Trees

Tree elm

Elm squat in economic and garden plantings received the most common in comparison with other types of trees of the same genus. Possessing absolute unpretentiousness, he at the same time became a valuable breed in protective afforestation and weed, along with the American maple, which drowns out more valuable plantings.

About the name

In the people it is very often possible to meet the word "karagach", which is understood not only as a squat elm. The name is rather a collective character and in translation from Turkic it means literally “bark” and “black”. Under it often means several types of elm, including small-leaved.

Tree species

Twenty-meter, with a lush green crown, a tree that is very fond of the sun, is called Rabbit Elm. The leaves of the elm have a dark green (bottle) color and an oblong, serrated shape of a smooth surface. The trunk is not smooth, and cork growths are marked on the branches. It blooms with a reddish inflorescence for quite a long time, after which, it overgrows with leaves that have a juicy yellow color in autumn. Fruit-bearing lionfish reaches twenty millimeters. Such a view adorns the park zone with a dense plant wall.

Omitted, dense crown leathery leaves, has Thick elm. Ilm grows to thirty meters even in drought conditions and has a dark striated bark.

Coniferous and deciduous forests, where there is a lot of shade, complements White Elmthat can withstand temperatures down to minus thirty degrees.

Wildly growing elm, which is observed in Siberia, Kazakhstan and East Asia, is called Euonymus or Elm Elm, Karagach. The scorching sun in these areas does not interfere with the development of a tree on sandy and stony soil, where the salinity is increased. A tree of this type in size with a five-story house. The leaves are pinnate, smooth, small, and collected in openwork bunches, and the bending branches are thin. Because of the rare crown, the shade of elm is small, but planting an ornamental tree in public gardens and parks of the city, with appropriate care, pruning, can help enrich the area with oxygen and create a recreation area in the summer.

Round crown of small leaves and a small height, has Squat elm. In urban conditions of the central part of Russia, it is possible to grow this tree, but it is difficult, because the elm is not very winter-resistant and loves fruitful soil with an abundance of moisture.

Of the ilm variety, also noted such as:

  • Japanese elm or bark,
  • Mountain or rough elm,
  • Elm Androsova,
  • English elm.

Trees differ in size, flowering period, the shape and structure of leaves, flowers, stem bark, fruiting cycle, as well as resistance to soil and weather conditions.

The described elm species can help in the selection of a plant to plant for ornamental purposes.

Planting and care

Since the elm breeds in seeds in the wild, it is also possible to grow an elm at home. In this process, you need to control the process of ripening seeds. If the tree is early, the tree can be propagated immediately. For this process, you need to choose the place of fertile soil without significant shading and deepen the seeds. It is advisable not to sow deep to facilitate the appearance of sprouts. Care after seeding is abundant watering. If the seeds are immature or incorrectly preserved before planting, then their germination does not occur. From bad weather or the scorching sun, the planted seeds can be covered with agrofabric or film.

Description of planting acquired seedlings, does not differ from the procedure of growing ornamental or fruit trees. In the half-meter well of the wet and fertilized soil, it is necessary to place an elm sapling to strengthen the rhizomes. The sun should fall on a young tree, but not scorching. Due to drought, elm can also die, therefore, care at the beginning should be aimed at constant soil moistening. The growth of properly planted seeds and seedlings is not long to wait. In some cases, it is necessary to observe the growth of elm from its own sprout shoots. In this situation, the plant copes with the desire to live independently and it does not need special care.

If the seeds are collected at a later time, then they can be stored for about two years in sealing conditions.

The main rule of elm planting is the choice of location, since the surface root system, as well as the lush shading crown, can damage ornamental, fruit and vegetable crops in the neighborhood.

Elm properties

If you compare elm with oak, then they have a lot of similarities. Both trees are age-old giants, with powerful wood and useful properties. Elm raw materials are also used for industrial and medicinal purposes. Ilm wood is quite durable, flexible and moisture-proof, therefore it is well suited for the manufacture of wooden products: vehicles, furniture, kitchen tools, fencing, garden tools, etc.

In medicine, thanks to the healing composition of leaves and bark, elm has been successful in treating many diseases. The content in the vegetation of wood polysaccharides, fiber, protein, oils, catechins, flavonoids, steroids, carboxylic acids and tannins, gives the tree healing properties:

  • Antibacterial
  • Diuretic,
  • Anti-inflammatory,
  • Pyrexia
  • Enveloping

Infusions on the elm bark used in cystitis, urethritis, intestinal dysfunction, with skin lesions and mucous inflammation of the oral cavity.

For harvesting elm bark, it is necessary to cut several layers from the trunk or tree branches in the spring season. It is advisable to cover the place of the cut with garden pitch so that the disease and parasites do not join the tree. The bark can be washed and put to dry in a dry ventilated room. It is better to harvest the leaves after they mature, that is, young leaves do not have time to accumulate useful substances. Dry raw materials for medical use, retains healing properties for up to two years.

Preparation of infusion of elm bark is reduced to its grinding and insisting on a water bath, as described:

  • Rinse with sore throat, gingivitis, as well as compresses and lotions for skin pathologies - pour half a liter of boiling water over twenty-five grams of crushed elm bark and leave for half an hour,
  • When inflammation of the joints, intestinal dysfunction - ten grams of crushed bark to brew a glass of boiling water for fifteen minutes and in a warm, filtered form, take one third of a cup for a day before meals, three times,
  • In case of cancer pathology, pour fifteen grams of bark powder with a glass of boiling water and hold the infusion in a water bath for another ten minutes. After that, the infusion should infuse and cool for an hour. Add the received quantity with warm boiled water to the amount of two hundred milliliters. Infusion take sixty grams before eating.

All plants are prone to disease, so elm smooth - no exception. Its main enemy is the Dutch fungus that infects tree insects. The disease spreads under the elm bark and dries it from the inside. In appearance, mature elm is not immediately visible, but in the period of flowering and gardening, there is deadwood, that is, the presence of dry branches with sparse or absent vegetation. Unfortunately, the fundamental treatment of the Dutch disease, will be the felling of the tree, because over time, it will still die.

Ragweed

Elm grabber is found in Central Asia, the Caucasus, Europe and North Africa. It is a light-loving falling tree, but without any particular problems it grows in the shade. Reaches height twenty-five meters, the maximum diameter of its crown - ten meters.

Elms have a high growth rate, tolerate pruning normally, so that these trees are well suited for the formation of a hedge. They will look great on a well-kept lawn. In appearance, it goes well with bird cherry, rowan, as well as with apple and cherry trees.

The biological description of this species is as follows. Cork growths sometimes appear on the branches of dark brown color. Pointed leaves of large size, smooth on top, and their lower side is covered with a soft nap. In autumn, the dark green foliage changes its color to bright yellow in the fall. Even before the appearance of the leaves bloom small flowers, collected in bunches.

They are unpretentious and withstand excellent tolerance frost and drought. With growth in favorable climatic conditions, their age can be up to three hundred years. Rabbit Elm is used in medicine. It is used to make diuretics and antiseptics. Its bark tends to slow down the absorption of cholesterol. Decoction of elm bark burns and some skin diseases are also treated.

Elm grabber prefers a rich, moist soil. For active, high-growth growth, he needs periodic watering and fertilizer, for example, the introduction of lime into the soil, which has a beneficial effect on the tree.

Recommendations for growing:

  • better nourishing, moist soil,
  • with insufficient natural moisture, trees need watering,
  • periodically elms should be fertilized with lime.

Elm smooth also sometimes called ordinary and large-leaved. Distributed throughout Europe. It grows to twenty, and in rare cases up to forty meters in height. It has a wide crown with a diameter of up to twenty meters. The trunk of such an elm straight, with a diameter of one and a half meters. The bark covering young shoots is smooth, but with age it coarsens, cracks and begins to flake off. Large leaves have a pointed or ovoid shape. The upper side of the leaf is dark green, the bottom has a lighter shade. In autumn, the foliage changes color to brownish-purple. Small brown flowers bloom in spring.

These plants are characterized by a developed root system. In adult trees, thick roots may protrude above the ground to a height of half a meter from the trunk. A tree grows quickly, and its life span can sometimes be four hundred years. It tolerates droughts, but prefers moist soil. Without any difficulties transfers short-lived flooding.

Elm tree is dense, solid wood, but quite simple in processing. This tree is widely used in the manufacture of furniture and other joinery. Elm does not rot in the water, so in the Middle Ages water pipes and piers of piers and bridges were made of it. Smooth elm bark was used for tanning leather.

Karagach brings great benefits and in the city - its leaves can hold up much more dust than other trees. Due to the extensive root system, elms are well suited for strengthening the soil on the sides of ravines and on cliffs.

Androsov's elm is an artificially produced hybrid of elm squat and thick. In height the adult tree can reach twenty meters. It has a dense spherical crown, thanks to which it gives a good shade. Covered with gray bark. The leaves, like many elms, as described, have an egg-shaped or pointed form.

Often grows in wet soils, but can easily tolerate drought.. Forms a lot of side shoots, thanks to which it perfectly captures dust in the city. The crown of this tree responds well to formation, which allowed the elm to become one of the most popular landscape gardening plants.

Under the shadow of the crown elm grows well shade-loving perennial ornamental plants:

  • Aconite (Wrestler),
  • Bell,
  • Buzulnik Przhevalsky,
  • Catchment
  • Stone-sawed,
  • Asparagus,
  • Ferns,
  • Astilbe.

Dense elm in nature is found infrequently, mainly in Central Asia. This large tree can reach a height of up to thirty meters. Its developed crown has a pyramidal shape and gives an excellent thick shadow. Young branches are covered light brown or grayish bark that darkens over time. Leaves are not large, no more than seven centimeters in length, characteristic ovoid shape.

This elm is unpretentious, frost-resistant and drought-resistant, but grows best on wetted soils. The hardy tree tolerates gas pollution quite well.

