Variety Zlato Skifov was bred in Moscow by the Academy of Agriculture. KA Timiryazev from a seedling from free pollination of the Kuban comet with the participation of mutagens. Plum was entered in the State Register of the Central Region. Ripening starts early. Differs juicy and tasty fruits.
The taste of the cherry plum fruits Gold Scythians sweet sour
The trees are sredneroslye, grow up to 3 m. Plum of this variety is characterized by a rare sprawling crown, cranked yellow shoots. The leaves are large, elongated in shape, pointed, with small margins along the edges. Color is light green. Flowers are medium, white. Plant blooms profusely.
Fruits of Zllat Scythian variety large (40 g), oval-round shape. The skin is smooth, dense texture, there is a wax coating. The color is bright yellow. The flesh is juicy, fibrous, soft, with a sweet-sour taste. The aroma is pronounced, fruity. Bones of medium size, difficult to separate from the pulp. According to the results of the tasting evaluation, the plum received 5 out of 5 possible.
The advantages of the variety
Alycha Golden Scythians are able to adapt to different climatic conditions, because of which it is grown in many regions. Grade advantages:
- stable yield,
- early maturation,
- frost resistance
- fruits grow large, with sweet and juicy pulp.
Spring and autumn - the recommended time for disembarking cherry plum Zlato Scythians. Mandatory requirement: favorable weather conditions (before frost). Landing is carried out in September or April.
- bayonet shovels,
- garden hoses, buckets,
It is necessary to plant cherry plum of the Zcyto Scythian variety on a plot with good lighting. For landing you can not choose a windy place.
Before the start of planting, each sapling of the cherry plum Zlato Scythian should be kept for an hour, using a clay mash (provided that the seedlings have an open root system). If the root system is closed, it is necessary to pour the earth well and abundantly with water so that it becomes saturated.
- Prepare pits with a size of 45 by 45 and a depth of 55 cm.
- At the bottom of the dimples form tubercles of the earth.
- Lower the seedlings to a depth, carefully spread the roots on the mounds.
- The pits are covered with earth and tamped.
- After 9 cm from seedlings to place wooden pegs.
- Using twine or twine to tie up the seedlings to the pegs.
- Near the plants to form holes with earthen rollers.
- Water seedlings of 35 liters of water, even if the ground is wet.
- After the water has been absorbed, the wells are pulverized using peat, soil, straw, or sawdust.
It is important to keep the distance between the trees and rows at 2-3 m.
When planting cherry plums in the fall, this should be done before frost.
Alycha of Zlato Scythian variety has no special requirements for care. The main concerns for the plant are processing, pruning and feeding. During the first years, caring for young trees with watering, disease prevention, cleaning of trunks. A separate role is played by mulching. Plant trees in the prepared soil with the addition of fertilizers, and then you will not need to feed them before the fruit ripening period.
The variety is self-infertile. To improve the ovary and increase yields, the plant needs additional cross-pollination. You can pollinate a tree using a special garden pollinator with pollen mixtures. It is recommended to be planted on the same plot with other varieties - they can be used as a pollinator for cherry plum.
In a temperate climate, there is no need to pour cherry plum. During droughts or in dry climatic zones, it is worthwhile to carry out basic watering:
- at the end of flowering,
- when the growth of shoots stopped,
- after the fruit has tinted.
Water is not cold water, using about 55 liters for each tree.
In need of pruning plum needs in spring or autumn (before the buds swell). When pruning use garden tools: pruner, garden shears, vetkorez, stepladder.
The formation of a sparse-long crown in young trees begins after 3.5 years of cultivation. After the height of the tree reaches 3 m, the crown is trimmed.
Mature trees should be pruned every year, thinned and removed damaged branches. It is important not to overdo it, because a strong circumcision can lead to an accelerated growth of shoots, a strong crown thickening and a decrease in fertility.
Regular and timely feeding provoke the development of healthy trees and increase the yield.
To form a round crown, you need to trim the branches that grow inward.
As fertilizer for cherry plum Gold Scythians suitable:
- in April, ammonium nitrate (30 g) and potassium salt (42 g) are added to each m2,
- in May mineral solutions of urea are used (30 g per 15 l of water) - 5-6 l of one tree is watered,
- At the beginning of June, the trees are sprayed with a 4% urea solution,
- at the end of September, you can use sulfurous or potassium chloride (4 tablespoons), superphosphate (6 tablespoons) per 20 liters of water - enough for 1 tree to be watered.
Diseases and pests
In the fight against pests resort to various means of protection.
- Before flowering against acacia spatula, Californian scythes, cherry plum and plum moths, you can use the tools: Tagore, Ditox, Fufaphone, Avant, Confidor. Enough and one-time processing. If a pest is detected again after a week, the procedure must be repeated. Prevention: the use of urea 3% solution in April (not more than 1 time).
- At the end of flowering, these pests are disposed of by Akarin and Lepodotsidom. Prevention: treatment of plants with a 3% urea solution once a month.
- During the growing season it is necessary to process Alfacin, Samun, Kinmiks. Re-processing is possible only after 2 weeks. Prevention: urea solution 5% and Aktelik one procedure in 30 days.
For the prevention of cholerazarea, the tree is sprayed once a month with a urea 5% solution
One of the main pests are rodents. Control measures: mixtures of Zookumarin, Mongoose and Zernocin, which need to be poured over holes with special baits.
Important: chemicals that are processed plum, you need to use in turn, and not together. You can handle no later than a month before the moment when they plan to harvest.
From diseases that attack the tree, get rid of methods:
- Before flowering, verticillosis, congestion and monolial burn are fought with the help of Nitrafen and Gamar. Spraying is carried out 2 times 1 week. Prevention: spraying with a 5% carbamide solution every 30 days.
- You can use the Skor and Horus: processing in two sets, after the first break of 1.5 weeks. Prevention: the use of Confidor, Chlotsitrin, Bord fluid 3% - once a month.
- During the growing season, use Aktellik and Agrovertin (after the first treatment, wait a week or two and repeat the procedure). Prevention: Bord liquid (3%), Fastak, Aktara, process 1 time per month.
