Surprisingly beautiful garden callas have become increasingly common in garden and household plots. This blooming culture can rightly be considered a real decoration of the garden or flower garden. Plants with good care and create optimal growing conditions bloom for a long time. Extensive experience in horticulture is not required, it will be enough to master only some basic knowledge about planting and care.
Calla Garden - a plant from the family of Aroids has a tropical South African origin. In the floriculture, there are a large number of species and varieties of this flower, among which some are able to grow on a window sill in a flower pot, and others on open ground. Callas are equally well adapted to room conditions and flower beds.
Garden callas or in the people “calla” in natural conditions can bloom only at warm temperatures in winter, but in our regions they feel well in the open area in the spring and summer season. The technology of growing callas is very similar to dahlias.
Selection of planting material
When choosing a variety of garden callas, it is necessary to consider several different variants of plants and decide on one of the most appropriate species that will appeal most of all in appearance and fit the growing conditions. The most popular and common varieties among flower growers in our country are Calla Ethiopian and Rehmanni. These varieties are considered very capricious, but have all the decorative qualities. Large, eye-catching flowers rise on a stalk at a height of about one meter and bloom for a long time.
If possible, it is recommended to purchase only tubers of “local” origin, because they take root faster and start flowering earlier, unlike those brought from other climatic conditions. High-quality tubers should not look sluggish or shriveled and should be large in size. When buying, you must carefully inspect each unit of planting material.
On the garden plot, it is recommended to choose only sunny spots for callas for planting or, in extreme cases, penumbraes. Flowers like heat and abundant light, and even in a slight shade their growth and development slightly changes in a negative direction. Although these capricious flowers can get burns from the scorching sun in the midday hours and their leaves are better at this period of time pritenyat. Landing place should not be in drafts.
It is desirable that the soil was fertile and with low acidity. Callas can also be planted on clay soils, if you pre-dig a plot and make equal parts of sand and peat during digging. Since the flowering of the culture of the excess nitrogen in the soil affects negatively, the organic nitrogen-containing feed needed in a minimum amount.
For each tuber it is necessary to make a separate hole with a depth of 5 to 10 cm. Planting material is placed in the hole, sprinkled with soil and watered abundantly. The distance between plantings is from 30 to 40 cm. The depth of planting depends on the size of the tuber. It is not recommended to firmly soil on the surface of the planting hole.
Can be used for planting and germinated tubers. This method is considered more effective. Sprouting can begin in early spring (around the end of March). For planting each tuber it is necessary to choose an individual flower pot of small size or a large capacity for all planting material. Soil mix is suitable universal, designed for flowering houseplants or for seedlings. Watering planting should be regularly 2 times a week.
Germinated tubers are recommended to undergo hardening procedures, starting approximately a week before transferring the tubers to open terrain. To reduce the risk of stress in plants during transplantation and to preserve the root part, it is recommended to use the method of transshipment with full preservation of earthen coma.
Garden Garden Care Rules
Since garden flowers are exotic flowers, they also need special care. It must be carefully observed and then favorable conditions will contribute to early (about six weeks after planting) and prolonged flowering (almost until mid-autumn). The main care consists of timely watering, fertilization and care of the soil in the form of loosening and release of weed beds. You should not worry about diseases and pests, because callas are able to resist them independently, without preventive measures and the expenditure of manpower and resources.
After planting tubers (not germinated) on open beds for 10-15 days, the process of root formation will take place. Tubers will be able to germinate only with the presence of roots, so during this period it is not recommended to moisten the soil and water it in order not to interfere with proper root formation.
The first watering is carried out only after the appearance of sprouts (this is approximately in 15-20 five days). Irrigation water should not fall on the tubers.
With the advent of the first full leaves, you can go to regular moderate watering every 4-7 days, depending on the presence of precipitation and air temperature.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
Comprehensive mineral supplements are suitable as a good nutrition for garden callas. One square meter of land is enough 30-40 g of fertilizer. Such a one-time top dressing for the season provides the plant with adequate nutrition and all the necessary nutrients.
To maintain the soil acidity level optimal for garden calluses, additional watering based on citric or acetic acid is recommended. An acidified solution of ten liters of water and one tablespoon of acid is introduced into the soil 2-3 times over the summer period.
Tuber storage methods
With the arrival of the first autumn month, it is necessary to begin preparing the calla tubers for the winter period and wintering. Since frosts can damage the root system of plants, it is recommended to dig up the tubers before they appear.
Garden callas tubers should be carefully removed from the ground, dust the roots of soil residues and gently rinse them under cold water. Fragile roots can be easily damaged, so the whole procedure is carried out carefully and carefully. The first 2 weeks the plant is stored together with the leaves in a cool room, where the air temperature is kept in the range from five to fifteen degrees Celsius. During this time, all the nutrients that are in the leaf part, go into the tubers. After 2 weeks, dried roots and leaves of flowers can be cut. In this form, the tubers are ready for long-term storage.
Favorable conditions for the storage of tubers - is a stable temperature in the room. The temperature should not fall below 5 and rise above 15 degrees Celsius. For this purpose you can use the cellar, basement or balcony. Each tuber is recommended to be placed in an individual paper bag. Lighting and air humidity are of no particular importance during this period. Tubers, carefully prepared for storage, remain in excellent condition until spring planting. All the quality characteristics do not change.
