The acacia tree is well known all over the world, as it not only grows in most countries, but is also a symbol of some of them, as well as the object of many legends and works of art and literature.
The white or yellow clusters of this tree, which are familiar to modern people, which flourish in May, in fact have a thousand-year history. Acacia decorated gardens and houses, used in medicine and religious rites. Probably, there are no trees on the planet, more respected for many centuries by representatives of different civilizations and cultures than acacia. Photos can not convey all the beauty and aroma of this plant, which today there are more than 800 species.
The uniqueness of this tree was noticed by the ancient Egyptians, who believed that it simultaneously symbolizes both life and death, as it blooms with white and red flowers. It was for them a symbol of the sun-god, who revives life. In his crowns lived the goddess of war and hunting, Neith.
In many cultures, the acacia tree symbolized purity and purity, and the ancient inhabitants of the Mediterranean believed that its thorns drive away evil spirits, and decorated their houses with torn branches. And the nomads who traveled in the Arabian desert considered it sacred and believed that those who broke the branch of this tree would die within a year.
Acacia, which is described in the Torah, was for the ancient Jews a symbol of holiness. Thus, the ship of Noah, the altar of the Judean Temple and the tabernacle, in which the Ark of the Covenant was originally kept, were made of its wood.
For the Christians of the Middle Ages, this tree symbolized the purity of thoughts and innocence; therefore, its branches decorated houses. Acacia oil was used in rituals by various secret societies, and the priests lubricated the altar and incense burners for them.
Places of growth
The acacia tree belongs to the legume family and can reach 25-30 meters in height. The native land of the plant is considered to be North America, although most of its species grow in the tropical and subtropical forests of Africa, Asia, Mexico and Australia.
Depending on the location, this plant can be both trees and tree bushes. Cultivate it in Europe began from the 18th century because of the healing properties, beauty and strong wood. Today, in many cities in Russia and the CIS, you can see its most common form - robinia, which is known as white acacia. The tree is able to withstand freezing temperatures as well as silver acacia, better known as mimosa. The true white acacia grows exclusively in the tropical forests of Africa.
Description of the species
Regardless of where the plant grows, acacia has the characteristics of the whole family:
- It has a strong root system, which takes the main root to great depths and has a branching closer to the soil surface. This helps the plant to extract not only water, but also useful trace elements.
- The trunk can reach a height of 12 to 30 meters with a girth of 1.2-2 m. The color of the bark varies from light gray at a young age to a brown shade as it matures, and the structure has a surface with longitudinal beards.
- Most acacia leaves are egg-shaped, collected on a long scape alternately from 7 to 21 pieces. The outer part of the leaf has a green tint, while the inner one may be silvery or grayish-green. The presence of thorns is also inherent in most representatives of this species, although there are instances in which they are completely absent.
- Acacia (photo demonstrates this) has large flowers of white or yellow color, collected in clusters, although there are also small inflorescences in the form of a panicle and even single buds.
These are features typical of the majority of this species, although there are exceptions.
This is the most common tree in city parks and on the streets. Acacia, although usually growing fast enough, reaches maturity at an average speed of 40 years.
With a height of 20 m and a width of 1.2 m, it has an asymmetric crown and white flowers with a pleasant aroma, hanging with tassels up to 20 cm in length. Often the corkscrew acacia can have two trunks, blooms from late May to early June, is not demanding to care, tolerates a dry summer well. Elliptical leaves have a bluish-green shade in summer and bright yellow in autumn. Appear rather late, almost simultaneously with flowers.
Small, only up to 12 m in height, these trees are immediately noticeable. Acacia golden (Robinia pseudoacacia Frisia) has several trunks and beautiful light yellow elliptical leaves. On twisted, zigzag prickly branches, foliage appears late, almost just before flowering: in late May - early June.
This tree was first discovered in Holland in 1935. Blossoms in white fragrant inflorescences up to 20 cm in length, the fruit is brown and flat. Leaves are pinnate and alternate from 7 to 19 pieces on the petiole.
This acacia is not demanding to care, although it prefers dry humus soil. In wet and heavy ground, it may suffer from frost and die.
Acacia cone and umbrella
One of the old-timers among the trees of this species is a cone-shaped acacia (Pseudoacacia Bessoniana). It lives up to 100 years and grows up to 20 meters in height, forming offspring. Often has several trunks.
The foliage is open-ended, pinnate; the crown can be either asymmetric or free, round. Blossoms are not dense, white fragrant tassels up to 20 cm in length. 7 to 19 elliptical leaflets of bluish-green color are bloomed on the petioles. Forms fruits up to 12 cm in length, in the form of flat brown beans. This acacia is very fond of the sun and tolerates drought well, it is not capricious for the soil. If you plant a similar tree in the garden, you should avoid heavy and wet soil. In cold weather in similar soil, acacia roots can suffer greatly.
The umbrella acacia is found in Africa and in the deserts of Israel. On a hot continent, it lives in savannas and is loved by all its inhabitants, as it gives shade, thanks to its crown, which looks like an umbrella. In fact, it is a symbolic protection from the scorching rays of the sun, because its leaves are turned with an edge towards the star.
The tree has large sharp spines that protect it from the numerous herbivores that inhabit the savannah. It blooms very small flowers with long stamens, collected in a panicle. There are yellow or white.
According to the legend, it was from the umbrella acacia that the Jews who left Egypt made the Noah's Ark.
