In the world there are wild and cultivated plants. Their main difference lies in the fact that a cultivated person grows purposefully, displays a variety of varieties within species.
However, this is a non-scientific classification of flora representatives.
Common classification of wild and cultivated plants
Scientists divide all plants into two sub-kingdoms: lower and higher. The first group consists of four sections: brown, green, red and diatoms. The higher divisions include the following sections: moss-like, horse-shaped, lenticular, psilotovidnye, fern, gymnosperms and angiosperms. The first five groups of plants multiply with the help of spores, and the last two - with seeds. Gymnosperms differ from angiosperms in that they have flowers, so the plants in this section are also called flowering plants. Basically, the cultivated plants of the world belong to the angiosperms division. And in general, flowering and gymnosperms are by far the most numerous groups of plants.
Variety of angiosperms
Wild and cultivated plants, propagated by seeds, are very diverse and numerous.
Let's first consider the scientific classification of these representatives of the flora. So, wild-growing and cultivated plants belonging to the flowering department are divided into two classes depending on the structure of the seeds: monocots and dicots. To monocotyledons belong such families as cereal and lily. Such plants in most cases are cultivated. Such species as birch, willow, solanaceous, cruciferous, bean, complex-colored, rosaceous can be attributed to dicotyledons. Among them there are also many crops that are grown by man.
Other plant classifications
Depending on the life form, wild and cultivated plants can be divided into eight groups:
- Trees These are perennial plants with a woody, pronounced stem from 2 meters in height.
- Shrubs (shrubs). Perennial representatives of the flora with stiff stalks, however, do not have a pronounced stem. The branching of such plants begins from the soil itself.
- Shrubs. These are perennial plants with stiffened lower parts of stems and grassy upper ones. Their height is 1 meter. This is not such a large group of plants. Only certain types of ephedra, astragalus, and the like belong to it.
- Shrubs. Possess the same qualities as shrubs, but a smaller height - not more than 0.5 meters.
- Half-shrubs. Very similar to shrubs, but have approximately the same height as the shrubs. Half-shrubs include, for example, some types of wormwood.
- Succulents. Perennial plants with juicy, fleshy stems and leaves, which contain spare water. This group includes many indoor flowers: aloe, kalanchoe, cacti, etc.
- Lianas. They need support to maintain the situation. They are divided into climbing and climbing.
- Herbs. Plants with juicy green shoots are not stiff. This life form has many cultivated plants and potted flowers.
- There are also life forms such as parasites and epiphytes. They are similar in that they settle on other plants. However, the difference between them is that parasites feed at the expense of their "owners", and epiphytes do not cause any harm to the plants on which they live.
Wild and cultivated plants, examples of which can be seen in the pictures, can also be divided into groups depending on the duration of their life. So, allocate annuals, biennials and perennials. Annuals and biennials are mainly herbaceous plants, while perennial plants may be shrubs, half-shrubs, trees, etc.
Cultivated and wild plants. Titles
Grade 2 of secondary school is the period when children begin to receive systematic knowledge about objects of animate and inanimate nature. An earlier study of the subject is propedeutic in nature. But already in the second grade, concepts such as cultivated and wild plants are introduced, for example.
The name of the groups becomes clear to the children after doing the exercises, where it is proposed to compare pairs of plants. For example, spruce and apple, birch and plum, gooseberry and juniper, tomatoes and coltsfoot, peas and chicory. The teacher invites children to pay attention to where the compared species grow, what conditions are necessary for them, who cares for them.
After the work done, children easily come to the conclusion that all plants are divided into two large groups. Those caring for people are called cultural. Wild plants got their name due to the fact that they grow everywhere. For their development, ripening, fruiting does not require human intervention.
Wild plants: examples
One can cite a great many examples of such representatives of the fauna. Among these plants can be found very different. In general, they can be divided into three groups.. The first group includes plants that do not bring a person neither good nor harm. These are the majority. As a rule, they are used by animals and birds as pasture. The second group includes plants that benefit a person. And finally, the third group can be attributed flowers and herbs, which it is desirable to bypass, as they only bring harm to a person.