This flower is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the family of Aroids or Aronnikovs. This plant culture has several additional names:
- scientifically - zantedeskiya (after the name of the German botanist, who named the flower in the name of his Polish botanist friend D. Zantedeski),
- folk - marsh calla.
Many consider our heroine a houseplant, but contrary to common opinion in the past few years, they are increasingly bred as garden flowers. After all, they feel great in open soil.
The natural habitat of these exotic flowers is a territory of Africa and subtropics. Their homeland is Africa and South America, where Calla most often takes damp and wet places.
This culture is a close relative of the marsh calla. Very often, its name is assigned directly to our heroine. Often this flower is included in the composition of wedding bouquets for her white, delicate petals, so reminiscent of the wedding dress of the bride.
This culture is a perennial, flowering plant.
In nature, there are 2 main groups of these colors:
Some experts argue that there is a mistake. But it is not. Everything hybrid types of callas in the garden have rhizome, and species supplied with tubers. At the same time, all species perfectly feel themselves in open soil.
The height of the stem of this plant may be in the range of 30 -150 cm. The specific height depends on the type of flower.
Calla leaves grow on vegetative shoots. They are rather large and solitary, grow up to 14 cm in length, up to 11 cm wide. The shape of its leaves is heart-shaped, their surface is smooth and shiny. Callas have a decorative value.
This plant culture has a very inconspicuous and located on a cylindrical cob flowers, hiding behind a blanket of white sheet. The leaves have a pointed tip. Such original "cover“As a rule, usually everyone accepts the very same, famous and beloved flower.
Flowers themselves have a subtle and pleasant aroma, somewhat reminiscent of a vanilla scent.
The color of the "bedspread" is white at the very beginning of flowering, after pollination it becomes green. In addition, there are species that have a veil of such colors:
The period of flowering calla begins in early May and ends in July.
Then comes the time for the formation of fruits that look like small red berries.
One of the main features of our heroine is the ability to cover the area on which she grows like a carpet. It forms a unique pattern.
People's experience uses calla as a living barometer: usually before the precipitation falls on its sheet, droplets of water, similar to tears, begin to appear.
The most popular varieties and types of calla
All species and varieties, as already mentioned, are divided into tuber and rhizomatous.
Rhizomes - always hybridFor example, Ethiopian calla. By tuberous include all species of plants of this flower. These include, for example, Calla Elliott and Calla Rehmann.
All flowers of calla are grouped mainly by the structure of the root system. They are also divided into groups. All of them are eight types of callas perennials. But the most popular are:
- Ethiopian calla,
- calla eliot
- Calla Rehmann,
- marsh calla
- white-spotted calla and others.
Stages of preparation for planting calla
Stage 1. Preliminary preparation
The process of planting and caring for this plant, as a rule, is not particularly difficult for growers. But in order to get a healthy and beautiful flowering plant, you need to carry out several stages of preparation for planting.
You need to start with the purchase of a healthy and high-quality planting material, and then find on your household plot optimally suitable place for planting flower beauty.
Stage 2. The choice of material for landing
Planting material for planting and growing must be purchased precisely those varieties that have already been successfully and sufficiently acclimatized for the conditions of the area where it will grow. In order to avoid mistakes with the choice, it will be advisable to consult on all issues in specialized outlets.
You can also buy a planting tuberous planting material. Then you will need to carefully examine them. Tubers must be free from disease or damage. They should be elastic and strong, superior tubers must be alive. Tubers are much cheaper than ready-grown seedlings.
For those who prefer to work with seedlings, they can be bought in containers without any problems, after which they should be planted immediately in open soil.
It is not necessary to acquire the tubers or calla seedlings on temporary markets or from unfamiliar sellers.
It should also be remembered that the flowers painted on the labels will differ by what grows in real life. It is unlikely that the plants in your area will have such a saturated and bright color, especially since immediately after pollination, practically all varieties of bedspreads become green.
Try to pick calla seedlings on the basis of which composition was planned, since these plants are characterized by a high height of leaves and an abundance of shades of flowers.
Stage 3. Choosing a landing site
In nature, callas grow, as a rule, on wet soils in tropical forests. That is, in the area where planting of these plants is planned, all necessary conditions for growth should be created. The optimum will be the area near small ponds - lakes or ponds, where there is high humidity of the soil.
If the site does not have a natural or artificial reservoir, then you need to make sure that the landing site is not very dark, otherwise the colors of the calla lining lose their colors.
The choice of the optimal location may also depend on the intended composition. However, our heroine looks great, not only near other flowering plants in flowerbeds, but also in single plantings. If you want to get a green carpet on your site, then put a few copies together and finish eating a wonderful pattern pretty soon.
Stage 4. Ground selection and preparation
Our beauties prefer fertile and nutritious soils that are well hydrated and moderately darkened. It should be borne in mind that the soil with a very high organic content will slow down the growth of these plants, because this plant is exotic, it can take root on our soils for a very long time. In this regard, it is best to buy a special mix in special stores in advance.
Optimal substrate for better growth of calla should include sod land, sand, leaf soil and peat
Before planting plants, you should thoroughly dig up the selected piece of soil to make it breathable and light.
Technology of planting calla in open soil
The best time to plant callas in open ground is spring, preferably the first of May. It was then that you can not expect the return of low temperatures, which could harm the landing.
In the selected area it is necessary to dig small holes, their size should be 5-10 cm deep.