Alycha Gold Scythians unpretentious, and therefore in demand from many gardeners. For good yields and good quality fruits, it’s enough to follow the rules for tree care and growing. Proper planting, fertilized soil, timely watering, fertilizing and protection from pests are the main ingredients for obtaining the desired result. Cherry plum is considered as a stock for plums, apricots and peaches.
Description cherry plum varieties Gold Scythians
Scythian gold - a hybrid variety of domestic breeding
Sort Golden Scythians belongs to the category of Russian Plum or Alycha hybrid. This is a tree of medium size, the height of which slightly exceeds 2 m. The crown is spreading and rounded. Leaves are light green in color, large, oblong. The plates at the edges are notched, the tip has a pointed end. The shoots of the cranked type, rather thick, have a yellowish tint. The flowers are white, abundant bloom. Fruits are relatively large (35–40 g), have a regular oval shape with a slightly visible abdominal suture. They are covered with a dense yellowish skin, on which there is a slight wax coating. Bones of medium size. The funnel is narrow.
The fruits ripen in the last days of June, which distinguishes Scythian Gold from other varieties.. The flesh is colored yellow, has a dense structure and a fibrous consistency. The fruits are quite juicy, taste sweet with a slight acid. Fruiting culture annually.
The variety received the highest tasting score - 5 points. The biochemical composition of cherry plum includes 1.9% acids, 6.3% sugars and 9.4% of dry components.
Advantages and disadvantages
Golden Scythian gold has excellent taste
The advantages of cherry plum in this class:
- early maturation
- large size of fruits
- stable fruiting,
- excellent taste of the fruit.
The disadvantages are:
- low rates of transportability,
- instability of the kidneys to sub-zero temperatures.
Features of planting a tree
Cherry plum is planted in spring or autumn
Scythian gold is a self-productive variety, therefore pollinators are used in cultivation, the presence of which helps to improve the ovary and increase the yield of cherry plum.. These are varieties such as the Gift of St. Petersburg, Pavlovsk yellow and Ruby.
For planting pick sunny place from the south-west or south side of the site. The most suitable type of soil for cherry plum is loam, but this culture can also grow on sandy soils. The acidity level should be neutral. The depth of placement of the root system of cherry plum is 30–40 cm. On the basis of this, a site with a groundwater level of 1–1.5 m is chosen for the plant.
Important! When planting several trees, they must be placed at a distance of 3 m.
To choose a healthy seedling, you need to carefully inspect the root system, the crown and the surface of the bark. On the plant should not be mechanical damage and dry twigs. The minimum length of the roots is 10 cm. The soil in which the seedling resides should not have signs of mold.
Cherry plum is planted in early September or the first half of April. It is necessary to start preliminary preparation of a place in 1–2 weeks. For proper fit, follow these steps:
- Dig a hole 60–80 cm in diameter and 60 cm deep, fill it 2/3 with a mixture of soil, 1 kg of nitrophoska and 15 kg of humus. In loamy soil also need to add 20 kg of peat or sand, and in sandy - 10 kg of sod land.
- A solution of wood ash or chalk (300 g per 10 l) is also applied to the soil with high acidity.
- Start planting with the formation at the bottom of the dimple of the earthen mound on which to place the seedling. The root neck should be located at ground level.
- Next, fill the pit, and tamp the soil. Near a seedling at a distance of 10 cm, you can install a peg and tie a plant to it with a twine.
- In the circle of the trunk, form an earthen roller and water the tree using 30 liters of water.
- After absorbing moisture, grouch the soil with straw or peat.
Proper care for cherry plum
Watering cherry plum occurs as the soil dries
Alycha is a drought-tolerant crop and does not need to be moistened with systematic precipitation. But in the absence of rain the tree must be watered. This procedure is performed after flowering, the completion of the growth of shoots and the acquisition of the fruits of the corresponding color. The best method is to fill the circle with water. To do this, it is necessary to make a small depression around the base of the tree (not deeper than 20 cm), with a diameter of about 0.8–1 m. 30–40 liters of water are consumed per plant each time. In October, the plant requires water recharge irrigation - immediately use 60 liters of fluid.
Important! Water for irrigation should be warm (about 25 ° C).
Top dressing will allow to get excellent harvest of cherry plum
For the full development of the tree need fertilizing. Nutrient mixtures are made throughout the season as follows:
- In April, before the beginning of flowering, 40 g of potassium salt and 25 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m 2 are added in the process of digging the tree trunk. In May, the culture is fed with urea (20 g per 10 l, consumption - 5 l per tree).
- After completion of the flowering stage, a mullein solution is introduced into the soil. The fertilizer is first diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 3, then 50 g of superphosphate per 10 liters is added to the mixture. Per 1 m 2 of the trunk section consumes 2 liters of the composition.
- In early June, plum is sprayed with 4% carbamide.
- In the second decade of September, the plant is watered with a composition of 3 tbsp. l superphosphate, 2 tbsp. l potassium sulfide and 10 liters of water. For one tree requires 20 liters of solution. Instead of this composition, you can use a mixture of 15 kg of manure, 50 g of ammonium nitrate and 150 g of superphosphate. These components are made before digging.
Detailed scheme of the molding of the crown of alycha
No less important stage of care is pruning, which helps to improve fruiting. For work you will need a pruner, garden shears and a stepladder. The procedure is performed three times a year. In the spring (March - April), pruning is performed with a formative and sanitary purpose. Gardeners recommend to give crown cherry plum sparsely-tiered form.
In the first year of the plant’s life above the trunk, 3 shoots should be left, located at a distance of 20 cm and extending from the trunk at an angle of 45–60 °. Between themselves, they must form an angle of 120 °. The rest of the shoots are cut at the level of the ring. Over the next two years, new branches should be added to the existing ones, which have similar characteristics. Then the formation of the crown is completed. The central conductor is shortened at the level of the third skeletal branch. Also, the tree pruned broken branches.
