The blue spruce is home to North America. In the wild, this original tree grows high in the mountains. Therefore, it is characterized by increased resistance to low temperatures and is not afraid of winds. In our country, this plant is widely used as an ornamental on the streets of cities, in parks and in homestead plots.
Depending on the variety, the blue spruce can grow to a height of 80 cm to 25 m. In the wild, these trees grow up to 40 m. The blue spruce of the blue spruce can be pyramidal or conical. The needles of most varieties are very tough. Therefore, blue spruce is often called barbed.
This plant, besides the fact that it has high decorative qualities, is also very unpretentious. This, to a large extent, determines its popularity as decorative. Caring for blue spruce is a certain complexity only in the first time after planting. In the future, no special efforts aimed at maintaining the life of a beautiful woman, you do not have to undertake. The success of growing blue spruce depends mainly on the correct choice of landing site. Most varieties do not feel too well in the shade. Some species like friable fertile soils, others can grow even on stones.
Which grade to choose
Over the years, many varieties of such plants as blue spruce have been bred. If desired, you can choose for your site as a high, with a spreading crown, and a low compact tree. The most popular varieties of domestic owners of country plots are Glauca Misty Blue, Waldburn, Montgomery and Bialobok.
Fir-tree prickly blue Glauka Misty Blue has the correct conic form of krone. Its branches grow in neat tiers. In height, this species can reach 20 m. It grows rather slowly. The krone is very thick, the needles are blue with a steel tint, and the cones are light brown. This variety looks very beautiful, which determines its high popularity.
In addition to height, the main criterion to which one pays attention when choosing a species of such a plant as spruce is prickly is the form. Blue Glauka in this regard is a very beautiful plant. Her crown has a classic pyramidal shape. Such Christmas trees, for example, traditionally are the main attribute of the New Year.
In the wild, the tree is usually quite tall (blue spruce spruce). Her varieties, bred artificially, can be quite compact. As an example, Waldburn. Fir-trees of this variety reach a height of no more than 80 cm. At the same time, they are frost-resistant and feel good in areas with a large number of stones. Best of all, trees of this variety are suitable for rock gardens. Crohn's spruce Waldburn spherical (diameter up to 1 m). The advantages of this variety, among other things, include undemanding to the composition of the soil.
Montgomery spruce blue spruce is distinguished by a cone-shaped lush crown. In height, this variety reaches 1.8 m. Montgomery is great for mixborders with shrubs. This spruce is appreciated primarily for the fact that its needles acquire a rich blue color with age.
Bialobok variety reaches a height of 2 m. It requires fertile soil. This variety is great for conifer mixborders. Bialobok also looks great in the vicinity of dwarf shrubs. In the Russian climate, the variety feels good. But starting from the third year of growth, these trees should be covered for the winter.
Spruce blue spruce: planting and care in a suburban area
There are several ways to grow these unusual conifers. As a planting material, you can use seeds, cuttings or seedlings from tubs. To get beautiful lush trees in all these cases is relatively easy. However, certain cultivation technologies will still have to be observed.
Use of seeds as planting material
When using this technology of cultivation, cones are taken from the tree of the species of interest in winter. Sprouted seeds can spruce prickly blue Misty Blue, Waldburn, Bialobok and any other varieties.
Cones of the selected species are kept in a warm place until they unfold. Then seeds are extracted from them, they are dropped in wet sand and stored in a refrigerator until spring. Then the planting material is treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and placed in the soil mixture prepared from peat and garden soil. It is necessary to deepen the seeds by 1-1.5 cm. In the next three weeks, the soil should be moistened periodically. After the seedlings grow, they are thinned.
In the garden or in the courtyard, under the Christmas trees, small holes are dug at a distance of about 25 cm from each other. Drainage is laid on their bottom. Plants set in the center and sprinkled with earth, acidified with ammonium nitrate. The second time the Christmas trees are seated in the third year of growth (at a distance of a meter).
Blue spruce spruce, the description of which was described in detail above in the article, can also be grown from a sprig if desired. The technology of planting this ornamental culture using cuttings is considered even more simple than with the use of seeds. It is necessary to take a sprig from an adult spruce, from the top, in the middle of spring. The selected cutting at the bottom is cleaned of needles and soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Next, dig a hole under it, to the bottom of which lay drainage. Sprinkle sprig first layer of soil, taken from under the coniferous tree, and then sand. Next, the cutting is plentifully watered. Top twig need to cover the film and sacking. Before rooting, the plant should be watered about 4 times a day. In winter, the stalk is covered with sawdust.
In this way, you can plant any variety. For example, it is from a sapling that spruce blue Glauca is often grown. After all, this traditional New Year tree in recent times is often sold not in a cut form, but rooted in a pot. Such planting material allows you to get a full-fledged large luxurious plant as quickly as possible. From the pot, the seedling is transferred to a pit with drainage and acidified soil. The plant should be transplanted in such a way that its root neck is located exactly on the same level as in the tub. Excessively buried, it may begin to rot. If the root collar is too high when planted, it will quickly lead to its drying. The first time after planting the plant must be pritenyat.
This is how planting of such varieties as spruce and spiny blue Misty Blue, Montgomery, Bialobok, etc. is carried out. Of course, the tree that has been adopted will have to be carefully maintained in the future - water it, fertilize it and cut it.
How to water blue spruce
At first, caring for a plant will take a lot of time. To this owner of the suburban area, who decided to plant a blue spruce, you need to be prepared. Before the year to moisten the soil under this plant should be several times a day. Also have to periodically spray the crown.
Blue spruce prickly - moisture-loving plant. Watering trees will have at least once or twice a day, morning and evening. At the same time, water should be poured not under the root, but by sprinkling. Many owners of country sites planted blue spruces in lawns. In this case, watering grass and wood can be done simultaneously. The water for firs is exceptionally warm.
How to fertilize
It is absolutely impossible to use conventional organic fertilizers for trees, especially fresh manure. They do not like these plants and an excess of fertilizing. That prickly blue spruce, which was too often fertilized in the summer, may even freeze in winter. The first five years, the trees are fed with mineral fertilizers. It is best to use for this purpose universal tools designed for coniferous plants. Not bad for Christmas trees and "Kemira Universal". Fertilizer should be applied immediately after the snow melts. The tool is scattered in a circle and slightly buried in the ground with a rake. Adults ate after 5 years of growth do not necessarily fertilize.
How to prune
Blue spruce spruce, planting and caring for which in the Russian climate is not a very complicated procedure, in most cases the crown is neat and symmetrical. However, pruning these trees in the spring to produce all the same need. They remove diseased and broken branches from the firs. Sometimes, for example, when trees are used as a hedge, a crown is produced. In this case, pruning performed in the summer, after the cessation of growth of shoots. The first time it is done some time after landing. It is advisable to produce molding up to the age of 7 years. In the autumn to perform this operation is not recommended. Otherwise, trimmed branches may freeze in winter. To form the crown is allowed only in some varieties of spruce.
Handling sections of this plant with garden pitch is optional. Spruce will emit a large amount of healing resin.
Preparing for the winter
Most varieties of blue spruce are frost resistant. Therefore, only young plants and stunted varieties should be prepared for winter. In such trees, it is desirable to press the branches to the trunk so that they are not broken by snow.
