The apple-tree variety Pepin saffron was bred in 1907 by the scientist and breeder I. V. Michurin by crossing hybrids:
- Reneta d'Orleans,
- Pepinka Lithuanian.
This is the most pollinated winter apple variety. Trees are short, on average about 3 meters. The crown has a round and dense form, branches, drooping with elongated green-grayish leaves. The seedlings of the seedlings are thin and long, the bark of a green color becomes gray with time.
It is one of the most common varieties of apple trees grown in many regions of Russia, starting from the central part and ending in the East Siberian and West Siberian regions. Also often found in the CIS countries.
The physical feature of this variety is used by breeders to develop new tree species.. To date, 20 varieties of apple trees have been bred, the most famous of which are:
- Friendship of Peoples,
- Altai souvenir,
- Autumn joy
- Altai velvet.
Fruits of medium size weighing up to 140 g. Oval-conical shape with a smooth surface and thick skin. Inside the apple is a cream-colored soft flesh with a sweet-sour taste.. Pepin saffron apples have a spicy wine aroma, rich in beneficial trace elements and substances.
Apple Fruit Pepin Saffron
Apple color - yellow-red, with clear strokes and stripes in the area of sunlight. They have an average funnel-shaped podkachechnuyu tube and a strong stalk, with which the apples firmly hold on the tree. There are no axial cavities.
The advantages of the variety
Among the advantages of the variety are:
- Attractive fruit appearance,
- Delicate fruit flavorsuitable for making homemade preparations,
- High yield,
- Early entry into fruiting,
- Good winter hardiness,
- Easy transportation,
- Little shedding and long storage,
How and where to store apples in the winter?
With proper care, saffron pepina begins to bear fruit in the 5-6 year of cultivation. Every year, giving a bountiful harvest. Trees under 10 years old bring 80 kg of apples, and over 10 years old - up to 200kg. Crop harvested in late September - early October, consumer maturity comes after 2 months of storage.
Storing apples in the winter
Storing fruits requires compliance with the following rules:
- Harvest need to carefully avoiding damage to the fetus,
- Apples are better will remain in wooden or plastic container,
- Paper is used to separate them., shavings or tracing paper soaked in wax,
- Room temperature must be from 0 to +2,
- Only subject to storage whole without chips, cracks and stains apples.
Rules for planting apple seedlings
It is best to plant seedlings in specialized places, in a store or on the market. It is necessary to carefully examine the young tree, avoiding the purchase of a seedling with damage or growth. It is important that the root is wet, and the wood has a healthy greenish appearance with a clear trace of vaccination.
Seedlings are planted in spring or autumn. In spring, it is preferable to do this in order for the tree to grow and get stronger before winter.
The rules of planting seedlings in the spring
In the autumn they dig a hole 1.5 meters wide and 80 cm deep. The soil is fertilized:
- Manure or compost
- Wood ash,
Fertilizers are mixed and poured into a hole., then tightly closed, thereby preventing the ingress of rain or snow. Already in spring the soil will be ready for planting seedlings.
Rules for planting in the fall
If planting occurs in the fall, you should take care of a comfortable wintering young tree. Pepin saffron planted in a sunny, pre-prepared places. Suitable for fertilizer:
- Potassium salt,
For full growth and fruiting of pepin saffron, an area of 14 square meters is necessary, since it is a freedom-loving variety that does not like close proximity to other trees. Before planting, the roots of the seedling are soaked in water for 2-3 hoursthen put into the clay mixture and only then into the pit prepared for planting. The roots should be laid out, the length of the neck above the ground should be 6-7 cm. Then they tie the apple tree to the pegs and make a hole into which 25-30 liters of water are poured.
In the future, watering is carried out once a week for 5 liters in the morning and evening. Adult pepin saffron can be watered if necessary, depending on soil moisture.. Most of the moisture in the tree is required in July and August, because at this time there is a growth of fruits and the formation of buds for the next season.
By the end of the summer watering can stop at the time. Only after the leaves fall, the apple tree is plentifully filled with water for its most comfortable wintering.
High yields are directly dependent on the regular "nutrition" of the tree with organic, potash and phosphate fertilizers. They are added to the soil 3 years after planting.
How to trim?
Grade pepin saffron prone to fouling of branches, so the crowns must be cut annually. Strong fouling impedes the passage of air to the tree trunk. Also systematic cutting will be needed to preserve the qualities of the variety and the amount of the crop.
Overgrown crowns will lead to the following consequences:
- Frequent shedding of apples
- Reduce the size of the fruit,
- The spread of disease.
- Circumcision is best hold in April before budding,
- Crop need long and hanging to the ground branches,
- For crop improvement and disease prevention the tree needs thinning
- Firstly remove curves and weak shoots. They cut off completely to form a better branch,
- Only cut to до part from the whole volume of the tree.