Bladed elm is also called split, or mountain. It is found in the Far East, including in Japan and China. This is a characteristic wood species. for deciduous and mixed forests. May occur in mountain forests at altitudes up to two kilometers. Usually grows no higher than thirty meters.

A tree covered with grayish or grayish-brown bark has a broad crown of a cylindrical or rounded shape. Large leaves are pointed from above. Sometimes they are divided into 3-5 pointed blades. The plant tolerates adverse environmental conditions well.

Antagonistic

In the regions of the Volga region, the Southern Urals, in the Caucasus, and in Central Asia, this tree is called elm antagonist. Often grows on the slopes of the mountains, pebbly and sandy soils. It prefers places with high insolation. Can grow up to twenty-five meters in height. The crown is extensive, spreading, but due to the small size of the leaves gives a faint shadow.

Its small leaves are arranged in 2 rows, visually give the impression of large feathery leaves, which caused the name of the species. The plant tolerates cold quite well, easily tolerates drought and can survive on difficult soils, including saline ones. Has a high growth rate, but the maximum possible height of growth is reached only in favorable conditions: in a warm climate on wet soils. Without problems it takes root and grows in urban environments. Crohn's well-shaped.

Distributed in the Far East, Mongolia, China, Japan and Korea. It can grow as a bush or as a tree up to fifteen meters high. It has leaves, pointed at the ends, of medium size, for elms, ovoid-shaped. David's elm has a species - “Japanese”, which is sometimes isolated into an independent species. The oldest of these elms growing in Korea, its age is about eight centuries.

Lesser elm has many different names - birch bark, karaich, cork, red or field. Area of ​​distribution: Western and Eastern Europe (including the European part of Russia), Asia Minor. Characteristic of deciduous and mixed forests along river banks and even in mountainous areas.

Depending on the conditions, the tree can have a height of ten to thirty meters. The crown begins almost from the ground. The leaves widen towards the pointed end.. The lifespan of this tree can be up to four hundred years old. Karagach prefers well-lit places, easily tolerates drought, but, unlike many types of elm tree, it is poorly adapted to low temperatures. A distinctive feature of this species is a wide network of roots protruding above the ground.

Its root network can significantly reduce the impact of erosion. Because of this, small elm is often used to create protective forest belts.

Large fruit

This species is found in the Far East (including Mongolia, China and Korea). It is found on the banks of rivers and mountain slopes. Can be a shrub or tree tall up to eleven meters, the crown is developed, spreading. The trunk and old branches are covered with gray, brown, sometimes yellowish bark. The foliage is large, shiny, rough top and smooth bottom.

The species got its name because of large, compared to other elm, fruits. Kind of thermophilic and poorly tolerated frost. But he has the highest drought tolerance. Actively used for fixing the walls of quarries, embankments and cliffs.

Elm rough or mountain, characteristic of European, North American and Asian deciduous and mixed forests. This is a large tree up to forty meters high with a lush sprawling crown and smooth brown bark. It has large ovate leaves with a toothed border, covered with a hard pile underneath.

This species is very picky about the soil: it prefers rich and sufficiently moist, does not take root on saline soils. It is frost-resistant, easily transfers droughts and city conditions. The wood of the rough elm is extremely hard.

American

His homeland is North America. It was artificially introduced to Europe as far back as the eighteenth century, but did not gain popularity, since local tree species have a higher value.

Often grows on the banks of rivers and lakes, but is also found in drier places. It grows to thirty, rarely forty meters. The crown is cylindricalThe trunk covers a light gray scaly bark. The elongated leaves are egg-shaped and of medium size. Frost resistant

Areas that use elm

Thanks to its outstanding qualities Elm is used in many sectors of the economy.

  • Elm wood is characterized by high strength, resistance to high humidity, but it is easy to process and has a beautiful texture. Она часто применяется при изготовлении мебели, в судостроении и при изготовлении домашней утвари.
  • Молодые нежные ростки и семена используются как корм для скота.
  • Кора служит сырьём для изготовления красок.
  • Широко применим в медицине при борьбе с заболеваниями мочеполовой системы и ЖКТ, кора используется при лечении заболеваний кожи.
  • Вяз играет важную роль в пчеловодстве как хороший медонос.
  • Вяз идеально подходит для озеленения городских улиц благодаря своему внешнему виду и высокой приспособляемости.

Ареал произрастания

The natural habitat of a squat elm tree is mainly China, and more specifically, the north-west and north-east of the country. In addition, the tree can be found in Western Siberia, Mongolia, India, Korea, Tibet. Cultivated in North and South America as a restorer of forests and in landscape gardening. The tree is undemanding to the conditions of growth, but prefers fertile soil. It is found in deciduous and mixed forests.

Elm squat: description

The tree is distinguished by its tallness and in nature, under favorable conditions, reaches 25 m with a trunk diameter of about 1 m. In the arid climate, the natural habitat grows into the form of a shrub. Despite the popular name karagach, the bark of the tree is not black, but has a gray-brown or rich gray tint, smooth, cracking is possible. Young shoots differ in color from adults. They have a light gray tint with yellowness, the surface is rough or smooth, with scattered lentils.

The squat elm has characteristic oval or lanceo-elliptical leaves, reaching a length of 2 to 8 cm and a width of 1.2-3.5 cm. The base of the plate is symmetrical with a pointed apex and jagged edges. The leaf color changes during the seasons, in spring it is light green, in the summer it is more saturated, in autumn the tree acquires an olive-yellow shade (in the photo below the elm alley in September-October). The fruit is an almost rounded lion that grows up to 1-1.5 cm in diameter, with a nutlet located in the middle.

Growing conditions

Elm squat, the photo of which you see in the article, does not have a high life expectancy - only 40-60 years. However, during this time it reaches an impressive size. The growth rate of the tree is high and not inferior to the white acacia or the ash-leaved maple. In the culture of elm unpretentious and to soil fertility imposes minimal requirements, as well as to its moisture content. It tolerates even salinization, is highly resistant to drought, it is winter-hardy (can withstand up to -36 ° C). The only thing that needs to be taken into account is that the tree is light-loving, it can tolerate penumbra, but it develops worse.

In the culture of elm squat introduced from 1860. Used in landscaping parks and gardens. Especially appreciated in the arid regions of the country. Forms a powerful root system of the surface type. It tolerates polluted urban air, cutting and trimming. The latter features are used to create hedges. It is propagated only by seeds, does not form root offspring and, therefore, overgrowth, which is an undoubted advantage. It has a decorative weeping form with falling branches. The most beautiful tree in the fruiting period.

Elm squat: how to use it in the garden?

Elm is a very beautiful tree with long shoots and large toothed leaves, it looks especially impressive in the autumn when it is completely covered with fruits. In ornamental gardening, the plant has been used for a long time. Choosing it for planting on your site, you should remember that the tree is light-requiring and only its sun fully reveals its beauty.

The krone lends itself to cutting and shaping. However, this should not be in a hurry. In the first years of cultivation, only damaged and dry branches should be removed. Formative pruning is possible from about 4 years of growth, while not forgetting the use of garden warrior. In general, the tree is resistant to diseases and pests.

The squat elm, whose height reaches 25 m, is very good in group, monoplants and mixed, in the form of alleys in parks and as a tapeworm. The single-seated specimens surrounded by the even green of the lawn are very effective, especially if you use a hybrid with a weeping crown shape. Only when the tree does not interfere, can it open up in full beauty. His crown in such conditions will be the correct form, and the trunk - straight and strong. Solitser landing is used as an accent on the site, as it always attracts the eye. However, it should be remembered about the proportionality of plants and area. A large plot is a large tree and vice versa, otherwise any charm will be lost.

Use of elm for berso

One of the unusual uses of elm is to create the most beautiful berso. Indoor galleries are created from piers mounted on piers along garden paths or avenues. Trees are planted on the sides, the branches of which gently bend down and fasten to the frame. Gradually expanding, they form a single continuous green tunnel, as in the photo. Given the high speed of the elm decorative effect can be achieved quite quickly.

According to the idea and mind, Berso is often compared to a pergola. However, the latter can be safely called the younger sister of the first. Although Bersault is very similar, it is still larger and more massive, longer, and the green cover is more dense. Pergola is rather exceptionally decorative and easy in perception, suitable for small areas and courtyards. Bersault is the prerogative of large gardens and parks, and gazebos are often installed at the beginning and end of this stunning tunnel.

Reforestation

It has already been mentioned above that squat elm is actively used for forest restoration in areas that have been subjected to fire or logging. The main method is still considered to be manual planting of seedlings using Kolesov’s sword. An interesting fixture is, in fact, a narrow steel shovel. It was invented by the director of the agricultural school of Kharkov, A. Kolesov, in 1883 for planting on the sandstones of pine.

The use of elm in such measures is due to several factors. First, the tree is characterized by a high growth rate, and in the first years young saplings give a gain of up to one meter in the presence of favorable conditions. Secondly, the species quickly forms thickets, multiplying by self-sowing. Thirdly, the tree is undemanding to soils, drought-resistant, patiently to severe frosts and salinization. Thus, elm can grow almost everywhere.

general description

The history of elm has a few million years, so the tree belongs to relict species. Trees grow both singly and as part of mixed forests, prefer fertile soils, but grow well on poor soils. Elms do not suffer from a lack of sunlight, growing to a height of 40 m, they themselves create a shade for low-growing plants. The elm trunk is two meters in diameter, but there are undersized varieties close to shrubs.

The trunks of young trees are covered with smooth light brown bark, older trees can be distinguished by dark rough bark with deep vertical furrows. Due to the fact that the elm bark is very clumsy, it is easy for insect pests or fungus-parasites to settle there.

Elm leaves not to be confused with others: they are jagged, oval-shaped, lined from the center to the sides by relief, parallel stripes. Leaf size - 4−20 cm, the location is alternate on short cuttings. With the arrival of autumn, the dark green color of the foliage is replaced by reddish-brown hues, the yellowed leaves fall off very quickly.

Flowering and fruiting trees occur in April, when the leaves did not bloom.