The “harmful group” includes poisonous shrubs (for example, poisonous milestones) and weeds, which cause great harm to agriculture, drowning out useful plants (for example, wheatgrass or garden bilge). The following can be attributed to the “useful” group:
- Plants that a person uses for treatment. Of these, people prepare medicinal decoctions and infusions, brew tea with them, which has healing properties. Examples of these are plantain, virgin, coltsfoot, dandelion,
- Beautiful flowers that bring aesthetic benefits to man. From them you can make original bouquets and flower arrangements. These include a variety of forest flowers,
- Herbs and flowers that are good honey plants, such as clover,
- Edible roots and herbs that people eat. They contain a large amount of vitamins and nutrients. The main thing is to collect them not along the roads, but in the forest or in the field. The most vivid examples of green grass are wild sorrel, snyt, stinging nettle.
Many wild there are "cultivated" doubles. As a rule, in this case they differ from each other in size and appearance. For example, wild sorrel is different from sorrel, which is grown in the garden, smaller in size and another form of leaves. In the same way, wild strawberry differs from its “cultivated” relative, strawberries or Victoria, in the form of leaves, in size and taste of berries.
These flora representatives many interesting features. You can read about this in school textbooks on botany, as well as in special reference books. Among the most striking features are the following:
- They adapt well to any temperature fluctuations, to any weather and climatic conditions,
- Compared with their “cultural” relatives, wild-growing ones are more frost-resistant and resistant to aggressive external influences,
- Their fruits are often unsuitable for food because of the sour taste. So, for example, the fruits of the apple-wild can seem completely inedible compared to the fruits of those apple trees that grow in the garden and garden,
- Cultivated plants can not be made wild. Even those shrubs and trees that grow in abandoned gardens and gardens almost do not "run wild" over time. But the wild can easily be "cultivated" by grafting.
Among the wild plants a lot of poisonousrepresenting a mortal danger to humans. One of the most dangerous is the poisonous milestone, it was even used in the old days as poison when they wanted to destroy a disagreeable person. In order to avoid deadly danger, you need to know what poisonous plants look like. You can see their photos on the Internet and in specialized literature. And children should be firmly aware that it is strictly prohibited to vomit, let alone take them into their mouth without the permission of adults.
This elementary rule of safe behavior in the forest and in the field must be strictly followed. Also know the poisonous plants "in the face" must be farmers who themselves harvested feed for livestock. Among wild plants there are herbs that are harmless to humans, but can cause serious food poisoning in domestic animals.
Among these plants are many medicinal. Also, many wild plants are excellent food for small and large horned livestock. If you read about the benefits of these plants, you can learn a lot of interesting things. From time immemorial, many herbs in Russia have been considered curative, beneficial, and even nutritious: in the years of famine during poor harvest, many herbs were eaten. Of course, among wild grasses and flowers there are a lot of poisonous and harmful weeds. Therefore, it is very important not to confuse useful wild plants with harmful or “neutral” ones, which do not bring any benefit or harm.
For example, Wild sorrel is of two kinds: edible sorrel (small small leaves) and "horse" sorrel, which has no nutritional value and does not have a pleasant taste (a plant with a thick long stem and large leaves, shaped like edible wild sorrel). Many wild plants with practical benefits, people purposefully plant and grow. For example, the clover can grow by itself, and it can be grown for feeding large and small cattle or as a honey plant for a beekeeping farm.
Now there are few people who are well versed in the benefits of wild plants, with the exception of botanists. But, in the old days in russia there were a lot of herbalists. They not only prepared medicines from them, but also attributed sacral or magical properties to some herbs. Practical knowledge of the benefits of wild plants was mixed with superstition. Currently, the ancient science of herbs has become a practical branch of medicine - herbal medicine.