If the tubers are planted in the soil, they are recommended to be pre-stratified and treated with a growth stimulator.
before placing seedlings in open ground, callas preferably pre-temper within 7-8 days.
It is useful for a good future harvest to place a small amount of drainage at the bottom of the planting holes. This event will prevent stagnant water near the roots. For this fit small stones, gravel.
Calla tubers are planted tubercle up. Transplanting seedlings in the soil, they must be removed from the pots very carefully so as not to cause damage to the roots. Otherwise, the plant may not climb. It is important to know that the root system of these plants is extremely fragile.
If planting occurs several plants nearby, then you should adhere to a distance of 30-40 centimeters.
You can use when growing mineral fertilizers, it will be enough for 30 grams per square meter of your garden. If this happens at the beginning of the planting of the plant in the ground, then you can no longer feed in the process of growing the crop and growing it.
After drainage, planting material is placed in the planting pits, after which they are sprinkled with the same soil in which they are planted. Strongly seal it is not necessary. Tubers planted in the ground should be watered only after the first leaves appear, but seedlings can be watered as soon as they are in the ground.
Immediately after planting the tubers in open soil, watering is not necessary. Lightly moisten the soil will be possible only after 14 days. Only by this time the plant will have enough time to form its root system. Watering is carried out very carefully, making sure that moisture did not fall on the tubers. Only after the first few leaves appear, can this plant be watered regularly. Do not overdo it, it is enough 1 time in 6-7 days. If the summer is dry, watering increase.
After watering, loosening the soil will be very useful for the plant. Only in this way is it possible to ensure the air permeability and lightness of the soil. It is precisely with this kind of land that we can expect active growth from landing. Break through should be very neattrying not to damage the roots, because we already remember how fragile they are in this beauty.
Experienced growers are advised to use worms for the natural loosening of the soil.
Каллы — это уникальные и удивительные тропические цветы, которые отлично себя ощущают не только в комнатных условиях, но и в открытой почве. Дополнительный плюс заключается в достаточно простом, можно сказать, даже минимальном уходе за этими растениями. В связи с этим не следует пугаться сложностей и все-таки попробовать вырастить самостоятельно этот чудесный экзотический цветок на своем приусадебном участке. After all, then you have all the chances to get a bright and beautiful decoration for your garden.
Garden callas: planting and care
Calla is one of the most attractive for gardeners of plants, which is characterized by the presence of elongated, slightly wavy flowers. His homeland is Africa, but for a long time this flower adorns the garden plots in all corners of the world. In Russia, it is often called a wedding plant. With its help, interiors are decorated, bouquets for brides are created and much more.
For a beginner grower, care for garden calluses may seem like a very complicated process, but with experience it will become clear that this is a non-capricious plant. First you need to decide on the choice of soil. It should be quite sour. The best option includes the following components:
- sod land
- leaf earth
- some sand.
Calla flowers: growing in the garden
So, if you are going to grow calla, planting and care in the open field will be successful when choosing certain varieties. The most suitable for the Russian climate are such species as:
Since these are still exotic varieties of flowers, they will require adherence to certain rules when growing. If you do it right, then you can get blooming large inflorescences instances up to 1 meter.
When buying a tubers should give preference to only the largest. They should not have defects or excessively many "wrinkles". They can be purchased from the end of February. Flowers adapted to local conditions will take root easier and faster.
Acquired tubers need to put on the tray, and then leave for some time in a special place. The optimal air temperature at the same time is from +5 to + 7 ° С. Many growers recommend storing planting material in the refrigerator, while not forgetting to regularly turn it over.
Already in April, ready-made tubers should be planted in a container, and then sprinkled with a certain amount of soil (not more than 3 cm thick). At this stage, the air temperature should be at least + 20 ° C.
Please note that on each planting tuber there is a bump, which is its top, from where arrows-peduncles are produced. So the tubers need enough space. Do not immediately water them, let them rest in bed and only after a few days can moisten the soil.
If you want to grow a healthy and beautiful calla, planting and care in the open field should begin in early summer. The optimal depth of the holes is about 10 cm. For this purpose, it is recommended to choose only sunny places in the garden. Shaded areas will not work, as this will have a bad effect on the growth rate of the flower. Drafts also should not be.
If you notice that the calla leaves do not tolerate the scorching sun rays and burns appeared on them, then try to shade them at midday hours.
How to care for calla?
In most cases, callas independently cope with pests and do not have a tendency to hurt. Otherwise, they need regular care. In the period when the tubers are still beginning to form their root system, irrigation should be abandoned. It can be resumed only after the first shoots appear. Make sure that the water does not fall on the tubers themselves. Regular watering begins with the formation of full-fledged leaves. The frequency of irrigation depends on the presence of precipitation, as well as air temperature. On average, it will be enough to water the callas no more than once every 4-7 days.
Callas prefer acidic soil. The best soil composition for them: 2 parts of sod land, 1 part of leafy land, 1 part of peat and 1 part of sand. And if you use tubers from an existing plant, they must be thoroughly cleaned and held for several hours in any disinfecting solution. It is possible in a weak solution of manganese.
Depending on the type, the callas have a root in the form of a group of tubers or in the form of a powerful, branched rhizome. In the first case, the plant multiplies with new young tubers, in the second - by dividing the bush, and both species can be propagated by seed (which is used in rare cases).