Small flowers of yellowish color are collected in bunches, fruits - nut-lionfish. The ripening of the fruit is completed at the end of May; dry lionfish with a rustling sound are carried by the wind throughout the county. When released into favorable soil, seeds germinate within a few days.

Types of Elm

Elms belong to trees-long-livers, can grow for three hundred years. In Russia, there are about ten varieties of elm, most often you can find these types:

  • Elm smooth (ordinary). The height of the tree does not exceed 25 m, the trunk is dark brown, relief. The leaves are large, 15 cm long, about 10 cm wide, with sickle-shaped cloves along the edges. The distinguishing feature of the common elm is the color of the leaves: on the upper side they are dark green, on the lower side they are light, with a small edge. The flowers of the tree have a brownish-purple hue.
  • Elm squat. From the name it is clear that the tree differs from its relatives by its small size - the tree does not grow above 15 m, it often grows in the form of a shrub. Other names of this species are elmnik, elm elm. The leaves are small (4−7 cm), soft green in the spring, in the summer - dark green. The flowers are small, yellowish-brown.
  • Elm is rough. It grows only on fertile soils, often found in mixed forests. The bark of a rough elm is smoother than that of other members of the genus, the trunk is straight, up to 40 m high. The leaves are large (up to 20 cm), light green, rough.

Wood application

Elm wood is very dense, density indicators - about 600 kg / m 3. On the cut of the trunk, a beautiful texture is visible, the core is light brown in color, the ligature has a pale yellow color. Ilm wood resistant to rot and deformationIt is difficult to split or cut, while being well polished.

Due to its properties, elm wood has long been used for the production of wheel rims, dishes, rocker arms. Also, the material used in the construction of bridges and dams, when equipping mines and cellars. Currently, elm wood is used in the form of veneer for interior decoration.

Parquet, wooden furniture parts, frames, panels are made of elm. Often the material is combined with lower quality wood species to give a more aesthetic look to the products.

Medicinal properties

The healing properties of elm are little known, but people who have tried to be treated with broths and infusions of bark and leaves of the tree, always keep at home harvested dry elm raw materials. The chemical composition of the leaves and bark of elm is varied.: It contains ascorbic acid, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, phenol carboxylic acids.

Ilm infusions and decoctions reduce inflammation, have an antibacterial effect, accelerate wound healing. Vegetable extracts are used to treat diseases of the kidneys, skin, musculoskeletal system, heart and blood vessels, and the thyroid gland. Broth elm bark rinse throat for sore throat, tea leaves drink with constipation. For hemorrhoids and kidney diseases, baths with bark decoction are useful. Infusion is used as lotions for skin rashes, difficult-to-heal wounds.

When treating infusions and decoctions of bark and elm leaves, it must be borne in mind that plant raw materials may cause hypersensitivity reactions, which manifest themselves in the form of allergies. You also need to understand that not all diseases can be cured by folk methods, with worsening symptoms, you should definitely see a doctor.

Planting a tree and caring for it

Grow ilm on the plot is very easy due to the high germination of seeds in the first few days after ripening. Every day the ability to germinate is lost, so you need not to miss the moment when the seeds fell from the tree.

Basic tips for growing elm:

  • Harvested seeds are recommended to be treated with a fungicide solution before sowing - this increases the likelihood that future sprouts will be healthy and viable. The seeds are wrapped in wet gauze or cotton for germination, when sprouts appear in 2–3 days, they are transferred to a container of soil. Ideally, if black soil is used for planting, you can mix the humus with the leaf earth.
  • Sprouted seeds are planted to a depth of 1-2 cm, a distance of at least 25 cm should be maintained between neighboring shoots. It is necessary to constantly ensure that the earth does not dry out, to preserve moisture, the soil is mulched with moss or hay.
  • After 10−14 days, young trees will root enough to be able to extract moisture from the deeper soil layers, so covering material can be removed. Plants are placed on the sunny side, in calm weather they are taken out on the balcony or in the garden. By next spring, young trees reach a height of 20−25 cm, they can be planted in open ground.
  • Until the trees are mature, they need to be protected from strong winds, covered with agrofiber for the winter, to protect them from frost and rodents. If the elm is planted in poor soil, the first few years should be fertilized with organic fertilizers. The earth around the tree must be periodically loosened and monitored for its humidity.
  • The first 2−3 years, the crown of the tree is not cut, so that it grows as much as possible. Later you can trim, giving the elm an aesthetic look.
  • When pests or fungal diseases are found on the bark and leaves, they carry out insecticidal and fungicidal treatment using products sold in agricultural shops. Due to the fact that young trees have a smoother bark, it is much easier to cure them of fungi and insect pests.

Planting elm trees in gardens - an excellent way of gardening and strengthening the soil, preventing its slipping and weathering. The only thing to consider when planting is the type of elm and its future dimensions, since tall and spreading trees are not suitable for small areas.

color, photo, texture, properties, applications

Elm wood has a lot of positive properties, for example, it resists rotting well in conditions of constant moisture. The wood is strong, hard, elastic, viscous, hard to prick, easy to process. It is widely used in the furniture industry, carpentry, engineering and wagon production. In addition to hardness, resistance to moisture and splitting is also important, and another property of this material is the beautiful texture of natural wood. Therefore, it is often used in the form of veneer on top of other materials. Due to its excellent hardness, this material is excellent for making bows, tool handles and baseball bats.

In the manufacture of furniture, elm wood is also very popular. A distinctive feature of this material is its unique ability to bend. The ability to bend, taking into account its light shade, is used for the production of uneven contours and framing in decorative panels, interior carving ornaments.

The elm board has an attractive texture, as a result of which it is used as a finishing material, as well as for artistic handicrafts (caps, birch bark).

Due to its resistance to decay, it is used in mines, during the construction of dams, locks and canals. It was from this wood that the pillars of the first London Bridge were built. At the same time, resistance to rotting in water is lost during contact with the soil. In shipbuilding, it is used not only for the finishing of cabins and salons, but for the manufacture of parts of ship hulls. Some buildings of Venice for a long time are on stilts, which are made of elm.

Elm scopes

Elm has always been considered an important tree. Arcs made of it, runners, shafts were of the highest quality. Elm wood is hard, durable and resilient. It is not easy to split it, it is handled with difficulty, and carpenters and carpenters have a lot of trouble with it. But it almost does not warp, slightly cracks when dried, well polished and very beautiful in products with its dark brown core, wide yellowish sapwood and attractive texture.

Wood elm is not afraid of water and is used in mines, in the construction of dams, locks, channels. In shipbuilding, it goes not only to the finishing of cabins and salons, but also to the manufacture of parts of ship hulls. Some buildings in Venice stand perfectly on stilts made from elm.

Elm cork (Ulmus suberosa) - also provides cork. On the branches of this elm, growths are formed from which cork products can be made. Plates made of pressed elm cork crumbs both in heat insulating capacity and lightness are almost as good as plates from classical suppliers of cork - Amur velvet and cork oak.

Due to the limited reserves of wood, elm is currently the most widely used for the use of planed veneer or for interior decoration. Nice color and texture makes it interesting for making furniture.

Sufficiently high wear resistance allows it to be used in the manufacture of parquet, including artistic.

Elm caps, due to the beautiful texture of the fibers, have advantages over poplar, walnut and even Karelian birch caps.

Elms are widely used in gardening due to the fact that almost all species have a dense, shady crown. Their leaves create such a barrier to dust that elm is considered one of the best air purifiers. Small-leaved elm leaves collect 7 times more soot than poplar leaves. The elm with its small, closely-sitting leaves serves as a magnificent “vacuum cleaner”.

  • Ulmus alata Michx.

Ulmus americana L. - American Elm

Ulmus androssowii Litv. - Vyaz Androsova

Ulmus crassifolia Nutt.

Ulmus davidiana Planch.

Ulmus densa Litv. - Elm is thick

Ulmus elliptica K.Koch - Elliptical Elm

Ulmus glabra Huds. - Mountain Elm, or Elm rough

Ulmus harbinensis S.Q.Nie & G.Q.Huang

Ulmus × hollandica Mill.

Ulmus laciniata (Trautv.) Mayr - Elm bladed

Ulmus laevis pall. - Elm smooth

Ulmus macrocarpa Hance - Large Elm

Ulmus mexicana (Liebm.) Planch.

Ulmus minor Mill. - Elm small, or Berest

Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. - Small-leaved Elm

Ulmus procera salisb.

Ulmus pumila L. - Elm squat

Ulmus rubra muhl.

Ulmus serotina Sarg.

Ulmus szechuanica W.P.Fang

Ulmus thomasii Sarg.

Ulmus villosa Brandis ex Gamble

Ulmus × viminalis Lodd. ex bean

Ulmus wallichiana Planch.

Physicomechanical properties of elm wood

1. Density, kg / m3 at a humidity of 12%

2. Коэффициент разбухания, % на % влажности

3. Предел прочности, МПа

при статическом изгибе

при сжатии вдоль волокон

при растяжении вдоль волокон

4. Ударная вязкость, кДж/м2

5. Твердость, Н/мм2

Модуль упругости, ГПа

Род вяз. Виды деревьев

Род вяз Ulmus L.

Род включает около 40 видов. Deciduous trees of the first magnitude, in the steppe
parts of the range - the second or third size, fast-growing, with a spreading crown.
Cranked shoots. Leaf buds sharp, cone-shaped with a double row arrangement
scales.

Flower buds are rounded, larger, laid in the year preceding
bloom. The leaves are simple, unequal, with a double-edged edge,
pinnipotent venation (veins reach the edge of the leaf). Autumn leaves
fall earlier than many other breeds. Bloom before foliage. Flowers
bisexual, small, aureole is reduced, there are 4-9 stamens, a pistil of 2
carpels, ovary upper. Flowers in bunches, pollinated by the wind.