Modern phytotherapeutists no longer attribute magic properties to wild herbs, but they are used to make medicines that effectively treat many serious diseases, including oncology. Many people who lead a healthy lifestyle actively include edible roots in their daily diet. Their main advantage is that they contain powerful antioxidants that slow the process of physiological aging.
Since ancient times, wild plants play an important role in human life. They may befriends "and" enemies ". Therefore, it is very important to know "by face" both useful and poisonous. Useful wild plants - the first assistants of man in the treatment, nutrition, agriculture. In order to make the most efficient use of their useful properties, you need as often as possible to read specialized literature on botany, biology and nature of the native land.
Structure and protection
Most representatives of the flora have:
Escape called the stem with leaves. The trunk is the “stem” of the tree. The root system and foliage are the breadwinners of trees and grasses. And with the help of the roots they are kept on the surface of the earth. As a result of development, which lasted for many centuries, some members of the plant kingdom learned to defend themselves against insects and animals that are herbivores.
Most often in the role of defenders are the stems and leaves. Foliage can secrete a special substance that makes the plant bitter in taste or even poisonous (henbane or wormwood), or stinging (nettle), or sharp (sedge and cactus). Very often, the stems surround themselves with thorns and thorns.. All these methods help protect plants from all those who want to eat them.
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The flora of the Earth is not just rich, but diverse. That is, the plants are very different from each other. At the same time, they can be combined by some features. In appearance, they are united in the family. This means that they have common ancestors that appeared very, very long time ago.
For example, there is a family of cereal, or grasses, which include the famous plants used in the economy:
Of all the cereal crops, the main one is wheat, which they began to grow even when people lived in caves.
More plants are divided into species and genera. How this division takes place can be found in special books - reference books. This is necessary in order to know whether it is possible to use a plant for food, to make medicines from it.
A large number of plants do not form seeds, flowers and fruits. Many are not painted green, and in some there is no chlorophyll at all, such as in mushrooms. In terms of their size, representatives of the flora are also different. Some are small in size and can only be seen with a microscope. Others, reaching their maturity, become giants.
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In addition to the differences described above., plants are cultivated and wild.
- Cultural are those that people themselves plant and care for them.
- And the wild multiply, grow, bloom and bear fruit by themselves.
The cereals that have already been mentioned are also cultivated. They are most important for human life. After them, potatoes, beets, peas and beans are especially valued. Some cultivated plants are eaten not only to humans, but also to animals. They are also used to make medicines, they are grown for beauty, planting them in parks, gardens and on the windowsill.
Man uses various parts of plants for his needs:
However, at first all the plants were wild. Many types of people brought from different countrieswhere there were other weather conditions. They had to give the plants more or less moisture and nutrients, plant them sooner or later.
Wild and domestic
Having become cultivated, the plants have changed a lot, especially those parts that people need. They have increased in size, and their properties have changed. For example, the fruits of apple and strawberry have become much larger and tastier. Potatoes now contain more starch and also become larger. Cereals in grains compared with their predecessors contain more substances needed by man.
Wildlife species need fewer nutrients than their cultural “brothers”. Most of the wild and cultivated plants need a lot of moisture for their life and development. To collect a rich harvest, it is necessary to study what is needed for each species and follow the rules.
There are wild and grass, and trees, and shrubs.
Consider some of them.
It belongs to the family of plantains and is annual and perennial. It grows along roads, fields, meadows and wastelands. There are many types of plantain, including large and medium. It is used for the manufacture of drugs that heal wounds, make tinctures of it, which they drink, so that food digests better when the throat hurts. Plantain seeds stick to the skins of animals, clothing, shoes, people - so they spread over large areas.
Like the plantain, it grows near roads, in meadows and fields. This is a perennial herb belonging to the Compositae family. This name comes from the fact that the yarrow has large white flowers with many petals. It is used as a medicine.They are added to various dishes to improve their taste and are bred to admire them.