Reproduction of callas tubers
Tubers callas usually go on sale in late February. Healthy nodules should be dense (like new potatoes), only in this case, the calla will release arrows-peduncles already in the year of planting. If the kind of nodule shriveled, sluggish - better to abandon the purchase. Planting material is spread on the tray and placed in a dry cool place (+5. + 7 ° С). Some zealous hostesses have adapted to store them in a conventional refrigerator, regularly turning and airing them.
In April, the tubers are planted in pots, sprinkled with soil by 2-3 cm and increase the temperature of the room to +20. + 22 ° C. Please note that there is a tubercle on the nodule - this is the top. Tubers need space, so put it in a pot with a capacity of 3-3.5 liters. Immediately do not need to water, pour in a week and make sure that the soil in the pots does not dry out.
Calla tubers. Photos from callalilyguide.com
In early summer, sprouted tubers are planted in open ground. The wells are buried 8-12 cm and make them according to the scheme 20 × 20 cm, 35 × 35 cm - for small and medium-sized varieties, or according to the scheme 50 × 50 cm - for tall ones.
Callas are usually sent "to rest" before the most frost. The above-ground part of the plant is removed, the tubers are dug, leaving 2-3 leaves on the handle, and put in storage. After a couple of weeks, the leaves left dry, giving the nodule all the vital energy, after which they are carefully removed. It is desirable to carry out the procedure of digging-planting tubers annually, calla tubers do not tolerate the harsh Russian climate.
Breeding callas division bush
Types of callas, having a tree root system, are planted by dividing the rhizomes of the mother bush. In the fall, the root neck (baby) is gently broken out of the main rhizome, trying to keep as much soil as possible on the roots. Then put the spine in separate spacious pots.
Store indoors with high humidity, at a temperature of +12. + 15 ° С. In the spring, shoots appear from the spine, and in early summer the African is ready for planting in open ground. If you do not have the opportunity to plant a bush in this way, ready-made seedlings can be purchased in a flower nursery.
Reproduction callas seeds
Callou can be propagated by seed, but such a landing is welcomed only by breeders. Many avid flower girls complain of poor seed germination. Therefore, if you still decide to grow calla from seeds, soak them for 5-6 hours in a solution of potassium humate - a natural plant biostimulator.
Then put the seeds on a pan, previously covered with a damp napkin, cover with another wet napkin, put in a warm place for 6-8 days and do not let it dry. Sprouted seeds are best sown in trays with the ground, hold them in a warm room until germination, and only then plant the seedlings in open ground. The error of some summer women is that they immediately place the germinated seeds in open soil, whereaboutmost of them, alas, die.
When caring for a calla, it is necessary to remember the four components of its successful growth: light, heat, moisture, fertile soil. She loves frequent feeding and the presence of earthworms in the soil, which provide natural loosening. Feed it once every 2-3 weeks with fertilizers for the bulbous flowers, and during the flowering period they pour 15-20 g of potassium under each bush.
Young bush calla
When feeding do not get carried away with nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Nitrogen contributes to the accelerated growth of foliage, but potassium is required to increase the number of peduncles. With proper care, garden calla produces up to 10 luxurious arrow-stalks.
Calla is water-loving, but it does not tolerate over-wetting of the soil, and therefore needs frequent but moderate watering. The ground should be slightly damp, but not wet, and in no case over dried. To stimulate the root system, as soon as the calla has faded, its peduncle arrows are cut off. But young shoots can not be pruned. Its appearance only slightly reduces the number of flower stalks, but the bush gives a pleasant pomp.
I present to you the two most beautiful varieties of Ethiopian calla: Amethyst and Vermeer.
Amethyst is distinguished by violet tenderness and delicate aroma, reminiscent of the freshness of the sea breeze. Height varies between 60-120 cm depending on growing conditions. Peduncle tall, stately. Flowers "Amethyst" were considered the most suitable for decorating the bouquets of queens and noble ladies.
Calla Amethyst. Photo from procvetok.com
Vermeer shimmers with satin splendor of contrasts. White edging on the purple veil of slightly wavy petals covers bright lemon cob. The leaves are decorative, with white specks. Does not grow above 60-70 cm.
Calla Vermeer. Photo from procvetok.com
Calla Elliot and Calla Remani
The figured flowers of this group of callas are distinguished by the richest tint of colors: red, yellow, purple, white. All of them are distinguished by a colored border around the edge.
Calla Elliot. Photos from nargil.ir
Kalla is considered not only a wedding flower, but also a flower of good luck. Plant it on your country site and check for yourself))
Selection of material for planting
First of all, you need to understand what sort of callas you would like to get on your site. Solving this issue will not be so difficult, considering that today in the shops these flowers are presented in a wide variety, and therefore you will surely find among them the variety you like the most. If we turn to the practice of growing callas in our country, then most often gardeners choose the following types:
- Calla Rehmanni (Calla rehmannii),
- Calla aethiopica Calla Ethiopian.
Among the garden varieties, the varieties cultivated on the basis of calli Ethiopian were the most popular. However, please note that this plant is exotic, therefore it will not be so easy to grow it in our latitudes. But with appropriate care you can get from seed quite large plants up to 1 meter high, decorated with large flowers.
In order to save yourself from unnecessary difficulties in the process of growing and caring for calla lilies, you need to competently approach the choice of a suitable planting material. It is possible to determine the quality of tubers of callas by their size: they must not only be large enough, but also not have signs of wrinkling or lethargy.