Fruit - achene surrounded by an oval wing. Fruit ripens through
3-6 weeks after pollination, subsidence in late May - early June. Seeds do not have
period of rest, the fall seedlings have a height of 10-30 cm

Elms are resumed from stump overgrowth and able to produce root scions.
Fruits from 8-12 years, in planting - from 15-30. They live up to 150-300 years. Most
The species suffers from Dutch disease caused by the fungus Graphium ulmi.

The root system is usually without a taproot, with deep lateral roots.
roots, so elms are windward. All kinds of pretty shade-tolerant. For
successful growth prefer fresh, fertile, loose soil, but tolerate and
extremely dry conditions.

Pure vyzovniki, as a rule, are not found. Settled along rivers, streams, on
the slopes of the terraces. Valued in landscaping, well tolerated haircut. Used for
creating groves, arrays, clean and mixed groups, sheared walls, in a single
landing.

Stable in the city (with sufficient soil moisture).

They are also used in steppe and forest shelterbreeding, to consolidate
the slopes. Ringed wood, resilient, durable, hard to prick, has
dark brown core and lighter sapwood, used to produce
bent products and carpentry production. Firewood has a high calorific value.
ability. The bark is used for tanning and for getting dyes, young
branches - for cattle feed. In Russia, naturally grows 7 species.

Elm Smooth Ulmus laevis Pall.

A tree 25–35 m high, with a diameter of up to 1.5 m, often at the base with timber-like
outgrowths. Leaves are elliptical, with a strongly unequal base, petioles up to 10
mm All veins reach the edge of the sheet, without splitting. Flowers
violet-reddish, in loose bunches. 6-8 stamens with purple anthers,
blooms in mid-April. Fruits are round-oval, 1-1.5 cm long, a lionfish with
groove on the vershinka, the edges of the grooves come one upon another, the fruit is located in
the center of the lionfish, on the edge of which - ciliated pubescence.

In the north, the border of the range is up to the southern taiga, in the south it is up to Ciscaucasia (not in the Urals
moves), Scandinavia, Central Europe.

Fairly frost resistant. It grows better on rich soils. It lives to 150, rarely to
300 years. The root system is powerful, deep. Delivers long-term flooding.
It is considered a honey plant.



Elm smooth

Elm bare Ulmus glabra Huds.

Elm rough Ulmus scabra Mill.

Ulm mountain Ulmus montana With.

The tree is up to 30-40 and in diameter up to 2 m. The leaves are rough, not so sharp
asymmetrical, part of the veins forks, not reaching the edge of the sheet. Some
The leaves have 3 blades on top. Stems are short, 0.1–0.5 cm. Blossoms
simultaneously with elm smooth, in mid-April, but fruit ripening and
the end of the growing season occurs a week later. Flowers in tight bunches
purple with 5-6 stamens. Lionfish up to 2.5 cm, without hair, the fruit in the center.

The European part of the Russian Federation (in the north to 62 ° N), the Crimea, the Caucasus, Scandinavia, Middle
Europe, the Balkans Asia Minor.

It grows in floodplain and upland mixed forests, along the banks of rivers and lakes, often in
the second tier of oak, beech and spruce forests. The soil is quite demanding.
Salinity and dryness can not stand. More shade-tolerant and more thermophilic than elm
smooth. Gas resistant, well tolerated haircut. The tree is suitable for planting in
parks in the form of single, group and ordinary plantations, in combination with oak,
maple, linden. Wood is used in shipbuilding.

Ulmus elmus carpinifolia elm ex suckov. or
Elm leafy, elm, bark Ulmus foliaceae Cilib.

The tree is up to 20-25 m high, and up to 0.6 m in diameter. The leaves are more symmetrical. Veins
split into two. From above the leaves are bare, from below along the veins stiff-haired. Scape
1.5-2 cm long. Cork outgrowths are formed on the shoots and skeletal branches.
(ribs) Blossoms in late April - early May. Flowers on very short
peduncles, stamens 4-5, anthers reddish-red. Lion obovate
forms, up to 2 cm long, often covered with reddish glands. The fruit is shifted closer to
top edge of the lionfish.

Distributed in the forest-steppe, steppe and semi-desert zones, along the southern edges
parts of deciduous forests (southern strip of the European part, including the Crimea,
Caucasus). Lives up to 300 years. Valuable breed for steppe afforestation, for
fixing the sands and slopes of ravines. Wood is used to produce
boards and plywood, various crafts. Seeds contain up to 32% oil suitable for
soap making Medonos.

Heat-loving, low-cost, light-requiring, drought-resistant, undemanding
soil fertility, but grows well only on moist, deep and
nutritional. Used in gardens and parks, groups or arrays in combination with
other breeds, in street plantings. Most prone to Dutch disease.

Elm squat (small-leaved) Ulmus pumila L.

lanceolate, 3-7 cm long, leathery, equilateral. Flowers almost sessile with 3-5
stamens, anthers purple. Fruits from elliptical to rounded,
deeply milled. The seed is located in the center of the lionfish, which is no more than 1 cm in
diameter.

It grows in Eastern Siberia, the Far East, China, Korea, northern
parts of Mongolia.

Used to create clipped hedgerows (but outgrows from below
bare). Light-requiring, drought-resistant, frost-resistant. Most resistant to
Dutch disease and urban environment.

Good day! We all heard about elms! But few know what it is the plant is also called ilm. Elm has many interesting features, which we will discuss in our article.

Elm belongs to the family of elm. According to scientists, plants of the family appeared more than forty million years ago, and include several dozen species. Elm, like cedar, alder, valued for its wood.

Plants are common in the zone of deciduous forests, at also in the subzone of coniferous forests. As a rule, elm plants grow alone, plantings are extremely rare.

Elm likes fertile soils, among which the most preferred are alluvial. Nevertheless, ligature can grow in dry and saline areas. Plants are shade tolerant, especially in their younger years. In case of sufficient clarification, a dense crown is formed on the trees.

The ligature is attacked by many insects (elmtail, elm leaf beetle), as well as fungi, which can contribute to the drying of the plant. For these reasons, many elm species are on the verge of extinction.

Characteristics of elm

Characterization of an elm tree implies a story about the life forms of a plant, its height. The height of the tree reaches up to forty meters, with a trunk diameter of up to two meters. Some species of elm trees grow in the form of shrubs. The crown may have a spherical or cylindrical shape. Branch plant sympodial. There are no thorns or thorns on the branches. Young shoots of small size are located on thick branches.

The bark is also an important characteristic of elm. Her color is brown. It is smooth in young trees, then becomes rough, with cracks along.

The root system is missing a taproot. The lateral roots are powerful, penetrate deep into the ground, but can also be located on the surface. On podzolic soils, the root system is usually superficial.

Dina kidney two to eight millimeters. They are sessile, oval in shape, blunt or sharp, ovate. Can be both pubescent and naked.

The arrangement of the leaves is two rows-mosaic, next. This contributes to the fact that the crown is very thick, almost does not transmit light. The leaf stalk is very short. The edges are solid.

Stipules have a lance-like form, they fall off very early.

The characteristic of an elm also says that all leaves on a plant have various form, outlines and shades. They begin to grow only after the fruit on the tree mature. Before the leaves fall, the leaves become yellow or brownish. Elm leaves fall much earlier than other types of wood.

Flowers inconspicuous, small size, collected in bunches, which are located in the leaf axils. They have a five-part perianth, bisexual. Five stamens. The ovary is single-celled, upper, has one ovule, smoothly passing into a column, which is divided into two stigmas.

Elm is pollinated by wind. Flowers bloom before the leaves appear.

The fruit is a nut, surrounded by a thin shell, somewhat oblate. Seeds without endosperm look like lentils. The fruits ripen very early (from May, June), then spread and grow in a few days.

The seedling has two flat cotyledons.

Elm produces fruit every year, the weight of which is from twenty to forty kilograms per tree.

Elm breeds in several ways: root suckers, shoots and seeds. In the early years it grows rather quickly.

Life expectancy is from eighty to one hundred and forty years. There are cases when elms live up to four hundred years. During the first year of life, the plant grows to a height of ten to fifteen centimeters, after that, the annual increase is from thirty to forty centimeters. The plant branches very strongly. After forty years, the plant grows only twenty centimeters a year.

Elm wood

Elm wood has found its wide application in many spheres of human life.

Young branches feed livestock.

The plant plays an important role in gardening streets in towns and cities. They are surrounded by areas near roads, as well as in protective forest stands.

Elm wood is well processed. Perfectly tolerates trimming, keeps its shape well. The main disadvantage of such a material is that it is easily infected with fungi and parasitic insects.

Quality elm bast is used as a tree for building a house, garden arbor, as roofing materials.

From bark produce various paints.

Elm wood has the following properties: it resists decay even under the strong influence of moisture, has an original pattern, strong, firm, elastic, it is very difficult to split it, but nevertheless it is easy to handle.

The density of the material depends on the type of plant. Wooden houses from elm one of the highest quality.

In addition, elm wood is used in machine building and carpentry production. The high calorific value, which is the same as that of coal, has led to the use of wood as fuel.

Elm species are part of the Elm family, which belongs to the Rosaceae order.

The most common are the following types of elm: squat elm, fine-leaved elm, squat elm and others.

Elm squat distributed in the Far East and Siberia, is also found in some Asian countries. Reaches sixteen meters in height. Resistant to drought and air pollution.

Small-leaved elm is common in China, Japan and India. In height reaches up to fifteen meters. The diameter of the trunk to one meter. Leaves up to two and a half centimeters.

Elm squat in the largest number grows in Siberia. The length of the plant is about sixteen meters. The crown is shaped like a ball. The bark is yellowish.

The leaves are lanceolate, small in size. Seeds have high similarity. Elm squat loves light, easily withstands drought. It can grow on any soil, including saline.

The plant is easy to cut, so the elm is also used for decorative purposes.

Pavlenko Tatiana, member of the editorial board of the Sobkor of the independent Internet publication ATMWood. Tree Industrial Messenger

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Ilm tree view

To understand in more detail what the ilm is, you need to study its properties in more detail.

