quite unpretentious. Therefore, it can be planted both in sunny glades and in partial shade.
- The plant is undemanding to the type of soil. The only condition is that the soil has good drainage.
- In height, the plant reaches 45 cm. The leaves are shaped like a fan.
- Flowering culture occurs in the summer, starting in June. Sometimes there is a re-flowering soft cuff in early autumn.
- During the flowering period, the culture "throws out" flower stalks, which reach a height of 65-75 cm.
- The plant has racemes. Blooms flowers yellow-green hue.
- Undemanding plant and care, which is only in timely feeding, watering and hilling of the soil.
- There are more than 150 varieties of culture. In total, more than 300 different plants can be counted among the Rosaceae genus.
- Most often, plants of the Rosaceae genus can be found in North and South America, Eurasia, and Russia.
Soft cuff care
Cuff soft refers to unpretentious plants. However, to improve the germination of seedlings and their flowering should follow a few simple rules for the care of culture:
- The plant should be watered in a timely manner. At the same time it is impossible to prevent stagnation of moisture in the area
- After the culture has faded, inflorescences and yellow leaves should be cut.
- In order to protect the plant from the winter cold, you can mulch the soil on the site with dry leaves or peat.
- Fertilizer should be applied several times per season. So, after planting seedlings, complex mineral fertilizers are added to the soil; in April, the earth is fed with the help of humus.
Pests and diseases of the cuff soft
Like most ornamental plants, the soft cuff is exposed to various diseases and pests. Most diseases afflict the plant due to improper care:
- Mold. The most common disease that occurs due to improper care. Its main cause is excessive waterlogging of the soil in which disease-causing fungi develop. Lack of heat and sunlight can also cause mold disease, causing poor drying of the soil. It is very easy to notice the cuff soft, affected by mold. On its sheets are visible large gray spots with a dark border. If you do not take action, the plant quickly degrades and dies. The procedure for combating mold includes improving soil drainage, a more optimal irrigation regime, and the treatment of the soil and the root system of a plant with antifungal preparations. Among the latter, the most popular is copper sulphate. To improve the soil airing it is necessary to observe the minimum distance between the bushes of plants when it is planted.
- Rust. Characterized by the appearance on the leaves of the plant spots of red or yellow-brown hue. With further aging of the leaf of the flower, the spots become darker. The fight against the disease is carried out with the help of the preparations "Colloidal sulfur" or "Oxyh", which are sprayed on the surface of the leaves with an interval of two weeks.
- Septoria. Characterized by the appearance on the leaves of the cuff soft rounded convex spots of dirty-green color. On the reverse side of the sheet, the spots are slightly indented and have a brown-green tint. Basically, the disease manifests itself in the second midsummer. The fight against the disease must begin with the removal of infected parts of the plant, after which they are burned. The affected plant itself is sprayed with Bordeaux mixture (1%), or with an aqueous solution of Chom at the rate of 4 g / 1 liter of water.
- Ring mosaic. It is characterized by the appearance of pale green stripes on the leaves of the plant. Later, the stripes may turn yellow and merge into large spots, which subsequently leads to degradation and death of the culture. Sick bush cuff soft need to be removed from the flower bed and discarded or burned. Seedlings with traces of disease planted on a flower bed categorically impossible.
In addition to various diseases, pest cuffs may also be a threat to soft cuffs, most of which are insects:
- Aphid. A small pest capable of destroying most of the plants in a short time. The danger of aphids lies in its rapid reproduction. To combat it, use drugs "Karbofos", "Confidor" or "Iskra".
- Spider mite It is sucked to the back of the leaf of the plant and sucks all the juice from it. Ticks are particularly active in hot summers. They fight with them with the help of karbofos, colloidal sulfur or the drug Agravertin.