It is also a perennial grass and also belongs to the asteraceae. Well known is the dandelion officinalis. He has long basal leaves and bright yellow flowers. When night falls or in inclement weather, it closes. When breeding time comes, the yellow petals fall and are replaced by transparent hairs. They are picked up by the wind and carried over long distances. Dandelion is also known as a medicinal plant, which is clear from its name.
Flowering herb from the nettle family. Its stems and leaves cover burning hairs. Therefore, touching the nettle is dangerous - it burns the skin and blisters appear on it. Usually such burns do not cause much harm, although they cause pain. But in hot countries there are some species that you can die by touching. Thus, the plant is protected from herbivores. It is one-year and multi-year. Nettle fruit is a small flat nut.
Nettle is used in medicine, soup and salad are made from it, and pets are fed with it. To stop it to be burning, it needs to be doused with boiling water. Крапиву хорошо добавлять в воду, когда волосы ополаскиваются после мытья.After that they become smooth, silky.
It has long been in Russia from nettle sewed sails and strong bags. In Japan, fabric was fabricated from it, which was very durable. From this fabric they sewed clothes for warriors and even made shields and bowstrings for bows. Today this plant is used in the production of light tissue.. And with the help of infusion of dried nettle leaves, they fight pests, such as aphids.
- Apple tree.
- Birch tree.
- Forest grapes.
In the wild, there are plants that are also grown in the garden:
Plants from the Red Book
The number of some wild plants is greatly reduced due to both climate change and human economic activity. They are included in the Red Book, they must be protected so that the plants do not disappear completely from the face of the Earth.
- Anemone forest.
- Wolf hair
- Adonis spring.
- European bathhouse.
- May lily of the valley.
- Lyubka two-leaved.
- Juniper ordinary.
- Primrose officinalis.
- Shephert (coppice).
- Snow white snowdrop.
- Backache (sleep-grass).
Snow white snowdrop.
Dissolving in April. His flower is very beautiful. It consists of six petals white. It is also called a milky flower, as a snowdrop bud resembles a drop of milk. Because of its beauty, this plant is torn down by people in large quantities. Therefore, around the big cities, he no longer occurs. Collect snowdrops, like other plants from the Red Book, is strictly prohibited.
A small perennial plant with a branched root. The flowers are collected in inflorescences, umbrellas. When they first open, they have a bright purple color, and later darken. As the flowers bloom gradually, the lungfish has a multi-colored color. It is used in medicine since ancient times. It is dismissed in April - May only for one month. Medunitsa plant is named because the bees collect tribute from it in early spring.
A small upright shrub. He has few branches with a grayish-yellow bark. The stem and branches are covered with brown dots. The leaves are long, oval, twisting at the tips of the branches. A peculiarity of wolf bast is that at first lilac-pink flowers appear first, and then leaves. Flowers exude a delicate scentthat resembles the smell of vanilla. The poisonous fruit ripens in August, it is red in color, the leaves are green.
A small herb that has loose tassels of fragrant white flowers of the same size. Lyubka blossoms double in late May and all of June. It is also called forest orchid - for its beauty or night violet, since by evening it starts to smell very strong.
In nature, in addition to animals, plants have other natural enemies - these are the so-called pests, which include:
- Ticks. They are found in nature several thousand species. Most are microscopic in size. Among them are very dangerous. Getting on the leaves or stalks, they suck the juice out of them, which is why the shoots begin to lose shape. Some ticks are carriers of viruses.
- Moth spotted. These insects belong to the butterfly family. Small larvae of small size, rarely found individuals of medium size, which have a wingspan of from 5 to 20 mm. Caterpillars eat foliage, after which the plant most often dies.
- Adult aphid. There are thousands of aphid species. This is a very small insect of black or green color ranging in size from 1 to 5 mm. In the middle of summer, many aphids have wings that help them move long distances to search for new food. Aphid lives on the underside of leaves, on the buds and tops of plant shoots. She eats foliage, stalks and flowers.
With all kinds of pests need to be fought with the help of special tools, otherwise they can destroy trees, grass and shrubs.