Elm is a very beautiful tree with a rich history.

Elm or elm has the following characteristics:

  1. The height of the tree reaches forty meters.
  2. Life expectancy depends on the type and place of growth, ranging from two hundred and fifty to five hundred years.
  3. Trunk tree straight with a diameter of about one and a half meters.
  4. The bark is smooth, brown in color.
  5. Leaves alternate with jagged edges and simple structure. They have a pointed shape, dark green above and pale green below, covered with small, barely noticeable hairs. Each leaf is located on a short scape.
  6. Blossom starts from the first days of March and continues until mid-April. Together with bright lilac flowers, the first leaves appear.
  7. After flowering, the leaves become larger, that is, reach their maximum size.
  8. The fruits are round in shape, arranged in groups on the branches of trees, fastened with the help of long stalks.
  9. The seedling resembles a small nutlet, which is located in the heart of the fruit.
  10. Fruit ripening occurs in mid-May - early June.
  11. Elm begins to bear fruit after 7-8 years of life. Moreover, after this period of time fruiting is carried out annually.
  12. In one season, the elm can produce more than 25 kilograms of seeds.
  13. Regardless of the type, elm fruits have the same structure, sometimes the difference lies in its size.
  14. Ilm is frost resistant and can withstand up to thirty degrees of frost. In addition, it is drought-resistant and shade-tolerant.
  15. The tree has a strong root system, which, depending on the geographic location, can be located on the ground surface or completely go deep into it.
  16. Also, this plant is fast-growing, which in one year can grow in volume by forty centimeters and a height of more than half a meter.

Due to its simplicity, elm grows in various parts of our planet. It is characterized by riverbanks, plains, mountains, hills and near-water areas. Due to the fact that the elm wood has a fairly good resistance to decay, it can grow in close proximity to various water bodies.

In addition, this plant feels comfortable both in the shade and in well-lit areas. If a tree is grown indoors, it needs to create a uniform and sufficient amount of light. As with a one-sided hit of light, the tree will be bent.

Elm is not very whimsical to the composition of the soil, but most of all it prefers fertile, alluvial soil, which retains moisture well.

In addition, the soil must be acidified with a high organic content. However, most species feel great in dry and saline soils.

Proper elm planting and care

As noted above, in nature, elm grows in almost any soil. However, for planting such a tree at home is better to use the following tips from professional gardeners:

  • Young seedlings should be planted in fertile soil,
  • the soil intended for planting a tree must be loose,
  • it is best to choose a place for elm with soil that contains a sufficient amount of alkali,
  • just before planting the elm in the ground, you need to add lime, which will enrich it with useful elements.

Reproduction of elm tree is carried out mainly by seeds. In order for a young seedling to grow from seed, you need:

  1. Collect seeds.
  2. Ten days later, plant them in a small vessel with fertile soil. In this case, the landing should not be too deep, about 2-5 millimeters from the surface of the earth.
  3. The first two weeks after planting it is necessary to maintain the humidity of the earth. To do this, cover the vessel with plastic wrap and put it in a warm place.

If the seed planting process is carried out correctly, all the nuances are taken into account, then within seven days the first shoots will appear.

There is another method for the propagation of elm, which provides for grafting. This method takes into account the following nuances of landing:

  • in late spring, when the tree has faded and the leaves have fully blossomed, it is necessary to cut off the young shoots about 30 centimeters long,
  • cut cuttings are recommended to be treated with a stimulant to speed up the formation of the root system,
  • further, the treated shoots of the tree need to be put in the water and wait for them to take root,
  • when the first roots appear, the cuttings must be planted in prepared containers with the ground.

The resulting seedlings are best planted in open ground in spring. Thus, they will have enough time for quality rooting and acclimatization.

In more detail about the cultivation of perennial vines, we will tell you in this article.

Here we will tell about planting a year and correct care of a plant.

To plant and grow Mirabilis, you need to follow the tips given here.

Care of this plant is as follows:

  1. Proper watering. During the growing season, elm should be watered abundantly and regularly. However, after pruning watering is desirable to reduce
  2. Качественном удобрении. Молодые деревца следует подкармливать органикой не реже двух раз в неделю. Также вяз предпочитает компостные удобрения из листьев или других органических веществ. In addition to feeding the root system, fertilizer can be applied through the leaves of the tree. To do this, you need to use special substances sold in garden stores, you should also consider that such processing should be carried out in clear, calm weather.
  3. Competent pruning crown. Pruning is done when the tree is at rest, that is, from the beginning of January to the end of March, and the crown is formed throughout the summer season. Also, to give the tree the desired shape, you can use a regular wire, which is tied with certain branches.

Ilm pruning is carried out once every three years and you should remember about such nuances as:

  • shortening of young shoots must be done from an early age of the plant,
  • the branches should be left so long that they do not pull the tree from side to side, that is, pruning should be uniform throughout the entire crown,
  • first of all, remove the leaves without leaves, dry or deformed. This pruning should be done monthly for eight years after planting,
  • be sure to clean up the emerging dry foliage on the tree. This is done while the plant is young and not tall.

Proper care of the elm can not only form a beautiful tree shape, but also prolong its life for more than a dozen years.

Useful properties of elm and its application

In addition to the luxurious crown and powerful structure, elm has a large number of useful properties, especially its bark and leaves, which have the following effects on the body:

  • diuretic,
  • anti-inflammatory,
  • antibacterial.

Basically, elm is used in alternative medicine. To do this, the bark is collected during the flowering of the tree, and the leaves with the onset of hot and dry weather.

The leaves and bark are used for the preparation of various infusions and decoctions, which are used for various therapeutic purposes both externally, as a rubbing, and inside.

In addition to the leaves and bark of the elm tree, wood is also valued, which practically does not rot. Due to this peculiarity, water pipes are made of this tree, as well as supports for various buildings, most of which are in the water.

Elm wood is very dense and solid, which in its properties resembles the structure of oak. Such a tree is difficult to process, but it is well polished and glued. Also an advantage of elm is that when drying wood is practically not deformed, it retains its original appearance and structure.

Due to the fact that the elm blooms early, it is a good honey plant. With good weather, a large number of bees gather around it during flowering.

In addition, the powerful root system of a tree is often used as a barrier and securing natural slopes.

Elm Ilm - tree description, photo and video

Elm is a useful tree. Elm elm is, first of all, a tree, more precisely a family. In this family there are trees and shrubs. It is often called simply elm or bark. This genus includes about 35 species, but in Russia, in view of the harsh climatic conditions, only 7-8 species grow. They come from deciduous forests of North America and Eurasia.

Elm tree | Super garden

| Super garden

Elm, elm, elm or elmovik is a deciduous tree with small, inconspicuous flowers. Botanical types of elm in height, as a rule, exceed garden and park varieties. All elm trees have characteristic oval leaves with a jagged edge.

Elm rough, or mountain elm - a beautiful powerful tree with a spherical crown up to 40m. Its trunk forks at a small height from the ground. Oval, serrated leaves of rough elm reach 16 cm in length and resemble beech leaves. In autumn, they turn yellow. Elm is rough shade-tolerant and frost-resistant. He tolerates urban conditions. And representatives of the “Pendula” variety reach only 4 meters in height. Their branches beautifully wilted, eventually forming a flat, umbrella-shaped root.

Elm plains, as well as rough, is a common species. Its characteristic features are a short stem and a broad, dense crown, which is colored bright yellow in autumn. Elm level with a height of 25-35 m is recommended to grow in park gardens, as it produces a lot of root offsprings.

Dutch Elm is a hybrid obtained by crossing an elm rough with an elm plain. Hybrid trees are stunted and therefore widely used in gardening. The variety “Dodoens”, reaching a height of 15-20m, has a wide, cone-shaped crown. This variety with a pointed, conical crown reaches about 10-15 meters in height. Lateral branches of trees depart from the trunk at an acute angle, forming something like a fish skeleton. But the variety “Lobel” has a narrow crown and reaches a height of 12-15 meters. The variety “Platijn” with a height of only 15 meters forms an oval crown. Column-shaped, in the form of an elongated cone, the crown "Wredei" does not rise more than 8-10 meters in height. The special beauty of this variety is given by broad-oval, wavy on the edges, golden-yellow leaves. Elm prefers cool, moist spots in partial shade. The house is traditionally planted elm rough. This moisture-loving tree also feels very good on the shore of the reservoir. In the garden looks very picturesque variety of rough elm. Against the background of dark coniferous trees, golden yellow Dutch elm stands out nicely. Elm plantings are a magnificent decoration of large park gardens.

Deep-rooting elm forms a branched root system, the root hairs of which extend far beyond the canopy canopy. In this regard, at the foot of the elm should not be planted plants that require frequent tillage. Lawn - the most suitable place for elm. Here the tree appears in all its glory. At the foot of an elm tree, shade-loving ground cover plants can be planted. These include the periwinkle, pahizander apical and creeping tentacle.

Elm can be planted in spring or autumn. First you need to water the sapling. We dig a hole with twice the volume of an earthen clod of a seedling. Mix the excavated earth with a bucket of compost and a handful of algal limestone. Part of the mixture poured to the bottom of the fossa. We take out a sapling from the container and place it in a hole so that it is at ground level. Next we drive a peg. Fill the hole with enriched soil. Carefully tamp the surface and form a watering circle. Water the seedling. Ground the soil with crushed bark. Tie the tree trunk to the peg with a loop of eight. Elm does not need regular pruning. Cut only the broken branches and cover up the cut areas with garden pitch.

Buy better container seedlings with strong trunks and regular arrangement of branches. When choosing a seedling be careful. It is not necessary to buy too large saplings with weak shoots or with a unilateral arrangement of branches. Place choose a penumbra and direct sun. Cool and humid climate is most favorable for elm. The soil should be rich in humus, quite fertile. Elm feels great on a slightly damp, fertile, slightly limestone soil. From the elm flowers after fertilization of the ovary, winged seeds are formed. With the help of seeds, botanical elm species can be propagated. Elm roots can destroy hard surfaces and move paving slabs.