Most often in specialized stores found street acacia, seedlings of which are sold in flower pots.
Pseudoacacia Monophylla is weakly susceptible to environmental pollution, is a fast-growing and non-thorny type of trees, reaching 25 m in height. The leaves of this acacia are pinnate and alternating: at the beginning of the stem is small, but closer to the end, they can reach 15 cm in length. The color of foliage is matte green in summer and yellow in autumn. It should be remembered that the leaves are very poisonous.
Branches may have a zigzag or horizontal, slightly elevated view. It blooms with large white flowers, clustered in clusters up to 20 cm in length with a pleasant aroma. This tree loves the sun and is not picky about the composition of the soil.
This name refers both to a tree-like shrub reaching a height of more than 2 meters, and to a tree, which, depending on the growing area, can reach from 15 to 20 m. A powerful root system and strong prickly zigzag branches make the plant wind-resistant. These types of acacia bloom with beautiful large flowers of purple or pink without aroma, gathered in inflorescences of 3-6 pieces.
The name of the plant was due to the fact that its shoots are covered with reddish bristles. The leaves are colored dark green in spring and summer, and yellow in autumn. If such an acacia grows in a garden, it attracts attention with its large and bright colors.
Does not require additional care, prefers a quiet and sunny place, easily tolerates arid summer. Even poor soil is suitable for it.
Robinia gummy (Robinia viscosa Vent.), As it is also called, is pink acacia from the south-east of North America, also cultivated in Ukraine. The tree can reach from 7 to 12 m in height, but the life expectancy is small.
The bark of a brown shade is smooth, there may be small spines on the branches. The shoots of a tree are covered with a sticky mass, which gave it such a name. Acacia pink blooms large, up to 2-3 cm in length, inodorous flowers. They are collected in upright brushes of 6-12 pieces and also covered with sticky hairs that attract bees. The tree is an excellent honey plant and pollen plant.
Suitable for gardeners who prefer to grow plants in the garden with a long flowering, as it has 4-5 waves of flowering, lasting until mid-September, this type of acacia. The leaves of this tree are large, up to 20 cm in length. Top bright green, grayish below they are collected on the stem in an amount of from 13 to 25 pieces.
The tree is unpretentious, frost-resistant (can withstand up to -28 degrees), can grow on any soil.
Well known to all post-Soviet women mimosa, it is the silver acacia, which is considered to be the birthplace of Australia and the island of Tasmania.
This evergreen tree can reach 45 m in native lands, but in other countries it does not exceed 12 meters. Its trunk has a light gray or brown tint with vertical cracks from which gum flows.
Leaves grayish-green, pinnately-dissected twice, alternately go on the stem and reach from 10 cm to 20 cm in length. The flowers are very small, in the form of yellowish balls, clustered in racemes, from which panicles are formed. Have a very strong and pleasant aroma.
Silvery acacia seeds are flat and hard; they can be dull or slightly shiny black.
Robinia, or false acacia (Robinia pseudacacia L.) is well established on the European continent and is familiar to many of its inhabitants. Her white flowers emit a very strong and pleasant aroma that attracts not only people, but also bees.
On average, this tree lives from 30 to 40 years old, has a brownish bark, a spreading crown with green odd-pinnate leaves. The fruits of the acacia of white ripen in September - October and fall only next spring.
Acacia in medicine
The chemical composition of the acacia bark and its effects on the body have not yet been fully studied, but today not only traditional healers, but also official medicine, recommend herbal liquids. Since the bark, flowers and fruits of this plant are often poisonous, they can be used only after consulting a doctor and in recommended doses.
It is also called Lenkoran or silk acacia for its fluffy flowers. The maximum height of the tree can be about 15 m, the trunk is straight, the crown resembles openwork. The leaves are two-colored - green above, whitish below, up to 20 cm long. In the heat and after sunset the leaves fold and wilt. Late autumn silk albition sheds foliage. It blooms in summer with yellow-white flowers in the form of panicles. The fruit is greenish or brown bean with oval flat seeds. Very beautiful and spectacular plant, widely distributed in southern Russia and the Crimea.
Location and lighting
Albizia prefers well-lit places with diffused light. It does not tolerate the direct rays of the sun, but it cannot grow in the shade, including in winter. If the plant "lives" in room conditions, then it must be protected from direct sunlight, if possible shaded from the midday heat and more often be moved to fresh air, for example, to a balcony.
The temperature regime for albitions is optimal in the range of 20-25 degrees in summer, and 8-10 degrees in winter. It is important that during the winter period the temperature does not fall below 5 degrees; the cold does not fall asleep.
It is advisable to water the plant with soft, settled water abundantly enough in spring and summer, gradually reducing watering by winter. Stagnation of water in the pot can lead to rotting of the roots, and the plant will die.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
Top dressing of albations begins after the first year of life in the spring and summer of complex fertilizers for the care of acacias. It is necessary to bring them into the soil no more than 2 times a month.
Albitia can be transplanted annually, after a flowering period, into the soil from light land with peat and sand. Lay out the bottom of the pot drainage of expanded clay with a layer of about 2 cm.
For the first 3 years of life fit big tubs or buckets as pots. Further, the albition is desirable to transplant into an even larger box and make a transplant every few years.