In the summer, shoots of cherry plum trees are shortened to 60–70 cm. This will contribute to the formation of new fruitful branches. In autumn, when the tree sheds its leaves, remove all broken and dry branches. After each pruning, the damaged areas should be lubricated with garden pitch.
Garden var can be purchased at the store or cook yourself. To do this, on the steam bath you need to melt the paraffin, then add the crushed rosin and drying oil. The composition is boiled for 20-30 minutes and used after cooling. All components are mixed in equal proportions.
History and characteristics of the variety
Golden cherry Scythian gold is a type of plum that Russian breeders derived during the pollination process of the Kuban comet (a plum variety).
Description of the cherry plum variety Golden Scythians:
- An adult plant grows to a height of 2-2.5 m,
- The crown of the tree is sprawling, the top shape is round,
- The shape of the leaves resembles a leaf plum of an ordinary plum: it is serrated at the edges, pointed at the end,
- Strong shoots, there are yellow streaks on the bark,
- Flowers in the plant is white. During the flowering period, the tree is covered with small white flowers,
- The flowering period begins in late April, in June you can harvest the first crop,
- The ripe fruits are saturated yellow, oval-shaped, large in size,
- Peel with a little wax coating,
- The average weight of the plum - 30 g.
- The taste of cherry plum is sweet and sour (which taste will depend largely on agricultural technology and soil type).
Alycha Golden Scythians
The hybrid is recommended for cultivation in the regions:
- Central part of Russia
- Vladimir, Ivanovo and Ryazan regions.
Golden Scythian cherry plum is one of the best varieties in many characteristics:
- Frost resistance, drought resistance. Cherry plum grows well in dry weather in the warm season. The hybrid is intended for cultivation in regions with frosty winter, winter-hardy variety,
- Pollinators. Next to the plum, it is recommended to plant varieties: Ruby plum, Pavlovskaya yellow, Nezhenka, Present to St. Petersburg. These plants are considered the main pollinators of cherry plum. When selecting a variety as a pollinator, the main criterion is the period of flowering of plants,
- Productivity The tree begins to actively bear fruit for 4 years after planting in open ground. Average yield - 20 kg of plums from one tree,
- Disease resistance. The variety may be subject to various diseases and attacks of pests. When carrying out preventive measures for pest control, it is possible to avoid cherry plum infection,
Terms of planting seedlings in open ground
The variety is considered winter-hardy, but young saplings can be hurt by sudden frosts. Ungrafted plant may die with a sharp decrease in temperature. In the northern regions, the best time for planting seedlings is the first week of April.
In the southern regions, plum can be planted in the fall, after leaf fall.
On a note. If the seedling was purchased at the end of October or November, the root system is instilled and the planting is done with the onset of spring.
It is recommended that Slypha velu gold be planted in open sunny areas without drafts. The earth should warm up well. The soil is desirable to choose loamy type with a neutral level of acidity. With increased acidity, lime or dolomite flour is added to the soil.
What can and can not be planted next to cherry plum
The plant will develop well if planted nearby:
Plum Gold Scythians is a self-fruitful culture. For pollination a tree requires a certain neighborhood. It is recommended to choose varieties of pollinators that are suitable for hybrid.
Important! It is not recommended to plant seedlings near tall trees, berry bushes, solanaceous crops.
Секрет выращивания состоит в правильном выборе саженца для посадки. Покупать молодые побеги надо в проверенных магазинах. The seedling should be 1-2 years old. Such plants quickly adapt to a new place.
Sapling inspect for the presence of mechanical damage, cracks. The root system must be well developed, with no visible damage. Before planting the roots of the plant is soaked for several hours.
Soaking Sapling Roots
Instructions for planting plum saplings:
- Prepare a nutritious soil mixture consisting of sand, humus and peat,
- Dig holes, with a diameter of 70 cm and a depth of 60 cm,
- Place the seedling in the middle of the fossa. The root neck should be 5 cm from the ground,
- Empty place in the pit to fill with nutrient soil, it is good to tamp with his hands,
- If the seedling is thin, it is recommended to install a trellis and tie a young plant to it,
- Around the seedling to make a hole, pour the tree with 5 buckets of water. It is advisable to prepare the water in advance, it should not be cold,
- After all moisture is absorbed, lay out a layer of mulch. As a mulching material using sawdust, straw, peat. This will preserve moisture and will not allow weeds to grow.
On a note. If the land is depleted, then the plum planting plot is prepared from autumn or a month before planting. A bed is dug over, brought mineral and organic fertilizers.
After planting before rooting, seedlings need regular watering, loosening, hilling, feeding.
Cherry plum is a drought-resistant plant, therefore it is not necessary to be watered in rainy summer. In the southern regions with a prolonged drought, it is necessary to water the tree 3-4 times per season.
Water should be a tree under the trunk. The optimum water temperature for irrigation is 25 degrees. In the morning you can get water, put in the sun and in the evening watering. On one tree will need 5-6 liters of water.
For normal growth and development of plants in the ground it is recommended to apply fertilizers:
- Before flowering. In mid-spring, potash salt (40 g) and ammonium nitrate (25 g) are added to the well after digging up the earth. In early May, the well is poured over with urea,
- After flowering. Superphosphate (50 g per 1 liter) and a mullein solution (1 kg of fertilizer per 3 l of water) are applied to the soil,
- In early June, the tree is treated with carbamide (4%),
- In September, after harvesting, the well is watered with a solution of superphosphate (30 g), potassium sulphide (20 g) per 10 liters of water.
The pruning procedure is important in the process of plant care. To do this, you need to prepare garden tools (pruner) and stepladder. Molding is carried out three times a year:
- In April, sanitary pruning is carried out to form a bush,
- In July, it is recommended to cut the shoots, shortening them by 70 cm, this contributes to the active growth of new shoots,
- In the fall, pruning of damaged, dry branches is carried out.
On a note. After the procedure, the cut-off sites are treated with garden pitch to prevent the flow of vegetable juices.
The tree begins to bear fruit after 4 years. The fruits ripen in June or early July. Fruits are recommended to be collected in dry weather. It is undesirable to separate the plum from the stem, so the fruit will last longer.