Diseases and pests
This variety of apple is unstable to diseases and pests, most often exposed to scab. Mostly weak, uncut trees are at risk of the disease. In rainy weather, the probability of infection is especially high, so it is necessary to carry out preventive measures. Spraying the apple with a solution based on vitriol, sulfur or Bordeaux liquid 1% will help with the scab.
Ways to control pests:
- Codling moth,
This is a butterfly size up to 18 mm. It hibernates only in the bark, appears at the end of flowering, laying eggs on the foliage,
Preparations for the fight:
Spray three times, with 12 day intervals, according to the instructions.
- Apple treeworm,
Insect length of 2 mm, lives and develops in the bark of a tree. To notice the shield is quite difficult. Its presence is accompanied by early fall of foliage and the formation of red spots on apples.
Nitrofen is used to combat this pest., processing is carried out before bud break.
- Apple Blossom,
This is a brown weevil beetle. It eats only the buds and buds of flowers, laying off their offspring.
Preparations for the fight:
Spraying produced according to the instructions only during budding.
Gardeners reviews about peppe saffron
Olga P .: “For me, Pepin saffron is the most favorite variety of apples. For as long as I can remember, we always grew these apple trees in the garden. Their taste cannot be compared with anything, they are stored in the cellar almost all winter. Pepin is good in any form, even soaked, even dried". The ABC of the Gardener
Pavel R.: “I have grown Pepin for a long time, I like the taste and winter hardiness of apples. Most often we make compotes and mashed potatoes from them. Of the minuses can be called a loss with age taste and strong susceptibility to disease. Therefore, apple trees require constant care and attention. " The ABC of the Gardener
Vladimir N .: “I am an amateur gardener, growing different varieties of apples for many years. Pepin saffron good grade, juicy, cold-resistant. Harvest we shoot in early October, apples are stored almost until March. Especially like the pleasant aroma and sweet taste of apples. The most important thing is to properly harvest the apples, without damage, then they will definitely stay for a very long time. ” Garden
Svetlana V.: "Growing this variety is easy, the only flaw for me is its susceptibility to scab. We have to constantly process and monitor the state of the apple tree. And so, a very good grade. ”
In addition to the listed advantages of the variety, it can be distinguished. ability to regenerate even with significant damage to the tree. Pepin saffron apples are great for making jams, juices and other homemade preparations.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Trees «Saffron pippin "does not grow too high - usually a seedling with a round crown grows into a three-meter sprawling apple tree with wilted branches that can lean down to the ground under the weight of the fruit. The bark on young shoots is green, becomes gray with age, the leaves are elongated, pubescent, green-gray, and long and thin stalks. Fruiting begins from the 5th or 6th year, if the variety is grafted on a dwarf stock, then - from the 4th year of life. Young trees up to 10 years of age bring an average of 80 kg of apples, and after 10 years - from 190 to 220 kg.
"Saffron Pepin" was bred as a winter-hardy variety, but young trees should be sheltered for the winter. If an adult tree suffers from frost, it will not become critical, it will survive the injury without consequences.
With proper care, an apple tree produces a bountiful harvest every year, and disruption to care is fraught with fruit chopping.
In the description of the variety, its self-fertility is usually indicated, but many gardeners plant Antonovka, Slavyanka, and Welsey nearby. They say that in their presence, "Saffron Pepin" increases yields.
Apple trees of this grade are considered winter. The fruits are harvested at the very end of September (or October, if the climate allows), and the peak of consumer ripeness comes closer to the new year. Apples can be tasted as early as August - then they are yellowish-green, firm and juicy, the taste is more sour with sweetness than vice versa. In September, apples are poured with bright saffron blush, the taste begins to match the description of the variety - it becomes sweet with sourness.
Around the tree a little spicy wine flavor is felt. Picked apples smell much stronger. Ripe fruits have a round-conical shape, some implicitly show faces, through dots appear through a thin, but solid skin. Their flesh is creamy fine-grained. Fruits are medium size, their weight varies from 80 to 140 grams. The size of apples is influenced by the density of the crown, so it has to be thinned annually.
In order for the apples to remain until spring, they are ripped off somewhat earlier than ripeness, they are taken away completely intact specimens and put into wooden boxes in layers, shifting them with sawdust or paper. It is advisable to take boxes and sawdust from non-coniferous trees, otherwise apples will change their natural flavor. Containers with fruit kept in a cool room with a temperature of +1 to +3 degrees.
The description of Saffron Pepin draws attention to the fact that apples are subject to fungal diseases and scab, but proper care will help to cope with this. You can regularly carry out prevention, so as not to have to deal with treatment.
Features of growing
«Saffron Pepin does not like sour lands, prefers leached chernozem, light but nutritious loamy or sandy soil. Apple trees of this variety can not be planted in lowlands and places where there may be stagnation of water, where groundwater comes close to the surface, they need good drainage. It is best to choose a sublime open space that is well blown by the air flow.