Propagation of albition
Albitia can propagate by cuttings, seeds, and basal layers. Seeds are pre-soaked in warm water for swelling, then planted in peat soil to a depth of 0.5 cm and watered, trying to further keep the soil moist. After a few months the seeds sprout.
Reproduction cuttings are cut at the end of spring, last year, with several buds. For better root formation, they are treated with special stimulants, for example, with root or heteroauxin, and rooted in loose soil at a temperature of about 15 degrees. Fully rooted cuttings after 3 months.
Possible difficulties in growing albitions
Also, improper care can lead to certain difficulties:
- Dry ground in a pot will lead to a drop of buds.
- A dried or too moist substrate will cause leaf to wilt.
- When there is insufficient light, the leaves change their color and become faded.
- Lack of moisture dry out the tips of the foliage.
- In the cold or drafts dark spots will appear on the leaves.
If you take care of a tree or a bush of albition, adhering to all the rules, then it will live for a long time - both 50 and 100 years.
What kind of tree is this? Robinia is a false assault?
In botany, the true name of this tree is a false assumption, or else it is called the robinia ordinary. She ranks among the legume family of the Robinia pseudo-aacium genus. Sometimes you can find that pseudo-acacia is added to Robinia. It brings together more than 800 species. It can be both shrubs and ornamental trees high up to 25 meters.
Where grows in Russia?
In Russia, white acacia began to be cultivated from the middle of the 19th century. It was brought to Odessa in 1822, from where it spread throughout the country.
Nowadays, acacia feels great on:
- south of the Far East,
- Lower Volga.
White acacia has a spreading crown, and the bark is dark, thick and with deep furrows. The tree has a very powerful root system. Roots can penetrate to a depth of more than 20 meters. With very good soil, the roots can grow into the ground and to great depths.
Single-pinnate leaves consist of 4-8 soft, light green elliptical leaves. They are located on short petioles. The modified leaves, called thorns, have a very sharp end. These sickle-shaped thorns are woody and sturdy, they look very elegant.
Acacia blooms large, white, numerous flowers with a bright aroma, which hang on the brushes. Its fruit is a flat 10 cm long bob, which contains dark seeds. The tree lives more than 50 years.
Acacia is characterized by rapid growth, especially the first 10 years. If conditions are favorable, it can grow to 30 meters.
The tree is distinguished by the following qualities:
- drought tolerance
- love of the sun.
What shades exist?
Acacia flowers are not only white. There are other varieties of acacia flowers with colors such as:
In the photo you can see how the acacia looks like with flowers of different shades.
Medicinal properties and contraindications
The plant has a number of medicinal properties, namely:
Acacia helps to reduce the amount of nitrogen in the blood. However, it must be remembered that the toxalbuminrobin alkaloid contained in wood and bark is irritating and thus destroys the protective mucous membranes.
Drugs that make up this plant must be taken in limited doses; otherwise poisoning by poisonous substances may occur.
It is prohibited to accept funds based on the flowers of acacia with:
- low acidity of the stomach,
- individual intolerance,
- reduced pressure
- pregnancy and lactation.
Description of the pieces of wood
Acacia seeds are presented in the form of a bean, which can be:
A bob can be curved and straight. The fruits of this plant are flattened pods, mostly they are brown in color. Inside there are 5-6 pieces of bean seeds. Inflorescences are paniculate, cylindrical and capitate.
Колючки у многих видов акации – это своего рода видоизмененные прилистники. Что касается цветов, собранных свисающие гроздья, то их большое количество. Они бывают крупные либо мелкие, обоеполые и разнополые.
The most common suborbs Robinia are sticky, new Mexican, yellow, fragrant white, bristly haired.
New Mexican acacia grows no more than 12 m. Her pale pink flowers have no smell.
In sticky acacia crown rounded. It blooms pink with a purple tinge of flowers. The tree is called like this because it has sticky hairs on:
Yellow acacia, called kargana, is a multi-stemmed shrub. It grows to a height of 3 meters. His bark is colored gray-green, the flowers are also yellow. Previously, this yellow acacia was popularly called the pea tree.
With pink flowers
There is another shrub form of acacia with pink flowers. It is distinguished by reddish bristles covering the whole plant.
Flowering occurs at the age of three and four in May-June, the fruits ripen in September and weigh throughout the winter. For young plants need to care.
Care is the following regular actions:
- removal of withered branches,
- weed removal.
It is necessary that the acacia got a lot of sunlight, you can not allow the shading of a young tree next to growing trees. Young seedlings need to mulch the soil around them. To do this, fine pebbles or peat.
It so happens that the white acacia does not bloom for a long time. The reason for this is groundwater, because of which the roots begin to rot. If the tree is young, only transplanting will help to correct the situation, or the planting of a new seedling in a normal place.
Use in garden design
In addition to acacia, it is considered a useful plantation, it is also an immaculate ornamental tree for decorating the local area and garden plot. The owners of summer plots with the help of white acacia create on their territory a nice hedge.
Designers often use this tree for landscaping gardens and parks. White acacia is growing rapidly and is easy to form. To this end, in the fall young saplings are planted in a staggered manner at a distance of 25 cm from each other. In the future, it is necessary to cut them in time, not forgetting to periodically carry out this procedure. The result will be a beautiful green dense wall.
Planting and Care Tips
- To plant a tree you need to find a place open to the sun. You should not plant a tree in the lowlands, because then the water will stagnate, and this adversely affects its growth and development.