In the plant world, flora is classified according to characteristic features, life expectancy and habitat.. The term of life is divided into several growing periods:
- Annuals. Their full cycle lasts for one year and ends in complete extinction. Most often grow on dry soils of the steppe zone, semi-deserts and deserts. In rare cases can be found in the circumpolar regions and high mountains.
- Two-year-olds live from a year to two years. Under favorable conditions, the winter cold is well tolerated. In the first year of existence, the stem, leaves and root system are formed. The next year comes the time of flowering, the appearance of fruits and seeds, followed by death.
- Perennial representatives of the flora, living for two years or more, are divided into deciduous and evergreen species. In the tropics and subtropics grow steadily, in temperate latitudes resistant to low temperatures. They are capable of repeated flowering and fruiting.
According to their purpose, they are divided into edible, neutral, medicinal and wild plants dangerous for human activity and human health. The names and properties of many of them are important to know in order to avoid poisoning.
- Useful - these are plants that are used in cooking or in herbal medicine.
- Neutrals are not consumed by humans and are not harmful. They are eaten by herbivores and birds.
- Dangerous herbs contain toxic substances or are weeds that slow down the growth of horticultural crops.
Some edible species have their cultivated twins. These include sorrel and wild strawberries. They are distinguished from their household counterparts by their smaller leaves and fruits.
Many wild herbaceous plants are superior in their healing properties to pharmaceutical preparations and are widely used in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. Some grow only in the wild, others have long been grown at home. The most popular plants include the following types:
- Burdock, or burdock, is widely distributed near human habitation, in forests, ravines. It has large leaves and thick rhizome. Propagated by spherical spines. Flowering period - from June to August. The root contains essential oils, ascorbic acid, tannins, proteins. Used in medicine and cosmetology.
- Chicory - Asteraceae plant with blue flowers and milky juice. It grows along roads, in fields and meadows. In addition to inulin, it is rich in various organic acids, glycosides, B vitamins, zinc, copper, iron, and chromium. Famous as a great coffee substitute. It is indicated for diabetes, diseases of the cardiovascular system.
- Purple Echinacea is known for its powerful immunostimulating effect. In nature, there are ten species of plants with white, yellow and pink flowers.
- Yarrow is a very popular medicine in folk medicine. Treats perennial plants with small flower baskets of pink or white shade. It grows in the steppes and forests. It is used in inflammatory processes, allergic reactions, high blood pressure. It consists of acids, resins, fatty and essential oils.
- Dioecious nettle is found everywhere. It has a long creeping rhizome and burning hairs on the stem and leaves. It has a hemostatic and wound healing effect. The plant is rich in ascorbic and formic acid, proteins, tannins.
- Crushed sea buckthorn is wild and garden. Famous for its outstanding nutritional and healing properties. The branches of small trees or shrubs at the end of summer are covered with orange fruits. The list of useful substances includes mineral salts, vitamins P and C, fatty oils.
- Air due to the rich content of essential oils, starch, tannins is useful in hypertension, bronchitis, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. It inhabits nearby swamps, lakes, floodplain meadows. Contraindicated in pregnancy, peptic ulcer, renal failure, hypotension.
- Dandelion, despite its valuable medicinal properties, is considered a weed and destroyed. It contains such useful elements as phosphorus and potassium. It is recommended as a sedative, sedative and tonic. Broths and dandelion juice cleanse the body of toxins, relieve fever, improve the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract.
Such herbs as mint and thyme, not only have healing properties, but also give the broth a pleasant taste. Dried leaves can be used instead of tea all year round.
In the plant diversity an important place is occupied by larger species of flora, which belong to the family of shrubs. They are unpretentious to weather changes, do not require artificial pollination and can decorate any area. Shrubs, like herbs, are divided into groups:
- Blossoming is jasmine, lilac, spirea, Japanese quince. They bravely tolerate frosts, their lush bloom brings a unique decor, no matter in the forest or in the garden. In addition, the flowers of lilac and jasmine are very fragrant.