To be sure that these flowers will not die in the first year, It is recommended to use tubers grown in our climate. Therefore, it is desirable to find "local" callas as a planting material. If you try to grow these flowers from imported plants, even if they take root, it is unlikely that their flowering will meet your expectations. And, most likely, the first flowers in such plants will appear much later than usual.
Planting and care of calla lilies (in brief)
- Landing: tubers are planted in early May.
- Bloom: from June to early October.
- Digging: in September.
- Storage: in earthen coma in a dry room at a temperature of 5-7 C.
- Lighting: in the morning there is a bright light, in the afternoon - light partial shade.
- The soil: well drained, fertile, slightly acidic to acidic pH.
- Watering: moderate but regular, abundant in arid time.
- Top dressing: fertilizers are applied to the soil only during planting.
- Reproduction: vegetative, depending on the species - tubers or dividing a bush. Seed propagation is inefficient and unreliable.
- Pests: aphids, thrips, honey bears, wire rams and wireworms.
- Diseases: rhizoctoniosis, root rot, penicillis, pytium, ervinia bacteria group.
- Properties: The plant contains poisonous alkaloids. Juice in contact with skin causes irritation, and when ingested - vomiting, stupor and cramps.
Calla flowers - features
Growing calla, like any other plant, provides for following the rules of agrotechnology, the main feature of these flowers is that they are grown both as garden callas - in yards, and in apartments, in pots, as room callas. But the general rules for the cultivation and care of callas, wherever they grow, still have:
- - callas require a small planting, that is, the rhizomes are barely covered with earth to avoid their decay,
- - what amateurs call a calla flower is in fact a covering sheet or a veil that wraps the head of an inflorescence. In fact, calla flowers are small and inconspicuous, although very fragrant,
- - after planting, the calla will not sprout until it forms its root system, so you should not be nervous if there is no germination for a month,
- - take care when digging out the tubers: they are easily damaged,
- - Calla - a lively barometer: on its bedspread and the tips of the leaves before the rain there are droplets of water like tears,
- - A calla pot, especially an Ethiopian pot, is preferably porous so that excess moisture can evaporate. In addition, an Ethiopian calla loves solitude and does not tolerate neighbors in his own pot,
- - each flower of calla blooms for about a month,
- - From time to time, the top layer in the pot of calla should be carefully removed, taking care not to damage the roots, and replace it with a fresh nutrient substrate.
Calla Rehmann (Calla rehmannii)
- low calla (up to 70 cm in height) with a spathe of pink color (purple-burgundy or red-pink) and narrow green leaves. The underground part of the plant is a tuber resembling a begonia or gloxinia tuber. In the fall, it loses leaves and requires rest in winter. Popular varieties:
- – Chameleon - low calla grown in a pot and in the garden, peach-colored bedspread with golden tints,
- – Evening - satin black and purple Calla,
- – Indian summer - Calla red, with a pomegranate shade.
- Calla with large, green, mottled, heart-shaped leaves. The coverlet is yellow-green on the outside, and yellow on the inside. In height reaches 50 cm. Grades:
- – Yellow corner - sunny yellow coverlets of flowers, large, juicy green leaves in light yellow specks.
- – Vermeer - slightly wavy cover of the flower is marble-white outside, and inside is lilac-cherry, turning into a deep dark purple color, leaves are dark green with white specks,
- – Black eyed beauty - creamy creamy veil with a slight lemon shade, the leaves, like other varieties of this species, are spotty.
Other types of calla growing in nature: white-spotted calla (Calla albomaculata), joyful calla (Calla jucunda), fragrant calla (Calla odorata), (Calla pentlandii), powerful calla (Calla valida).
Growing garden callas
Callas decorate the garden with their majestic flowers so much that many growers gladly grow them in their household. The glades where the callas grow, look like an Arabic ornamental painting: the rhizomes give a young growth of leaves each year, and among them are elegant arrows-peduncles.
Calla prefers open spacious areas and fertile soils, but it is advisable to shade them during the hottest hours of the day: in the scorching sun the leaves wither, burn and dry, so it is important that bushes or trees grow nearby, which in the afternoon will give callam a lifesaving shadow. The soil must be acidic or at least slightly acidic, good drainage is required, because stagnant water in the roots is destructive for the plant. The optimal composition of the soil for callas: earth, sand, peat and leaf humus in equal proportions.
Planting calla spring.
Planted garden callas in early May. Pre-planting material is kept for half an hour in a solution of potassium permanganate, then carefully inspect and, as necessary, cut rotten places to healthy tissue, and smear the wounds with green paint. Complex mineral fertilizer at the rate of 30-40 g per 1 m² is applied to the ground at the site, the site is dug up. Then the tubers are immersed in prepared holes to a depth of 5-10 cm at a distance of 30-40 cm from each other (depending on the size of the bulb), buried, and the landing site is watered well. Calla, if you remember, has a peculiarity: it does not rise until it forms an underground part, so if you are lucky, you will see sprouts in two weeks, and if you are not so lucky, in a month. Do not despair and do not try to dig the hole and see at what stage the process. Do not water the callae for the first two weeks: watering is sufficient after planting.
There is a way to prepare the calla for planting in open ground: at the end of March or early April, plant the calla tubers in small pots to a depth of 2-3 cm in special ground for seedlings or in the oven roasted for forty minutes in the oven. Water 1-2 times a week, and a week before transplanting into the ground, start opening the window for a short time to harden the plant. Transplantation of callas into the open ground is carried out together with the earthy clod.