A place for an apple should immediately choose a permanent. Painfully does not like "Pepin saffron" transplants.
Apple trees can be planted in autumn and spring, but many gardeners prefer spring planting, because before the winter the tree will have time to get a little stronger, and during the autumn planting it will need to be specially prepared for wintering. Anyway, for the autumn planting the plot is prepared from the beginning of August: compost, superphosphate and potassium salt are distributed on the site, then they are dug up.
If you plan to plant a tree in the spring, in the fall, a hole is dug with a diameter of at least 1.3 meters and a depth of 80 cm, and half-dug manure, an azofosca and wood ash are added to the ground. Manure can be replaced with ready-made compost. All this mixture is again poured into a hole, they cover it with something from above from precipitation, they leave it until spring.
Saplings "Pepina saffron" for planting is better to take at the age of one or two years, preferably to buy in nurseries or specialty stores. Before buying them you need to carefully inspect, no need to buy copies with the slightest damage or growths. The wood in a healthy seedling should be green, and the root should be wet, the place of grafting should be clearly visible.
Before planting, the roots of an apple tree are soaked in water for 4 hours, and just before lowering into the ground they are dipped into a clay mash. They dig a hole 80 cm in diameter and 70 cm in depth at a previously prepared place, drive two strong pegs around the sides, and in the middle pour some loose earth (which they had previously removed from the hole). Lowering the seedling into the pit, carefully straighten the roots, carefully cover them with earth, then trample the earth around. With proper planting, the root neck should rise above the ground by 5 or even 7 centimeters. After this, the trees are leveled, tied to pegs, and around it a hole is made, into which water is poured, at least 30 liters under a single tree.
The young tree after planting is watered every week with 10 liters of water, sometimes this irrigation is divided into two parts: it is watered in the morning and evening. An adult tree is watered out of necessity, usually it happens a couple of times in a month, of course, if it rains. It is best to check the humidity of the earth - you need to take a handful of earth and squeeze: if it crumbles after compression, then watering is necessary. The last two summer months are watered up especially carefully - this is the time for the formation of the next year's fruit buds and the pouring of the fruits of the current year. And towards the end of August, watering is stopped altogether. After the tree sheds all the leaves, it is moistened for the winter - watered so that the earth is soaked to a depth of a meter, this will help the roots to winter.
Pepin Saffron loves nutritious soil. One tree needs an area of 15 square meters for nutrition, and with abundant fruiting it chooses a lot of the substances it needs, so they need to be replenished if we want to regularly receive rich yields. Trees need organic and potassium phosphate fertilizers, which are applied after 2 or 3 years. After the trees have bloomed, they are watered fifteen times divorced bird droppings, and in September, rotted manure or compost is laid in the tree trunk. If ovaries fall off, the tree is poured with slurry, three times diluted with water.
This variety is very picky about the annual pruning of the crown. It is made in the spring before bud break. In the first year after disembarkation, all the branches should be shortened by two thirds, and the central conductor should be cut by 2 buds. Then the next few years they make formative pruning - designate skeletal branches, remove all branches that are 90 degrees from the trunk, and even 45 degrees, thin, remove damaged shoots.
And then produce anti-aging and sanitary pruning, be sure to remove the branches that are trying to grow vertically inside the crown. In adult trees, the top and skeletal branches are shortened. If you give the crown to grow, the branches will shade each other, it will certainly affect the crop - and without that medium-sized apples will generally turn into a trifle, the crops will not be annual.
Although this variety is considered to be frost-resistant, young trees definitely need to be protected from frost. To do this, after the abscissance of the foliage, the branches are gathered in a bundle, tied with paper or some special covering material, the ground around the trunk is mulched to a height of 10 cm with peat, manure, or simply with earth. Mature trees do not wrap this way, but when severe frosts hit, it is better to wrap the trunk with a covering material. Trees older than 5 years are recommended to whiten the trunk of a garden emulsion with lime for the winter.
In winter, not only frost, but also hungry hares and small rodents hibernating nearby are terrible to apple trees. From hares trunks wrapped garden net or just spruce branches. And rodents are frightened off with special devices or they place traps between the trees.
Apple Pepin Saffron
Apple Pepin saffron is more common in private gardens, having shown itself from the best side as late winter variety. It is grown in such regions of Russia as:
- Eastern and Western Siberia,
- Middle Volga,
- North Caucasus,
- Volgo-Vyatsky district,
- Central and Central Black Earth region,
- in the near abroad:
- Baltic States.
Such a wide regionalization is a pledge of unique popularity, however it should be noted that the need for regionalization appeared precisely because the absolute majority of gardeners in different parts of our country and not only dream about the fruits of Pepin appearing on their table.
Apple Pepin saffron.
Advantages and disadvantages
If speak about main virtues varieties worth noting the following:
- high yield
- высокое качество плодов, хорошая транспортабельность и товарные свойства,
- resistance to pests.