- Deciduous species are common both in the wild and in home gardens. The most popular ones are barberry, hawthorn, sea buckthorn, and wild rose. The fruits of plants have a rich composition of vitamins and beneficial elements. Widely used in medicine and cosmetic industry.
- Coniferous shrubs are well suited for landscape design and the creation of decorative hedges. Their advantage is the ability to please greenery in the winter. These include dwarf pine, Canadian spruce, juniper.
Before you move the natural shrubs to your site, you must carefully familiarize yourself with their characteristics and how to care for them.
The most attractive forest dwellers are flowering plants. Each of them has its own flowering period. Therefore, you can admire the subtle beauty of forest flowers from early spring to late autumn.
The first spring flowers appear on forest edges when there is still snow. They are called snowdrops. When the soil is finally warming up, lilies of the valley, violets, crocuses, anemones begin to bloom. Among the ornamental varieties bred by breeders There are also very rare species on private plots:
- The noble liverhead is very similar to the glades and snowdrops. Flowers are abundantly covered with pollen that attracts insects. The flower has no fragrance and does not fade within a week. Prefers open areas, well lit by sunlight. It has medicinal properties.
- Spring Chistyak blooms bright yellow glossy stars and appears in early spring along with snowdrops. Is a medicinal plant, but during the maturation of the flowers accumulates toxic substances. Due to rapid reproduction can turn into a weed.
- Crested hen - its inflorescences resemble a brush, are purple or lilac. Prefers mixed forests and soils rich in humus. Tuberous root. The flowering period is two months - from mid-spring to early summer.
- May lily of the valley is found on forest edges and in ravines. Flowers resemble bells with a rich aroma and are surrounded by large smooth leaves. This plant is popular among herbalists, as it is used in the treatment of various pathologies of the cardiovascular system. It spreads with the help of birds that eat the bright red fruits of the lily of the valley.
Blooming in summer
Summer pleases with a rich variety of natural flora. Wild flowers cover the plains and forest glades.. Among them, a special place is occupied by plants with a healing effect:
- Ivan tea, or narrow-leaved fireweed, reaches a height of two meters, the stem is steady, the inflorescences are large, gathered in a brush. Color crimson with a pink tinge. Favorite habitat - cutting, conflagration, the slopes of ravines. At home, requires thinning due to the strong growth of rhizomes. Honey plant with a mass of healing properties.
- Solomon print, or kupena, the shape of the flowers is a bit like large lilies of the valley. But, unlike the latter, has no smell. He likes wet soil among deciduous and coniferous trees. For cultivation in the garden can be propagated by dividing the root. Kupena is poisonous, but is a medicinal plant.
- Meadowsweet, or meadowsweet, with a high straight stem and inflorescences in the form of a panicle, has a pronounced aroma of cucumber. The flowers are small, pinkish or pale yellow. It inhabits steppes or forest-steppe regions. Meadowsweet is a very moisture-loving plant. It has excellent honey and healing properties.
Summer meadows have a huge amount of flowering herbs. Among them - cornflowers, forget-me-nots, bells, wild poppies, chamomiles. They can be collected for therapeutic purposes or make beautiful bouquets for aesthetic pleasure.
Autumn is a no less bright season, when many plants fade, and they are replaced by more modest inhabitants of autumn nature. These include:
- Oregano, or Oregano ordinary, is a small light-loving plant. The ends of the branches are decorated with panicles of purple color. It has a fragrant aroma and bitter taste. Widely used in traditional medicine and cooking as a spice. It grows in pine and aspen areas of the forest.
- Pansies, or tricolor violet, bloom all summer and until the first frost in late October. The forest violet differs from its field relative only by the color of the petals. Unpretentious. It grows in low forest, near roads and in forest belts on neutral soils. It is considered a medicinal plant.
- Kolhikum, or autumn autumn crocus, with the onset of autumnal cold weather pleases with large flowers like crocuses. It prefers the shores of small ponds and water meadows. Planting it at the dacha, it should be remembered that kolhikum poisonous.