Distillation of homemade callas.
Domestic calla is grown at a temperature of 22-25 ºC in the summer, and in winter at a temperature not lower than 14 ºC. The place for the plant should be well lit, but shaded from direct sunlight in the afternoon and protected from drafts. The soil for homemade callas should have an acidity of about ph 6-6, it would be nice to add sphagnum moss or peat with sawdust to the nutrient soil. Клубень для выгонки каллы должен быть диаметром около 6 см, его высаживают выпуклой стороной вниз в емкость не менее 25 см диаметром, глубина посадки – 5 см. После посадки клубня грунт нужно пролить раствором фунгицида.
Calla is propagated by seeds (this method is unreliable, and the result will have to wait a very long time), tubers and dividing the bush. The reproduction of calla by dividing the bush is as follows: in the fall, when digging, the calla scion is separated from a part of the rhizome and transplanted into a pot from an earthen mixture, and transplanted into spring in the spring. If only Ethiopian calla and its varieties reproduce by dividing the bush, then the other callae multiply by tubers: in the fall, the tubers are dug up, stored for the whole winter, and in spring they are planted in open ground.
Calla after flowering
Caring for tuberous calla and calla rhizomatous has differences. In Ethiopian and rhizomatous calla, the dormant period comes in the very heat - at this time the growth slows down, then stops, the calla turns yellow. At this time, watering should be reduced, and the plant should be taken out on the balcony or in the garden to a well-lit place where it will not get raindrops. In the first half of July, the plant is taken out of the pot, all the old leaves and offsprings are removed and transplanted into a pot with a new nutrient mixture, placed in a bright place and begin to water and feed the calla, preparing it for the next flowering. Here is a cycle of rhizomatous potted calla. Garden calla stays on the site until the fall, in September, rhizomes are dug up and stored with an earthy clod in a dry cool room with moderate infrequent watering.
After the flowering of the tuberous callas, the coverlets gradually turn green and wil, the leaves turn yellow and dry. Garden tuber callas are carefully dug in the third decade of September, trying not to damage the tubers, freed from the soil, washed and kept for a couple of weeks at a temperature of 5-10 ºC, waiting for useful nutrients to pass from leaves to tubers. After that, the dead leaves are easily removed.
Storage of calla in winter
In our latitudes, calla lilies are not left in the ground for the winter. When the leaves die off, they are removed, the tubers are well washed, kept for 30 minutes in the solution of potassium permanganate, washed again and put in a dark dry place for drying, then store the tubers, packed in paper bags, at a temperature of 5-7 ºC: in a city apartment for this Fit vegetable boxes in the fridge.
The rhizomes of the Ethiopian calla, if you do not have the opportunity, after digging, keep it in a cool place, lightly dry it and, after cutting the leaves, store it the same way as the tubers. Do not forget to check weekly how the tubers and rhizomes of callas feel: have they not begun to dry out and wince from too warm a temperature or, on the contrary, to rot from high humidity.
If you grew calla in a pot, then for the rest period you can not take it out of the pot, but simply take it out to a cool veranda or loggia. If you, without letting your beauty rest for a couple of months, continue to water and in every possible way provoke further growth, you can drain the calla and it will not bloom.
How and where to plant flowers?
The most preferable for growing garden callas are warm sunny areas where favorable conditions will be created for flowers. It is undesirable to place plants in partial shading, for these plants are better places where they get the maximum amount of sunlight. But if scorching rays fall on the flowers at the selected place all day long, then it is advisable to create a shade for them to avoid leaf burns. You also need to take care of protection from the winds, because drafts can also harm callahs.
It is necessary to pay attention to the composition of the soil: it must be distinguished by high fertility and have a weak acid reaction. But when applying organic fertilizers, it is necessary to observe the measure, since their surplus will result in a completely opposite effect. First of all, it concerns nitrogen, the excessive amount of which can greatly affect flowering. In the absence of other suitable places, it is possible to grow callas on clayey soil: before planting, it is necessary to add peat and sand in equal amounts.
Usually garden garden callas are planted in spring.. Already in the first days of May, quite comfortable weather is established, at which the bulbs can quickly take root and begin to grow.
However, you need to be careful with the choice of time, since the last frost can harm young plants. For planting, pits are prepared with a depth of 5–10 cm. From this point on, they begin to care for flowers. And the first operation, which will have to spend, will be watering.
When planting garden callas tubers, it is important to maintain an optimum depth, which should be about 10 cm. Plants are recommended to be placed no closer than 30–40 cm from each other.. When planting flowers you should not manipulate the soil, compacting it or pushing the bulbs themselves into the ground. You just need to put them in the prepared wells, and cover with the top layer of soil.
Also, many growers practice the method of growing callas through germination. This will require a temporary pot in which the tubers are planted, after which they take care until the moment when they can be transplanted to a permanent place. In some years, with this method of growing bulbs, callas often begin to bloom even before the favorable moment for transplanting to the garden.
Tubers are planted in pots at the end of March.However, it is important to select suitable container sizes. As a soil mixture using ready soil for seedlings, which can be found in flower shops. Caring for bulbs in pots is no different from the traditional method of growing flowers:
- for this you need to keep the soil moist, watering it 2-3 times a week,
- even before the favorable moment for transplanting flowers into the open ground, it is necessary to harden tubers in 7–8 days,
- directly on the day itself, which is scheduled for transplanting callus bulbs, you need to very carefully remove the plants from the pot, trying to keep the root system intact.