Among deficiencies can be identified:
- poor resistance to scab,
- demanding of soil growing conditions,
- non-uniform yield.
In height, a variety of apple Pepin saffron can be attributed to medium treesin height it can reach 3m, crown It has spherical shape, formed from thin drooping branches of rich green color with a gray bloom, one of the distinguishing features - strong shoot pubescence.
The leaves are of rich emerald color with a grayish tinge, elliptical in shape, pointed at the end, strongly pubescent, wrinkled.
Flowering Pepin saffron.
Flowers snow-white, small, abundantly covering a tree in June.
Fruit medium and small, weight may fluctuate from 90 to 130 g, rounded shape, slightly oblate in the center. The skin is thin, but rather dense, smooth, yellow-green in color with a crimson blush all over the fruit, attached to fruit twigs and spears with a thin long stem.
Pulp pleasant creamy, dense, possessing sweet and sour taste and delicate spicy aroma. Fruit tasting is high.
Variety Pepin saffron can be called self-fertile, that is, there is no particular need for planting pollinators to obtain a crop, but cross-pollination dramatically increases the quantitative indicators of yield. As pollinators can be used:
Winter hardiness and disease resistance
Pepin characterized by good winter hardiness and adaptive qualities.
With regard to resistance to the influence of pathogens, it should be noted unsatisfactory resistance to scab. It is necessary to understand and regularly carry out preventive spraying Biologicals to combat disease.
Terms and ways of landing
Landing young seedling Pepin saffron can be carried out in September, if frost is not foreseen, so that it can settle down before the onset of frost. In the spring landing can be started approximately from mid April, but again, when the threat of frost has passed. For planting pick up well-lit, heated by the sun areas, with a short groundwater table.
Pepin saffron is planted in well-lit areas.
Before landing root system of seedlings is recommended to hold in water at room temperatureduring which time it is possible to prepare a landing hole 50–60 cm deep and about 100 cm in diameter:
- The topsoil is mixed with humus or manure to improve the physicomechanical properties and enrich it with organic matter,
- A peg is placed in the center of the pit to support the seedling and the seedling itself, carefully poured over it with the soil mixture made earlier,
- Spill water
- Along the outer edge of the circle of the trunk circle a small roller is made of soil to preserve moisture.
Watch the video on how to plant an apple tree:
It is worth noting immediately that if planned landing creeping form of Pepin, initially, from the landing stage, care for such a seedling has its own characteristics. First of all, seedling in the planting hole is placed at an angle of 45 °, the root neck is buried by 3-5 cm. The soil is covered with a cone.
In consequence skeletal branches are formed by attaching them with special hooks to the soil. With the autumn planting it is done immediately, with the spring - in July. When preparing for winter, seedlings are spudding, I put down the trunk on 8–10 cm.
The scheme of planting apple.
Literate agricultural engineering includes several basic steps:
The apple tree is watered at the rate of 10 - 15 liters of water per adult tree in the period from spring to autumn, starting from the stage of budding, adjusted for weather conditions. Frequency of watering on average is 1 - 2 times a week.
Feed Pepin saffron need as organic fertilizerthat contribute in the fall, so and mineral - in spring: nitrogen-containing frozen soil, phosphorus-potassium contribute, starting with the budding period to filling the fruit with a multiplicity of 1 every two weeks.
Do not forget about such important events as loosening and removing weeds. Loosen the trunk circle the day after watering, weed vegetation is removed as needed.
In addition to sanitary pruningIn the fall, the tree needs whitewashing the trunk and processing damage that could occur in the spring-summer season. They are treated garden pitchwhich prevents the penetration of harmful organisms into the wound.
In the fall of the apple you need to whiten
Cropping and crown formation
Apple varieties Saffron pruned in the autumn and spring periods. In the autumn it is necessary in order to remove diseased and weakened shoots which can become the center of the spread of viral, fungal and bacterial diseases in winter.
In the spring spend formative trim. You need to start around 3 - 4 years after planting an apple tree. Delete:
- old shoots on which the ovaries will no longer form,
- branches that were damaged during the wintering process by snow drift,
- branches that grow inside the crown, which can shade the fruits of the sun in the summer.
You can also watch the video on how to properly prune apple trees:
Yield and Lezhkost fruits
Apple tree Pepin saffron is different excellent yieldso, on average, it is 220 - 250 kg, in the period of maximum flowering of fruiting can reach 280 kg.
The fruits have not only a stunning taste, but also a fresh apple, with a touch of wine and aroma. Small and medium in size, in weight, they can reach 140 g.
Fruits Pepin saffron.
Apple tree begins to bear fruit 4 - 5 year, but when grown on a dwarf stock - for 2 - 3 years. Fruiting annually, abundantly and amicably. Harvesting begins in September, but full ripening fruits reach 40 - 60 days after removal.Apples can be stored for up to 220 days - this is a unique quality for which the variety is most valuable by summer residents.