Fruits are stored in dry ventilated boxes at a temperature of +2 or +6 degrees. Plum does not have good keeping quality, therefore, if necessary, it is recommended to transport the fruits 7 to 10 days before ripening. If you break the plum earlier, it will ripen in the box, the taste characteristics will not differ from the ripe fruit on the tree.
On a note! Cherry plums are made from compotes, jams, preserves, and sauce. It is consumed fresh.
Advantages and disadvantages
Golden cherry Scythian gold is popular among Russian gardeners due to its characteristics. Main advantages:
- Yield varieties
- Cold climate resistance
- Harvesting a full harvest in the 4th year after planting,
- The rapid ripening of fruits
- Taste varieties.
Gardeners who are engaged in the cultivation of a hybrid, identified several shortcomings:
- It is necessary to plant pollinating plants in the neighborhood,
- The tree is attacked by pests, it can hurt,
- Low shelf life of fruits.
Golden cherry Scythian gold is an excellent option for planting in regions with a harsh climate. With the right agricultural technology, you can grow a healthy fruit tree and collect a large crop of tasty and fragrant plums every year.
This variety is considered one of the most popular varieties of cherry plum. A semi-official name that cannot be found in any botanical reference book - Cherry plum hybrid or Russian plum.
The genes of the hybrid cherry plum can be called a kind of cocktail, where, in addition to the cherry plum, in the cultivation of the new variety, we used felt cherry, and American, Ussuri and Chinese plum. As a result of the selection, a variety was bred that does not lag behind the cherry plum in yield, and in size and taste resembles a plum.
The authors of the cherry plum varieties of Scythian gold are scientists-breeders Moscow Agricultural Academy. K.A. Timiryazeva. This variety was officially obtained in 2005 when it was included in the State Register of the Russian Federation and was recommended for cultivation in the Central region of Russia.
it medium-height tree up to four meters, with branchy, spreading, but not a thick oval-shaped crown. With timely and proper pruning, this plant looks more like a shrub than a tree. The elongated large leaves, light green in color with a pointed tip, cover copiously thick shoots. During flowering, plum is very densely dotted with medium-sized white flowers, which becomes very attractive for various insects.
The fruits of this variety are round, slightly oval in shape, with a smooth surface and an inconspicuous seam along the vertical axis. Deformed fruits of different sizes are practically not found on a healthy tree. The skin on the fruit is dense, but not thick, with a slight whitish bloom. Fruits are painted in sunny yellow color, sometimes even with an amber or orange shade. The pulp is the same color as the fruit itself, having sweet and sour taste and pleasant aroma. The stone is difficult to separate from the pulp, medium size.
Cherry plum planting technology
The best age for planting is one, two years. When planting a three-year plant will have to spend much more effort to care for such a seedling. When buying a sapling, you need special attention. give a high-quality external examination bark and root system of the shaft.
The bark should not have any cuts and wounds, as well as dried areas and various detachments. The root system, in addition to a healthy main rhizome, must have both lateral branches of the roots and thin roots. If the seedling is purchased in the springtime, the plant buds, which should be greenish and slightly swollen, are also examined.
Preparing the landing site
For landing on the site it is better to choose protected from draft and wind, sunny place. Planting cherry plum near the south side of the house building will be more effective, since it will be an additional protection against frost.
To the composition of the soil the tree is unpretentious, but best yields are achieved in loamy soil with an alkaline neutral reaction. If it is necessary to reduce the acidity of the soil, you must add to the composition of the earth chalk mixture or dolomite flour.
It is better to prepare a pit for a sapling in the fall, as a young plant planted for the winter may not suffer frosts. The size of the planting fossa directly depends on the size of the seedling's root system. But in any case, it is necessary to focus on the depth and diameter of the landing hole - 0.7 meters. Then you need to fill in the hole two buckets of organic fertilizers and leave until spring planting, for shrinking soil.
It is best to plant plum in mid-April, before the leaves start to bloom. Description of the process of planting a cherry plum seedling gold Scythians is no different from planting many other fruit trees.
Step by step description of landing:
- In the hill of the earth, departing a little to the side from the top, securely fix the support for the seedling, 20 cm higher than the cutting itself.
- The tree, rooted down, is smoothly placed in the landing hole. Then, gently straighten the processes of the root system, so that no one goes up, avoiding, while their damage.
- Next, we sprinkle the soil in small portions on the sides, while periodically it needs to be tamped. In the process of backfilling of the root system, make sure that the root neck is 7–8 cm higher than the edge of the fossa.
- Having filled up the hole completely, the landing ground is pressed again. Then, at a distance of 40–50 cm from the trunk of the seedling, we form an annular shallow groove. We tie the tree trunk to the support.
- The next step is to pour plenty of seedling with settled water at room temperature (10-15 liters).
- After the liquid is completely absorbed, the tree trunk circle is carefully mulched, falling asleep with humus, dry peat, mowed grass, straw or manure. The thickness of the layer of mulching should be at least 5 cm.
To increase yields plum need nearby to plant pollinators, as plum is a self-fruitful culture. The following varieties are recommended as pollinators: Ruby, Podarok Saint-Petersburg, Pavlovskaya yellow, as well as various Chinese plums. The best option is to have three pollinators near the Scythian gold.
Technology care for cherry plum
Work on the care of Russian plum is almost no different from similar operations to grow many fruit trees growing in your garden. The plant will delight you beauty and harvest, if on time and regularly perform work on feeding, watering, pruning crown, weeding from the weeds, with the simultaneous loosening of the soil and, of course, whitewashing and shelter plants before the winter season.
In the first year after planting the plant, it is not necessary to feed cherry plums, since all nutrients were added to the soil while planting. In the future, it is recommended to apply fertilizer to the soil twice per season. This should be done in spring and autumn, it is desirable to combine this work with trimming the crown of the tree. Stages of feeding:
- In the spring, it is advisable to fertilize the entire area of the trunk circle with a mixture of mineral fertilizers: 50 grams of superphosphate, 100 grams of ammonium nitrate and 50 grams of potassium sulfate per one square meter. This dosage is considered approximate, depending on the saturation of the soil with minerals, it can be respectively increased or decreased.
- The introduction of organic fertilizers into the soil under the tree will be most useful in the autumn period of growing the plant. Adding to the soil a compost or humus with a layer of 20 cm will serve as an excellent way of mulching the soil and at the same time a reliable protection of the root system from cold in winter.
Cherry plum is considered drought resistant variety, so plenty of watering is not particularly needed. The need for the presence of moisture most often arises in the period of the beginning of the setting and ripening of fruits. It is at this time, with a long absence of rain, it is desirable to water the tree. Additional moisture has a positive effect on the quality of the fruit itself.
Water the young tree preferably in the planting hole. And for an adult tree, you must first prepare a groove at a distance of one meter around the trunk, a depth of 10–15 cm and a width of 20 cm. It is undesirable for water to enter the tree when watering directly on the tree trunk.
Pruning tree crown
Formed crown of the tree dilated tier system. The main actions for crown formation are carried out in the first five years of the tree’s life, and in subsequent years it is necessary to perform rejuvenating and sanitary-improving pruning of the plant. Crown trimming order:
- The start of work on the crown formation process should be carried out in the first year after planting. At this time, it is necessary at a height of 0.6–0.7 m from the ground surface to cut off the central shoot of the tree. Next, the most developed 3–4 branches are shortened by 10–15 cm, and the rest are removed.
- The remaining shoots after the first pruning begin to form young shoots, of which again you need to leave 3-4 branches, while shortening them. The rest is cut to the point of growth.
- As a result, one branch grows from the uppermost bud, which will constitute the third tier of the crown. In the subsequent time of tree growth, this branch is cut to a length of about 0.5 m.
Sanitary pruning of the crown includes the removal of drying, damaged and thickening tree crown. In the spring, such pruning is done when offensive sustainable heat, and in the fall - after the complete termination of leaf fall.
Simultaneously with pruning, it is desirable to produce and loosening the circle of the trunk, which positively affects the ventilation of the soil near the tree trunk. The work on soil loosening implies the simultaneous removal of weeds, preventing them from overgrowing the soil under the tree. Of course, any gardener tries to carry out this operation as needed.
Whitewash in the spring period is carried out with the aim of prophylaxis various plant diseases. To perform this operation, copper or iron sulfate is added to the solution with quenched lime; two tablespoons of vitriol are added to a ratio of five liters to the mixture.
Processing the trunk in such a composition helps to get rid of damage and does not allow pests to climb the trunk of a tree. It is necessary to make whitewash on the third part of the tree height.
The whitewashing of the trunk in the autumn destroys the pests that have taken refuge in the cracks of the bark of the tree and helps to get rid of stump and branches from burns.
Preparing for the winter
Golden cherry Scythian gold is a culture frost-resistanttherefore, the tree trunk must be protected not so much from frost as from the harmful effects of rodents, which often hit the wood. For the device of such protection after whitewashing a tree, its trunk is wrapped with synthetic fabrics or branches of a coniferous plant.
The previously performed work on the introduction of organic fertilizer into the soil will be enough to protect the plant root system from cooling.
As mentioned earlier, the main disadvantage of cherry plum is the low resistance to various diseases.
The main diseases and methods of dealing with them:
- Burn. This disease can occur before the bud breaks, and the leaves, shoots, ovaries begin to turn and dry. The elimination of this disease is performed by spraying the plant with copper-containing preparations. For the prevention of the disease, it is necessary to prune wood in a timely manner.
- Brown spotting. This disease manifests itself before flowering. On the leaves of the tree, with this disease, small spots appear, and its underside is covered with brown bloom. Spraying a solution of Bordeaux liquids (100 g per 10 liters of water) is an effective way to combat this disease. To avoid this disease, it is necessary to weed the soil in time and remove fallen leaves.
- Mealy dew. Symptoms of this disease is the appearance of a light patina on the kidneys, which gradually moves to the shoots of the plant. Fruits and leaves may form a gray mesh. These manifestations occur before bud break. The method of struggle is almost similar to the previous process, only when spraying potassium permanganate is added to the solution (1.5 g per 10 liters of water).
- With the defeat of plants with smallpox, fruits and leaves are covered with spots of light green color, and then dry and crumble. This disease does not respond to treatment, so if you suspect such a disease, you need to destroy the plant and immediately go to the quarantine inspection.
Insect pests can also cause significant damage to the plant. Main pests Gardens are: plum moth, downy silkworm, plum yellow sawfly, western sparse bark beetle, fruit sapwood.
The pest control methods are considered to be timely plant whitewashing and spraying crowns of trees necessary chemical compositions. Remember that the implementation of all the basic recommendations of experienced gardeners will help you to fully enjoy the taste of cherry plum Gold Scythians.
Golden cherry varieties Gold Scythians: how it looks and what attracts?
Scythian gold is a popular cherry plum variety. More precisely, cherry plum hybrid or Russian plum. The name is semi-official, is not found in any botany directory. It is understood as a group of cold-resistant varieties of cherry plum with large fruits, specially designed for growing in “risk zones” - in the Urals, the Far East, in Siberia. The work of breeders began very recently - at the end of the XX century.
Hybrid plum genes are a whole “cocktail”. In addition to the cherry plum itself, felt cherry, Ussurian, American and Chinese plum participated in the creation of a new fruit crop. The result of the work of breeders is not inferior in yield to ordinary cherry plum, in taste and size of fruits - in plum, and in frost resistance leaves both these crops far behind. In addition, the tree is practically not subject to decay, which affects almost all cultures that can tolerate the harsh Russian winters.
The variety Golden Scythians left the Moscow Agricultural Academy named after KA Timiryazev. The first seedlings with stable varietal characteristics were obtained in the process of artificial pollination of cherry plum Kuban comet. Известно, что в процессе участвовали и мутагены. Это отпугивает некоторых садоводов, особенно старшего возраста.Just over a decade ago, the variety was included in the State Register, recommending for cultivation in the Central region of Russia.
Scythian gold is a relatively new cherry plum variety that was quickly included in the State Register and gained popularity.
Scythian gold is not a very high (2.5–3 m) tree with sprawling branches hanging down and a sparse crown. With proper pruning, the plant is more like a shrub than a tree.
The average mass of one fruit is 35–40 g. The shape is almost a regular ball, slightly elongated along the vertical axis. Deformed fruits of different sizes are practically not found, unless it is a consequence of any disease.
Fruits have a bright, sunny yellow color, sometimes with a slight orange or amber shade. Often there is a thin whitish coating. Side seam is almost not pronounced. The skin is thick, but not thick or coarse. The flesh is slightly lighter than the skin.
Golden cherry Scythian gold - not only beautiful, but also tasty fruit
Regarding the taste qualities, Scythian gold-growing people display a rare consensus, crumbled in the praises. And indeed, plum deserves it. Her flesh is very juicy and dense, the taste is balanced, sweet, with a slightly sour taste. Noticeable fibers do not spoil the impression at all, the fruits literally melt on the tongue. There is another reliable "indicator": these fruits are very fond of children.
Stone in Zlata Scythians is small, quite easily separated from the pulp
Among other advantages of a grade note:
- Early fruit ripening. The first fruits are removed in the second decade of July.
- Winter hardiness With additional shelter plum nice winters in areas where -30 º C - quite commonplace. If the temperature in the winter for a long time keeps below this value, the culture can also freeze. Buds are exposed to the same danger, and they bloom just when reverse spring frosts are quite likely.
- Skoroplodnost. Crop is obtained in 4–5 years after planting the seedling at a permanent place.
- Decorative. Like any Russian plum, Scythian gold blooms profusely, decorating your garden. It is a pity that not for long (maximum week).
- Universality of fruits. They are perfect for both fresh consumption and for all kinds of home-made preparations for the winter. The cuisine of some nations of the world considers cherry plum as one of the components of sauces and hot spices. Gold Scythians is quite suitable for this.
- Benefit for health. Cherry plum fruits of this class contain in high concentrations of vitamin C, as well as A, E and PP. Of the micro and macro elements, potassium and magnesium useful for the heart are noted, as well as sodium, calcium and iron.
The aesthetic moment also matters - the blooming Golden Scythian - a real decoration of any garden
Culture could not do without flaws:
- Productivity In the most successful years, no more than 30 kg of tasty fruits are removed from a single tree. Culture does not bear fruit every year, “resting” about one or two years out of five or six. Any periodicity can not be established.
- Almost complete lack of resistance to the most common diseases of the stone. Pests do not pass past Zlata.
- Self infertility. In order for the fruits to be tied, the Scythian Gold needs pollinators. Consequently, we have to spend space, especially precious for owners of the standard 6 acres for 2-3 seedlings instead of one. Best of all are suitable for cross-pollination any Chinese plums, as well as plum Gift to St. Petersburg, Ruby, Pavlovsk yellow. Choosing a pollinator, pay attention to the timing of flowering: they must match. Ideally, you need at least three different trees.
- Poor transportability.
Scythian gold is a variety that is not without obvious flaws, but their merits are more than compensated for
How to plant Gold Scythians
Scythian gold is a hybrid cherry plum variety that can adapt and bear fruit in a variety of climatic conditions. You only need to find a trustworthy nursery or gardener in the area where you are going to grow it. Zoned seedlings purchased there take root much better, since they are already adapted to the vagaries of the weather characteristic of this region.
For proper growth and development of cherry plum, heat and sunlight are needed. Pick an open area for the seedling. From the north or north-west side, it is desirable to have some kind of barrier that protects trees from harsh cold drafts. Since the variety is self-productive, consider whether the selected area is large enough for two or more mature trees, estimate the dimensions of the proposed pollinator varieties.
Preparing for landing
In regions with a temperate climate, Scythian gold is experienced gardeners recommend planting in early spring. It is only necessary to wait until the earth thaws enough. The optimal period is the second decade of April. It is important to have time before the buds bud.
Where in winter the temperature rarely drops below -10 ° C, it is possible to plan a landing at the beginning of autumn. The plant will have time to get used to the new conditions before the cold weather.
The quality of the soil, in principle, is not so important, in contrast to its acidity. Like all stone trees, plum prefers a slightly alkaline primer. Find out the level of acidification in advance, if necessary, add dolomite flour to the substrate. Best of all plum grows in light fertile loam, but this is not the only option. Golds of the Scythians do not like only overwet heavy soils.
Excessively wet soil for Zlata Scythians is not suitable. If groundwater comes closer than 0.8–1 m to the surface, look for another area. If there is no alternative, fill a hill with a minimum height of 50 cm.
The lowland where cold, humid air stagnates, and in spring even melt water is a poor choice. Golden cherry Scythian gold during flowering is prone to freezing buds.
Selection of seedlings
Any seedlings are recommended to be purchased only in trustworthy places. Do not be lazy to study the reviews on the Internet, to ask the opinion of friends and familiar gardeners. At agricultural fairs and other similar events, there is a high risk of buying a “fake”.
When making a choice, be sure to pay attention to the bark, shoots and roots of an annual sapling. The first should be smooth, supple, uniform color, free from blemishes, wrinkles and scaling. The branches are necessarily flexible. If the seller allows, cut a small piece from one of them. In a healthy seedling, the wood is white or greenish, not beige-brown. The roots of the one-year cherry plum are not less than 10 cm in length. There should be no dry, rotted, moldy roots. In two-year-old seedlings, roots are 2.5–3 times longer, 4–5 stem roots are clearly visible.
On the seedling, the place of the graft must be clearly visible, otherwise it is grown from a stone - such trees rarely retain the characteristics of the parent plant
How to plant plum
When spring planting pit is prepared in the fall. In the autumn - 12-15 days before disembarkation. A cube of soil with an edge of 70–75 cm is taken out in the selected place. The fertile turf soil is laid aside and mixed with 15–20 l of rotted manure or humus. Prefer natural fertilizers add 1–1.5 l of wood ash, all the rest - 250 g of simple superphosphate and 35–50 g of potassium nitrate. Excessive acidity is neutralized by 300–400 g of dolomite flour. The prepared soil is poured to the bottom of the pit in the form of a small mound.
Properly prepared planting pit - the key to successful adaptation and proper development of the seedling
A few hours before planting, the plum roots are placed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate (to kill fungi and bacteria) or Epin, Topaz, and potassium humate (to strengthen and stimulate growth). Immediately before the procedure, the roots are dipped for a couple of minutes into a mixture of fresh cow manure and powdered clay.
Step by step description of landing
- In the earthen hill, having slightly stepped away from the summit to the side, they stick and reliably fix the support with a height of at least 20 cm more than the seedling.
- The roots of the tree are placed in a hole and gently straightened so that no one is bent up.
- Small portions of the sides begin to pour the soil, periodically tamping it. Be careful, the roots are easy to damage. Constantly ensure that the root neck is 7–8 cm above the edge of the pit.
- Having filled up the entire pit, the soil is once again crushed, retreating 40–50 cm from the trunk, forming a shallow ring groove. The tree is tied to a support.
- Sapling watered 10-15 liters of separated water at room temperature.
- When the liquid is completely absorbed into the soil, the tree trunk at a specified distance from the tree is mulched, falling asleep with freshly cut grass, straw, dead leaves, dry peat or manure, humus. The minimum layer thickness is 5 cm.
If the seedling was purchased in a tub, it is still easier. Preliminary preparation is excluded. In a bowl with cherry plum, pour water until blisters appear on the surface. Then the plant together with the earthy lump is extracted outside, placed in a hole and covered with soil.
When planting several seedlings at the same time, maintain a distance of about 2.5 m between them, and leave 3–3.5 m between rows when laying a garden.
Any plum is unpretentious enough. Scythian gold is no exception. But sticking a sapling into the ground and forgetting about it, and then stably harvesting all the same will fail.
In a temperate climate, if it rains at least once a week, Scythian gold can never be watered. The soil in the near-stem circle needs additional saturation with moisture only during long droughts. In this case, the tree needs three abundant waterings per season - after the petals fall off, when the shoots stop growing and when the fruits start to turn into a characteristic bright yellow color.
If the planting pit was prepared according to the above recommendations, the following year you can do without fertilizers. Top dressing will be needed only in the second year of the seedling in the soil. It is best to alternate between natural organic and mineral fertilizers. A characteristic feature of any cherry plum - it needs little in phosphorus, but strongly - in nitrogen and potassium.
Total for the season, depending on the fertility of the soil, Scythian gold can be fed up to 5 times.
Cherry plum Golden Scythians - a relatively young variety, included in the State Register in 2005. When breeding the variety, the experience of G.V. Yeremin, a famous breeder, author of many popular varieties of stone fruit plants.
The variety was bred from a cherry plum seedling Kuban comet by means of free pollination. He is in the group of hybrids under the common name “Russian plum”, selected by crossing wild cherry plum and Chinese plum.
General characteristics and characteristics of the variety
The tree grows relatively low, on average, up to 2.5–3 m, but it has a very spreading crown, which takes a lot of space. The branches are thick, densely covered with large, elongated leaves with pointed tips. The tree blooms very abundantly with white flowers of small size.
Sort Golden Scythians different sprawling crown and lush beautiful flowering
Sort Golden Scythians refers to the early ripening. Fruits of oval-rounded shape grow rather large, their weight can reach 35 g. The yellow skin surface is dense and smooth, with a slight seam on the side. The flesh is the same color as the skin, juicy, aromatic, sweet and sour. The tasting score is 5 points out of 5. A medium-sized stone is poorly separated even from a ripe fruit.
The fruits of the cherry plum Gold Scythians large, fragrant and very tasty
Features of growing
Sort Golden Scythians was bred with the characteristics of our climate, so undemanding.
Cherry plum, grown in a temperate climate, does not need additional watering. But in the hot summer with a long drought or in the southern regions will require additional soil moisture. It is carried out in 3 stages:
- after flowering,
- after the shoots stop their growth,
- when the fruit turns yellow.
Watering cherry plum produced in pristvolnuyu hole
Watering each tree requires 50–60 liters of distilled water.
For Zlata Scythians, it is recommended to use the sparsely-layered crown form. For this pruning is carried out in the first 5 years after the tree is planted. In the following years, only anti-aging and health-improving measures will be required.
Crown cherry plum can be formed in a sparsely-tiered type or in the form of a bowl, the main thing is to prevent the crown from thickening
Pruning should be carried out in the spring, before the buds begin to swell, but it is possible in the fall, after the leaves fall:
- In the year of planting, start crown formation with pruning of the central shoot at a level of 0.6–0.7 m from the soil. 3-4 shorten the most developed branches by 15 cm, cut all other branches.
- The following year, from the shoots, which were formed above the remaining after last year's pruning, leave also 3-4 branches, shortening them by several centimeters. The rest (not counting last year’s) cut to the point of growth, that is, to the place where they connect to the main branch. On the shoots of the first tier, leave 3-4 shoots.
- In the third tier should be one branch that grew from the upper bud. While it grows, cut it so that the length does not exceed 0.5 m.
Conducting sanitary pruning of an adult plant in the spring or autumn period, remove the branches that were damaged or began to dry.
For processing slices, I can advise a method known to our great-grandmothers. In ancient times, wounds on wood healed, rubbing them with leaves of garden or forest sorrel. This procedure should be carried out three times a day with an interval of 15 minutes. You can also chop the leaves of sorrel or grind into a mush, and apply a compress of this mass on the cut, leaving for 20 days. In addition, in the same way sorrel treats cicatrice. Although it is very rare in cherry plum, but the recipe may be useful when caring for other fruit trees.
Sorrel can perfectly replace garden var if it is not at hand
Video: how to trim plum
In the first year of growth just planted cherry plum does not require additional feeding, since the soil has already been fertilized. Starting next year, fertilization is recommended 2 times: in spring and autumn. This should be done at the same time as pruning:
- In spring, sprinkle a mixture of 50 g of superphosphate, 100 g of ammonium nitrate and 50 g of potassium sulfate (amount calculated per 1 m 2) evenly in a circle around the circle.
The diameter of the circle around the barrel is approximately equal to the diameter of the crown
How to protect plum from diseases and pests
Traditionally it is believed that plum is resistant to diseases and harmful insects, and prophylactic measures are usually enough. However, experience shows that the Gold Scythian variety may have little resistance to diseases, especially if there have already been recent cases of diseases in fruit plants in your area. And some pests manifest themselves only in certain periods, and they can not always be noticed in a timely manner. Therefore, it is better to carry out treatment and arrange preventive measures regularly. Just remember the important rule: treating plum with chemical means, do not use several different preparations at the same time.
For the successful rooting of the seedling, it is necessary to choose the planting time so that the tree is not affected by frost. The cherry plum can be planted both in spring (early April) and in autumn (early September). If possible, landing should be carried out on a quiet, warm day. If the seedling is bought too late in the fall, you can postpone its planting until spring, keeping the seedling in the prikopy.
A sapling placed obliquely in a small groove and covered with spruce branches can wait out the winter for spring planting.
- Once again, examine the condition of the seedling, cut off dry roots and twigs. If the tree has dried, immerse in the water with the branches for a day.
- Dip the roots in the soil talker (just before planting so that the clay does not dry up).
- Beat in the bottom of the pit support number.
- Place the seedling in a hole near the stake on a hill of nutrient mixture so that the root collar remains above the soil level.
- Fill the pit with earth, holding the tree vertically and shaking it a little so that the space between the roots is evenly filled with soil.
- Seal the ground with your foot.
- Form a hole around the trunk, protected by an earthen roller.
- Pour 3-4 buckets of water into the hole.
- Bark the surface of a circle around a layer of peat or sawdust.
Tree development depends on proper planting.
Cherry plum trees are unpretentious and require mostly regular pruning, feeding and protection from pests and diseases.
Alycha is quite drought resistant. When grown in a moderately humid climate, it can do without irrigation. In dry regions or during hot, dry weather, 3-4 irrigations per season are required. It is especially important to provide the tree with moisture at the end of flowering, after the growth of the shoots has stopped and during the period of fruit ripening. The irrigation rate is 5–6 buckets of water per 1 tree. It is advisable not to use very cold water.
The land in the tree wheel should be regularly weed free, loosen and mulch after each watering. You can use the space between the trees to grow vegetables or plant honey plants (for example, buckwheat). Хороший результат даёт искусственное задернение почвы — засевание газонной смесью. На бедных почвах вместо обычной газонной травы можно посеять клевер или люпин — эти растения обогащают почву азотом.
Задернение можно применять, когда дерево уже окрепнет и начнёт плодоносить
If the planting pit was prepared according to the rules and filled with a nutrient mixture, the tree can not be fertilized until the beginning of fruiting. Subsequently, fertilizers and fertilizing should be regular.
In the autumn, before digging up the soil (late September – early October), a layer of manure or compost (12–15 kg), superphosphate (150–200 g) and potassium salts (2 tablespoons) or ash (200–300 g ).
One of the best types of organic fertilizer is compost, which can be prepared from virtually any vegetable, herbal and other waste.
In April, before flowering begins, root dressing of ammonium nitrate and potassium salts is carried out (25g / m 2 and 35–40 g / m 2, respectively). During flowering (in May), the tree is fed with a solution of urea (at the root) at the rate of 20 g per bucket of water, consumption of 4–5 buckets per 1 tree. At the end of flowering, it is recommended to root feed with a solution of mullein, diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 3, with the addition of 5g / l of superphosphate. The norm for the tree is calculated by the number of undiluted mullein - 1.5 - 2 l / m 2.
In early June, the tree should be sprayed with a 4% urea solution.
If the soil at the site is acidic, every 4–5 years it is necessary to carry out liming by introducing solutions of lime or chalk.
Pruning of fruit trees is carried out in early spring - before bud swelling, or in autumn, after leaf fall.
Do not cut a tree during frosts - it can cause a milky luster damage!
When cutting branches into a ring, do not leave hemp - they prevent wounds from closing. All sections must be treated with a garden bar.
Formation of the crown is performed within 3-4 years, starting from the second year after planting. Most often, plum is formed in the form of a bush - it is easier to care for it, and the bush winters better.
If you want to grow cherry plum as a tree, use sparse-tiered or vazoobraznoy scheme.
Sparse-tiered crown is formed quite simply. After laying the trunk (40–60 cm), 4–5 well-developed branches are selected, evenly located on the trunk, and the remaining side shoots are removed. Get the first tier. A year later, at a height of 50–60 cm from the first tier, the second of 3 branches is laid. The third tier consists of only 1 branch, located at a distance of 50 cm from the second. When the tree reaches a height of 2.5–3 m, the central conductor is cut off.
When the tree reaches the desired height, the center conductor is cut into the skeletal branch of the upper tier
Further the annual thinning and sanitary pruning is carried out. When thinning, exercise moderation, otherwise the tree will begin to actively form new shoots to the detriment of the crop.
For plum is characterized by the formation of root shoots. To maintain high yields, shoots need to be cut 3-4 times over the summer.
If the ovary forms too much, it should be thinned. This is done twice - when the size of the cherries is reached and when the size of the fruit is doubled.
Video: yield regulation
It happens that despite thinning, tree branches bend from the abundance of fruits. In this case, use supports (poles with a fork or umbrella hangers).
Small trees can be maintained with a rope system tied to a large support stake.
Pests and diseases and their control
Scythian gold is usually resistant to disease and pest damage, especially when carrying out preventive sprays. The defeat of acacia shielding, plum moth, Californian shield, aphids, brown fruit mite helps to prevent wood treatment with 3% urea solution and Bordeaux 1% liquid (every 25-30 days after flowering), 5% carbamide and Aktelika (25% 30 days during the growing season). If the signs of the destruction of the tree still appear, you need to use the recommendations below.