- Since the acacia eventually grows to a huge size, it has a spreading crown, initially the place where it will grow should be spacious.
- The tree feels good on any soil, although it prefers that the soil is light. A good earth for him is considered a mixture of compost and sand with the addition of one of the components:
- lime rubble,
- dolomite flour,
- long lime,
- not very thin
- with a beautiful ramification.
- well developed
If the roots of the acacia peeking through the holes at the bottom, then the sapling from the very beginning grew in it. Such plants can be planted at any time.
White acacia breeds:
- basal shoots,
The easiest way is reproduction by cuttings - the tips of the shoots:
- Acacia cuttings for reproduction are cut at an angle. The length of these cuttings should be not less than 10 cm. Shoots for better rooting are put for 6 hours in a special solution of “Zircon” or “Epin”.
- Then prepare a nutritious soil from:
- 1 part ready mix for flowering plants,
- 0.5 parts of vermiculite,
- 1 part sand
- some charcoal.
One of the main conditions for the favorable growth of young acacia is the presence of a nutrient substrate.
In the spring of white acacia can be propagated by layering:
- This procedure requires a young shoot (not older than 2 years), which grows closer to the surface. Under it dig a shallow groove into which to lay it. In advance on its underside make several cuts.
- In order not to straighten the escape clamp clips made of wire.
- Then added dropwise and watered.
- The next spring, this seedling is separated from the tree, and immediately planted on the place where it will grow.
The reproduction of acacia by the method of separation of root shoots, which form adult plants, also perform in the spring. Carefully dig up the root system of the mother tree and chop off the root offspring along with a clod of earth. Immediately planted in a permanent place and watered. When planting several trees, the distance between them should be no less than 50 cm.
Can be propagated by seeds - beans. They ripen in late November. At this time, they are collected, wrapped in paper and stored until spring in the refrigerator. In the greenhouse in the spring sown in loose soil. The distance between them should be 20 cm.
In order for the acacia seeds to germinate, a temperature of 22-25 ° C is needed. The growth rate of acacia is such that in a year under favorable conditions, the seedlings grow by about 1 meter, next spring they will be ready for planting in open ground.
Diseases and pests
White acacia refers to this type of trees that are almost not exposed to diseases and attack by pests. For them, the danger is the butterfly-bagworm, the insects: citrus mealy and Australian grooved. These pests adore the green parts and bark of the tree. In order for them not to ruin the plantation, insects and their eggs are collected from young trees, in addition to the tree, treatment with hydrocyanic acid is required.
White acacia flowers have a sweetish taste, so in May and June a lot of insects accumulate on them. These are aphids, wasps, bees and ants feeding on sap.
At this time, the tree they do not harm, however, as soon as flowering is completed, these insects in search of refuge climb into the cracks in the bark. They begin to eat the leaves and crown, thereby violating the integrity, which ultimately leads to the death of acacia. This mainly concerns young saplings.
Prevention of various problems
Although the acacia perfectly adapts to different growing conditions, it is still necessary to do some work so that it pleases for a long time with its flowering.
Acacia tree requires:
- Mandatory weeding and mulching of the place around the trunk.
- It is necessary to water only young saplings, at the same time water should not stagnate.
- Without fail every spring trees are treated to prevent the development of diseases.
The white locust is the most beautiful representative of the flora. Once, having planted this tree in my garden, it will be possible for many years to enjoy its flowering and aroma. Beautifully blossoming white acacia often make out yards near houses, streets and parks, so that when the season comes, it blooms wonderfully and gives joy to everyone around.
Bristle-faced acacia is a shrub 1-3 m in height, which is propagated by root suckers. A characteristic feature of this type of robinia is that all the ground parts of the plant cover the bristles of red color. The leaves are up to 22 cm long and consist of 7–13 round segments up to 6 cm in size. Small flowers of bristly-haired Robinia of lilac or purple color.
The magnificent acacia, or, as it is also called, remarkable - is a shrub 1.5 - 4 m in height with pinnate small green leaves. The lush inflorescence is formed by bright yellow spherical flowers of small size. After flowering on the acacia, elongated narrow pods are formed with a length of up to 16 cm with seeds.
This species is most common in Australia, in Queensland and South Wales, where it is often cultivated.
Armed acacia, or paradoxical, is a compact densely branched shrub with a height of 1–3 m. It is abundantly covered with fillodies of rich green color (overgrown broad stem, replacing the leaf plate plant) up to 25 mm long. The growth bud has a thorn — a modified stipule — and this is the reason why this type of acacia is called “armed”.
Asymmetrical leaves of this species of acacia are green with a silvery shade, have the shape of an ellipse with a blunt end. Shrub blooms in early spring with yellow bright flowers that form a single capitate inflorescence with a pleasant aroma. Thin shoots of armed acacia allow you to use it as an ampelous plant, which is able to decorate a house or garden.
Long-leaved acacia is a tree with a height of 8-10 m, a characteristic feature of this type is intensive growth - in just 5 years the plant reaches a certain height and only grows in the future. The leaves of the long-leaf acacia are of a rich green color, elongated, narrow in shape, with a pointed end. Small pale yellow flowers form a standing fragrant brush.
This species is common in Australia and in some parts of the United States. Flowers and seed pods in some countries are eaten, as well as used to produce dyes.