It is zoned in Central and Central Russia, the Volga region, the Moscow region. Demanding on the chemical composition of the soil, does not tolerate high acidityTherefore, if the pH of the soil in your area is not neutral, before planting it is necessary to conduct liming.
This kind of apple tolerates wintering, possesses the increased resistance to frosts.
In order to grow such a species, special care is needed, in which particular attention is paid to crown formation in such a way that the skeletal branches “spread” parallel to the soil.
Ural and Siberia
For regions with a harsh climate there is Special zoned subspecies of Pepin saffronwhich is endowed with such qualities as frost resistance, adaptability to sudden temperature changes and harsh wintering.
For the Urals and Siberia, a frost-resistant subspecies of Pepin saffron has been developed.
Cultivation of apple Pepin saffron does not cause much trouble if you are attentive and timely perform all necessary agrotechnical activities.
The taste and quality of fruits, their keeping quality and versatility - this is exactly what will suit any gardener.
What kind is it?
Apple-tree Pepin saffron - dessert late autumn varietygrown in some regions as late winter with removal in early November. Cultivation in the form of a spreading crop is possible, which allows it to be cultivated on the ground, even in the Perm region.
- sufficient winter hardiness
- early entry into fruiting,
- systematic yield,
- excellent taste,
- thin fruit amber,
- decorative appeal of the fruit.
It has excellent natural keeping quality of fruits. Increase shelf life is achieved through the creation of favorable conditions. Fruits of Saffron Pepin are a good and tasty source of vitamins in the cold season, suitable for boiling jams, jams, drying and fermentation. The physical characteristics of the apple trees of this species make them an excellent breeding material for obtaining new, viable varieties.
Saffron pepine - self-pollinated variety. At the same time, the presence of, for example, Antonovka, Slavyanka, Welsey or Calville Snow, will increase the yield.
For fruit storage storage is required with the ability to maintain a temperature of 1-2 0C.
The light weight of the fruit and the dense skin allow them to be placed in rows in small boxes of wood or plastic. The material of storage tanks should not have a strong odor, therefore, coniferous boards are not suitable for the manufacture of containers.
Apply to the separation of rows of apples:
- shavings (not coniferous),
- plain paper
- waxed / paraffin waxed tracings.
That labor costs on placement of apples on storage were not vain:
- I will eat fruits from trees before the onset of consumer maturity,
- harvesting is carried out as carefully as possible, avoiding the impact of the fruit on the ground, the walls of the container,
- fruits are sent to storage without any flaws in the form of: marks left by moths, dents, cracks, spots of deterioration.
Description of the grade Pepin saffron
Adult specimens have a rounded crown formed by drooping branches.. Without pruning, there is a strong thickening, which can cause chopping of fruits, deterioration of their presentation, outbreak of scab.
Look at the photo below and read the detailed description of the Pepin saffron variety, so as not to be mistaken when choosing seedlings or fruits.
Crown of young trees sprawling.
The bark on the adult tree is greenish gray, with time closer to rich gray.
Shoots thin. The shape of green foliage is an elongated oval. The veins are a bit lighter. The inner side of the foliage is slightly velvety. The edges are slightly jagged. Leaves are elongated.
Apples have an excellent wine-sweet spicy flavor, the best, according to Michurin, than many varieties growing in the south. Fruits are rounded-conical, of light weight (maximum 140 g).
The flesh is juicy and spicy, cream-colored, tender.
The main color yellow saffron. The surface pattern on the peel in the form of a dark red blush, formed by abundant strokes and stripes, among which there are small bright patches.
The bottom is even, the calyx is recessed, with a wide outer edge. Podchashechnaya funnel tube, small. The ribbing is weak. Cameras covered. The axial cavity is missing. The stem is thin, securely attached.
The variety was obtained thanks to the work of I. V. Michurin.
It was first bred in 1907 by pollination of southern Reneta of Orleans with pollen taken from a seedling obtained from two parents: Kitayka and Pepinka of the Lithuanian.
The goal of such a difficult work was the breeding of an exhibition variety with beautiful, long-lasting fruits.
Growing and distribution region
Pepin saffron is grown from the northern to the southern regions of the Russian Federation. Willingly cultivated by owners of large garden areas and private traders in the territories of the North-West, Volga-Votsk, Central, North-Caucasian, East-Siberian, Middle Volga, West-Siberian regions.
Planting and care
To save the representative of the best quality varieties, the annual pruning of the crown is necessary.
Pepin saffron planted in sunny places.
Dislikes close proximity to other treesbecause it needs space and sufficient air flow.
It is not recommended to break any beds under the trees, because the branches of an adult tree fall low, especially with fruits.
Initially, representatives of the variety had good immunity to the scab pathogen.. Modern specimens of Pepin saffron almost lost this quality: some apple trees in rainy weather are affected by scab, others are not. In order not to risk the harvest, it is better to immediately carry out preventive measures in the form of spraying with a solution of blue vitriol or preparations based on it.