A Dutch disease is a fungal disease caused by a fungus that is tolerated by bark beetles. Symptoms: shoots wither and turn yellow, then branches and whole trees die. Sick plants should be uprooted immediately.

The most favorable time for planting is before the beginning of the growing season, namely in the spring. Inspect overwintered trees, prune broken and dead branches. Elm does not need further pruning. In the summer we water young trees during the dry season. All trees with symptoms of Dutch disease are subject to immediate destruction. In the autumn we spend an alternative landing time. We collect fallen leaves from under the trees. Pristvolnye circles of young trees are mulched with compost or leaves.

Elm is a versatile tree suitable for gardens and gardens. Flowering begins in April, and the fall will delight you with a beautiful color of leaves. The tree is unpretentious. Prefers partial shade or sun, the soil loves humus, fertile. When group planting observe the distance between seedlings 5-8 meters, as the elm reaches a height depending on the variety 5-40 meters. In my opinion, all plants are good and for someone even an elm can become a pet in the garden. Good luck to you.

Trees-consumers: Elm

This tree is a family of elm. There are more than 30 species in the temperate, less often tropical zone of the Northern Hemisphere. These are predominantly tall trees with a spreading crown. They are used in protective afforestation and gardening.

Elm is a tree of deciduous forests, growing together with maple and linden as an accompanying breed, a long-lived tree common for our forests (lives up to 500 years, or even more) in diameter up to 3 m and height up to 20 m. with a jagged edge, on the basis - a plate, one file of which is shorter, and the other longer where the plate joins the petiole. In addition, the elm leaves are smooth, without pubescence, hence the species name of the tree is smooth.

In spring, bunches of small flowers on long legs, peduncles, bloom at elm. Same-sex flowers,

HEALING PROPERTIES OF TREES

perianth simple, of 4-6 free or slightly fused leaves. Stamens are located opposite tepals. In the male flowers there are rudimentary pistils, and in the female pistil consists of two median carpels, the ovary is single-nessed. The elm fruits are nuts. The plant is pollinated by the wind.

Elm wood without a milky sap, solid, resilient, viscous, excellent building material.

Elm is an exclusively male tree, patronizing the spiritual qualities of a real man. He chooses men in the full sense of the word, supporting all their bold undertakings. Elm "dislikes" losers. He gives strength only to those who fight to the end. Sometimes a good contact with an elm can last a person for a lifetime.

In the Middle Ages, knights made spears from elm not only because of the strength of wood. It was believed that such spears instill courage in the soldiers and bring victory in the battle.

Since ancient times, elm bark has been used in traditional medicine.

Tincture of elm bark smooth used with dropsy and chronic rheumatism. With fever and colds, the same bark, infused with willow bark and birch buds, quickly returns strength to the patient. In this tincture, many tannins and mucus, which have a beneficial effect at elevated body temperature, and skin diseases, and burns.

Slimes are nitrogen-free substances, mainly polysaccharides. In medicine, they are used as enveloping agents.

The elm seeds contain up to 30% non-drying oils, they have little tannins and fiber, but a lot of proteins, which makes the seeds a good food, especially for dairy cows. Dried, ground and boiled seeds are eagerly eaten by pigs. Valued and feed from elm branches. It is harvested most often in May, since at this time they have a lot of protein, fiber, nitrogen-free extractives and almost 4% fat.

General descriptions

The elm family combines 40 varieties of trees and shrubs. The second name is birch bark. In nature, these are tall trees with a strong root system, whose age reaches 120-400 years. For planting by plant breeders, dwarf and medium-sized representatives, standard ones with different size and color of leaves, are bred.

The general characteristics of an elm as a representative of ornamental trees and shrubs include the following characteristics:

deciduous and moisture-loving,

cylindrical or spherical crown,

leaves with a pattern, up to 20 cm,

flowering period - April

flowers are small, collected in bunches,

ornamental varieties propagated by seeds and grafting.

Fertile light soils are suitable for planting bark. There are sun-loving and shade-tolerant trees, so this feature is taken into account when choosing a landing site. Pruning trees produced for sanitary purposes and rarely in decorative. Birch bark grows slowly, so do not require special care. The crown of the tree is thick, gives a good shade, so flower beds do not break around the trunk.

The best decorative varieties

Decorative varieties of birch bark derived from wild species. The most popular - elm elm. Its varieties are used in urban gardening, the most common belong to:

"Pendyla" - weeping crown with flexible young shoots,

"Lutescens" - round shape of the crown, the leaves from light green to dark yellow,

"Fastigiata" - formed in the form of a column.

Of the undersized members of the family are distinguished by the decorative signs of the elm variety of the mountain "Kampendula" and "Low". "Campandula" in height reaches 4 m. Crohn rounded, with long hanging branches. "Low" birch bark grows up to 2 m. It grows slowly, has small openwork leaves.

"Jacqueline Hiller" is grown as a shrub or on a trunk. It reaches a height of 3–3.5 m, equally well adapts to a shady and sunny place.

Elms do not tolerate pruning. They can only be cut a little. Therefore, each decorative representative has a certain form of crown at the genetic level. Therefore, it does not need to form. Most tree-bearing birch trees endure cold conditions up to -30 ° С, therefore they are grown in different regions of the world from North America to the shores of the southern seas.

Wood elm

Ilm trees are widespread in nature and comprise about 150 species. However, in our latitudes - in the temperate zone - about 30 representatives of this family are distributed. The greatest value is represented by mountain elm (elm elm), western framework, elm elm (elm, birch bark) and elm smooth.

Ilm mountain (Elm rough)

The mountain elm has a straight trunk, reaching a height of 30 m, or even 35 m, the diameter of the trunk - up to 0.8 meters. Most often found as an admixture in coniferous-deciduous forests.
It grows throughout Europe - from the Urals to the Balkans, as well as in the eastern part of North America. It is a frost-growing, shade-tolerant plant that avoids only wetlands and saline lands. It grows in mountainous areas and in large cities, including - in decorative forms.

Western frame

Ironwood, or Western Frame

The iron tree, or western framework, is native to North America. The average height of this elm is about 40 meters. Able to live to 500 years. In our latitudes, in small quantities it grows in the Carpathians and throughout Ukraine, but does not reach such indicators as in its homeland. The western framework is characterized by extremely dense wood, which is highly polished and widely used in carpentry. To date, the use of this representative Elm is limited to a small amount. Although earlier, strong submerged structures were built of iron wood - dams, bridges, dams, and also used in shipbuilding due to the properties of elm wood for a long time to be stored in water.

Karagach (elm, birch bark)

Karagach is a low tree with a height of about 7-8 meters (occasionally up to 20 m) with a low crown and branches covered with growths. It is found in Kazakhstan, the Transcaucasus, in the south of Ukraine, in Western Europe, the countries of Central and Asia Minor, and also in North Africa. Most often, elm grows not in forests, but on forest edges, in plains, near shrubs and in beams.

Elm smooth

Another elm representative is elm smooth. He has a straight trunk with a height of up to 30-35 meters, the diameter of the trunk does not exceed 0.7-0.8 meters. The elm has a smooth spreading thick crown, thin hanging branches and gray bark. Pure elm forests practically do not occur - often with maple, oak and linden.

Almost all elm trees bloom in early spring, before the leaves bloom, and in late spring-early summer fruits appear on the tree. The fruit of the elm is carried by the wind. The average age of the trees is about 100 years.
The wood of the elm is very valuable, but the elm forests of great water regulating and water conservation importance are no less valuable.

Ilm tree. Description. A photo

It would seem that nature has generously endowed the elms with everything necessary for life. In height
stretch quickly. Three to four years after planting - and a young forest has already emerged.
The fruits give early. Other trees in May only bloom, while the Ilms are already ripening
fruit. Fruits nuts for flight are supplied with a wide wing. Other trees have these
decorations are much more modest.

At the pine and ate on the little wing. The dipterocarpes have two wings and five wings each.
Ilm wing has a solid, around the entire fruit nut-nut. Like a straw field
hats Together with the wing, the fruit looks like a small dumpling. Ilma can live on
oily soil and on bad. They can grow on the dry chestnut soil of the southern
steppes. And even so saline, where pine and wheat die quickly.

And yet, for all these virtues, the existence of elms on earth is set
questioned. Over the past century all kinds of misfortunes have been raining down on the ilmas.
It began with the hobbies of the elms. В Донбассе в местечке Велико-Анадоль в середине
прошлого века создали первое степное лесничество. Посадили лес. Вырос он
здоровым и крепким. Но обошелся в копеечку. Министерство сочло расходы
чрезмерными. Уволили лесничего В. Граффа и на его место назначили молодого
выпускника лесной академии И. Барка. Барк получил ультиматум: либо он создаст
дешевый лес, либо лесничество закроют.



Ильм. Photo: Leonora Enking

Arriving in Veliko Anadol, Bark went to inspect the graffovsky landings and
Immediately noticed that they grow unequally. Some trees stood out for their
especially healthy, others were twice as tall as them. Record-breakers
were ilma. Several species. They all grew quickly, they developed a large crown,
quickly closed crowns. There were very few weeds under them.

Bark quickly realized. The more ilms, the less weeds. Less weeds,
less weed Weeding is the most expensive in the cultivation of the forest. Graff did them
35 times! And Bark decided to plant as many elms as possible. 10 years hoped
get a thick, closed forest. In the early years, the circumstances were
favor of bark. Ilm forests grew excellently. Weeding did not require. In the ministry
learned about it. They called the foresters. They offered to follow the example of Barca, plant
only elms

At the age of ten, landings entered a period of rapid growth. And demanded so
a lot of moisture in the soil is not enough. The trees began to dry. Noticing the terrible
harbingers of trouble, Bark immediately realized the reason for drying out. Ordered
cut down half the trees to give space to the rest. In a hurry, he did not consider
that the elms, for all their rapidity of growth, will not have time to react so lightning-fast to
clarification, like steppe grasses. Stepnyaki broke into the forest. Insofar as
the grasses spent more water than the elms, the remaining trees began to dry
faster.

But maybe the catastrophe would not have happened if not for one circumstance. AT
in pursuit of savings, Bark refused to plant a hedge that his
predecessor edging his woods. It is not known why
Graffa hedges. At least a great number of birds are bred, and they
timely cleaned the landing of harmful insects.

Landing Bark proved to be unprotected. Without birds, they will not survive for long
could Suddenly, the caterpillars of the corns mound were piling up. Vburavlivalis in
branches, made long passages, got to the leaf stalks and even devoured
them from the inside. The branches broke, fell. Trunks turned into bare pillars. Caterpillars
not all trees sharpened. They chose ilma, Oak did not touch. And, as a sin, Bark
excluded oak from their plantings.

Since then, Bark did not plant solid ilmovniki. But the foresters who adopted him
experience, many more years planted forests according to his recipes. Exchanged seeds, sent
each other in ilma packages - planting material. In the elm seedlings drove
caterpillars hiding in the depths of branches. Unwittingly
foresters spread the infection more and more. Even with wood when
cut down dried trees.

To top it all off, the hares took an active part in the elm epic.
In winter, left without grass, the slanting turned into trees, nibbled bark. AND
again, most of all they liked Ilm. Hares hares still long plagued
forester. Before World War II they raged in the forest
landings Trans-Volga. There are more than two third elm planted there.
Thoroughly got the elms and in Central Asia. From time immemorial huge wheels
The arb was made from curves of the elm trunks.

Disease I elm dervishev

Dutch disease of elm rocks (graphosis) - pathogen - marsupial
Ophiostoma ulmi.

Affected breeds: all European and Asian species of elm species.

Aerial organs of tree are affected - trunks, branches, leaves. First sign
lesions serve as a sudden withering of the leaves (while they remain
green) and folding them along the central vein. Sometimes the leaves become
red-brown. Drying of the trees begins with the side branches of the upper part of the crown.
or done and spreads the crown and trunk down. First die the most
younger and later older branches. Shrunken young twigs take shape
hooks. Often the affected trees completely lose foliage and on their trunks
develop water shoots.

Shrinkage of the crown - the result of violations of water exchange. It is associated with the withering away
the surrounding vessels of the parenchyma and partly with blockage of vessels of the affected branches and
trunks tills, gum-like substances and the parasite's mycelium, developing
of conidia carried by the sabot. A sign that the tree died exactly
from the Dutch disease, is the presence in the young layers of wood
dark brown strips of occluded vessels. On cross sections affected
branches in the wood are well visible dark brown strokes, dots or spots,
located in the form of discontinuous or solid rings. Longitudinal section
visible brown stripes. With the help of a magnifying glass in the bark beetles and on the inner surface
lagging bark and sapwood can be detected coremogum. Size of coriami
1.5 mm, they are black-brown with a light head 0.35 mm in diameter.

The course of the disease depends on the external conditions, the age of the tree and
susceptibility can be acute when the disease develops very quickly, and
trees die within a few weeks or months, or chronic.
Chronic form is more common in old, detached trees in parks
and rare stands, it can last for years and causes a slow extinction.
tree. The development of the disease contributes to long dry and hot weather.
Favorable factor is a warm wet spring, when the shoots form
wide vessels through which spores more easily penetrate deep into the plant. Summer
dry period accelerates the death of trees.

The intensive development of the disease contributes to the presence of a source of infection in the form
previously unrooted shriveled trees, on which spores are carried
sapwood on healthy trees. Around the affected trees gradually
curtains of dying trees are formed, which gradually grow and
merge with each other. Fungus spores are transferred from tree to tree by
wind, rain spray, insects. Especially actively spread the infection.
elm saponies (especially squatted and destroyer). They are controversial.
the fungus in the vessels of thin branches, in the forks of which the beetles pass an additional
food, eating away juicy bast and surface layers of sapwood. Infection can also
occur through various mechanical damage. Trees are infected only
through fresh wounds. An infection can be transmitted from a mother tree.
Inside the trunk, the mycelium moves along the core rays from one year
rings to another. Mycelium lives in the plant for one year, and therefore to maintain
infection requires additional annual infection of trees. Cut down
tree infection can persist for two years. The longest she
saved on unrooted branches lying in the shadows.

Spread. Grafioz - one of the most dangerous diseases of the elm species,
interfering with their growth. Distributed in natural and artificial
plantings of steppe and forest-steppe zones. The disease affects the elm of all ages,
especially strong in 10-40 years.

The use of ilmva species in wood processing

Ilm is a ring vascular sound rock. Its wood is similar in texture to oak, but
has anatomically more microroughness. The raids or caps of the elms have
especially rich texture, and therefore highly valued. Wood main elm,
and also elm and elm are similar in their properties and similar to oak. Its hard
split and it has a high viscosity, it bends well and has a dark brown
color and beautiful expressive texture. Process it with cutting tools.
hard, but polished and glued easily.

When it is finished using primer. When drying in the chambers the wood of the elm is small
cracks and warp, drying time to a moisture content of 8-10% is about the same
like oak. Dried wood Ilm low-resistant to rotting in conditions
the atmosphere. In water and earth, ilm wood manifests itself as
larch, and it is used in the construction of the lower rims of the log cabins of wells, and
also in the manufacture of bridges and piles of hydraulic structures. By
the abrasion of the ilm is almost the same as ash and beech. Ilm wood
produce plywood, lumber, furniture, in particular - chairs.

Properties of wood karagach

Karagach grows in the southern strip of the European part of Russia, in the Crimea, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Often in the steppe zone is a satellite of the oak. Wood is durable, hard and elastic. Unlike oak, elm wood does not peel off.

Elm, elm, elm (dense, durable breed) - these breeds are widely used in furniture and plywood production because of their beautiful texture. Having great strength, they are used in mechanical engineering and car building. Wood elm, elm, elm, is distinguished by its strength, viscosity, density. Good resistance to wear, good bends.

This is important when it comes to mechanical impact on the external surfaces of the billiard table, specifically on its sides. By its properties, elm wood is close to oak. It is quite difficult to handle, but with skillful use, the result will exceed all expectations.

Wood practically does not warp and does not crack when drying. After painting and polishing, the surface becomes perfectly smooth and gets shine. This happens due to the reduced number of pores in the wood structure, compared to oak wood.

Another advantage of elm wood, and the elm belongs to this family is its resistance to moisture. This is an added bonus for those who want to install a billiard table in the waiting room and fears the influence of humidity on the pool table.

For those who are interested in how the tree itself looks, the following information will be interesting. The elm is a deciduous tree of the elm or elm family. This is a very ancient tree species. It is believed that this species is more than 40 million years old. The tree can reach a height of forty meters.

The trunk circumference of such tall trees can be up to two meters. The wood is light with a yellow tint and very beautiful structure. I would also like to note that the wood of this tree has a faint aroma that acts on a person as an antidepressant.

Our online store of billiard and gaming equipment offers to buy not only billiards, but also gaming tables for air hockey, table football, tennis,

My experience with elm


With elm, as with the material for carving, I met back in childhood.

In our locality, villagers have used elm bark for making boxes and tuesov since ancient times. They made these boxes right there in the forest when it was necessary to carry away a harvest of berries or mushrooms. We very often laid bark from dry elms directly to the ground to arrange a place to sleep.

In the Chuvash villages, hoops for barrels and tubs were made of an elm rod. Yes, and riveting (plates for barrels) were hewn not only from oak and linden, but also from elm. In the Beer Museum, in Cheboksary, I saw a beer keg made from elm wood, but the hoops were made from elm sticks.

In Shumerle, literally up to the 50s, the elm was used in a gnatarny production in the manufacture of runners for sleds. And now you can still find in the market of whatever grandfather from the Chuvash village, which sells sledges from elm. Maybe they look rude and clumsy, but at the same time they are very durable and can serve no generation.

A dry elm in the Sura floodplain is very common, I suppose that the root system of this tree does not always tolerate flooding during the spring flood. At the same time, dry elm is a wonderful material for carving.

Dry elm wood has already been “released”. All the cracks that could form, have already formed. And to choose a suitable piece of wood for work without chipping and cracking is possible without difficulty, since dry elm is usually found already without bark and all wood defects are clearly visible.

Sometimes I deliberately take pieces of elm, eaten by carpenter beetles, their moves in an array of wood can be used as a decorative element in certain works.

I really enjoyed cutting elm spoons. In terms of hardness, the elm, in my opinion, is not inferior to oak, at the same time it has no such disadvantage as a tendency to chipping and cracking. Wood elm justifies its name, even a dry elm stick can not be broken the first time.

For the first time I saw elm products in St. Petersburg. There was a man standing on Nevsky Prospect, with spatulas and spoons of unusual colors on his tray. It turned out that they were made of elm, then I was surprised by the characteristic wavy shape of the pattern of blood vessels. And the sharp color transitions of the core and the sapwood gave the products an original look.

I noted this unusual fact to myself, and remembered it a few years later, when I came across a small dead elm tree that I managed to cut off with a small hand-saw. In the same place, in the forest, I sawed the trunk on suitable blocks of wood and cut it with an ax in the shape of an approximate form so as not to drag home an extra load.

Since the elm was dry and without cracks, at home I immediately began to cut one of bacl, and within 4 hours the rough spoon shape was ready. ”Pear on twig". Then there was a long finishing, impregnation and waxing, but since then I have loved this wonderful tree, although I do not often cut from it, because for elm you need a special mood, as it "does not like" hustle and bustle.

Candidate of Biological Sciences V. ARTAMONOV


In the first half of summer, the forest is filled with the noise of birds, trees and shrubs covered with lush green plants grow wild, and the abundance of flowers smells of air. Not at all in August: the vast majority of plants have faded, trees and shrubs have stopped growing, the leaves are dusty and dull. We still do not notice any special changes in nature, and the trees have already sensitively reacted to the shortening of the daylight - after all, they need to have time to bear fruit, and in addition, prepare for wintering, form buds that will bloom in spring. Here they are seemingly numb, but in their depths there is a difficult job.

In August it is pleasant to me elm, so calm, majestic. This is a large tree with a branchy dense crown, a slender trunk covered with smooth bark, which determined the species name - elm smooth, it is ordinary, large-leaved. Elm from the ilm family (Ulmus in Latin) occurs - this is the name for this breed in the north-west, in Novgorod land, as indicated by the Ilmen Lake located there.

In the central regions of Russia, the tree for centuries has been called elm. Probably because its leaves, even on one shoot, can vary in size and shape, forming a beautiful lace, and in other words, a ligature. It is particularly noticeable in the fall, when the leaves acquire a golden yellow color, which contrasts sharply with the September blue sky. The people have long noticed this feature of foliage, and that was the name of the tree - elm.

The ancient Greeks elm was the personification of sadness, he allegedly overshadowed the entrance to the underworld of Hades. The same attitude was towards him in ancient Rome. Virgil in the Aeneid wrote:

The elm tree stands in the middle, huge and dark, stretching its Old branches,

dream a lying tribe

There is shelter, lurking under each leaf.

Roman naturalists Caton, Pliny the Elder spoke highly of the quality of elm wood.

But in the "Senior Edda" this plant had a completely different symbolism:

to the joy of friends

From ancient times, elm was worshiped as a medicinal plant. The famous Roman physician Quint Soren Samoni "(III century AD) in the Medical Book proposed to use it for the treatment of wounds.

will be able to wound the edges

or greens, or bast

The Archbishop of Benedict Crisp of Milan, in the poem “Medical Notes”, recommended drinking elm for hip arthritis:

From elm tree to bark

With her madder mix

My very first impressions about this tree go to the distant years of childhood, which passed in the Vladimir region, in the ancient town of Yuryev-Polsky. It is best remembered for its dentate, dark green thin leaves, rough from the hairs covering them, with short petioles, a well-visible central vein divides the leaf plate into two parts, each of which is as if lined with parallel lateral veins.

In general, elm can often be seen in the forests of the European part of the USSR, and in the north it enters the Vologda and Perm regions, and in the south it “masters” the mountains of the Caucasus. It is curious that in the extensive literature on the vegetation of the Moscow region, until recently, it was indicated that common elm occurs sporadically in the form of separate individuals as part of mixed deciduous forests on the slopes of valleys and beams.

And in 1981, an article appeared in the journal “Forest Studies”, the authors of which reported the unexpected discovery of elm forests located on the steep southern slopes of the Pakhra River valley, starting from the village of Sofyino stretches of elm forests with short intervals stretching here for 15 kilometers Polivanov village And we then thought that the Moscow region was studied by botanists up and down! One of the trees reached a diameter of Ø-103 centimeters, which is said about its respectable age. In general, the fact that the elm grows since ancient times on our land, I testify the works of Russian historians.

Беру с полки, например, первый том научных трудов члена-корреспондента АН СССР Сергея Владимировича Бахрушина и в предметном указателе нахожу слово «вязник», расшифрованное как заготовки вяза для деревянных поделок. And immediately in memory there are names of settlements, which are based on the word "elm" - Vyazma in the Smolensk region, Large and Small Vyazemy in the Moscow region, Vyazniki in the Vladimir region.

Perhaps, under Vyazniki they were carrying out the billet knitting? The subject index refers us to the story of the glorious Kirillo-Belozersky monastery, where there was a turning workshop - “hut tokarennaya”, where wooden spoons, staffs, poker and all kinds of turned vessels were made. They worked there conscientiously, so in 1600 there were 6873 spoons in the monastic treasury.

For the workshop, large stocks of wood were stored, which were kept in a special barn, “and the turners keep there elm and birch trees”. For raw materials, the monastery sent its novices to the forest areas. In 1568, for example, two servants drove ase Sannikovo to a bowl. ” In 1582, the Sannikov peasants brought to the monastery "calves on the cups 104 elm chocks".

According to the geographical index to M.N. Tikhomirov’s book “Russia in the 16th Century,” I try to find out where the village of Sannikovo, which belonged to the monastery, was located. The index is Sannichesky parish in the Vladimir region. But maybe this volost has nothing to do with the village of Sannikov? And it is hardly preserved on the modern map ...

Still, I open a large map of the Moscow region and in the east of the Vladimir region I find the city of Vyazniki, and just north-west - the village of Sannikovo! If this is the very village, then it becomes clear why the monastic servants went “beyond Sannikovo”, this is where Vyazniki is located. In this area, apparently, and elm harvested for crafts.

“Cyril spoons were famous throughout the state, which could be found in any city,” writes S. Bakhrushin in the same book. “How much Cyril spoons were valued can be seen from the fact that in 1607 hundreds of them cost 20 altyn on Vologda, while the ordinary were sold for less than 11 altyn for a hundred. ” Had wide demand and other Cyril dishes. From elm made brothers, bowls, dippers, as well as rims, runners, knitting needles, arcs, shafts. Monastic shipwrights decorated the dishes with artistic painting and carving.

Why is it so valued products from elm? The fact is that its wood with a yellowish-white sapwood and a dark brown core has a beautiful texture, has high technical qualities. It is strong, resilient, sticky, hard and very durable. It is still used in carpentry and furniture manufacturing, shipbuilding, car building, in underwater and under-floor constructions ”. It is curious that in Europe, houses built from elm trunks were found in a fossil human settlement.

The bast of elm is used to make bastards, the bark is used for tanning leather, cork growths on elm trees are grab-shaped (a different name is birch bark) and cork growth is for pressing insulating plates. Highly valued for turning handicrafts nodules on elms - drips. They often reach enormous proportions, especially on old elms in East Kazakhstan.

Elm has a smooth, powerful root system with separate deep-reaching roots and a mass of surface ones. Sometimes, board-shaped roots of 30-50 centimeters are formed - a kind of tree support. Such roots are characteristic of rainforest trees. In the ilm valley, growing in the south of Primorsky Krai, they reach one and a half - even two meters in length.

On elm roots there is mycorrhiza (mycelium). At the bark of a heat-loving tree with small leaves covered with small reddish glands, the roots are often covered with peculiar mycorrhizal covers.

Flowering elm smooth early - in April, before the appearance of the leaves. His bisexual flowers, located in bunches at the ends of the branches, are very simple. A bell-perianth green with a reddish border surrounds the pistil and 4-5 stamens protruding from the flower. The filaments of the stamens are white, and the anthers are purple. Early flowering, simple form of flowers characteristic of wind-pollinated plants. It is curious that in the anthers of elm there is a gap open in dry weather and closed in the rain.

Elm is a honey plant. In favorable warm weather, bees eagerly visit this tree, collecting nectar, pollen and glue from it.

Elms fruit annually and abundantly, starting from 10-12 years of age in the middle lane, and in the south - from 6-8 years.

Fruits of an elm - winged seeds of an ovoid form - ripen early, in the conditions of Moscow region in June. With the help of an opaque yellow or light brown wing surrounding the seed from all sides, they are transported by means of the wind over fairly considerable distances. Once in the soil, the seeds germinate in 3-5 weeks, but during storage they quickly lose their germination. The elm seeds contain a lot of fats and proteins, therefore forest dwellers willingly eat them. They are also suitable as feed for dairy cattle and horses, in dry, ground and cooked form they serve as good feed for pigs.
In China, the unripe small-leaved elm fruits are eaten as a salad. The oil brought from seeds, greenish color, without taste and a smell. It accounts for 27 percent of their mass.

Elms successfully tolerate a haircut, are undemanding to environmental conditions, cope with air pollution, grow rapidly, especially at a young age: by the age of 40 they reach a height of 20 or even 30 meters. Therefore, they are widely used in landscaping settlements in a large area of ​​our country.

It has been established that 10 kilograms of the mass of elm smooth leaves during the growing season from May to September absorb 120 grams of sulfur dioxide from the air - one of the most common toxic pollutants of the natural environment, in this respect it is only balsamic and green poplar. And as an “vacuum cleaner,” an elm is a real champion, its leaves hold up dust several times more than leaves of poplar, maple, linden.

Elms are especially valued in arid regions - in Central Asia, Kazakhstan, and Transcaucasia. They are successfully used in protective afforestation, for fixing ravines, beams and dumps. Propagated by their seeds and shoots. The life span of an elm tree is up to 400 years.

Magazine "Science and Life" №8 1990

Karagach, Tree for knife handles

flick photos with swipe across the screen, increase tap

    The size of the bar, mm ... 30 x 45 x 130

Growing region: forest-steppe and steppe zones of Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, the Caucasus, Central Asia.
The color of the wood of a karagach sometimes has a reddish-brown tone with a violet or greenish tint. Its wood is dense and solid, amenable to good processing. After steaming, the wood can be bent as you wish. But because of its dense, fine-pore structure, wood is poorly polished, poorly planed and painted.
Karagach-nuclear species, by its nature is a deciduous tree.

Characteristics of the breed: strength, density, resistance to cracking, resistance to rotting, wear resistance, flexibility, lightness.


Color / texture: ring-vascular rock (sound), reddish-brown core, sapwood narrow, yellowish-white, elm wood color sometimes has a reddish-brown tone with a purple or greenish tint, wood grain structure is smooth or slightly wavy, moire texture with a unique brilliance. Its wood is dense and solid, amenable to good processing. After steaming, the wood can be bent as you wish. But because of its dense, fine-pore structure, wood is poorly polished, poorly planed and painted.


Density: 650-700kg / m 3

Hardness: 0.7-1.0 on the Moss scale

Processing: it is easy to join in the woodwork. In the process of working with wood, it is important to take into account the peculiarities of this breed when drying, sawing and storing.

* A slight deviation of the texture and color of the wood presented in the photo from the real product is possible.