Willow acacia is an evergreen tree with a spreading crown up to 8 meters high, the birthplace of this plant is Australia. Willow acacia in the wild also grows in Africa and the Middle East. The name of the species received for the external similarity of the plant with a weeping willow.
The tree is fast-growing, without thorns, the branches of the plant are thin, curved, hanging down. Narrow and long leaves of rich green color, sometimes with a bluish tint. It blooms with bright yellow spherical flowers, which later give the seeds a dark color.
Caragana treelike (yellow acacia)
Yellow acacia is a shrub with a height of 2-7 meters, which is often used for hedges. The leaves of the Caragana are tree-like, about 8 cm in length, formed by several pairs of oval pointed segments of leaflets. Flowering occurs at the end of spring with yellow flowers, resembling butterflies in their structure. Flowers are quite large, single or form a bunch of 4-5 pieces.
Starting from the fourth year of life, this shrub produces fruits - a bean up to 6 cm long with small seeds. This type of Caragana is wind-resistant, winter-hardy and not capricious of the soil and moisture level. Yellow acacia in nature grows in Siberia, Altai, Kazakhstan and Georgia.
Red acacia is a vertical or spreading shrub, densely covered with small pointed leaves with thick longitudinal veins. The height of the red acacia is about 1.5 - 2 meters.
The red acacia blooms from July to October in single flowers or in tufts of two or three pieces that appear from the axils of the shrub leaves. The color of flowers - from light colors to rich and bright shades of yellow. In the autumn, narrow curved pods are formed up to 10 cm long with seeds. This type of acacia prefers sandy soils.
Chinese acacia is a branched shrub whose height can reach 10 m. Leaves are gray-green, up to 5 cm long, arranged in pairs along the main stem, there are sharp hollow spines of stipules with a brown end. Acacia flowers are spherical, fluffy, bright yellow in color, and they smell like a mixture of violets and raspberries.
From the colors of this type of acacia make oil, which is widely used in cosmetology and perfume compositions. Chinese acacia can be grown in a bonsai composition. This species grows on the territory of India, as well as on the territories of subtropical and tropical latitudes.
The Crimean, or, as it is also called, the Lekoran acacia, albition, is a deciduous, sprawling tree up to 12 m high and with a trunk more than 3 m in girth. The leaves are pinnate, openwork, light green in color, up to 20 cm long, usually consisting of 14 oval elongated segments that are able to curl up at night or in the heat. This type of acacia blooms with fragrant large flowers consisting of silky thin white-pink threads that form a fluffy bunch.
A variation of the Crimean acacia is shrub, which can be grown as a home plant. This species is very thermophilic and drought-resistant, grows well in illuminated areas.
Sand acacia is a shrub or tree 0.5 - 8 meters high. The root system is powerful, with a long main root that allows it to extract moisture in desert conditions. The trunk and branches - brown color, rough to the touch. The leaves have a complex structure, in the middle of a long spine there are two narrow elongated light green leaves, pubescent with a silvery coating.
Flowers of a saturated violet color with a yellow center, in the end of spring form a raceme-shaped small inflorescences. In the summer, acacia fruits appear that look like a flat spiral propeller.
Sand acacia grows in steppes and deserts, tolerates high temperatures and lack of irrigation. In the countries of Central Asia, acacia is used to strengthen the sandy soil.
Silver acacia is also called mimosa. This is an evergreen tree whose crown forms a branched umbrella. Silver acacia usually reaches a height of about 10-12 m.
The barrel diameter is about 70 cm, with a smooth mountain gray-brown color with longitudinal cracks. The root system of this species of acacia is shallow, horizontally branched. Leaves up to 20 cm long, pinnate, composed of many thin elongated segments, slightly pubescent with gray hairs.
Flowers - rich yellow color bead-balls with a diameter of 5-8 mm, which form a thick panicles-inflorescences. The flowering period begins in late winter and ends in spring. The fruit of the silver acacia is a brown-eggplant bob up to 20 cm long with fine solid seeds.
Silver acacia came to us from Australia, where it grows in the wild.
Pink acacia is a tree up to 7 m high, but sometimes it can grow higher. The bark is smooth, brown color. The branches are covered with a thick sticky mass. The leaves are long, bright green, complex structure, formed by several oval pointed segments of leaves.
Blossoms spherical inflorescences of medium flowers with a light lilac color and odorless. The flowering period is long, lasts until the end of September. Homeland pink acacia is considered to be North America.
Acacia has been growing in many countries for many centuries, it has a long history, shrouded in legends and beliefs, it was used in religious ceremonies in the Middle Ages and various diseases were cured. В наше время акацию применяют для столярных нужд, ее цветки народные целители применяют в лечебных целях, могучие деревья украшают города и выделяют в атмосферу большое количество кислорода, а неприхотливость растения позволяет выращивать его повсеместно.
Стереотипы и предрассудки
Впрочем, далеко не все растения, утвердившиеся в понимании наших современников как акации, оказываются таковыми. On the territory of our state, in different climatic zones grow:
- white acacia, which will more correctly be called robinia, it belongs to the genus of legumes,
- yellow acacia, according to the index of the flora of the Russian Federation, is listed as “Karagana”, the family name with Robinia is given by the national name - “pea plow”,
- acacia silon, which is an indisputable representative of the family of acacia, however, in the common people it is known as "mimosa",
- The Lenkoran acacia (known as albition) is an "immigrant" from the African continent, as well as the tropical forests of Southeast Asia.