The variety is prone to fouling by small branches, so the thinning of the crown should be performed annually.. Otherwise, an excess of branches will contribute to the insufficient flow of air into the crown.
What else threatens insufficient pruning of the crown of Pepin saffron:
Description, characteristic varieties with photos
Trees sredneroslye, three-meter, with characteristic drooping branches that form a dense, rounded crown. The branches are green with a noticeable bluish bloom and pubescence, with a large number of apples tend almost to the ground.
The size of the leaves is small, they have a matte green surface, a gray bloom and heavily pubescent leaf plate. Fruits form on kolchatka and fruit twigs.
Since the middle of the last century, saffron grade Pepin has won the love of gardeners in many regions of Russia and countries formerly part of the USSR: Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Estonia, Ukraine.
In Russia, it successfully grows and bears fruit in personal gardens of the Volga-Vyatka, North-West, Central Black Earth, Central, North Caucasus regions. Grow it in Siberia, in the Urals and Altai.
Beginning of fruiting - 3 year after planting. Trees with dwarf rootstock begin fruiting earlier by 2 years. The first apples are already being torn off for 2 years after planting.
Pollinators planted in the garden, increase the yield of Pepin, but it can bear fruit without them, as it is a self-bearing plant. Well if the garden will be an apple tree of one of the following varieties:
Apples can be plucked for food in August, but at this time they have a sour taste and yellow-green color, the fruits are covered with a blush in early autumn. The variety is winter, the end of September is the time of mass harvesting, it is harvested every year.
It is always plentiful - 280 kg of apples from one tree. Freshly picked apples need to be deposited, when they are lying, they will get a taste and in two months they will reach consumer ripeness.
The apples are kept well and for a long time. By April, their taste is even better, while the appearance of this commodity. Transportation does not affect the quality and appearance of the fruit.
Fruits are usually medium or small, weighing up to 140 g. The skin is dense and smooth. The fruits have a rounded conic or cylindrical shape, ribbing is noticeable little. Covering color is yellow-green. Blush dark red color. It shows subcutaneous points and longitudinal lines of a darker color. The pulp on the cut is creamy, dense, aromatic.
The taste of apples is sweet, sweet and sour with a great apple flavor. By chemical composition, fruits are rich in sugars and vitamin C, the acid content is low. The friability of apples is weak, on the branches they hold well due to long, strong stalks.
Apples are good for festive table decoration, they are happy to eat fresh. Preparations from them turn out excellent quality. Prepare:
Fans of old Russian recipes of peeled apples successfully harvest them for the winter and eat rich in nutrients, soaked fruits in the winter.
The variety is valuable not only fruits, it is still used as a breeding material for obtaining new varieties of apple trees. On its basis, Altai breeders have received many new and interesting varieties, which are now successfully grown in Siberia.
The main advantages
The variety is relevant for use in personal gardens due to its characteristic features:
- weak fall of fruits,
- the crop is stored without loss until spring,
- early entry into fruiting time,
- high, regular yields,
- there is no need to start a pollinator in the garden - the variety is self-fertile,
- good restoration of the tree after damage to the trunk and branches in the winter,
- fruits do not lose shape during transport.
It is possible to note a number of features that are classified as deficiencies:
- fruits are small,
- poor resistance to scab pathogens,
- not high frost resistance
- it requires regular processing of the crown throughout life to obtain stable yields and preserve the size of the fruit,
- trees require care.
Fighting pests and diseases
The main enemy is scab, every year Pepin's resistance to this disease decreases. To start a fight in time, you need to know the symptoms. The alarm is a brown spot appearing on fruits or leaves.
Anti-scab agents. Spring - we have time to, until the buds have blossomed, to prepare a solution of Bordeaux mixture and treat them with trees. While the kidneys are not swollen, spray with a 3% solution. For swollen kidneys only 1%, since a solution of greater concentration will lead to a burn.
Summer - repeat treatment with 1% solution only if absolutely necessary. Autumn - thorough cleaning of fallen leaves, trunk cleaning and whitewashing with lime.
Scab prevention is a well-formed crown of a tree: without patients and unnecessary branches, leading to crown thickening, deterioration of its ventilation.
Pests that reduce the quality and quantity of the crop:
- comma-shaped shield,
- the flower is apple
Ordinary sanitary measures help prevent critical pest infestation of a tree: loosening a tree trunk, removing fallen foliage from tree trunks. All damage to the bark cleaned and smeared with a garden pitch. In addition to the solution of copper sulphate it is appropriate to use in the garden preparations that protect against pests: karbofos, nitrafen.