How to care for planted flowers?
It is important to remember that callas are a tropical plant, so they need special care. If you take good care of garden callas, they usually begin to bloom within 1.5-2 months from the moment of their transplant. Moreover, this phase lasts until autumn.
Proper care of garden calluses is directly related to their physiological peculiarity: for the first time, the life of callas spends forces on the formation of the root system, and only then they begin to germinate. therefore it is very important to prevent the formation of incorrect roots. To do this, you need to maintain freshly planted tubers in the "dry" mode for the first two weeks. The clue that it is time to start watering will be the formation of the first shoots. This usually happens only after 2–3.5 weeks. Water calla need to be very careful, trying to avoid moisture on the tubers. The easiest way to meet this condition, if you water the soil around the edges.
To conduct frequent watering can only be at the stage when the tubers will form leaves. But here, too, watering should be moderate. Usually it is enough to water the callas 1-2 times a week, however, depending on the current weather, the amount of irrigation may vary.
The main activities that include care for calla lilies:
For the first time, fertilizers are applied to the soil at the stage of planting flowers. At this point, you can use the complex mineral fertilizers that are applied to the soil in accordance with the scheme - 30–40 g. on 1 square. m. This amount of fertilizer will be enough for plants not to lack nutrients during the summer season. It should be borne in mind that for callas the most suitable type is slightly acidic soil, therefore at least two or three times per season it is necessary to irrigate with citric or acetic acid, which is added in the amount of one tablespoon per bucket of water.
Callas belong to the group of those plants that do not cause hassle even during measures to protect against diseases and pests. The fact is that they are resistant to any external manifestation of this kind. Sometimes callas may be interested in whiteflies, however, they do not cause serious harm to flowers.
How to store dug callas garden tubers?
Planting and caring for flowers involves holding various events throughout the season. In the autumn it is necessary to prepare the bulbs for wintering. Usually they begin to engage in this in September. Tubers need to dig up before the onset of the first cold weather.. During the excavation of tubers, you must be very careful not to damage the root system. Next, they need to be cleaned from the ground and rinsed. All these operations should be carried out with special care, because the delicate roots are very easy to damage. Usually at this time of the year there are still leaves on the tubers that can be left.
After that, the tubers of garden feces are placed in storage in a special room, where they are kept for two weeks. They must be stored at a temperature of + 5 to + 15 degrees. This time is enough for the leaves to transfer the accumulated nutrients to the tubers.
How to grow callas in the open field
Callas are great for growing in the open field. Provided with the necessary care, they will delight in their bloom for the whole month.
The plant requires enough space in open meadows. Badly endures daytime summer heat. Therefore, it is good to plant next to shrubs or trees so that they create light penumbra.
For callas pick up places where there are no drafts. They can harm the plant.
Soil for calla lilies
The soil for growing plants should be fertile and slightly acidic. The ideal soil for a flower is a composition of peat and leaf humus, garden soil and sand. Before landing, it is imperative to perform drainage to prevent stagnant water near the roots.
Since calla is a moisture-loving plant, it would be good to allocate to it a place near the reservoir, where additional moisture will flow to the leaves from the air.
How to prepare landing material for disembarkation
For this purpose, the use of strong and strong tubers. In a shriveled and sluggish state, they may not settle down. Before planting, the tubers are processed. Acquired planting material is aged at the bottom of the refrigerator.
Next, prepare a weak solution of potassium permanganate, where the tubers are placed, followed by rehabilitation. On sections, obtained by removing the damaged and rotted areas, applied brilliant green.
After all the stages, the tubers are ready for planting.
Planting tubers in the ground
Prepared beforehand, the holes are placed in the plant at a depth of 5 - 10 cm. The holes are placed with each other no more than 0.4 m. This takes into account the size of the tubers. They must not be pressed into the ground. Tubers lightly sprinkled on top.
Many gardeners planted tubers in early spring in shallow pots, which were previously disinfected, and the soil was calcined in an oven. Planting depth - 3 cm. In order for the plant to awaken, in April they are placed on the balcony or in the greenhouse. When transplanting, the tuber is transferred with a clod of earth very carefully in order to avoid the breakage of fragile roots.
Do not worry if the first 14 days there are no shoots. Sprouts do not stretch up until a root system is formed, which lasts almost 30 days.
Watering and spraying for calla
The plant is characterized by such a physiological feature - the initial formation of the root system, followed by germination. To properly formed roots, 2 weeks after planting the tubers do not water until the first shoots. This will come in about 3 weeks. During watering it is necessary to ensure that water does not fall on the tubers.
It is better to moisten the soil at the edges of the hole. When the first leaves appear, it is possible to water regularly in moderate amounts up to two times a week, taking into account weather conditions.
If it is cool outside - watering is reduced, if the weather is hot - they increase. Do not over-wet or dry soil.
Feeding for care of calla lilies
Adding to the hole when planting humus will allow throughout the growing season to feed the plant only with mineral fertilizer in compliance with exact proportions. Otherwise, excess nitrogen will trigger increased growth of calla lilies, which will have a negative effect on flowering. Liquid fertilizers with a balanced content of potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen - the best option when choosing a top dressing.
If the soil is not provided with humus, the whole season is made of mullein diluted in water at a ratio of 1:10.
If there is no need to collect seeds after flowering, it is worth cutting the peduncle. So the flowering time will last.
Features of growing
Natural place of growth of callas - armholes of rivers with a mild and warm climate. Growing it at home, it is necessary to control the soil moisture, especially during the growing season.
When forming the peduncle, a long period of illumination (at least 12 hours) is required.
Then it can last up to 10 hours.
To successfully grow this plant, it requires a certain period of rest. Given our climatic conditions, this time is in the winter.
Selection of pot and soil
This process should be given due attention. For growing the Ethiopian calla, a sufficiently large pot with a diameter of not less than 40 cm and a height of 0.5 m is selected. If a small container is used for planting, in the case of top dressing only the green part will develop, flowering will not occur.
For the pot must be provided drainage holes. Pebbles or expanded clay should be laid on the bottom.
Choosing the soil for planting, prefer porous structures. Due to this, excess moisture leaves the pot, providing the plant with natural breathing. It usually consists of peat (1 h.), Sand (1 h.), Leaf humus (1 h.), Sod land (2 h.). You can cook it yourself, or buy it in the store.
Planting callas in room conditions
The landing process is almost the same for both cases. The bulbs are laid to a depth of about 10 cm. When planted in a decorative container, several bulbs adhere to a distance of 12 cm. This will enable the roots to develop well.
Due to the characteristics of the origin and structure of the calla, its care is somewhat different compared to other indoor plants.
Calla needs good coverage throughout the year. It is better to grow it in conditions of indirect sunlight. The plant feels its lack, especially in winter - there may be no flowering, only the development of stems is noted.
For white callas, lighting is required during the rest period. In color varieties, due to its lack of a characteristic color is lost.
For all types of callas, a combination of high temperature and low humidity is detrimental. This creates favorable soil for pests. With a sharp temperature drop the plants stop flowering.
For white varieties during the growing season the temperature is maintained at +18 - 20 ° C, for color varieties - +20 - 24 ° C.
Planted in a pot plants grow as the roots grow, fill the pot, absorbing all the useful elements of the soil. If calla is constantly kept in room conditions, it needs timely feeding and complex fertilizer. This will enable the flower to develop properly.
If the plant does not receive the full heat and sunlight, it needs fertilizer and dressing.
For this purpose, universal complex fertilizers are used with an interval of 1 time in 2 weeks. The use of nitrogen fertilizers is unacceptable until the moment when the flower begins to bloom. As a top dressing, urea or infused egg shells are added to the soil. It is necessary to carry out similar procedures carefully. With an excess of fertilizers in plants, the edges of the leaves turn yellow and dry, or even die.
One of the available methods of breeding callas is the division of rhizome. During the period of active growth, abundant growths occur, which surrounds the maternal rhizome. Having dug it for the winter, the root processes and the main rod are separated and planted in pots. In the spring they can be planted in a flower bed.
Flower reproduction from bulbs
When callah is grown, its bulbs quickly become overgrown with babies. If it is not replanted annually, young shoots will cover the entire surface of the soil, making it difficult to care for them. Transplanting plants from one such pot will allow you to receive planting material in sufficient quantities.
When removing the tuber from the ground, each child with a kidney must be carefully separated by hand. It can be used for planting, both for open ground and for the pot. A slight delay in the removal of the bulbs leads to the accretion of the children and the mother tuber. Then the rhizome is simply broken into several pieces.
For powdering the resulting wounds using crushed coal.
For callas reproduction is possible with the help of seeds. The presence of insect pollinators in the room is not always observed. Often, to get a seed, the pollen is transferred from one flower to another manually with a brush.
No need to store seeds. In fresh - the best germination. Собрав, сразу заверните во влажную ткань и оставьте в теплом помещении. По истечении двух дней они начнут проклевываться. Набухшие семена высеваются в влажный грунт для выращивания рассады.
Чтобы предупредить гниение до появления всходов не поливают.
Для увлажнения почвы поддон наполняют водой, которая поступит через отверстия для дренажа. Spray the sprayed dry top layer of soil.
When the first sprouts appear, the pot is exposed to a bright place and the temperature is kept at + 22 ° C. Seedlings dive into separate pots after two months, and plants are planted in a permanent place a year later.
Separate flower growers do not practice picking, they sow 2 swollen seeds into glasses. Having chosen among the emerged shoots strong, it is left, and another is thrown out or transplanted into another pot.
Young plants are demanding for watering as the soil dries.
Diseases and pests
Callas at home are affected by aphids and spider mites. Get rid of pests will help the soap solution for application to the leaves. If this tool does not work, insecticides are used for processing.
High humidity provokes the defeat of a flower with fungal diseases in the form of:
- gray rot - the appearance of a grayish bloom on flowers and leaves. Used for processing fungicides,
- brown rot - shrinking of leaves and peduncles. To eliminate the need to stop watering, hydrogel is applied to the soil, callou is treated with fungicides,
- bacterial decay - darkening of the base of leaves and peduncles with a gradual withering and yellowing of the ground part. The disease is practically not treated, the affected plants are destroyed,
- anthracnose - the appearance and gradual increase of brown spots on the leaves before the formation of a reddish circle with a light middle. Remove the affected parts, the whole plant is treated with fungicides.
Fulfilling the basic conditions of care and maintenance of callas, the occurrence of diseases and pests can be avoided.
It is more practical to cut flowers for cutting in the winter garden or greenhouse. And in an apartment or house, calla flowerpots will be a great interior decoration that creates a good mood.