Robinia has the maximum decorativeness of the inflorescences: the color itself is larger, and the delicate inflorescences are larger, and the varietal characteristics allow discrepancies in the color of flowers - from pure white to various shades of pink. Even if sun-loving Robinis are encountered more and more often in the landings of the Central Belt, they will not be able to move northward into the European part of Russia due to the low frost resistance, as the Karagana was able to do.
As an exotic decoration of the Caucasus and the coastal cities of the Crimea and serves the albition. There she looks like a flowering tree. Also, the silver acacia that came to us from southern latitudes practically does not leave the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, where it has been cultivated since the middle of the 19th century. All of these plants, differing in size and shape, distinctive features of color and flowering time, serve mainly decorative and protective purposes:
- as disembarking near streets and along roads in the forest belt,
- as green fences in the design of park paths,
- as complex or solo components of landscape design,
- as a cut in a bouquet.
The growing area largely determines the timing of flowering of these plants. There are varieties of robinia, which differ in several periods of flowering per season and are decorated with luxurious buds almost all summer.
And the wild-growing mimosa (acacia silvery) overcomes the flowering phase from mid-January to April, in connection with which its yellow hairy flowers amuse women right on the day of their International Holiday. The completion of the flowering period is determined by the time of fruit formation: in acacia white they ripen by November, in acacia yellow (caragana) by mid-July, in silver ache a horn with loosely packed seeds is formed by late summer or early fall, in Lenkoran type the beans ripen only to November
It is curious that in the center of the capital of France, under the cover of the walls of Notre Dame, inside the concrete supports, the four hundred year old robinia, which grew from those seeds that were brought back from the then New World, is growing and systematically blooming.
Terms and description of blooming acacia
Caragana and Robinia flowers are similar in additionbecause they are related to the same genus:
- irregular shape, 5-petal structure, in which 2 coalesced bottom leaves create a boat,
- nectar cavities are located slightly below the moving anthers, which implies pollination by insects with a special structure of the oral apparatus,
- flowers are clustered in brushes, which are smaller in Caragana in extent and number of flowers (up to 5),
- the smell of flowers in yellow acacia is not as strong as that of white, and not so spicy,
- Both species are ready to bloom in the 2nd year after disembarkation and bloom almost simultaneously: in the last days of spring - and the first days of summer. The duration of the flowering phase may be determined by the specifics of the climate; in a cooler place, flowering may be delayed on average up to three weeks.
Silver acacia flowers are organized in a completely different way - although they have five petals, they are much smaller than generally accepted ideas about a flower, and they are also grouped into spherical inflorescences of a brush of 15-30 pieces in each tassel. Yellow fluffy inflorescences of no more than 4-8 mm in diameter create a paniculate brush with rich shades of floral-woody fragrance. It has been scientifically confirmed that the floral note of the smell of mimosa has a healing effect on the human psycho-emotional sphere. This is especially true of women. In addition, along with the coloring of flowers, the fragrance acts as an antidepressant for all patients with emotional disorders.
Albizia flower it doesn’t matter on its own (nondescript corymboid panicle), but in the beauty of its fluffy long pinkish stamens, gathered in bunches. Its fragrance is so gentle and subtle that it strengthens the emotional background of a person on a subconscious level. Pink, yellowish, white inflorescences of this acacia, outstanding especially fluffy, deserve for themselves another romantic name in the people, which sounds like "silk flower". Its flowering period lasts from mid-August to October, when other plants are already engaged in the fruiting process.
Interestingly, the natural extractant (alcohol or ether) and the method of extraction (extraction) used to extract the essential oils from the flowers of acacia and Robinia. Nowadays, everything is much simpler: agrochemistry makes it possible to create the most diverse combinations of flavors, including acacia absolute.
Growing acacia at home
Robinia, as the tree is highly growing, with a spreading crown is certainly not suitable for home growing, while silver acacia it is quite possible to grow in a flower pot. After 2-3 years, the bush will grow about 60 cm, already capable of flowering and fruiting.
For reproduction, there will be enough seeds that should have undergone scarification (methodical stimulation with boiling water and soaking for 12 hours in cool water).
For the moment of flowering, temperature stability is higher than zero (approximately +22 - +25 degrees, a humidity level not lower than 60%, and a high agricultural background.
Caragana is a plant that prefers open ground, and Lankaran silk acacia can be grown in an environment of free spacious premises or greenhouses.
For the successful completion of such an experiment several conditions matter:
- required level of illumination with diffused light,
- corresponding temperature conditions of 20-25 degrees,
- drainage layer in a pot of sufficient diameter,
- 2 irrigation modes (for the summer and winter periods) without drying the earthy coma.
Home breeding of deciduous trees is associated with the natural loss of leaves in winter. The plant will compensate for its seasonal unattractive luxury flowering. It is necessary to understand that indoor cultivation of albition will be harmful to allergic people.
For acacia and robinia, as for fast-growing plants, demanded pruning of near-root growth with the development of bole. Each plant of this species is shown preventive pruning at the very beginning and end of the vegetative process. Gardeners are advised to trim silver acacia after flowering at the level of inflorescences. Home cultures are more demanding to the agricultural background, but extremely patient and meticulous people start to grow them.
What is Robinia?