How to keep the harvest until spring
The valuable quality of the variety is its keeping quality up to 200 days. But in order to avoid losses, it is necessary to observe certain requirements during storage:
- storage air temperature 0 ° C,
- depositing apples with no signs of spoilage and mechanical damage,
- longer stored apples, plucked in their immature form,
- the fruits are laid in tare layers, pereslaiv them paper or chips.
Fruits are small, even in size. It is very convenient to store and transport too. We take shallow plastic boxes and stack them in several layers. The variety is winter, so the taste of apples is not interesting at first, but after two months of laying it is manifested in all its wealth. Next to apples, there is no need to store odorous substances, as they absorb all odors well.
I refer the variety Pepin saffron to the best Russian varieties. I spend a lot of time on care. I regularly fertilize, prune, treat for pests and the result of my apple trees on the face. Scars never get sick, bear fruit every year. Apples are all smooth, high-quality, tasty, we eat all winter.
Apples lie well until spring, the taste is sweet and sour, pleasant. The flesh dense during storage does not become wadded, retains juiciness and density.
Perennial fruiting of apple trees is possible with proper care. For this, you do not need to spare either time or energy for gardening.
Advantages and disadvantages
Despite the fact that the Pepin Saffron variety is a winter one, the rich taste of apples pleases both adults and children. Due to the content of sugar and vitamins from “Pepin”, fruit purees for babies are unparalleled, and practical hostesses will make the most delicious marmalades and candied fruits from apples.
Those who prefer Russian cuisine, harvest from them gorgeous moistened apples, use dried fruits from fruits.
If we talk about the benefits of the fruit "Pepin Saffron", then the following should be noted:
- high and regular yield,
- excellent taste,
- low shedding of fruits
- high transportability - apples can be transported over long distances, they will not deteriorate and retain their taste,
- winter hardiness
As for the shortcomings, then it should be noted that the fruits are poorly resistant to the pathogens of scab, a dangerous agricultural plant disease caused by bacteria and fungi. Therefore, if the season, when the fruits ripen, will be rainy, you must take care of the integrity of the crop.
Most often gardeners use special chemicals against fungi, which include sulfur and copper sulfate.
In order for the trees to bear fruit annually, it is necessary to prune the crown regularly, this is also considered not very convenient in gardening.
If you decide to plant Pepin Saffron trees on your garden plot, you should seriously prepare for this process.
Even if you have to plant a couple of trees, it is better to choose them not in the market, but in special stores. Sometimes unscrupulous sellers can offer you a completely different variety, issuing the desired "Pepin Saffron". It may happen that the merchants themselves do not know that the saplings of the tree are sick or treated with strong chemicals. Ideally, if the sapling grew on the territory of the nursery - then the option of the pedigree is excluded.
But in the store you can ask for a quality certificate to make sure that you are buying a healthy and necessary seedling. And be sure to remember that buying trees is better than those that independently threw off the foliage. The remaining greens will absorb all the moisture, and, most likely, the tree will die. Vendors in the market often offer spring seedlings that could not be sold in the fall.
It is better to plant an apple tree in September or early October, if strong frosts are not foreseen in your area so that the tree can adapt and survive the winter. The leaves that appeared on the seedling will already fall off, and the nutrients necessary for the future growth of the plant will “concentrate” in the trunk.
If a tree is planted in spring, better to do it in mid-april, again, given the climatic features.
It is better to choose a sapling whose age is more than a year, better than two. On such a tree should not be more than two branches, and the height of the seedling should not exceed one and a half meters. Ideal - the presence of vaccinations, which is located 10 centimeters above the root.
The place for an apple tree is sunny, without drafts. Does not like the apple tree and excess moisture, it can die. If the soil is acidic, neutralize it with lime mortar.
It is advisable to choose a permanent place for the apple tree, the tree does not like transplants. Before planting, hold the roots of “Saffron Pepin” in room temperature water, then soak them in special insecticide solutions, this will help protect the root system from possible plant diseases.
If you plan to plant an apple tree in the fall, prepare a place for planting in the summer - enrich the soil with necessary components.
- First of all, compost is a complete fertilizer containing organic substances that feed the root system. This may include both manure and bird droppings.
- Potassium salt, so necessary to apple seedlings.
- Superphosphates - mineral fertilizers.
All components are mixed and distributed in the area where the apple tree will grow. It is advisable to carefully dig the soil with the resulting fertilizer.
We are preparing a planting pit, the dimensions of which are no different from the standard ones: 1 meter in diameter and not less than 80 cm deep. We mix the excavated earth with compost, you can add more mineral fertilizers. We fall asleep the ground back into the pit and let it stand.
Prior to the intended landing pit should be moderately soaked with moisture.
When starting planting, the main thing is not to overdo it, not to plant a seedling too deep. At the very beginning, place a peg in the center of the dug hole, you can even have two, on which the seedling will later “rely”, then place the apple tree itself. Be sure to make sure that the roots of the tree are straightened, otherwise they may die. Pour the prepared, fertilized soil gradually, tamping each layer after about 10-15 centimeters. Water the seedling planted with a bucket of water, you can two, having equipped a kind of roller around the pit with enriched soil, which will subsequently retain moisture.