Rich forest vegetation includes non-flowering species. This is a perennial family of ferns, horsetail and cuff. They easily adapt to home conditions and are able to add an extra charm to the garden. The corner of wild vegetation created on the site perfectly harmonizes with the inner world of man.
Verified by an expert
Wild plants are plants that no one takes care of, does not specifically plant, does not grow.
Examples: chamomile, clover, bellflower, linden, birch, pine, raspberry, cherry, wild rose, nettle, etc.
Cultivated plants are plants that a person specifically grows to use in everyday life.
Examples: cabbage, peaches, sunflower, grapes, tomatoes, rice, corn, watermelon, etc. etc.
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The main differences of wild plants from cultivated
Certain conditions are necessary for plant growth and development. Cultural species such conditions creates people. He is looking for a favorable place for planting plants, produces their feeding, removes weeds, gathers crops, protects against pests and diseases.
Wild plants, whose name can be found in numerous reference books, do not need to create special conditions. They themselves adapt to life in the wild.
Reasons for classification
Wild plants, names and photos of which are so familiar to us, appeared on Earth much earlier than cultural species. In other words, the planet was originally inhabited only by wild plants. It was they who gave the ancient man food, shelter, clothing, tools.
While gathering, people gained experience by which they appreciated the positive properties of the roots, leaves, stems, and fruits of some plants. Gradually, a person learned the most useful species for himself to grow near his own dwelling and to use the results of his work for a longer period of time than it was when collecting. So began to appear cultivars of plants, as a result of caring for which their taste and other qualities improved.
Wild plants, whose names are well known, are divided into groups. Scientists distinguish among them grass, trees, shrubs. For example, you can easily determine which group includes nettle, chamomile, birch, hazel, rye, cornflower. It must be said that cultivated plants are also divided into such groups.
Natural areas and plant distribution
Species diversity, which presents wild plants, their names and their importance in economic activity are directly related to the area of the Earth where they grow.
The abundance of food and medicinal wild plant species is observed in tropical and subtropical humid climates. В зоне тундры и лесотундры видовое разнообразие растений более скудное, но здесь могут быть сосредоточены большие запасы, например, мхов, лишайников, используемых в разных отраслях народного хозяйства.Herbaceous and shrub plants, giving a good harvest of berries, is also not uncommon for the harsh northern regions.
Among medicinal raw materials a special place is occupied by wild plants. The names and meanings of medicinal products made on the basis of herbs, parts of trees and shrubs growing in the wild nature have recently been actively created and studied, and their list has expanded significantly. The rich experience of using wild plants as a medicine is available with traditional healers.
However, the number of fully studied and used by humans in the composition of medicinal products of representatives of the flora is only 4% of the total number of species that are wild plants. The names of new species regularly replenish this list.
It should be noted that more than half of the raw materials intended for pharmaceutical production are supplied through the collection of medicinal plants in nature. Only a small part of them are cultivated.
Raw materials collection rules
When collecting medicinal and edible wild plants, it is imperative that you follow the rules by which you can eliminate the facts of poisoning or other negative effects on the body. Collection of only well-known plant species is allowed. Those of them that cause doubt in appearance, rules of use, can not be collected. Elevated plant parts are usually harvested before flowering. At this time, the shoots and leaves are more delicate, do not contain dangerous compounds. Collection of plants is recommended to be carried out in clear weather in the afternoon, when dew moistening is excluded.
Prohibited the collection of plants along roads, near landfills, sewers or industrial facilities. Combustion products, dust containing substances hazardous to human health are collected on their parts.
Collected raw materials should not be laid too tightly. This may cause damage to the plants. It usually manifests itself in the darkening of their parts. Thorny and burning plants, such as nettle, bodyaga, it is better to collect gloves. And the hard stems of others are more convenient to cut with a knife.
Parts of plants with visible damage, such as growths, rust, rot, are not recommended. They may contain substances harmful to human health.