Acacia belongs to the family of legumes of the genus Robinia, this genus brings together more than 800 species that grow beautifully around the world. This may be an ornamental tree, which reaches a height of 25 m, and maybe a shrub. Strictly speaking, what is Robinia or false acacia, is our White Acacia, i.e. this is Robinia pseudo-acacia (false acacia) - so say the scientists, but we are so used to the name “White Acacia” that we are not going to wean it.
Detailed botanical description of the tree
According to the description, this is a beautiful ornamental tree with a spreading openwork crown and fragrant white flowers that are collected in large inflorescences. Its trunk can reach 1 m in diameter, the bark is very thick with longitudinal stripes, the color of the bark varies from brown to dark gray (in young trees the bark is smooth and light gray).
The leaves are green, egg-shaped, alternately opposite each other, reach a length of 25 cm. Flowering occurs in May-June. When the acacia blooms, then within a few days there is a strong release of nectar (a good honey plant). In September, the seeds begin to ripen — flat brown beans.
The root system of the White Acacia is very powerful and well developed, there is a main rod, strong branching occurs in the upper layers of the soil. White acacia grows very quickly, especially the first 10 years, for 1 year it can grow up to 80 cm in height and 30 in width.
Let's take a closer look at all parts of this beautiful and useful tree:
- Seeds. They are an elongated bob, which may be linear, lanceolate or ovoid. The bob can also be straight or curved.
- Fetus. This is a flat pod, usually of a brown color, inside which there are seeds - beans (5 or 6 pieces).
- Inflorescences They differ in shape, they can be cylindrical or paniculate, and inflorescences of the capitate are also found.
- Spines. In many species of acacia, the stipules were transformed into thorns, i.e. spines of white acacia are modified stipules
- Flowers A huge number of small or large, fragrant, can be heterosexual or bisexual, they are collected in hanging clusters.
The blooming white acacia is just mesmerizing. Flowers of acacia can be not only white. There are varieties with flowers of yellow, light pink, dark pink, golden and even purple.
White acacia is home to North America, and the story of its appearance in Europe is associated with the name of gardener Vespasian Robin, who served at the court of the French king Louis XIII. He brought the seeds of this wonderful tree in 1635 to Paris. Since the tree grows very quickly, then, accordingly, very soon it could be seen not only in the Royal Garden, but also on the streets of Paris.
Where does white acacia grow in Russia? In Russia, the acacia appeared in the early 19th century. It grows well on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus and is very often found in central Russia.
The yellow acacia is a low multi-shrub (up to 3 m), the bark is gray-green, the flowers are yellow, earlier this tree was called “the pea tree” by the people.
Usually, the blooming of the White Acacia actively begins to occur at the age of 6 years, it continues from the end of May to July. Caring for acacia before flowering, that is, it turns out, for a young plant, naturally, differs from caring for an adult tree. Care highlights before flowering:
- regular watering of young seedlings,
- regular feeding,
- you also need to constantly ensure that the tree circle is clean, remove all weeds,
- You can grind the soil around the tree with peat or small pebbles,
- it is important for the trees to provide enough sunlight (so that the neighboring trees do not obscure it).
After flowering, mature trees do not need watering; natural natural moisture is enough for them.
What to do if White Acacia does not bloom? This can happen only in one case - the tree has suffered greatly from groundwater and began to rot the roots. In this case, the best option would be to transplant (if it is a young tree) or reproduction and planting a new seedling in a suitable place.
Use in landscape design
White acacia is quite successfully used by designers for landscaping parks and gardens, and gardeners in their gardens create a spectacular acacia hedge. This tree is great for hedges as it grows very quickly.it is formed easily, it is enough to plant young saplings in staggered order not far from each other in the fall (distance is approximately 25 cm).
Then you will need to timely trim and periodically repeat, as a result you get a chic dense green wall.
Planting and care
White acacia does not require any special care, it grows quickly, is easily able to withstand adverse weather conditions, it can be said that it is an ideal decorative (and useful) tree for decorating a garden plot and a house. Let us dwell on the main points of landing and care:
- Choosing a landing site. It is better to choose an open place, because the tree loves sunlight very much, avoid lowlands, since stagnation of water can badly affect the development of the tree.
- What should be the soil. Prefers light soils, but can, in principle, grow on any. The ideal soil for acacia is a mixture of compost with sand and ash.
- for planting the sprout, you need to dig a shallow hole, fill in the drainage layer, fix a seedling in it (drive a stake into a hole and attach to it) and water well,
- as soon as the seedling has taken root, it is necessary to feed it, the treatment with epin will also be useful for the young seedling,
- in addition to processes, you can also plant acacia with seeds - the beans are presoaked in water (for a day),
- then lay them in shallow grooves in the ground, it can be done in spring or autumn.
- Temperature. The optimal temperature for a good growth rate and flowering of the White Acacia is about 20 - 25 degrees, the frost can withstand this tree to 35 degrees, if the temperature drops below this point, the tree will suffer very much, maybe even permanently. In the summer, the highest temperature for wood can be 40 degrees.
- Watering. Required only for young plants, for adults, however, additional watering is completely unnecessary, unless during a period of perfect drought.
- Top dressing. The plants respond very well to organic fertilizers, it is useful to apply them at the beginning of spring and at the very beginning of flowering, well, and if the soil is very poor, then it can be applied every month.