Carefully tie the tree to the peg so that it does not collapse during a strong wind. If you plant more than one seedling, remember that an apple tree is a freedom-loving tree, loves a lot of light, it needs room for branches and the root system. The next seedling is recommended to be planted at a decent distance, given that each tree requires an area of more than 12 square meters.
Description of Apple Pepin Saffron
Apple trees of this variety grow to their medium size in about 6 years and have a fairly dense crown in the shape of a ball with lowered branches and foliage. Young long stems with buds and foliage usually hang down to the ground. The fruits grow on thin annual branches, the length of which reaches 15 cm. The foliage of the plant is small, slightly oblong, dull and has pointed ends.
Pepin Saffron apples grow to medium size. Weigh fruits about 130 g, but the average weight, as a rule, does not exceed 80-90 g. They have a slightly flattened and slightly ribbed shape.
Apples Pepin Saffron (photo):
Apples of this variety have a greenish-yellow color, on which red stripes and dots appear. During storage, when the fruit finally ripens, they become more orange. Their stems usually reach about 3 cm in length and 2 mm in thickness. They come out of the groove with slightly orange edges. Apples are attached to the branches very securely.
Fruit pulp is juicy, crispy and firm. She has a cream color.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
Apple Pepin Saffron have moderate resistance to frost, which makes them unsuitable for the northern regions of Russia. However, in Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan and the countries of the Transcaucasus, this variety easily endures wintering and quickly restores the branches after injuries caused by cold.
Drought this type of apple tolerates not very good. In an excessively dry climate, Pepin Saffron may stop producing crops if it is not watered regularly.
The apple tree of this variety is self-pollinated and self-fertile. However, if you apply a suitable pollinator, you can significantly increase the yield.
Slavyanka, Antonovka, Welsey and Kaliville Snezhniy can be used most effectively as a pollinator. The stock will begin to bear fruit after 4-5 years from the moment of vaccination.
Yield and fruiting
Apple tree begins to bear fruit after 4 years after planting or rootstock (maximum - in 5 years). A full crop can be obtained after 7 years. If you provide the plant with suitable care and the necessary level of humidity, an apple tree can produce about 250 kg of fruits per year.
Scope of fruit
Apples of this variety can be eaten fresh or used to make juice, jam, marmalade, jam, mashed potatoes, etc. Also they can be used as an ingredient for salads and pastries.
Apples tolerate transportation. You can store them up to 220 days. During storage, they acquire a higher quality of taste, without losing the presentation.
Disease and Pest Resistance
One of the disadvantages of this variety is that its apples are exposed to scab and fungal diseases (especially powdery mildew). It is moderately resistant to the moth - the pest butterfly mostly spoils the seed kernel. In order to prevent damage to the plant and its crop, it is necessary to regularly treat the apple tree using fungicides and other means.
Choosing the right place
Choosing a place for planting, you should pay attention to the following points: you must immediately choose a permanent place, since this variety does not tolerate transplants, and you must choose a solid soil with good illumination. Lack of light can make fruits small and savory.
For Pepin Saffron suitable floodplain soils, leached chernozem and loam.
Selection and preparation of planting material
If you plant a plant in the autumn, you need to prepare the soil in advance in August. To fertilize the place, you need to mix potassium salt (40 g), superphosphate (50 g) and manure or compost (5 kg) and evenly distribute throughout the site. After that, the soil must be dug up to mix it with fertilizer.
Before spring planting, the ground should be prepared in the fall. To do this, you need to dig a planting pit, the depth of which should be about 1 m and a diameter of 1.5 m. You need to dig the soil in it with a mixture of compost (7 kg), ashes (450 g) and azofoski (250 g). Fertilized pit should be closed until spring comes.
Before planting, it is necessary to moisten the seedling roots in any insecticide solution in order to protect the plant from pests.
In the process of planting it is very important not to bury the seedling too deep into the soil. His neck should be at a height of 6-7 cm from the ground. The algorithm for planting apple Pepin Saffron is as follows:
- Dig a hole with a depth of approximately 0.7-0.8 m and a width of 1 m.
- Make a small slide on its bottom.
- Lower the seedling into the pit and bury.
- Stomp the soil with your feet.
- Drive two pegs along the edges of the pit and tie a seedling to them.
- Fill the soil with a bucket of water.
Aftercare for the apple tree
To keep the apple tree healthy and bring a good harvest, you need to follow some rules for caring for it:
- Water the soil. Saplings need watering in the mornings and evenings (5 liters of water at a time). When the plant grows up, it is necessary to moisten the ground as needed.
- Soil need to weed and loosen near the trunk of an apple tree.
- The soil must be fertilized. An apple tree can be fertilized with phosphate or potassium substances when it turns 2-3 years old.