In general, the plant is very spectacular and at the same time relatively unpretentious - prickly blue spruce. The photos presented to the reader in the article clearly show the beauty of these original trees. To decorate your country plot at least with a couple of such Christmas trees is definitely worth it.
Blue spruce (it’s also prickly) - a mountain tree from the western, mountainous part of North America - it is a symbol of the states of Utah and Colorado. It grows at an altitude of 1700 - 3000 meters above sea level, mainly along rivers and streams. Under natural conditions, this tree can live up to 300 - 400, and according to some information - up to 800 years (but in our latitudes rarely longer than a century), the height of an adult plant can reach 45m, and the trunk diameter is 1.5m.
The crown of most varieties is slender, cone-shaped; in old plants it may be cylindrical. The needles are blue, with a green, bluish or silvery shade, lasts up to 4 years, 1.5 - 3 cm long, has 4 pronounced edges. The richer the blue color, the more valuable the grade. Cones from 6 to 11 cm long and 2-4 cm in diameter are painted in a red-violet hue, and as they mature and dry they become light brown. The seeds are black, 3–4 mm each, equipped with a 1–1.5 cm lionfish. The root system is loquate, not very deep, does not tolerate damage and drying out in the open air.
Blue spruce is a very hardy plant, 2 years after transplantation it is able to live independently, without the slightest care. It takes out strong winds, polluted, polluted air, drought and cold (up to -350С), and also tolerates shearing and shaping. That is why it is often used for urban greening. But in order to get such a plant, you will have to either lay out a considerable amount of money for a sapling, or sweat, growing your tree from a seed or cutting.
In addition to decorating the site, this plant will become a barometer for you - they drop before the rain, and rise before the sunny weather.
Growing conditions and care
The right choice of soil is the main condition for the successful growth of blue spruce. The main requirement for it is drainage and the absence of an alkaline reaction (ideally, it is slightly acidic). The most natural option is soil from coniferous forest, but it will need a lot (the more, the better), so this is not available to many. Alternative soil can be made up of sod (or loamy) and leafy soil, sand and peat, preferably with the addition of fallen dry needles. Regardless of the type of soil at the bottom of the planting pit, a drainage layer is necessary - at least 20 cm so that moisture does not stagnate in the soil.
Lighting is desirable bright, but partial shade is also permissible. In a dense shade, the ground will not dry out and the roots will rot. The more light will fall on the fir, the faster it will grow and the brighter will be the color of its needles and young cones.
Watering this plant is needed in arid hot summer - an average of 12 liters of water per tree every week, the water should be the same temperature as the ground (a little cooler than air). When the soil dries out too deep, beneficial fungi die, which produce nutrients for spruce. When there is an excess of moisture in the ground or in the air, the needles turn yellow and peel off, and if the moisture stays for a long time, especially at low temperatures, the roots rot and the tree dies.
Loosening the soil in the circle of the circle creates the effect of "dry irrigation", carried out to a depth of about 7 cm.
For the winter, the trunk circle can be mulched with peat - a layer of about 6 cm, which is not removed in the spring, but mixed with the ground during spring loosening. Young plants for the winter are wrapped completely - with special purchased covering material or spruce branches.
Feedings are carried out only for young trees with complex mineral fertilizers, preferably - granulated. Nitrogen and manure are not strongly recommended - they stimulate rapid growth, because of which wood does not have time to mature before winter and dies from frost.
Pruning is usually carried out only sanitary - remove dry and damaged branches, if any. Crown is formed only in the lowest growing varieties or to create a hedge - in March - April, before budding on the tips of the shoots.
If you need a transplant, it is better to spend in a period of rest, without digging the root neck into the ground. Plants that are not planted in a permanent place, it is better to surround the film - so the roots will occupy only the allocated space and they can be removed from the ground without damage.
Remember that the bare roots of blue spruce in the open air die in 15 to 20 minutes - purchase plants only with a closed root system, and replant them with an earthy clod and as quickly as possible.
The easiest and most reliable way is to purchase ready-made young tree (50 - 70 cm) in the nursery, just pay attention to the color of the needles and the packaging of the roots. Do not be confused by the asymmetry of the crown - for most varieties this is normal, it takes the form of a regular cone only in adult firs. Plants are planted in permanent places at a distance of 2 to 4 meters, into pits 50 to 70 cm deep, about 2 times the size of an earthy coma. The bottom of the pit must be drained with a layer of gravel with sand, at least 20 cm.
However, this method requires cash investment, so many people choose to grow from seed, cutting, or grafting - well, planting material is more than enough in cities due to greening services.
- Graft in spruce or splinter, in March or early July.
To do this, cut with a sharp knife for grafting annual escape with a graft and most of the rootstock:
- On the stock (well-rooted young conifers), a cross-section is made on the stem, and on the resulting “stump” a cross-cut is made with a depth of 3-6 cm.
- On the graft, they make an oblique cut, in one motion, so that there are no torn and crushed tissues, and on the stock they remove a portion of the bark (grasping a bit of wood) corresponding to the size of the cut on the graft. Sections are combined (it turns out to be cored with cadmium) and tightly fixed.
In any case, all shoots are removed from the stock, leaving only 1 - for feeding the plant before the graft takes root.
- Cuttings are taken in April - mid-May, from 5–10-year-old tree, 7–12 cm long, side escape with a “heel” - a piece of bark from the main branch. They are rooted in a greenhouse, in a sand substrate with perlite and peat, or in a layered soil: gravel on the bottom, leaf ground on top, quartz sand on top with peat at a temperature of +13 - 190С. A good result also gives soaking in water for a day, followed by rooting in the sand in the refrigerator - 10 days, the roots will be visible in about a month. The cuttings are deepened by 2 cm, at an angle of 20 to 300. Rooting takes about 2 months without chemical stimulants, and after 4 months the roots will be more than 10 cm. The first year the cuttings grow in the greenhouse, the 2nd year indoors, but without the greenhouse, with regular hardening on the street, and only in the 3rd year planted in a permanent place on the street. Rooting successfully up to about 50% of cases.
- Blue spruce seeds can also be propagated with seeds, but their germination is 30–50% and quickly decreases, and from sprouted only 10–20% of plants inherit the maternal saturated blue color of the needles. They are used freshly harvested or kept tightly closed in a refrigerator. So, if you choose this method, the procedure is as follows:
- In the autumn, cones are collected from under the city blue spruce trees. Make sure that it is not ingested by proteins and that no dust falls from it.
- Собранные шишки просушивают, например, на батарее, до тех пор, пока они не раскроются.
- Из раскрытых шишек вытрушивают семена. Крыльчатки можно обрезать – в природе они служат для распространения семян на большое расстояние, а при искусственном размножении будут только мешать.
- Подготовленные семена промыть, обработать слабым раствором марганцовки и просушить.
- Можно их сразу высеять в грунт или отложить это мероприятие до весны.
- Если посев запланирован весной, всю зиму семена хранят в тканевом мешочке в сугробе или в холодильнике (минимум 2 месяца)
- 1 - 2 days before sowing, seeds are soaked in a solution of a fungicide preparation, for a maximum of 12 hours, then dried.
- They are sown superficially on the soil, in which 25 g of ammonium per 1 m2 is added, and then they are mulched with 1–2 cm of peat mixed with dry needles or conifer sawdust. If sowing is carried out in pots, they are covered with foil.
- After about 10 days, the seeds will germinate - from this moment they are sprayed 2 times a day.
- From the grown shoots choose the bluest.
- Plants that sprung up indoors, regularly quenched outside, and planted in open ground for 2 - 3 years.
- Depending on the variety, trees reach 3-10 meters in height by the 10th year of life.
Types and varieties of blue spruce
There are about 70 varieties of this plant. All natural varieties formed without the help of breeders are grouped under the name “Glauka”. And these, and selection varieties are as medium or tall trees, and undersized - that are larger in diameter than in height.
Among the trees with a cone-shaped crown, the most popular is Hoopsii. This plant is medium height, up to 11m in height and up to 3 - 4m in diameter of the crown at the base, adds 10 - 30 cm in height and 10 - 15 cm in width, reaching 2 - 3 m by 10 years. Characterized by the most intense blue hue of needles, which persists throughout the year. The needles are slightly curved, saber.
The Iseli Fastigata variety, with a narrowly conic crown, resembling a cypress, and the branches pointing upwards, is original. It grows quickly, reaches 10 meters in height by 10 years. A nice bonus of this variety is drought tolerance.
Also popular are Glauka Pendula, Misty Blue (by the age of 15, only 5–7m tall), Filip’s Blue Compact (with shiny needles).
Among the dwarf varieties are popular:
- Glauca Globosa - the crown is dense, at 1 m in height it reaches 1.5 m in diameter, needles are short - about 1 cm, sickle-shaped, the annual growth is 5 - 10 cm in height and width,
- Glauca Procumbens bush with a very uneven crown, protruding branches,
- Glauca Prostrata - with a height of only 40 cm, the diameter of the crown can be up to 2 m - like a thick pillow lying on the ground,
- Frieda - also has a crown diameter exceeding the height,
- Hermann Naue is a slow-growing variety with a dense, flattened-spherical crown, in old plants it is a broad cone-shaped. By the age of 10 it reaches only 60 cm in height and 80 cm in diameter, and the maximum diameter of the crown is 1.5 m
- Koster is a very original variety with weeping branches, sometimes the T-shaped tip of the trunk (as in Karelian birch) is bare at the top. With a maximum height of 10 - 15m, the diameter of the crown can be up to 5m.
Diseases and pests
Diseases affect mostly young, weakened spruce. At risk, all plants are the first 2 years after transplantation, as well as those that grow too close to each other, with a lack of lighting or an excess of moisture. For prevention, fertilizers are used with microelements, immunostimulants, as well as preparations containing copper.
Most often blue spruce suffer from such fungal diseases:
- Rust needles or cones - pads are formed with red powder spore fungus. They completely repaint needles (in spring) or form on the inside of the lobes of the cones, which hang for a long time open on the tree.
- Shnotte - needles become black or brown, and in spring those needles that were damaged last year turn white.
- Tracheomycotic wilt of spruce - as a result of the decay of the roots, the needles redden, turn brown and crumble, the tree perishes. Most often develops with prolonged stagnation of moisture in the soil, especially at low temperatures.
- Necrosis of the bark - the bark darkens, dries, exfoliates, growths or pads are formed on it with fungal spores.
- Ulcer cancer - open ulcers on the trunk, from which oozing resin, or closed - resin blisters.
Treatment: From the infected trees remove all damaged parts, cut and saw cuts are treated with garden pitch and watered under the root with a solution of fungicidal preparations.
With the needles of insects and pests of bark and wood they fight with the help of Karbofos, Rogor and Detis.
Blue spruce: species and varieties. A photo
Blue spruces are popular with modern gardeners About the rest - also blue - relatives ate talk next time. So, blue spruce. Usually they are green, but some species of spruce and pseudo-tosug have blue forms, occasionally found in nature. They are particularly welcome in ornamental gardening. And some species of fir can boast a bluish color as a characteristic feature. This shade gives the needles an excess layer of wax, always covering it to one degree or another. In some cases, this symptom is due to bright stripes - places where stomata accumulate (breathing holes) that stretch along the needle.
Spruce is prickly, cultivar 'Glauca Globosa' What color is considered to be blue is a personal matter. In the botanical descriptions appear forms:
- glauca - gray,
- coerulea - blue,
- argentea - silver.
Spruce bark Spruce spiny (P. pungens) is really prickly. Its branches are bristled with hard, pointed needles 2-3 cm long. The cone is of the same shape as that of the spruce of the ordinary, but somewhat smaller, and its scales are lighter, thinner and wavy. It inhabits the western states of the USA - Colorado and Wyoming. The blue form of this spruce occupies the No. 1 post in our country - at the walls of the Moscow Kremlin. In general, this spruce is the most common in urban gardening. Squares, boulevards of many cities (especially the front doors, at government offices) are decorated with slender rows of blue pyramids. The dominance of these purebred Americans in strategic places is not an ideological diversion. Their mission is extremely humane. The fact is that prickly spruce is very resistant to urban conditions: gas pollution, pollution and soil compaction, and who else can be entrusted with such dangerous tasks for coniferous as gardening streets and squares.
Spruce spiny, variety 'Koster' Spruce spiny introduced into culture in 1862, and since then, nurseries from different countries are engaged in breeding geometrically correct and unpretentious pyramid varieties for urban gardening and the selection of all sorts of curiosities for private traders. Special attention is paid to the blue form.
Of the more or less large “urban” varieties, you can call 'Hoto', which is well grafted, 'Hoopsii' is very blue, but badly grafted, while the popular one is 'Koster'. Other varieties of this group are 'Oldenburg', 'Omega', 'Moerheimii', 'Snowkist', 'Thomsen'.
Spruce spruce, grade 'Hoopsii'
Of the original low forms, we often sell 'Glauca Globosa', a “slow” variety of flattened shape. The rest for some reason more rare, although they displayed a lot. Among them: 'Montgomery' - with the shape of the crown in the form of a regular hemisphere with a central leader, 'Gloria', 'Jean Iseli', 'St. Mary ',' Thume '- with a shapeless crown,' Furst Bismarck '- with outstretched branches and strongly blue needles,' Glauca Prostrata '- with an open crown in the shape of a wave,' Glauca Procumbens' - with a creeping crown, 'Glauca Pendula' - with irregular hanging branches, 'Blue Totem' and 'Iseli Fastigiate' - with sticking up branches forming a narrow crown like a flame tongue, 'Copeland' - with a weak, crooked, like a beaten wind, pyramid crown, 'Fat Albert' - strongly prickly, snooty variety with good growth.
El Engelman (P. engelmannii) is similar to her countrywoman Spruce Prickly. Differs pubescent young shoots, softer needles and small buds. Despite the wide natural range, it is cultivated much less frequently and has few decorative forms. This is an industrial tree for wood and resin. Yet sometimes it is grown and its blue form. Spruce Canadian, it is gray (P. glauca). Permanent residence - Canada and the north of the United States. A dense crown, bluish leaves and a small (3.5-5 cm) lump with thin wavy rounded scales immediately distinguish it from the common spruce. Has in the nature both bluish-green, and blue forms.
Canadian Spruce, cultivar 'Blue Wonder'
Its dwarf varieties became widespread. 'Alberta Blue' - a mutation of the famous variety 'Conica'. 'Arneson's Blue Variegated' - the same, but only individual branches have turned blue, prone to reversions. 'Blue Wonder' and 'Sanders Blue' are small pyramids. 'Blue Planet' - a dense ball with sticking out branches, in other words, a hedgehog. 'Coerulea' is a silver slowly growing variety, but in shape it is a Christmas tree. In these varieties, the blue hue is most pronounced, but many others have it to some extent as a species trait, i.e. A characteristic of this ate from nature.
Black spruce (P. mariana) from Canada and northern United States. Very slender Christmas tree with thin hanging branches and irregular crown. The needles are blunt, dark with a bluish tint, light stomatal stripes are particularly wide on the upper (facing the branch) side. Cones are very small (up to 3.5 cm), dark purple before maturation. Dense dwarf varieties with perfectly covered short sprigs have an exaggerated blue tint due to stomatal strips, clearly visible on the short, short needles: 'Beissneri', 'Doumettii', 'Ericoides', finally, 'Nana' is an old variety that includes more than one clone . Sitkhinskaya spruce (P. sitchensis) is found in western North America. Long (up to 2.5 cm) very spiky needles flattened. From above, they silver from stomatal stripes, but the shiny bright green underside is better visible. Pretty dwarf varieties are grown - witch brooms with disheveled needles: 'Nana', 'Papoose', 'Renken', 'Siberzwerg', 'Strypemonde'.
El Sitka The Serb El (P. omorica), which lives in the mountains of Yugoslavia, is dressed in flat needles of the same color — day-and-night, but it is not so prickly and shorter. A narrow dense spruce, beautiful in itself, has many dwarf varieties - pyramids and balls. Interesting, for example, is the shimmering 'Treblitzsch', which shows both sides of the needles: both silver and green.
Serbian spruce Siberian spruce (P. obovata) looks like a regular Christmas tree of the European part of Russia (P. abies). Differs in inconspicuous pubescence of young shoots and smooth, indented edge of the conical scale. But, as the poet said, face to face - not to see the face. These trees are well distinguished at a distance. The Siberian is the most important breed in the dark coniferous taiga covering large areas of Siberia (as well as the north of European Russia), and the passage through the Urals is marked by a change of Christmas trees. Crossing it from west to east, one can observe how wide razlapistye triangles of the usual spruce are gradually replaced by narrow taut peaks of Siberian spruce.
And that's what's interesting. If the usual blue spruce forms are not marked, then the Siberian ones have it. Moreover, besides the variety 'Glauca', it is also listed as 'Coerulea', but they differ from the usual green form only in color.
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Description and varieties of prickly spruce
All varieties of prickly spruce are most often used by landscape designers for landscaping. These trees have the following general characteristics:
- pyramidal shape
- the crown of the tree is lowered down, well giving in to a haircut
- thorny spruce needles are sharp, can have a shade of green, blue, gray and even practical white.
This plant loves light, but even in the shade it will be nice to grow, but the color intensity will not be so pronounced. Barbed spruce tolerates winter and other weather conditions, it requires moderate moisture and loose soil.
Consider the most famous varieties of spiny spruce:
- spruce blue spruce (aka Glauka) - a distinctive feature of the variety is the needles of a gray-green hue,
- dwarf blue spruce Glauca globosa - a miniature version of the previous variety, has a wide conical or spherical crown, grows by about 10 cm in width and height per year, the average height is about 2 meters,
- the Iseli Fastigiata variety is characterized by a narrowly conical crown shape, and the branches of the plant grow up almost vertically, has blue needles. By the age of ten, he grows an average of 10 meters,
- Hoopsii - this variety is spruce sternner, with bright blue needles, grows up to 11 meters on average.
Planting and tree care
Planting blue spruce is carried out taking into account how many plants you plan to plant. If there are several of them, then you need to keep at a distance of at least 2-3 meters between them. Landing conditions are as follows:
- recommended landing depth is 50-70 cm,
- the planting pit should have a diameter of about 50 cm larger than the diameter of the container where the plant was located before,
- at the bottom of this pit and in the gap between its edges and the earthy clod, pour the mixture consisting of four parts of the soil, two parts of peat and half of the sand.
Caring for a young blue spruce at the age of several years and less is no different from caring for seedlings, but in the future it will change.
Saplings of different varieties at the age of one year need abundant watering. So, water is brought in small portions 5-7 times a day, but so that the soil does not dry up, and the roots of the plants regularly have water. But in a large volume of water is not needed, because at this age, the plant roots are almost on the surface, and excess water will only interfere.
But trees from a year old and older need to be watered less often, no more than twice a day. In addition, be sure to control the soil moisture, mulch pristvolny circles, or sow them thick grass. Still blue spruces need sprinkling with warm water and spraying that moisturizes them and washes away dust from them.
At that age, when the seedling begins to turn into an adult tree, it is necessary to provide him with sufficient watering. Water is better not to regret. Like other plants in the garden, trees can be moistened with irrigation or a drip irrigation system.
But in adulthood, a spruce can in the summer in the absence of drought to withstand up to two weeks without any watering.
As for feeding, many people refuse from them at all, although later they state the fact that the plant does not grow up to 5 years old. After this period, the blue spruce gradually begins to grow, in subsequent years the tree during the year is able to gain from 40 to 70 centimeters. If you do not overdo it with additional feedings, then in a few years the tree will stop growing and the tree will have an attractive decorative appearance.
There is also a theory from some gardeners that top dressing can be harmful and can cause mutations, for example, the transformation of the side branches into stem ones, as a result of which the plant begins to grow sideways, not upwards.
Top dressing is not recommended to bring in the fall, otherwise the spruce can not move the winter. Top dressing is best done in early summer or in spring in small doses.
Manure and nitrogen fertilizers, which have a negative effect on the plant, are strictly prohibited. However, universal fertilizers within reasonable limits are quite acceptable.
Features trimming and crown formation
If we talk about such a part of care as feeding, then blue spruces do not need systematic pruning, since the crown can form itself. However, pay attention to the plant at least once a year, if necessary, removing broken and diseased branches, as well as yellow ones. All of them have a negative impact not only on the appearance of the tree, but also its development.
If you want to participate in the formation of the crown and control the growth of the tree, then it is better to do it up to 7-8 years old, but then let it develop independently.
Key points in the care of the plant
The following is added to the main aspects of caring for blue spruces:
- This plant has a high decorative effect. It is very fond of shade, tolerates winter and drought well, but still likes to be watered in time,
- this tree grows slowly, too private feeding is not needed, there are enough of them in small doses and only in spring,
- for planting this tree need a moist and rich soil, but dry and calcareous soils are poorly suited,
- late frosts can negatively affect young plants,
- the fastest growing plant is propagating through cutting, but only under certain conditions,
- in order for the tree to have an attractive appearance, spraying needs to be done; sprinkling is also recommended.
North America is considered to be the original site of blue spruce growth.
The original place of growth of blue spruce is considered to be North America. In nature, the place of growth of this tree is the highlands, which is why it is well adapted to low temperatures and gusty winds. In Russia, this type of tree is widely used as an ornamental.
The popularity of blue spruce has won not only because of its beauty, but also unpretentious care.
The main difficulty arises only at the very beginning of the growth of the tree. Further, it practically does not require human intervention. The key to good growth is competent determination of the landing site. Almost all varieties of blue spruce do not like shady areas, some like loose soil, and several varieties can grow even in rocky areas.
This variety is characterized by a conical crown, long barrel. It grows slowly, about 15 centimeters per year. Mature trees reach seven meters.
There are many varieties of blue spruce
Low spruce with good frost resistance. Most often they are planted in stone gardens. Форма кроны шаровидная диаметром до одного метра.
Максимальная высота этого сорта голубых елей два метра. Крона растет неравномерно, ветви короткие и жесткие. У молодых деревьев побеги имеют золотистый окрас, который очень любят использовать ландшафтные дизайнеры.
The peculiarity of the variety is the pillow crown, which acquires the appearance of a cone over time. Trees grow no more than two meters high and grows extremely slowly. The younger the tree, the brighter the needles.
In seedlings, the color is closer to silver than blue. This variety is very susceptible to care and without proper treatment quickly loses its decorative effect.
Glauka Misty Blue
The crown has a regular conical shape with neat tiers of branches. Trees tall reaching twenty meters in height.
The main feature of this variety is the golden color of the needles of young trees. Crohn thick. The branches grow horizontally and in large numbers. Frost-resistant variety who loves the bright sun.
There is a dutch blue spruce variety
Dutch blue spruce variety with pyramidal crown shape. This variety is expensive. It grows slowly, but reaches ten meters in height. The girth of the crown of an adult tree reaches 3-4 meters.
Trees of this variety have a conical crown shape and reach four meters in height. Growth is fast. It can be planted both separately and as part of a group of trees. He loves the sun and does not tolerate swampy soil.
Suitable for growing exclusively in the garden. The branches of the tree are evenly spaced and form a beautiful crown. The width of the crown of an adult tree reaches four meters. The tree grows relatively quickly adding 10-20 centimeters per year.
Trees have a compact conical crown. The height of adult spruce trees reaches 7-8 meters. The branches are arranged in right tiers and form a crown from the very base. Unpretentious to the conditions of growth, but feels best in wet sunny areas.
Many of the species have a beautiful crown.
It belongs to the class of Canadian blue firs. Every year the tree grows by 10 centimeters and reaches a maximum height of 2 meters. The crown of the tree is lush and soft forming a cone. He loves the sun's rays, but is prone to spring sunburn.
Tree with a straight trunk and a cone-shaped crown. It belongs to the dwarf class and reaches a maximum height of half a meter. Frost tolerance and drought tolerance are good. Propagated mainly by seeds and blackberries.
Strongly growing tree of narrowly conical shape. Differs in uneven growth, for the year the tree adds 10-15 centimeters and reaches a maximum height of ten meters. Color needles the same year-round. The needles are 30mm long and are attached to each other.
The branches are short and grow horizontally. It is preferable to plant this variety in fertile soil. Excess like lack of moisture is bad for tree growth. It can grow in the shade, but the sun has a positive effect on the overall dynamics and appearance of the tree. It is frost-resistant. However, at an early age requires increased attention and care.
When choosing a tree in addition to height, it is customary to pay attention to the form. The classic pyramid shape looks very aesthetic and beautiful.
We plant and care for blue spruce
You can start growing spruce on your own plot in several ways:
- Plant seeds,
- Plant cuttings,
- Use seedlings.
You can start growing spruce on your own plot in three ways.
With any method, to grow a beautiful tree is not difficult, but a certain order of action still needs to be followed.
The seeds should be collected from the cones of the variety of interest in winter. Next, you need to store the collected cones in a warm place until their disclosure. When the lump is uncovered, remove the seeds, dig into the wet sand and leave in the fridge until spring. At the time of planting, treat the seeds with a solution of potassium permanganate and plant in the soil from a mixture of peat and garden soil. Deepen the seeds should be no more than 1-2 cm. Further, until the moment of emergence, it is necessary to water the soil abundantly.
At the site, dig holes about 30 centimeters apart and lay drainage to the bottom. The next time you need to transplant spruce in the third year of growth and plant them at a distance of one meter.
The method of growing a new tree from a branch of a vending variety is considered even simpler than growing seeds. Suitable branches of adult firs collected from the top in springtime. Peel the stalks and soak them in the manganese solution. Further, the procedure is similar to planting seeds: a hole is dug, a drainage is laid. Sprinkle with a sprig must first be primed, and the top to add sand.
Liberally pour and cover the cuttings with foil or burlap. To accelerate growth - water the cutting four times a day. In winter, arrange cuttings with sawdust.
At the time of transplanting the seedling from the pot into the open soil, it is worth paying attention to the location of the root collar.
You can use this method of planting with any varieties of blue spruce. In this way it is possible to get a luxurious tree as soon as possible.
At the time of transplanting the seedling from the pot into the open soil, it is worth paying attention to the location of the root collar. It should remain at the same level as in the pot. Although blue spruces love the sun, for the first time after planting it is advisable to keep seedlings in the shade.
Watering blue spruce
Initially, care takes time and effort. It is necessary to water the plant every day and regularly spray the crown of the tree.
Blue spruce moisture-loving plants, who love abundant watering at least twice a day. In the morning and in the evening. Watering is necessary sprinkling method. When planting spruce on the lawn, you can combine watering cycles. Use only warm water.
We fertilize the soil
It is not recommended to take organic matter as a fertilizer. Also, spruces negatively relate to an overabundance of dressings. If you have fertilized spruce heavily in the summer, in winter it is at greater risk of freezing. For the first five years, the trees are fed with mineral fertilizers.
One of the proven means of fertilizer can be called "Kemira wagon."
It is necessary to start the fertilizer process immediately after the snow has melted. Fall asleep fertilizer in pristvolny circle and lightly tamped into the ground. Trees older than five years do not need fertilizer.
We perform pruning spruce
In the Russian climatic zone, the crowns of fir trees are usually neat and symmetrical in themselves. The pruning procedure is still carried out - the diseased and broken branches are removed.
When crown trees are formed from spruce trees, a hedge is formed. Pruning is done in the summer, after the shoot growth has ended. Initial pruning is done almost immediately after disembarkation.
Formation of the crown is possible during the first seven years.
Formation of the crown is possible during the first seven years, then this process will be inexpedient. Do not prune trees in the fall; this can lead to freezing of pruned branches.
Also, it is not necessary to treat the cut-off sites with a healing pitch. Wood releases a sufficient amount of resin.
Preparing the blue spruce for winter
Almost all blue varieties are cold-resistant. Prepare for winter is necessary in the presence of young trees and short growing varieties. It is necessary to press the branches against the tree trunk to prevent them from breaking by the snow mass.
The use of blue spruce trees as ornamental is an inexpensive alternative to other ornamental trees. Ate perfectly fit into the landscape design, can be planted as a whole group or one by one. Some varieties look advantageous as a hedge.
If you intend to independently grow blue spruce, then difficulties will arise only at the initial stage of cultivation. In the future, blue spruces do not require careful maintenance and it is only necessary to treat them with fungicides and insecticides to protect against fungal diseases and insects.
While watching the video you will learn about growing blue spruce.
Summing up, we can say that blue spruce is a spectacular and unpretentious plant that is ideal for growing in Russian climatic conditions. Definitely worth planting a couple of three of these trees in their suburban area, because planting blue spruce in your area, you emphasize the sophistication and sophistication of your garden.
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Features of planting and care
Planting seedlings from the forest and ornamental trees are almost the same. It is very important not to overdry the roots before planting, since they can die in just 15-20 minutes when exposed to air. That is why they should be reliably protected from wind and sun. When buying a sapling of spruce of any kind, be sure to close the roots or put it in some kind of container. These plants don't like water stagnationaccordingly, drainage is required. Must be loose soil and light.
Spruce of any variety can breed in two ways:
However, experienced specialists can even graft cuttings on winter-hard rootstocks of other conifers. But if you plan to sow with the use of seeds, they must be freshly harvested, because their germination can be lost in just one year. Germination can be extended even by 15 years, but for this you should keep the seeds tightly at a temperature of 0 - 5 degrees. For spring sowing recommended temperature is 3-5 degrees. Seeds before sowing need to perelozhit wet substrate in the ratio of one to three and insist about three months.
Blue Spruce Varieties
This wonderful tree belongs to the pine family. There are a large number of species of spruce, differing in the color of needles, height and difference of forms. However, the blue Christmas tree attracts special attention and awakens interest among gardeners because of its unusual and fascinating appearance.
It is worth considering the most common types of blue spruce, a description of which can be found in the special literature. They represented by the following species:
- Glauca is a natural variety not subject to selection. The crown is cone-shaped, the color is represented by various shades of blue. The average annual increase is about 30 cm.
- Glauca globosa is a miniature variety, the crown is represented by a spherical shape, the annual growth is 10 cm. The adult plant is not high, about 2 m.
- Iseli Fastigiata - the shape of the crown resembles a narrow cone, the branches have a vertical direction (akin to poplar), blue needles. It grows quite quickly, unlike other species, at the age of ten its height is 10 m.
- Hoopsii - spruce of medium size, up to 11 m high, has dense needles of rich bright blue color.
- Bialobok is small (up to 2 meters), the crown is uneven. A characteristic feature is the golden hue of young shoots. It is planted only in a sunny place: in the shade the color disappears.
- Blue Perl is also small. At the age of 10 years, its height reaches only 40−60 cm. Crohn is rounded, very dense.
- Alberta Globe - refers to the varieties of dwarf blue spruce trees, reaches a height of 1 m, for the year it grows up to 2 cm. It has thin short shoots and a very beautiful soft and thick needles. Prefers moderate moistening, it is frost-resistant.
They ate propagated by seedlings as well as seeds. Also experienced gardeners Graft on cold-resistant stock another conifer.
When sowing seeds, it is necessary to take freshly harvested ones, since during the year their ability to germinate is lost. It can be extended up to 15 years when storing seeds with the observance of temperature from 0 to +5 ° C in an airtight place. When sowing in spring, the acceptable temperature is 3–5 ° C. Before direct sowing into the soil, the seeds are mixed with a moist substrate 1: 3 and infused for 1-3 months.
Blue spruce is very popular among gardeners. Planting and caring for her, however, requires some knowledge, and you also need to make an effort and have patience in this difficult task.
Many wonder whether it is possible to plant conifers on their own land, as well as how to grow spruce. The blue Christmas tree does not differ from other decorative forms of seedlings in the way of planting. the main condition is to preserve the root system from drying out, since open roots die within 15–20 minutes. You should also protect them from exposure to wind and sun. The roots of the seedling must be wrapped or placed in a container.
They also prefer light, loose soils and loams, stagnant water is contraindicated. In this regard, the soil should be well drained.
Features of landing:
- large spruces need to be planted in winter,
- the pit should be between 50 and 70 cm deep
- between tall trees the distance should be at least 2−3 meters,
- around the trunk, the soil should be sufficiently loose, and its composition should contain soddy deciduous soil, as well as sand and peat,
- the drainage system should be about 20 cm thick, it is possible to use fine gravel and sand,
- The introduction of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers after planting has a positive effect on the development of the plant. Also, when planting in a pit, it is recommended to add a layer of earth along with fir needles from the place where the spruce grew.
When planting young seedlings of this beautiful tree must also be observed Some mandatory conditions:
- Choose a landing for a well-lit place. Although the spruce is a shade-tolerant tree, the blue spruce requires sunlight, because in the shade their color becomes less bright, and the crown is loose.
- Specimens suitable for planting are grown for at least the last six months in a container, and their root system is strong and ready for transplant.
- It is preferable to choose a sapling at the age of 3-5 years, since the tree is already quite strong, it is easier to adapt to the surrounding conditions and is ready to decorate the plot with it.
- At the landing site should not be weeds, and the landing hole is to dig a little more than the volume of the root system of the tree. This is due to the fact that young roots will be easier to make their way into the soft earth.
- After removing the seedling from the container, it is necessary to pour a little soil from it to the bottom of the pit.
- It is necessary to place the seedling in the pit so that the ground levels coincide. With excessive deepening or, conversely, landing the root system suffers above the level, and the tree may die.
- Place around the seedling sprinkled with earth and carefully tamped in order to avoid air access to the roots.
- Immediately after planting, spruce need to be watered well, then it will be easier for the roots to penetrate the soil.
If the tree is transplanted not from a container, then it is better to carry out this process in early spring, until the plant begins to actively grow. After frosts and thawing of the earth, a sapling is dug together with a clod of soil and transplanted. As already mentioned, it is important not to overdry the roots, so the spruce seedlings are always sold with closed roots. They are wrapped with earth or put in a container.
Required tree care
Young seedlings are very whimsical and, if not properly cared for, can quickly die. Adult trees do not need care.
If the summer is hot and dry, young plants should be watered at least once a week at the rate of 12 liters of water per spruce. The barbed beauty will also undoubtedly benefit from loosening the earth to a depth of 7 cm and sprinkling the tree trunk with a peat layer about 6 cm thick. In spring, peat is mixed with the earth during loosening. Useful for young firs and fertilizing with mineral fertilizers.
Heavy snow can break fragile young twigs. Before the onset of cold weather, they are pulled up to the trunk and tied with a rope or net. It is necessary to cover the tree with the spruce from late interseasonal frosts, since the needles of young seedlings do not tolerate low temperatures.
Sunburn can cause great damage to the plant. Its needles on the south side may turn yellow, after which it will fall down. To prevent such damage, the spruce for the winter in the first years of life is hidden under a special covering material: cotton cloth or agrofibre.
Spruce in pruning rarely needs, mainly in cases where it is planted as a living decorative hedge.
A wide variety of blue spruces allows for a wide choice of specimens for the backyard plot. You can always find the most suitable view that is perfect. fit into landscape design.
The variety of shades of needles and tree forms will help in creating a beautiful composition. You can use several types of these conifers, as well as plant a magnificent hedge, which for many years will please the eye.
Description of conifer
The blue spruce is a slow-growing perennial coniferous representative. Of the features include the following:
- According to statistical data, about 70 species of conifers with blue needles and of different height are derived. Usually, under the blue spruce mean prickly, which in our region reaches a height of 15 m. Its crown grows to 6−8 m in diameter. In the natural range there are trees 3 times more.
- Depending on the variety, the color of the needles varies: from saturated blue to gray-green. У молодого растения шишки ярко-красного или фиолетового цвета, у взрослого — коричневые.
- Повышенная стойкость к сильным ветрам, засухе и низким температурам, позволяет выращивать подобный тип деревьев в России.
Ели часто выращивают в городских парках и аллеях, так как она мало подвержена воздействию атмосферных загрязнений.
Как посадить голубую ель
Эти элитные растения предпочитают освещённые площадки, хотя и терпимо относятся к тени. The only thing is that without the access of light, the decorative characteristics deteriorate a little: the color loses its brightness, and the crown acquires friability. There are no special requirements for soil, as well as for humidity.
It is advisable to purchase seedlings at the age of 2−3 years and from the container. Thus, you will not have to wait long for the tree to grow. And finding all this time in a separate container will allow the plant to quickly acclimatize to a new place.
Future landing site ate cleared of debris and weeds, loosen the earth a little. Pit drip more so that the root system was comfortable. The seedling is removed and shaken off the ground. At the bottom of the hole poured a little native soil, transplanted there sprout. Strong deepening is not required, it can only harm.
Having filled up the remaining space with earth, it is well tamped. This is to prevent oxygen from reaching the roots. Carry out abundant watering, helping the root system to quickly deal and settle down. The main thing is that all manipulations should be carried out as soon as possible, since the roots in the fresh air quickly perish.
Planting trees is recommended in the spring. If this is done in the fall, the tree will not have time to adapt before the winter frosts.
Terms of care
Young seedlings are very sensitive to any changes and need special care. Agricultural technology includes the following steps:
- Watering. Young roots are very weak and lie close to the surface, so that when dry weather absorbs a lot of moisture. Watering is carried out 1 time per week, one bucket of water for each unit. Monitor the condition of the soil, not allowing the top layer to dry. For better retention of moisture, the root part is mulched.
- Caring for the soil. It is recommended in the first years of life not to loosen, which can lead to damage to the roots. The tree is left for two years alone, only watered and mulch with humus. Adults, in general, do not need feeding, and fertilizers are introduced to young ones.
- Crop. To give a certain form, it is necessary to do cutting of extra branches once a year. This should be done when all the needles are fully cracked and the annual growth has stopped. To remove the extra tops, unnecessary twigs pinch and twist. In the future, they will no longer grow high, but will begin to branch along the sides.
In winter, blue spruce threatens: breaking off branches and sunburns from sunburn. To under the weight of snow fragile twigs did not break, they are tied to the trunk. From burns the needles turn yellow and crumble. Protect it with the help of covering material. This is all about young plants. For adults, no protection is required.
Varieties of blue firs
The blue spruce is an evergreen conifer, the color of the needles varies from bright blue to grayish green. Young bumps are purple or red, then turn brown.
The tree easily carries drought, frost and wind. Urban dust and exhaust gases also do not harm the health of the plant. This allows you to grow spruce in various parts of the country and use for planting greenery in the city.
There are about 70 species of these trees. All natural varieties that have been formed without breeding are united by the common name Glauka. Fir trees are both high and dwarf, in which the diameter exceeds the height.
Of the varieties with a cone-shaped crown, Hoopsii is the most common. This tree grows up to 11 m in length and up to 4 m in width at the base. The height of the blue spruce to the age of ten reaches 2−3 meters in height. The needles are slightly curved, saturated with blue.
Unusual species resembling cypress, different grade IsseliFastigata, with a narrow cone crown and branches growing upwards. Resistant to drought, by 10 years grows to 10 meters.
Of the dwarf varieties most popular:
- Glauca Globosa - blue spruce, which height is 1 m, diameter - 1.5 m, has short needles about 1 cm in length.
- Glauca Prostrata - crown spread on the ground: with a height of 40 cm, its diameter can reach 2 m.
- Frieda - diameter also exceeds height.
- Glauca Procumbens - the original blue spruce, the description sounds like a bush with disheveled crown and protruding branches.
- Hermann Naue is a variety with a compacted crown in the form of a flattened ball in young plants and a wide cone in older plants. Refers to slow-growing, by 10 years old blue spruce in height reaches 60 cm, and in width - 80 cm with a maximum value of 1.5 m.
- Koster - has weeping branches, the top of the trunk is bare. The tree grows to 10−15 m, the width of the crown reaches 5 m.
The easiest way to buy a young tree (50−70 cm). Need to pay attention on the shade of pine needles and packing roots. Crown irregularity is present in many varieties and is corrected at a more mature age. Plants are planted immediately to a permanent place, between them maintain a distance of 2−4 meters. The depth of the pit should be 50−70 cm. At the bottom lay a mixture of sand and gravel with a layer of at least 20 cm.
This method requires material costs, so many people prefer to grow a Christmas tree from seed, cuttings, or branches left after grafting.
Breeding of spruce seeds also practiced, but germination is 30−50% and only 10−20% of seedlings adopt the blue color of the needles. Fresh cones are collected for seed production., dried until they open. Remove the seeds, washed first with water, then with a weak solution of manganese, dried. Impellers can be removed, with artificial breeding they are not necessary.
Seeds are planted immediately or placed in a cloth bag and stored in a refrigerator until spring. Before sowing, the seeds are kept in a solution of the fungicidal drug for up to 12 hours, dried. Sown, distributing over the surface of the soil, to which is added 25 g of ammophoska per 1 sq. Km. m, mulch layer of peat with pine sawdust or dry needles with a thickness of 1-2 cm. If planted in pots, then cover with foil.
After 10 days, when the seeds germinate, they are sprayed twice a day. From sprouts leave the bluest. Indoor seedlings are periodically quenched in fresh air, and planted for 2–3 years in the ground. By the tenth year of life, trees grow to 3−10 meters depending on the variety.
Division of Christmas trees by cutting
Cuttings are cut from a tree aged 5–10 years from April to mid-May. Take a branch with a length of 7−12 cm with a piece of bark at the base. Rooting takes place in a greenhouse, in a mixture of sand with peat or perlite or multi-layered soil: gravel is at the bottom, leaf soil is put on it, and quartz sand mixed with peat on top. The cuttings are planted at an angle of 20−30 degrees, buried in the soil by 2 cm.
Without the use of growth stimulants rooting occurs after 2 months, takes about half of the seedlings.
The first year the plant should be in greenhouse conditions. Then it can be brought home and regularly hardened outside. In the third year, the spruce is placed on a permanent place in the open ground.
Peculiarities of care
Tree saplings are fastidious to care. Without proper attention, they can start to wither and die. To avoid this, you must follow a number of rules:
- Caring for the soil. In the process of loosening the soil and getting rid of weeds can not go deep by more than 7 cm, otherwise the roots of spruce can be damaged. Some gardeners advise you not to disturb the tree at all, allowing it to grow in the grass. Adults ate fertilizers do not need, seedlings need mineral supplements.
- Watering. In dry weather, young trees are watered once a week in one bucket. Their roots are close to the surface, so the ground should not dry out. To keep moisture better, the soil is mulched. Plants useful spraying.
- Formation of the crown. Spruce is often used as a hedge. In this case, pruning is done. It is necessary to start the procedure after the end of the annual increment, when the young needles have finished. Protruding beyond the boundaries of the required shape, the shoots pinch and carefully “unscrew”. Next season, these branches will grow sideways. Trimming also improves the apex shape. The crown of the spruce can be double or even triple, the excess ends are pinched for a more aesthetic look.
- Preparing for the winter. In the cold season, young spruces can break under the weight of snow. To avoid this, in the fall their branches pull up to the trunk and fix with a rope or net. Severe damage to the plant is caused by sunburn. The southern side of the tree may turn yellow and crumble. For protection, seedlings in the first years of life are covered for the winter with agrofibre or cotton fabric.
Many varieties of blue spruce have been developed. Trees differ by wide crown, growth rate, shape. Among the most popular:
- "Glauca Misty Blue" - grows slowly, reaches a height of 40 m. It has a dense crown, conical shape, light brown cones.
- "Montgomery" reaches a height of 1.8 m, has a cone-shaped lush crown. With age, the needles acquire a rich shade closer to blue, so the variety is valued for its decorative effect.
- "Bialobok" in height reaches 2 m, requires planting in fertile soil. It winters well at low temperatures, but seedlings after 3 years should be covered additionally.
- Waldburn is a compact variety. Fir-trees reach a height of only 80 cm, however, they are characterized by frost resistance, good survival in stony ground. Crown spherical shape with a diameter of 1 m. Such trees are often used in the design of rock gardens.
- "Hoopsi" is a variety with the lightest needles and a great resistance to diseases and pests. In height reaches 11 m. For the formation of a beautiful crown, young seedlings must be tied up.
Compact varieties are used for decoration of garden plots.
Spruce grows best in a well-lit area. In the shade a tree can bend and lose decorativeness. Although the Christmas tree is a shade-tolerant and unpretentious tree, it is necessary to plant a seedling in a mixture consisting of coniferous and leafy soil, peat and sand. The optimum acidity of the soil for spruce is 4.5-5 pH. To increase it, it is recommended to add ammonium sulfate. If the soil is heavy, it is necessary to provide a drainage layer using expanded clay or broken bricks.
Young spruce need to plant quickly. Its root system can not be more than 10 minutes in the open air. At the same time it is necessary to try to save a clod of earth in which the spruce grew in a container. The best time to transplant is early spring.
When digging holes it is necessary to take into account the expansion of the tree in breadth, so that you do not have to replant the spruce again. During planting, the root neck of the seedling should be located flush with the soil surface. With excessive deepening, it can rot, if overestimated, it can dry out. Around the tree the ground does not need to be trampled down, on the contrary - it is necessary to loosen, but not deep (5-6 cm is enough). At first, the young spruce is additionally pre-lit.
Young saplings of silver spruce.
One-year-old seedlings need to be watered 5-7 times a day in small portions. Plants that are several years old need watering 1-2 times a day. Fir-trees, formed in an adult tree, are watered about once a week.
Under each adult tree should be poured into a bucket of water. It is better to do this early in the morning or late in the evening. Water for irrigation should be warm. Young trees are irrigated every other day - they water the crown with warm water, due to which dust and dirt are removed.
Barbed spruce does not like natural organic and nitrogen supplements. It may also be detrimental to any excess fertilizer. When making it is important to comply with the measure and it is better to plant “underfeed”. Optimal feeds for Christmas trees - special complexes for conifers.
You can start fertilizing immediately after the snow melts on the site. Dry product should be scattered in the ground near the ground and slightly prikopat in the ground with a rake. Ate older than 5 years, fertilize optional. Many owners of coniferous beauties are inclined to believe that spruce trees grow well without supplements. But if you decided to fertilize your tree, do not do it in the fall, otherwise the spruce tree can not survive the winter.
Despite the symmetrical crown, each spring dry and diseased branches are removed from the plant. If crown formation is necessary, such a capital pruning is carried out in the summer when young shoots grow. Autumn pruning is better not to. Places of cuts do not need additional treatment with garden pitch, because the spruce tree releases healing resin. It makes sense to form a crown in saplings under 7 years old.
Removal of diseased and dry branches in spring.
Mature plants tolerate frost well, and young and stunted Christmas trees need additional warming. The branches should be pressed against the trunk and secured in this condition with a rope. This will prevent their breakage under the weight of snow.
The winter sun can damage the pine needles, which will make it turn yellow and crumble. To prevent this, young trees cover the first winters with cotton or agrofibre. Adults ate to cover for the winter is not necessary.
- Shyutte accompanied by damage to the needles. It acquires a red-brown shade, with time the needles darken.
- Tracheomycous wilting is caused by a soil virus. It affects the root system, because of what the needles turn red, turn brown, and then crumble.
- Rust needles. Yellow needles appear on the needles, which burst as they mature and spread the disease to even larger areas.
- Rust cones leads to the impossibility of ripening seeds. At the same time on the inner side of the bumps cones are formed rounded brown formations.
- Necrosis of the cortex leads to its browning, the appearance of growths. The affected areas increase, the bark dies off, the spruce perishes.
- Ulcerative cancer is manifested by the appearance of numerous resinous wounds on the trunk.
Blue spruce has a viral illness.
When symptoms of any of these diseases should be removed from the tree, the affected areas, wounds covered with garden pitch. Spruce under the root shed fungicide solution. If the trunk is struck, it should be cleaned with a disinfected blade to a healthy tissue, and then missed with garden pitch. For prophylaxis in spring and autumn, conifers are treated with copper-containing preparations.
- The weevil beetle, the spruce buds sawfly, the spider mite, the small spruce false guard are pests that damage the needles and buds.
- Bark beetle, zlatka, grinder, driller - insects affecting the bark. They form resinous holes in it.
- Gallitsa, moth, grub grinder, seed, damage spruce cones, from which they are deformed and scattered into pieces.
- Aphis Hermes forms a thickening on the shoots. For treatment, the tree is treated with "Karbofos" or "Fufaphone".
When pests are detected, it is necessary to treat all coniferous plants on the site, including healthy ones, 3 times. For this, systemic insecticides are used. The interval between treatments is 2 weeks.
Growing spruce from seeds
Cones are harvested in winter in February, and then kept in a warm place until they unfold. They take out the seeds, bury them in the wet sand and so stored in the refrigerator until spring. In April, the seeds are treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and planted in the soil.
Soil for planting seeds should consist of peat and garden soil. When planting, the seeds are buried by 1-1.5 cm. The container is covered with a film or a transparent container, and the soil is constantly moistened for 3 weeks. When the seedlings grow a little, they are thinned.
Sprouting spruce seeds.
In the open ground, young Christmas trees are planted a year later, after setting a positive temperature outside. First, they dig pits at a distance of 25 cm from each other, drainage is placed on the bottom. The second time the trees are planted in the third year of life.
In the middle of spring, from the top of an adult spruce tree, a branch of 7-10 cm in length should be broken off, with a piece of bark at the base. It should be cleaned of needles in the lower part and soak in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Root can be right in the garden, but better - in the container.
First, the hole is covered with a layer of drainage, the cutting is placed there. Then pour the soil, taken from under the adult spruce, and after - sand. Planted cuttings watered abundantly. From above the sprout is covered with a transparent bag, a plastic bottle. About 4 times a day it is moistened to rooting. In winter, a young, rooted seedling is harbored when grown outdoors.
Blue spruce requires careful care only in the first years of growth, after which the tree is able to grow independently. This is an affordable alternative to ornamental trees for the garden. Choosing a sapling, you need to pay attention to the state of the trunk and needles - there should not be a red shade, spotting of needles, their shedding.
You can buy blue spruce seedlings in nurseries. Price depends on the variety. For example, dwarf blue spruce seedlings cost about 500-1500 rubles, and the Hoopsie variety - 4500 rubles. The common blue spruce tree “Glauca” is sold at a price of 1000-1500 rubles for a sapling or 8000 rubles for a dwarf plant.