- Crop. An adult tree needs pruning, it should be done in spring or summer, during pruning, all dry and unnecessary branches (broken) are removed.
- Transfer. If transplantation is necessary, it is best to carry out it in the spring or at the very end of summer (early autumn) so that the plant will stick well.
White acacia breeds in the bulk, in two ways - by seeds and shoots (basal shoots). Most often used second, because it is more convenient.
- Reproduction by seeds. Seeds (beans) ripen in late November, they are harvested and stored in a refrigerator (in a paper bag) until spring. In the spring, they sow (at a distance of 20 cm from each other) into the loose earth in the greenhouse, the temperature necessary for this is 22-25 degrees. During the year, seedlings grow by about 1 m, the next spring just them and planted in the ground at a permanent place.
- Reproduction of radical overgrowth. Since mature trees give a sufficiently large amount of such a growth, it is only necessary to dig up an already ready process and transplant into a suitable place, everything is very simple. Next, you need to periodically water and fertilize.
Stereotypes and ... that in the middle
However, not all plants, established in the minds of contemporaries like acacias, are such. On the territory of our country, in different climatic latitudes grow:
- white acacia, which is more correct to call robinia belonging to the legume family,
- Acacia is yellow, according to the classifier of the flora of the Russian Federation is listed as "Karagana", kinship with Robinia gives the popular name - "pea plow",
- silver acacia, which is an indisputable representative of the Acacian genus, though it is popularly known as "mimosa",
- Lankaran acacia (albition) comes from the tropical forests of the African continent and Southeast Asia.
The most decorative inflorescence has Robinia: the flower itself is larger, and loose inflorescences are more significant, and the varietal characteristics allow differences in the color of the flowers: from a chaste white to different shades of pink.
Light-loving Robin though appear more and more often in the landings of the Middle Band, but due to low winter hardiness not ready to move to the north of the European part of Russia, like the Karagan.
The exotic decoration of the coastal cities of the Crimea and the Caucasus is flowering albition tree. Well, the guest from the southern hemisphere is a silver acacia, never leaves the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, where it has been cultivated since the mid-19th century.
All these plants, differing in size and shape, characteristics of the flower and periods of flowering, serve mainly decorative and protective purposes:
- like planting along streets and roads in a forest belt,
- like green hedges in the design of park paths,
- as group or solo elements of landscape design,
- like flowers to cut into a bouquet.
The growing region largely determines terms of flowering of these plants: There are varieties of robinia, which have several periods of flowering per season and are decorated with lush inflorescences almost all summer. And the wild-growing silver acacia goes through a phase of flowering from January to April, therefore its yellow fluffy flowers delight women on the very day of their International holiday.
The end of the flowering period is determined by the timing of the formation of the fruit:
- in white acacia, they ripen by November,
- in yellow (caragana) - by the middle of summer,
- in silver - a pod with separately packed seeds appears by the beginning of autumn (August-September),
- Lankaran beans ripen only by November.
In a flower - a fantasy of nature
When and how does Acacia blossom?
Цветы робинии и караганы по строению похожи, так как относятся к одному семейству:
- неправильной формы, пятилепесткового строения, где два сросшихся нижних лепестка образуют, лодочку,
- нектарные полости находятся ниже подвижных пыльников, что предполагает опыление насекомыми с особенным устройством ротового аппарата,
- flowers are collected in a brush, which is less in length and number of flowers in Caragana (up to 5),
- yellow acacia flowers are not as strong as white and less spicy,
- Both species are ready to bloom in the second year after planting and bloom in the same way - in late spring - early summer,
- the length of the flowering phase depends on the climate: in a cool one, flowering lasts up to 3 weeks.
Flowers of silver acacia are arranged quite differently: although they have 5 petals, but much smaller than the general ideas about the flower, among other things, they are collected in spherical formations of 20-30 pieces each. Yellow fluffy balls with a diameter of 4-8 mm form a flourish inflorescence with a floral-woody scent rich in shades. It has been scientifically proven that the floral note of mimosa fragrance harmonizes the psycho-emotional sphere of a person, especially women, and, together with the color of flowers, acts as an antidepressant.
Albizia flower not significant in itself (faded corymbylum panicle), but the fluffy beauty of its long pink stamens, gathered in bunches. Its aroma is so gentle and subtle that it improves a person’s emotional background at the subconscious level. White, yellowish, pink inflorescences of this acacia, distinguished by their special fluffiness, have gained another love name among the people - “silk flower”. The flowering process in her stretches from August to October, when other plants are already puzzled by the ripening of fruits.
Acacia at home
Robinia as a vigorous tree, with a spreading crown is clearly not suitable for indoor breeding, but silver acacia is quite possible to grow in a flower pot: in 2-3 years it will turn out 60 cm bush, capable of flowering.
For reproduction, seeds that have previously undergone scarification are suitable (sequential exposure to boiling water and 12-hour soaking in cold water).
For the flowering phase matters stability of positive temperatures (+ 25◦С), humidity not lower than 60% and high agricultural background.
Karagan - a plant of an open ground, and Lankaran silk acacia can be grown in a spacious room or greenhouse. To successfully complete such an experiment, several conditions are important:
- sufficient illumination with diffused light
- comfortable temperature condition within 20-25 20С,
- drainage soil in a large pot,
- two modes of watering (for summer and winter) without drying the coma.
- Last tip:
Next you can see the photo of the blooming Acacia: