Felt cherry cherries have been known to European gardeners since 1870, when this beautiful plant was first brought from China to the British Isles and then to the New World. Culture immediately interested gardeners versatility, rapid growth and the fact that planting, growing, pruning and care for felt cherries were easy and not burdensome.
The natural area of fruit culture covers many areas of China, including Tibet, as well as Mongolia, the Korean Peninsula and part of the provinces of India. Therefore, an unusual cherry, which according to the modern classification is still classified as a plum, is called a dwarf or mountainous Chinese, Korean, Manchurian, Shanghai or Nanking.
Description and characteristics of the cultivation of felt cherries
Felt cherries are named for a pile, especially thickly covering the back of the foliage, and in the form of individual hairs found on its front surface, on young shoots, petioles, and even on berries.
Fruit shrub with brown-copper, sometimes darker, almost black bark in height does not exceed 1-3 meters. The branches are covered with oval, with a pointed tip, toothed green leaves with a length of 2 to 7 m, depending on the variety and age of the plant. They are strongly corrugated and sit on short, barely noticeable petioles. In the spring, felt cherries are covered with a cloud of white or pink flowers that unfold even before the mass appearance of foliage.
The resulting fruits resemble traditional cherries, but a bit smaller.
Today’s interest in culture is understandable:
- Fruiting cherry falls on the first half of the summer, when on the other stone-seed cultures the ovaries are only formed.
- The fruits of this Asian culture, because of the lower acid content, are sweeter than the berries of common varieties of ordinary cherries and are successfully used fresh as a raw material for jam, juice and homemade wine, added to pickles and pickles.
- Planting felted cherries with appropriate care and pruning become an excellent hedge.
- Plants easily adapt to the conditions of the middle zone, they are drought-resistant, cold-resistant.
Therefore, the cultivation and care of felt cherries does not require much time and knowledge, even for novice gardeners.
Planting and care for felt cherries
Felt cherries are not demanding on the composition and fertility of the soil, but it feels better on light, well-impermeable moisture and air soils with a neutral reaction. If it is planned to plant this crop on the site, it is necessary to pick up a sunny, sheltered from the wind, where the root system of the plant will not be threatened by close groundwater or stagnation of rain and thawed moisture. It is especially important that the planting ground of felt cherries is not at risk in the spring during massive snowmelt.
Felt cherry is considered to be self-productive, therefore several plants of different varieties are planted on the site.
With good care and pollination, an adult shrub or miniature tree of this crop can produce up to 8–12 kg of sweet berries, all covered with branches. In this case, the best yields are observed on plants planted at some distance from each other. Overcrowding interferes with the work of pollinating insects, leading to excessive density and the risk of developing diseases.
Felt cherries are planted in the fall, choosing the time so that the plants have time to acclimatize. If felt saplings are purchased too late, they can spend the winter and wait for spring in a cool basement. In this case, it is better to mix the roots in a container and sprinkle with soil. In the spring, saplings of felt cherries are transferred to the ground until the buds swell. Before planting, the root system carefully inspect, remove dry or damaged parts.
Annual or biennial plants are planted at a distance of 1.5–3 meters from each other. Planting pits with a depth of at least 50 and a width of 60 cm equip in advance. If necessary, the soil is deoxidized, mineral and organic fertilizers are applied to the soil. Per cubic meter of soil mixture should be:
- 25-30 grams of potash fertilizer
- 55–60 grams of phosphorus,
- from 6 to 10 kg of humus or well-rotted manure.
It is important not to deepen the root neck, otherwise the area sensitive to an excess of moisture will inevitably rot, the shrub grows poorly or it may even die.
When the planting pits are filled, the soil should be carefully compacted, the bushes should be watered, and then the surface of the soil under them should be covered with mulch.
Care for felted cherries when grown in the garden
Fruit shrubs, especially in the first years of life, need attention and competent care. Therefore, the soil under the felt seedlings of cherry need:
- timely release of weeds, depleting nutrients and moisture,
- loosen, providing soil aeration and access to the root system of water and air,
- moisturize, especially during the active growing season.
With good care, soon after planting, the felted cherry begins to bear fruit, increasing the long-awaited harvests annually:
- Graft cuttings form the ovary next year.
- Green saplings of felt cherries give the first berries two years after planting.
- Seedlings covered with flowers in the fourth year of life.
The skin of the berries is quite thin, and although the mature fruits can remain on the branches for a long time, it is not worth to abuse them. After some time, the berries quickly wither, and in wet weather they can rot.
At home, felt cherries are used to make jam and jams, juice and jelly, wine and liqueurs. The berry, rich in vitamins and other beneficial substances, has a wonderful dessert taste and is loved by adults and children.
When growing felted cherries, the care on it includes plant protection from pests and diseases of fruit crops. It requires caution, because more gentle than that of related crops, foliage and young growth is easy to burn. The berries on the branches ripen almost simultaneously, so when they are mass-produced, the plants spend a lot of energy and need regular feeding. It is carried out by analogy with conventional cherry fertilizer.
Another mandatory measure of care in the cultivation of felt cherries, in the photo, pruning quickly growing and prone to excessive density of the crowns of bushes or small trees.
Felt cherry pruning
Among fruit crops, felt cherries more than others need regular regular crown formation and sanitary pruning. Otherwise, expanding lateral shoots block access to the crown of air, light and insects that produce pollination. But in such conditions pests, pathogenic flexible, lichens, feel great. Productivity falls, and the shrub may eventually die.
Pruning felt cherries, as in the photo, it is better to move in early spring, when the plants have not yet awakened the buds and the movement of juices has not started. In this case, all the forces of the plant are directed to its growth, active flowering and the formation of large healthy berries.
The formation of a bush starts from the first year of life, which allows to get a balanced, strong crown already in 2-3 years ready to produce significant yields.
The procedure involves cutting:
- lateral branches directed deep into the crown,
- weak, frozen or dried out shoots during wintering,
- old branches that are no longer involved in fruiting and do not have a one-year increase,
- excessive number of branches, the fruiting of which will be difficult for cherries.
Pruning of adult shrubs of felt cherries is carried out in such a way as to leave no more than 12 strong shoots. Since the main crop is on one-year-old branches, in order to rejuvenate plants older than 8–10 years old, they are pruned with stronger pruning, gradually cutting and replacing old skeletal branches with new shoots.
If spring cutting of felt cherries was not carried out, it is carried out in the autumn. At the same time pay attention to the new growth. Warm autumn provokes increased growth of new shoots that are not ready for winter and freeze. Therefore, one-year-old branches with a length of more than 60 cm should be cut by a third. In addition, the fall is necessary sanitization of fruit shrubs. From under the crown remove fallen leaves, remove dried and damaged pests shoots. Plant residues and cut branches are burned, large sections more than 2 cm in diameter are treated with garden pitch.
Felted Cherry Reproduction
New plants of felt cherries in the backyard can be obtained in several ways. The easiest and fastest to get seedlings from rooted green cuttings. The only drawback is the risk of rotting of the root neck of such plants after wintering.
Lignified branches form roots much worse, and viable saplings of felt cherries can be obtained from them only in a greenhouse with constantly increased air humidity.
The culture is also propagated by layering, rooting the young shoots bowed to the soil, and enthusiasts can start growing and caring for felt cherries obtained from seeds. In this case, the original varietal characteristics are not always possible to be preserved, but the method opens up broad possibilities for experiments with selection. Felt cherries can be crossed with cherry plum, apricot and some varieties of plums. However, cherry seedlings can be grafted onto the seedlings with a cutting or peephole.
Felt cherry - description and photo
Felt cherry photo:
Felt cherry blossoms, photo:
The appearance of the leaves, berries, shoots, peduncles directly justifies its name - they are all covered with a soft fuzz.
She has short stems, and the flowers first have a pink tint, which then turns white.
The berries are most often red, but individual cultivars have pink, white, even black fruits. They are absolutely not sour, their sweetness is to their liking. It is because of the delicate sweet taste that it is sometimes called baby cherry. Berries quickly reach a state of maturity (less than 2 weeks). The core of the fruit is mostly tender, soft, but individual varieties can be quite dense (such as sweet cherry).
Jams, marmalades, preserves are made from it, although the small stone is rather difficult to separate from the pulp. Compotes, juices, even homemade alcoholic beverages from this berry are simply excellent. In addition to the pleasant taste, the fruit contains organic acids, vitamins (especially C, B), carbohydrates. It is noteworthy that according to the iron content, these berries are far ahead of apples! As mentioned above, in addition to growing for the sake of harvest, you can safely use these low shrubs to create hedges, strengthen the slopes. It turns out, from whatever side you look - in all respects it is a useful, very nice culture.
Felt cherry is good for everyone: it has an attractive appearance, compact size (which is important for small areas), but it has one small “disadvantage”. We are talking about a short lifespan - about 10 years. If you surround her with care, competent care (in particular, anti-aging crown trimming), then you may be able to extend its life cycle to 18-20 years. As for the size, the adult shrub usually grows up to 2-2.5 meters, but never exceeds 3. This feature optimizes the process of harvesting, solves the problem of sites with a small area. Forming pruning is much more convenient with such relatively small dimensions of the tree.
Cherry felt - how it grows and where, growing conditions
She prefers light, fertile sandstone or loam, and it is best for a non-acidic, well-drained soil to prevail at the place of cultivation. It will not grow on peatlands or marshy soil. Excessive moisture affects the growth, the ability to produce color, fruit, resistance to cold. Also, it must be placed in extremely sunny places, as it does not like shade or even partial shade. Returning to the pH indicator of the soil, you need to mention: if you have it sour, then it should be preliminarily lime (in spring or autumn).
Felt cherry, bushes with fruits, photo:
The important point is that in order to get a generous harvest, it is necessary to plant at least 3 bushes of different varieties close to each other. This is necessary for a better pollination! Self-fertile varieties are “Summer”, “Fairy Tale”, “Delight”, “Triana”, “Jubilee”, “Ogonyok”, “Eastern Smuglyanka”, “Tsarevna”, “Beauty”, “Children's”, “Mechta”, “ East. Of the most self-infertile cultivars, the most well-known are “Autumn Virovskaya”, “Natali”, “Ocean Virovskaya”, “Alisa”. Berries usually ripen by the middle of summer, and in the southern regions by mid-June. Despite significant genetic differences with ordinary cherries, the close proximity of these two representatives, namely, their simultaneous flowering, has an extremely positive effect on the taste and size of the berries of Chinese cherries.
Flower buds and green berries of felted cherry, photo:
This culture tolerates temperature drops quite well, sometimes to - 27 ° C ..- 30 ° C, but it reacts very negatively to spring (or winter) thaws. It would be better if at the very beginning of spring you scoop up more snow under the bushes, propchete it more tightly, and put additional sawdust on top. So you protect the bush from temperature changes.
The advantages of growing felted cherries:
- It can be eaten already when the remaining fruit representatives only form the ovary.
- Because of the low acid content, the berries are endowed with excellent taste, which allows you to use them any (raw, in the form of jam or juice, as raw materials for sauces, pickles or pickles).
- Good adaptability of culture to the conditions of the region where it grows. Drought resistance and frost resistance is also a plus.
- The seedling begins to bear fruit in the second year of life in open ground (most varieties). Berries ripen pretty early, long held on the branches.
- Differs in high productivity, at normal leaving fruits literally stick round branches.
- The lack of root shoots - in this culture, it does not appear at all.
- A beautiful element of landscape design (hedge, border design, the main detail in mixed plantations).
This is an unpretentious culture, its cultivation will not require you to have subtle agrotechnical knowledge, even a beginner can successfully plant a shrub and care for him. Well, finally, - felt cherry is very beautiful as a flowering tree or with branches covered with fruits. As a leafy shrub, it is also good.
Cherry Felt - planting and care
The most acceptable time for planting seedlings is autumn or early spring, when the buds have not yet blossomed. If you plant bushes in the fall, then no later than September. For these purposes, usually take seedlings that are already a year or two. Slightly above it was said that the place for landing should be sunny. Also, it should be as far as possible protected from strong winds, drafts. Make sure that there is no stagnation of water in the place intended for planting, the presence of closely flowing groundwater. This factor should also be considered during the melting of snow in the spring. That is why a small hill is the most acceptable option for planting this crop.
Felt cherry has a root system that is very sensitive to excessive moisture. Therefore, this moment is one of the most important when landing, even on the dais, it should not be too deep, so that the root neck does not block. It (the root neck) should be located above the level of the soil, because its penetration will subsequently lead to the destruction of the shrub. Soil requirements are also mentioned above, but if the nuance with the soil is of secondary importance, then the absence of excessive moisture, the location of the root collar during planting is one of the mandatory conditions.
- The width of the pit should be no less than 60-70 cm, and the depth should be no more than 50 cm. If you are trying to do everything according to the rules, then carefully mix the rotted manure (3 buckets), phosphorus (50 g), lime (500-700 g) , potassium (25-30 g) - the amount of additives calculated for approximately 1 square meter of land. Fill the planting hole with this soil mixture.
- The roots of the seedling should be carefully trimmed - approximately 20 cm, dip it in the clay solution prepared in advance (clay + water).
- We place the seedling in the hole (do not forget about the root neck) and fall asleep with the same emerald, slightly compacted, generously pour water. In general, it is recommended to plant a bush no more than it used to grow in the nursery - if you take planting material from there.
- The place around the bush can be mulched, for example, with peat.
As mentioned above, for a positive result, you need to plant at least three cherries in one area. Make sure that they do not grow too close to each other, but not too far (optimally - 2-3 meters). Of course, using already grown seedlings is very convenient. But you should also know that this culture is propagated by layering, cuttings, even sowing seeds. With proper care in a good place from one bush you can expect from 7 to 10 kg of tasty sweet fruits.
Что касается осенней посадки – если сентябрь уже прошёл, а к вам только попал саженец, то посадку можно осуществить следующей весной. Саженцы следует поместить в подходящую ёмкость, присыпать землёй, отнести в подвал. There, they safely overwinter, and in the spring you plant them, only preliminarily carry out a thorough revision of the roots, remove the damaged or dried fragments. Further "duty" care is to loosen the land, watering, removing weeds.
As for dressings, shrubs can be fertilized immediately after flowering, adding nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, and organic additives to the soil of the trunk circle (at the rate of 40 g: 80 g: 30 g: 7 kg). Once in five or six years, soil chalking is performed.
Felt cherry - breeding
If you are interested in the whole process "from scratch", then you can try the method of reproduction by planting seeds. Collect pits from ripe fruits, wash, dry them. At about the end of the summer, you take a container with wet vermiculite or pure river sand (also wet), place bones there, leave them like this until October. At the appointed time, form shallow beds (3-4 cm), lay the seed. With the arrival of spring in this place you will see young growth, which in the same year will already reach about 50 cm in height. You will choose the best representatives from young saplings, spread them out more seldom (at a distance of 1.5-3 meters from each other), as it should be for the bushes. This method does not guarantee 100% preservation of the original varietal characteristics, but opens up wide horizons for breeding experiments.
Propagation by cuttings - this option will require special conditions, more time, unlike all other methods. Plus, this way you can get varietal representatives of a single species. This venture is carried out in July. The stalk is taken from a branch of the second or third order, it must be at least 15 cm in length, and for this purpose last year's wood should be kept on the branches themselves. On the already separated cutting must be at least 2 cm of the same wood. Further, the cutting is kept for about 15-18 hours in water with the addition of a growth regulator (for example, “Heteroauxin”), and then vertically buried in the ground according to the “scheme” - 2 cm with bark and 1 cm of the green part of the cutting! After planting, the bed should be covered with a film (create a “greenhouse”), regularly irrigate the seedlings, and protect from bright sunlight for the first 4 weeks. After a couple of weeks, appendage roots will appear in the cuttings, and after 4 weeks - difficult to root.
Reproduction by layings will not be difficult. In early spring, an adult bush should look after a good one-year escape. By escaping, you need to draw a groove, to a depth of 8 cm, lay the escape, pin it with a wire clip to the ground. Next, the shoot is filled with fertile soil, generously watered all summer. With the arrival of autumn on such a layer will already be formed fibrous roots, new shoots. It is divided into parts or left without division, in the end we get a new planting material.
Felt Cherry Varieties
In general, all varieties of this crop can be divided into three subgroups according to maturity: early, medium, late. Cherry berries of different varieties may have different colors. Of course, it is unrealistic to describe all varieties, but I would like to mention the most popular ones that are often planted out.
- Natalie is a fairly common variety, beloved by our gardeners. Low bush (1.5-2 m), with a lush sprawling crown, blooms with large flowers (in the second half of May), gives the same large dark red berries (an average of 4 g). From one bush can be removed 8-9 kg of fruit with dense flesh. If you try to pick a berry from a branch, it is relatively easy to separate from the stem. Harvest time falls around the twenties of July.
- The fairy tale is probably one of the lowest bushes, since its maximum height is 1-1.3 meters. The shrub has a not too thick crown, which greatly facilitates the process of pruning, gathering fruits. It blooms by the end of May, you can pick berries at the end of July. The fruits themselves are not small, about 3.5 g, slightly elongated, very dark in color. It is a little harder to remove a berry from a branch than, for example, the Natalie variety, because of a deep-seated stalk. From an adult bush can get about 10 kg of fruit.
- Salute - a shrub boasts an oval sprawling crown, which is about the same width as its height (1.5 - 1.7 m). It blooms by the end of May, the harvest gives after 2 months. Oval berries are not located close to each other, their weight is medium-large (3-3.5 g), bright pink in color, closer to scarlet. Berries, foliage, and shoots of the bush are distinguished by increased pubescence. Productivity is high - about 10 kg of fruits can be collected from an adult bush.
- Delight - a variety that is best suited for growing in central Russia. Shrub often grows up to 1.5 m in height, has a dense, spreading crown. Flowers are arranged quite tightly to each other. Each fruit weighs about 3.3 g, has a bright scarlet color, a funny shape - a deep recess for the stem, a slightly sloping top, pronounced strip seam. The pulp of berries is dense, slightly fibrous. Shrub blooms in mid-May, the harvest can be harvested by the end of July. 8-9 kg of fruits can be removed from the bush.
- Oceanic virovskaya is a shrub 1.8-2 meters high, the branches of which are literally plastered with bright burgundy fruits (2.5-3 g). This variety has a very short stem (about 0.2 cm), the flowers bloom in the second half of May, the fruits ripen by the end of July. One adult bush can give 8-9 kg of berries, which are sweet enough, pleasant to the taste, but have practically no usual cherry aroma.
- Alice is a low shrub, about 1.5 m tall with an oval-shaped crown. This variety has good resistance to cold, as well as to drought. Diseases such as coccomycosis, nodulation do not touch him. The berries (weight about 3.5 g) have a dark maroon color, ripen by the end of July. From one bush you can collect 8-9 kg of sweet juicy berries. The stem (0.7 cm) allows you to more or less comfortably remove the fruit from the branches.
- Summer - this variety has morphological signs of felt and sand cherries. The first couple of years the bush grows inactive, has a high resistance to pocket disease, winter-hardy. Berries (weight 3-4 g) are light red in color, have an average resistance to transportation. Ripens by the 20th of July, after which the fruits can hold on to the branches for a rather long time (about a month). From the bush you can collect 7-8 kg of fruit.
- Damanka - a shrub of this variety can reach 2 m in height, the crown is spreading, rounded. The weight of the berry is about 2.5-3 g. The variety is characterized by late ripening (late July / early August), the fruits have an intense dark maroon (almost black) color. The berries themselves are very sweet, in taste they are considered among the best among the other varieties of felt cherries. One adult bush gives about 8-10 kg of fruit. Winter hardy look.
- Children's - a relatively low grade - 1.5-1.8 m in height, crown moderately thickened. Berries on short stalks are very close to each other (like sea-buckthorn). Fruit weight is 2-4 g, juicy, sweet with a light acidity. Very winter-hardy, can withstand temperatures down to -25 ..- 27ºС. Gives color to the beginning of May, and in July you can already harvest. From one adult bush can remove up to 10 kg of fruit.
If you set a goal, correctly calculate the timing of flowering, the fruiting of individual varieties, you can plant in different varieties. The difference between the ripening period is about 20-30 days, so if you like this berry, you can provide yourself with fresh portions of fruit for quite a long time. Plus the fact that almost all the fruits after ripening for a long time kept on the branches.
Felt cherry - diseases and pests
Sometimes it happens that the appearance of a shrub indicates a problem: the foliage fades, the foliage curls, the fruit that has just started to shrivel or shrivel. Alas, this culture is also prone to disease, like all green inhabitants of our sites.
Very often, illnesses of felt cherries have similar symptoms. It is important to establish the correct diagnosis, apply the appropriate treatment as soon as possible. The country first-aid kit of each of us includes Bordeaux mixture, garden water, lime, and copper sulphate. Also required is the presence of fungicides, insecticides, because these drugs, compositions are most often used to treat plants, trees, shrubs.
Consider the most common diseases.
Moniliasis or monilial burn
It is manifested by the appearance of small cracks on the bark of a bush, from which gum stands out. The foliage fades, turns yellow, the branches gradually dry out, from the outside it looks really like a bush has burned with a strong heat. Monilia fungus is responsible for this process; it spreads very quickly throughout the plant, striking healthy shoots. If time does not take action, felt cherry will die. First you need to remove all the affected fragments (and burn).
But it is better not to wait until the first signs of the disease appear. The best control is prevention. For prophylaxis, just before the beginning of flowering, the whole shrub is treated with one of the products - “Horus”, “Fundazol”, “Topaz”, “Topsin”. They are diluted with water (10-15 g + 10 l of water), if it rains, the irrigation procedure should be repeated after the end of the flowering phase.
If the shrub was saved, then in the fall, next spring (before bud break), such treatments will need to be repeated. For these subsequent irrigations, you can also use the Bordeaux mixture or copper sulfate (3% solution).
Klesterosporiosis or perforated spotting
The cause of this disease is the fungus Clasterosporium carpophilum, which is activated at high humidity, dampness. This fungus is so tenacious that it easily endures the winter, is actively being taken to deal with the arrival of spring. Initially, dark spots appear on the leaves, which then turn into holes. The dark edging of the edges of the hole signals to us that this is precisely klyasterosporioz, and not some other disease. Wind, insects carry the spores of the fungus from infected plants to healthy ones.
The bark of the shrub also suffers - there are cracks seeping with gum, as a result, the disease engulfs the bush, growth slows down, leaves are dropped, shoots dry out. Preventive measures can be considered the timely thinning of the crown, the application of fertilizers that give vitality to the shrub, the cleaning of foliage, all sorts of excess growth.
With the arrival of spring, it is recommended to carry out triple treatment of the bushes: irrigation with Bordeaux mixture, until the buds have blossomed, irrigation with the Kuproksat preparation for slightly open buds, repeated spraying with Kuproksat 2 weeks after the first treatment. If the shrub is already sick, then a radical cutting of all the affected fragments is made.
The causative agent of this disease is a parasite fungus that lives in foliage. In the case of a diseased shrub, the leaves turn yellow first, then dark dots appear on them, as a result, the plant discards the leaves completely. Spring treatment with fungicides helps fight this scourge, although most varieties of felt cherries are very resistant to this disease. The time spent pruning, processing "Fundazol" is a kind of shield from coccomycosis.
And again the fungus, this Taphrina, appears very noticeably - after the end of the flowering phase, seedless fruits appear, shriveled, flat (in appearance like a deflated balloon). Inside the fruit are disease disputes, where they ripen. As soon as you notice this, you should immediately remove all infected shoots with fruits, burn them. The plant itself must be treated with fungicides. Prophylactic spring treatments with Fundazol, Fitosporin-M, Abiga Peak, Albit, and Skor will help you. They also process the plant after removing the diseased fragments.
Pocket disease, photo:
As for the pests, the scythe, aphid, the plum moth, the leafworm also do not overlook the felt cherries.
An ash-soap solution helps for aphids (1 piece of laundry soap + a glass of ash + 10 l of water), and if this is a particularly neglected case, the drugs Commander, Iskra, Avant, Agravertin, Admiral (insecticides ).
Spring preventive irrigations with the use of Prophylactin help (half a liter of the preparation + 1 bucket of water) help from the leaflet. If the case has already taken a serious turn, then you will be helped by means of pyrethroids, such as Accord, Alfashans, Fatrin, Alfatsin. Processing should be carried out on a cool day (not higher than + 23 ° C), since during the heat these drugs become ineffective.
From the plum moths help placed traps with a sweet sticky content (berry compote + glue or thick sugar syrup), butterflies flock to the smell and die, stuck in a sticky mass. Such traps should be regularly cleaned, pour fresh bait mixture.
With regard to chemical procedures, immediately after the flowering phase is completed, the shrub should be treated with “Decis” or “Alatar” - this will destroy the first fossils. The second time, at the end of July, the plant is again processed by “Karbofos” - this is already a trick to combat the second invasion of the pest.
The struggle with the shield is rather difficult, if only because the insects are protected by a strong chitinous shell. In order to get rid of the pest, mechanical scraping of harmful “scutes” + subsequent treatment of the plant with “Actellic” is applied. If the problem has taken a serious scale, then absolutely all the affected parts of the shrub are cut and burned. The cherry itself is processed by “Preparation 30-D” (insectoacaricide). The same preparation is recommended to carry out spring preventive spraying (500 g + 10 l of water).
Shchitovka on felt cherry, photo:
As for hot fans of Chinese cherry - mice, they are usually used against a metal grid with small cells, which is wrapped several times with a bush. Thus, rodents will not get to the bark, they will not be able to eat it. This should be done in the fall, as mice even in winter (under the snow) can make their way to the cherry.
Summing up, we can say that an integrated approach to prevention, protection will help to save your plantings from pests and diseases. Do not forget about the rules of planting (root neck), about regular spring or autumn pruning. Spring prophylaxis sprays, appropriate care during the whole season (as well as after it) should also be remembered. With the arrival of autumn be sure to dig pristvolny circles. If you follow these simple truths, the felt cherry, growing and caring for it, as well as collecting a generous harvest will give you only positive emotions.
Cherry Felt Description
Felt cherry is a shrub that has several trunks and a spreading crown. The average height of this shrub reaches 1.5-2 m, however, it is often possible to see tall plants up to 3 meters high. The perennial shoots of felt cherries have a brown color with a thick and dense texture of the trunk. But the annual shoots, with three lateral buds, are painted greenish-brown. Fruit formations can be active for 3–4 years.
A distinctive characteristic feature of the shrub is the presence on the leaves, trunks and fruits of a kind of felt cannon, which performs the function of protecting the plant from external factors. These hairs (trichomes) perfectly reflect the direct rays of the sun, which protects the bush from overheating. As well as the presence of hairs on the fruit, makes them resistant to storage and transportation, even over long distances. These hairs of a light shade look like felt, and this is due to the name - cherry felt.
The leaves are oval in shape with a slightly corrugated surface. In the summer, the leaves are painted in dark green color, and in autumn, during wilting, they turn orange. In the spring, the blooming of the leaves occurs simultaneously with the flowers.
When blooming, the flowers have a pale pink color, and then gradually become a white color. The cherry flowering process begins in the last decade of May and lasts up to 10–15 days. Flowers located on a very short stem, during flowering period tightly wrap around the stems of the plant, giving it the appearance of a large, beautiful ball. Felt cherry flowers are resistant to lower temperatures.
Berries vary greatly in cherries of the same species and in different varieties. Fruits are polymorphic. Fruit color can be from dark cherry to pink, you can even find cherries with berries of white color. The average weight of a berry can be from 1 to 4.5 grams. Felt cherries can taste from sweet to sweet-sour, with juicy, tender flesh. Inside the fruit is placed a small, inseparable bone.
Fruiting occurs from mid-June to mid-August, depending on the grade of felt cherries, and occurs within almost 10 days. They hold on the branches of the berry quite firmly, which causes their full maturity on the branches of the shrub. The yield is quite high, on average, from one bush can be collected from 5.5 to 14 kg of berries, depending on the variety of cherries.
Устойчивость к зимним условиям средняя, наиболее уязвимым местом считается перепревание корневой шейки, хотя многие сорта могут выдерживать уменьшение температуры -40℃. Продолжительность жизни войлочной вишни невысокая, от 8 до 10 лет.
Вишня войлочная сорта
Для получения стабильного ежегодного урожая и лучшего опыления желательно содержать на своём участке несколько сортов вишни, так как, комбинируя сорта с различным временем созревания плодов, можно свежий урожай ягод получать до 40–45 дней в сезон. Gardeners, by the time of ripening of fruits, divide sorts of cherries into three groups: early, middle and late ripening.
Main varieties of early maturation
- Children's. Fruits are bright red in color, slightly flattened, large (4 g), and have a peel characteristic pubescent. The stone is poorly separated from the pulp, which has a sweet-sour taste. Berry ripening time is July 15–25. Excellent variety for the conservation of berries. With good care, productivity reaches 10 kg of berries from a bush. The variety is resistant to various pests and diseases. One drawback, poor tolerance of berries to transport.
- Amurka. The variety has a slightly sprawling bush, vigorous. Leaves and annual shoots heavily pubescent. The fruit is a rich red color, have a roundish shape. On the branches of the berries fit snugly one to one. Ripen July 15-18, when the flesh becomes juicy with a sweet and sour taste. The yield reaches 14.5 kg per season.
- Natalie. Shrubs of this variety are tall, have a wide oval shape. Pointed buds are formed by 3 pieces. The flowers are large, pink. Sweet and sour taste of pulp. Fruits of dark red color, reaching yields up to 9 kg from one bush. The main disadvantage of the variety is the rapid rotting of berries during transportation. Perfectly propagated by cuttings.
- Fairy tale. The variety has an oval-shaped bushes, reaching 130 cm in height. The fruit is elongated oval, has a dense, juicy flesh, red and sweet-sour to the taste. The berries ripen on July 17–24 and have a mass of 3-4 grams, while the average yield is 10 kg per season, from one bush. The life of the plant is 17 years, so it is considered durable.
- Pink fruit. This cherry variety was bred by Russian breeders not very long ago. Shrubs beautiful, sprawling with leaves that have a large down. After the planting, this variety begins to bear fruit in the second year. The berries ripen on July 18–20. One bush is harvested in a season up to 9 kg of crop, because the fruits are large up to 3 grams. It is better to plant this variety in areas with a mild climate, because of its insufficient frost resistance.
Medium ripening varieties
- Anniversary. The variety has oval-shaped fruits, rather large (3.5 gr.), Burgundy. The skin is slightly pubescent. Productivity reaches 9 kg a year. It tolerates dry weather.
- Eastern dusky. Growth of a bush to 120 cm. Fruits of a round form, medium-sized (2,5 gr). Ripe berries are almost black in color. It is an excellent berry for making jams and juices. Durable and hardy plant that is resistant to frost. The average yield of up to 7 kg per year.
- White. This variety has a spreading crown. The color of the berries is dull-white, with very juicy flesh, sweet-sour taste. Berry weight 1,6–19 gr. Average yield up to 10 kg per season.
Cherry felt planting and care
The best time for planting felted cherries is autumn or spring, when buds have not yet begun to bloom. In autumn, landing should be made no later than September. For planting it is necessary to use seedlings that have turned a year or two. It is better to plant seedlings in a sunny place, protected from drafts and strong winds. The most acceptable place is considered a small hill, where there is no stagnation of water, and there is no proximity of groundwater.
The cherry root system is very sensitive to excess moisture, so when planting it cannot be deeply buried to avoid diaper rash of the root collar. It is located above the level of the soil, otherwise the shrub may die.
Felt cherry planting procedure:
- Hole must be 60–70 cm wide, up to 50 cm deep. Prepare a planting mixture in which it is necessary to include three buckets of rotted manure, 50 grams of phosphorus, 500–700 grams of lime, 25–30 grams of potassium. This is the number of ingredients per square meter of land. Fill the hole with this mixture.
- We prune sapling roots on 20 cm and we lower them in in advance prepared clay solution with water.
- Immerse the seedling in the holeso that the root neck is above the ground, we fall asleep with the prepared mixture. Then we condense the earth and generously pour water.
- Place around the bush It is desirable to peat.
If September has already passed, and you have just acquired felt cherry saplings, then the planting process can be postponed until next spring. For the safety of planting material, it is placed in a free suitable container, sprinkled with earth and left for the winter in the basement. After a successful wintering, it is necessary to conduct a small revision of the root system of seedlings. To do this, dried or damaged fragments of the roots of the Chinese cherry are removed, and the plant will be ready for planting.
For proper care of felt cherries, it is important to know about the weak points of this plant, such as: a rapid increase in crown density, overheating of the root system, and dangerous exposure to various fungal diseases.
- Watering must be done only in dry weather, while constantly need to control the level of soil moisture.
- Cherry is very sensitive to increased acidity of the soil. With an increase in this indicator, a violation of the metabolism of cherries occurs, which adversely affects the fruiting. Therefore, every five years, be sure to conduct liming of the soil.
- One of the main rules care is considered to be preventive measures against diseases. In spring and autumn, it is imperative that the soil be treated with fungicides. To do this, shrub sprayed Bordeaux liquid.
- Twice a season it is necessary to feed an adult shrub. In the fall, superphosphate (15 g) and potassium chloride (20 g) are added to the trunk circle. And in the spring watered with ammonium nitrate (20 grams). Young seedlings do not feed the first two years.
- By preparing the shrub for wintering, young seedlings are tilted to the ground and insulated with straw or spruce branches. Peat mulch pristvolny circle.
- Of pests the danger for the Chinese cherry is only a general defeat of the site by the shields and aphids. Therefore, sometimes it becomes necessary to treat the area with chemical insecticides.
An important factor in the cultivation of a beautiful and prolific shrub is its timely pruning.
All shrubs made of felted cherries tend to grow rapidly. The density of the crown significantly reduces the fecundity of the shrub, so it is necessary to form the optimal variant of the density of the crown and in subsequent years to maintain this parameter in accordance with the best productivity.
Crown formation is carried out in the third year of bush cultivation. Pruning should be done before the movement of the juice, before the awakening of the kidneys. If this time is missed, then you need to wait for autumn. Shrub leaves at this time in a state of rest.
Description of the cutting steps:
- It is necessary to select 10–12 strong branches of a bush.
- Completely remove dry, diseased and damaged branches.
- Spikes longer than 50 cm are shortened by a quarter of the length.
In subsequent years, the cultivation of cherries is maintained with an optimal state of the crown, assuming a maximum access of light.
With the age of the shrub there is a need to carry out anti-aging pruning of the crown, for which some side shoots are removed. As a result of such an operation, shoots will appear near the cut point. After their appearance, the old branches are completely removed.
Remember that any description of the crop can not bring pleasure to the gardener until such time as he has a favorite, desired plant in his garden.
This sort of cherry belongs to plum cultures. Since the cultivation of the variety, they have learned to cross the felt with the trees such as: peach, apricot, plum and cherry plum.
The variety has many advantages: resistance to sudden changes in temperature, beautiful appearance, the ability to consistently produce high yields, etc. If you follow all the rules of planting and care, the yield of this type of cherry can reach up to 4 kg from one tree.
Positive qualities of the variety
In addition, felt cherries are distinguished by the following features:
- the variety is characterized by tasty, juicy fruits, sweet taste, but there is a touch of sourness,
- Cherries are rich in beneficial trace elements, vitamins B, C, PP, polysaccharides and others,
- after planting a tree the fruits appear two years later,
- the fruiting period lasts from the second half of June to the end of August,
- the cherry variety is unpretentious to the growing conditions,
- the tree tolerates high temperatures, drought and erosion,
- the tree is resistant to many diseases
- root growth is not typical for the variety.
The fruits of this class can not be stored for a long time, so they are not suitable for long-term transportation. The average lifespan of a cherry is 10 years, then the tree stops producing fruits and dries out.
Requires periodic pruning, because without it the bush grows heavily. This helps the plant to live for almost 10 years longer.
Felt cherries have immunity to many common plant diseases, but it is susceptible to moniliasis - fruit rot. An important condition for the tree to bear fruit is the presence of other varieties in the neighborhood.
Felt cherries were first grown in China, then it became popular in Mongolia and Korea, and then quickly spread throughout the world. Short presentation of the variety:
The name "Chinese cherry" variety received from the country of origin, and the "fluffy" cherry is called because of its fluffy leaves and branches. Below is a more detailed description of the variety.
Felt cherry is a small plant that looks more like a shrub than a tree, but it grows vertically. The average height is 2.5 m. On the branches and leaves of the plant there is a small layer of villi, similar to felt. From this came the name of the cherry.
The variety is characterized by slightly wrinkled, with pointed tips, dark green leaves of elliptical shape, 5–7 cm long. At the time of flowering, small white flowers with a pinkish tinge, flowers with a diameter of 1.5 cm appear on the trees. June - July.
This culture is propagated in two ways: grafting and air layering. In some regions, the tree is grown as an ornamental plant. In most countries, this variety is intended to produce fruits. The tree has relatively strong roots, so they are planted to strengthen the slopes or as a living fence.
This variety has fruits of scarlet color, mostly sweet in taste, ranging in size from 1 to 1.5 cm in diameter. Externally covered with thin, smooth, delicate skin.
The flesh is juicy, aromatic, contains organic acids, carbohydrates, certain groups of vitamins, as well as iron, which is more than in apples. These and some other beneficial substances help to normalize blood pressure, heart function, and improve the work of the digestive system.
Fruits have a short stalk, which grows tightly to the branch, because of this the berries do not fall off the tree during strong winds, rains or hail. The tree is capable of producing high yields. Because of the large number of fruits, they completely stick over the branches. Ripen usually a week earlier than other varieties of cherries. Berries can be used to make pies, jams, jams or jelly.
Choosing a place
When choosing a place for landing you need to take into account its illumination. For a tree to grow quickly and well, it needs a lot of sunlight. If the shrub is located in a predominantly shady place, where the sun's rays fall a little, then this will affect its fruits: usually cherries shrink in size and become drier, and their maturation will come later.
It is important that water does not accumulate on the site of the seedling and does not stagnate. This can lead to root rot, since young roots are particularly sensitive. Other varieties are needed to fertilize felt cherries, so you need to plant several of these trees at once.
Ideal varieties: Delight, Triana, Summer, Fairy Tale, etc. It is better not to plant next to Chinese cherry conifers. If within a radius of five meters they are, then this place is not suitable for this variety.
Proper cultivation of felt cherries involves choosing a fertile soil. Ideal light loamy or sandy soil. Peat and other heavy soils are not needed for this variety.
Recommend to choose a neutral soil, well drained. Ensure that the soil is not waterlogged, because the plant may die due to this. If the acidity of the earth is increased, then periodically it must be fertilized with lime.
Planting felted cherries in open ground is carried out in a previously prepared recess, the depth of which is not less than 50 cm. The width of the pit should be 60 cm. Before lowering the seedling into it, the pit should be filled with soil mixture, which must be well mixed. In the soil mixture should include: 3 buckets of organic fertilizers, 500-800 g of lime, 30 g of potassium and 50 g of phosphorus.
Before planting, the root system of a cherry seedling must be cut to 20 cm. This will help the lateral roots to develop better. It is recommended to process all the roots with a clay talker to prevent all possible problems, and then you can immerse the seedling in a hole to a depth of 5 cm. The depth should be the same as in a greenhouse or other place where a young tree grew before.
After the seedling has been placed in a hole and covered with fertile soil, the ground should be compacted and watered well. It is recommended to mulch the soil with peat or organic fertilizer. This will help regulate its moisture and reduce the amount of watering.
In order for trees to develop well and get all the necessary nutrients, you need to adhere to the planting scheme. At one site it is not recommended to plant more than three felted cherries. Trees should be at a distance of 1.5–2 m from each other. It is important that the seedlings be at least 1 year old. The ideal age for landing is 2 years.
Agricultural engineering rules
Properly plant seedlings - this is one of the components of a good harvest. To succeed in the cultivation of cherries, you need to constantly care for her.
Care for felt cherries includes soil care. We need to pull weeds, because they prevent the tree from growing, absorbing all the nutrients from the earth.
The soil tends to harden, because of this, air and water do not flow well to the root system, so the soil should be periodically slightly loosened, going a maximum of 5 cm in order not to damage the roots of the seedling. It is necessary to moisten the soil during periods of drought, because it can crack and cause damage to the plant.
Fertilizers and watering
The chosen complex of mineral fertilizers is of great importance for good growth of a cherry and a crop. The first feeding should be carried out immediately after the end of the flowering period. A mixture of fertilizers should consist of a certain amount of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and other mineral substances that are mixed when applied along the edge of the stem.
In the fall, nitrogen is eliminated from the fertilizer complex because it promotes the growth of new shoots. The emergence at this time of new branches is undesirable, since with the onset of frost they will die. Another important rule: every 5 years, the soil of plants should be fertilized with lime.
Watering young felted cherries should be moderate. During dry periods, as well as during the formation of the fruit and the growing season, water should be watered more often.
It is important not to overdo it, because an excess of moisture leads to a deterioration in the growth of the shrub, the appearance of some diseases. Because of this, there may be poor yields or even the death of a plant.
Cutting off the shoots not only helps to prolong the life of the plant, but also improves fructification, promotes the rapid growth of other branches, and maintains a beautiful, neat appearance of the tree.
Pruning is usually carried out in March or April, when the kidneys do not yet have time to appear. In the first year of life, the shoots of the cherry are pruned so that the seedling is not more than 40 cm high. The following year all side branches are shortened by one third.
It is necessary to cut such branches:
- the old, on which the fruits no longer appear,
- dried, frozen, damaged, sick,
- unsuccessfully located
- those that grow in the central part of the tree crown,
- those that prevent other branches from growing normally.
In order for a tree to develop normally, no more than 12 strongest shoots should always remain on it.. Every year the life of the plant pruning is carried out deeper. This allows replacing old branches with young ones. Every 5 years, a rejuvenating pruning is carried out to remove all unnecessary branches from the center of the crown and the peripheral part.
It is necessary to cut branches every year. This can be done in the autumn period, but then the care of the tree also includes cleaning the fallen leaves. Usually they are then burned to prevent the appearance of pathogens in them.
Pest and disease control
Felt cherry practically does not give in to diseases. Pests attack the same as other trees.
This disease is triggered by a fungus, which first falls on the flowers, then on the leaves, and then transferred to the shoots. Penetrating into the wood and destroying it, it quickly spreads throughout the tree. Цветущая вишня наиболее уязвима для монилиоза. Внешне ветви, пораженные грибком, похожи на обожженные.
Под воздействием грибковых спор дерево погибает уже к концу весны, если не начать борьбу с болезнью. Способствует ее развитию дождливая погода. Because of this disease, the tree is greatly weakened, and all its fruits rot. If this phenomenon occurs for several years in a row, the plant will die.
To prevent the appearance of moniliosis or to cure cherries at an early stage of the disease, it is necessary to process the leaves and branches of the sapling with fungicides - special preparations against fungal diseases. To prevent the fungus from spreading from affected shoots to healthy ones, they must be cut out.
In order for the cuttings to stick, it is necessary to create certain conditions. It is recommended to take cuttings from branches that are at least 15 cm long, second or third in the crown.
The cutting scheme is as follows: a one-centimeter green cutting of a given year is grafted onto a two-centimetric cutting of the last year. Then the cuttings are planted on the beds that need to be warmed with a film.
In order for the cuttings to take root, the greenhouse constantly needs to maintain warmth and humidity. It is impossible for them to fall into direct sunlight. If the greenhouse is in open space, it may be necessary to create a shadow. Be sure to ensure that the cuttings are not dry.
The reproduction of felt cherries can also be done using layering. But this method is used less often than the previous ones. Last year's woody shoot needs to be placed in a hole and pinned. Do it better in early spring.
The variety is unique in that it can be grafted not only on its own shoots, but also on other fruit trees, such as: plum, dwarf, and some other cherry varieties.
Description of the species and common varieties
Felt cherries belong to the subfamily Plum. The homeland of this species is considered to be China, Mongolia, and Korea, where wild nature shrubs can still be found in nature today. An already cultivated plant was brought to Europe in the 20th century.
Felt cherry is a small spreading shrub, most often oval in shape, reaching a height of 1.5 m, usually with several trunks at the base. Sparse pubescence is present on thin branches and leaves. It blooms like other cherries in spring with white or pink large flowers. For pollination and abundant fruiting, you will need two specimens planted side by side. Fruits are red-burgundy, ripen by the end of June and are actively used for the preparation of desserts and preservation.
All varieties of felt cherries are conditionally divided into 3 categories depending on the time of fruit ripening:
Early ripening varieties:
- Sort Natalie forms a small thickened shrub with a wide oval crown. Fruits weighing up to 5 g ripen in early June. From the bush you can remove no more than 7 kg,
- Children's variety forms a medium thickening crown, requires regular pruning. Fruits up to 4 g in weight, ovate-ovoid, bright pink color with a sweet-sour taste. Productivity to 9 kg,
- Variety Tale forms a medium-height bush. Fruits of burgundy color, weighing up to 4 g. The yield per adult bush is 8-10 kg.
- Variety Spark. Compact rounded bush. Large, weighing up to 4 g, fleshy, red fruits ripen in mid-July. The taste of cherry sweet and sour. Productivity to 8 kg from an adult bush,
- Oriental Dark Sort forms a stunted up to 1.2 m in height, rounded dense bushes of medium frost resistance. When excessive soil moisture is affected by moniliosis. Small fruits ripen closer to July 22. It is famous for its high yield - up to 12 kg per shrub,
- Sort Alice srednerosly bush with a dense crown up to 1.5 m in height. Fruiting begins in the second year after planting. The variety is frost-resistant, medium winter hardiness. Fruit up to 3.5 g, in fruitful years the fruit shrink.
Late ripening varieties:
- Sort Damanka. Recently bred variety. Its fruit is compared to other large-sized, fleshy, maroon color. Productivity to 10 kg.
- Variety Chocolatnitsa. The peculiarity of the variety is almost black fleshy fruit and high up to 2.5 krone. Productivity is high.
Important! When choosing seedlings, be guided by the natural conditions of your area. For cold climates, early-maturing varieties are best suited.
Felt cherry: planting and care in a midland
Felt cherry is a self-fruit tree, that is, if you want to get a harvest, then you need to plant several copies at once next to cross-pollination.
Choose a place for landing sunny, preferably on a small hill. In the shade, cherry yield is much lower. Stagnation of moisture in the soil and the proximity of groundwater, this type of cherry does not tolerate. Seedlings are planted in spring or autumn in loamy, sandy or sandy soil.
Before planting felted cherries, first prepare a planting pit: add rotted manure, lime and mineral fertilizers necessary for growth (phosphorus and potassium). In order for the sapling to start and immediately grow, cut the lateral roots by 20 cm. After planting, pour the shrub abundantly, and close the trunk circle carefully and grumble.
As a rule, fruiting begins 2-3 years after planting. Care for felted cherries is completely uncomplicated. From the gardener it is required to loosen the tree trunk once a year in spring, to water, feed and thin out the crown during the dry season. With optimal care, cherry fruits annually.
Top dressing and crown formation
The shrub is fertilized twice a year: the first time in the spring before flowering, and the second - after the harvest. The first feeding must contain nitrogen. Fertilizers are distributed around the perimeter of the tree trunk, and then they dig up the soil to a depth of no more than 5 cm. Fertilizers applied in the autumn should not contain nitrogen in order not to provoke undesirable growth in winter.
For better fruiting, maintaining optimum thickness and height of the crown of felt cherries, it is recommended to regularly carry out formative pruning in the fall or spring. All broken, diseased or frostbite shoots should be removed. At the first pruning, at least 6 main skeletal branches are left on the bush. Subsequently, annual shoots are shortened annually to 40 cm.
Important! Excessive pruning in the autumn can cause the entire bush to freeze.
Diseases and pests
Felt cherries are considered to be the least susceptible to diseases and pests. However, the most recently cultivated varieties are often affected by a dangerous fungal disease - monilial burn. A sign of this disease is the withering of flowers, leaves, and later on young shoots. If you do not fight the disease, then after 2-3 years you can lose the whole bush. To cure the plant will help double treatment with basezol. The solution is sprayed with a shrub during flowering and immediately after harvest, and the affected shoots are cut, grabbing a few centimeters of the healthy part. Excessive soil moisture and stagnant melt water causes the root collar to disintegrate and the entire bush to die. Low pruning helps to save the plant. To prevent shrinkage of the bush, plant a seedling on a hill.
Cultivation of felt cherries: photo
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Adding an article to a new collection
Care of felted cherries can be done by any experienced gardener, however, in order to avoid difficulties at first, it is better to prepare and master the theory before proceeding to the practice. We will understand where and how to plant, how to care and what to expect from this shrub.
The most important task of a gardener is to memorize the fact that the felt cherry, contrary to the prevailing stereotype, is not a cherry at all, but a plum. Therefore, appropriate care is needed, and it must be crossed and grafted onto plum, cherry plum, apricot.
How to plant a felt cherry
Before planting felt cherries, you need to choose the best place for it. This culture is quite capricious, so "sticking" a sapling in the first corner will not work.
Felt cherries need an open sunny place, and the soil should be loose, well drained and fertile. With the same success, the shrub will grow on loam and sandstone, subject to the neutral reaction of the soil. So, if you know about the increased level of acidity of the soil in your area, before planting felt cherries, you will certainly deoxidize the soil with lime, dolomite flour, ash or gypsum.
Felt saplings can be grown alone only if you have purchased a self-fruiting variety. These include: Delight, Child, Beauty, Light, Fairy Tale, Triana, Tsarevna, Jubilee etc. If you bought a plant of a self-infertile variety, for example, Alice, Natalie, Autumn virovskaya etc., then at least three plants should be placed next to the site.
Optimal plant felted cherries in the spring, before the buds bud on it. You can do it in September, but not later, otherwise the bush will not take root. Seedlings at the age of 1-2 years are suitable for planting - they most quickly take root and start growing.
Pits for seedlings must be prepared in advance, placing them at a distance of 1.5 m from each other and 3.5 m between the rows. 3 buckets of humus, 0.5 kg of hydrated lime, 50 g of phosphate fertilizer and 20 g of potash fertilizer are brought into each pit of size 50 × 50 × 50 cm. Everything is mixed, and then proceed to landing.
When planting felted cherries, the root neck cannot be buried - this will lead to disease and death of the plant.
The roots of the bush before planting should be shortened to 30 cm, dipped in a clay mash, sprinkled with soil mixture and water abundantly. The ground piled on top is tamped and mulched with any kind of organic matter.
How to cut felt cherries
Felted cherry pruning is a necessary procedure for those gardeners who want to extend the life of their plants. After all, on average, this bush actively fructifies up to ten years, and with regular rejuvenating scraps, you can give it another 5-7 years of crop yield.
The main number of ovaries is formed on the branches of this year, so the old ones should be regularly updated. A large-scale rejuvenating pruning of felt cherries is held every five years, but every year (in the spring before bud breaks or in the fall after the onset of frosts) the crown is thinned. At the same time on the bush should be no more than 10-12 developed shoots, diverging in sides and not thickening the center. Everything that grows inside the crown, ruthlessly removed on the ring. In exactly the same way, once every 2-3 years, part of the skeletal branches is removed so that young ones grow to replace them.
Annual shoots should not be longer than 60 cm, so if they clearly outgrow, shorten them so that the bush turns its strength to fructification, and not the buildup of branches and foliage.
How to propagate felt cherries
Reproduction of felt cherries can be done in three ways: stones, cuttings and layering. True, in the first case, young plants will not inherit the varietal characteristics, and will retain only the species.
So, if it doesn't matter to you what kind of felt cherry you have, you can pick ripe berries from the tree, remove the pulp from them, wash and lightly dry it. Then mix them with sand and put them in the refrigerator until October. In the middle of autumn, sow the bones in the depth of 3 cm and do not forget to mark this place on the garden. In the spring there will be seedlings that will grow by 30-50 cm over the season and will be ready for transplanting to a permanent place.
If you want to preserve the variety of felt cherries, it is better to resort to the second and third methods of reproduction. The cuttings culture is carried out in the first half of summer, while the young growths have not yet begun to woody. Cuttings 15 cm long are cut so that the base has a piece of old wood of 2-3 cm. Then the cuttings are immersed in Kornevin or another stimulator of root formation (according to the instructions) and begin to prepare the cuttings.
Felt cherry for rooting requires special conditions - stable humidity, the absence of direct sunlight and sudden temperature changes. For this, a small film design with shading will do. At the same time, the cuttings need to be deepened by only 3 cm (the whole lignified part and 1 cm of the green part).
Finally, if you already have a felt cherry on the plot, but one bush is not enough for you, you can propagate it by layering. To do this, in the spring, bend down the last year's sprout, pin it down or press it with a stone and sprinkle it with soil. Over the summer, the sprout will give roots and become a separate plant, and the young felt cherries can be planted in the fall.
If felted cherry appeared in your garden, care, cultivation and pruning may seem difficult for you in the first couple of years, but then, when the bush begins to actively bear fruit, you will rejoice that you have brought this capricious beauty.
What are the features of felt varieties?
Today, gardeners are increasingly choosing this type of cherry for planting, which is due to many reasons. For example:
- The fruits of this tree are very juicy, fragrant, delicate, with a sour aftertaste.
- Fruit pulp contains not only vitamin. C and polysaccharides, but also trace elements that have a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular and digestive systems.
- Cherry can also be used for decorative purposes - the tree does not grow very tall (about 1.5 m), but is spreading and blooms beautifully.
- The tree bears fruit in the second year after planting.
- The fruits ripen in mid-summer and very long hold on the branches, not falling off.
- With proper care and concomitant climatic conditions, the yield will be very high - the tree will be simply sprinkled with berries.
- Cherry is very unpretentious and is not afraid of frost, in addition, care will be simplified due to the fact that the root growth is not formed on this tree, which means you will not have to deal with it.
Unpretentious felt cherry
It would seem that this cherry is beautiful to everyone, but it also has a number of drawbacks. For example, its fruits are very difficult to find in stores, since they cannot be stored and transported for a long time without compromising quality. Another disadvantage in too early aging is that this process begins to occur for about 10 years of life of felt cherries. It is also worth remembering that this tree is self-fruitless, because planting one tree is pointless - in this case there will be no harvest.
Plant better varieties that bloom at one time. Of mid-season varieties celebrate Tsarevna, Fairy Tale, Natalie. Of the later varieties, Atlanta, Ocean and Beauty are especially popular.
Planting cherries - follow the recommendations of gardeners
When is the best time to plant seedlings? According to experts, it is advisable to plant in spring or autumn, until the active sap flow process begins in the tree (until the buds have blossomed). This bush cherry can grow well and produce fruit in drained, loamy and sandy soils. If the soil in the garden is “sour”, it will have to be ground with dolomite flour. Planting cherries should not be carried out in areas with close groundwater deposition - this can lead to rotting of roots and death of trees. It is necessary to plant a plant in a sunny place.
Planting cherry seedlings
Planting cherries should be carried out in the following order:
- We dig a hole, while the depth and width should be about 60 cm.
- At the bottom we put a mixture of black soil and humus.
- We fertilize the land with organic fertilizers (we take 40 grams of phosphorus and lime per square meter).
- Cut the roots of seedlings to a length of 20 cm.
- We lower the seedling into the pit so that the root neck of the tree is 4 cm below the ground level.
- Planted felt cherries are watered, compacted and mulched using peat.
Since you have to plant at least two trees in the area, you must maintain a distance between them of at least 2 m.
We study the features of tree care
Competent care for this tree should be provided throughout the garden season. After all the flowers have been flown around, the cherry should be fertilized, for which mineral fertilizers made in the tree trunk are perfect. Also do not forget to loosen the soil, providing access of oxygen to the roots. In this case, you need to work carefully, trying not to go more than 5 cm, so as not to damage the roots.
Mineral fertilizers for cherry wood
In watering, it is important not to overdo it, because excessive moisture in the soil can cause serious damage to seedlings, adversely affecting fruiting. This also applies to fertilizers that contain nitrogen - they should be used in the spring. After all, if you make them in the fall, the tree will begin to grow again - the first frost will destroy new shoots.
Special attention deserves such point of care, as pruning cherries. It is necessary to remove old and damaged branches, as well as to give the bush a regular shape. При высадке войлочную вишню обрезают на 40 см, на второй год жизни убирают все боковые ветви на 30 %. Работы желательно проводить в середине марта, что будет способствовать хорошему росту саженца и высокому плодоношению. Ну, и конечно следует обрезать деформированные побеги и прореживать крону.
Болезни войлочной вишни – как бороться?
In general, this tree is resistant to various diseases, but there are several diseases that should be feared. One of the most famous is moniliosis or monilial burn, which affects garden trees during flowering. Spores of the fungus, falling on the leaves of the pistil, quickly take root, after which the disease spreads inside the shoots, destroying felt cherries from the inside.
Monilioz Felt Cherry
If the seedlings hit monilioz, branches and leaves of felt cherries massively dry by the end of spring. Rain is especially dangerous, causing the disease to spread even faster. To prevent the spread of the fungus, the seedling must be treated with suitable fungicides (Abiga-Peak, Fitosporin-M) or Bordeaux liquid.
Another dangerous disease is coccomycosis. The fungus begins to infect the deciduous part of the tree, causing the leaves to fall too early. This leads to a violation of the process of preparing the tree for the winter, the immunity of felt cherries falls. It is because of coccomicosis that the plant can not survive the winter. Of the effective drugs against the disease can be called ChorusBordeaux liquid will also help.
Main breeding methods - 3 options
How can you propagate this tree? There are three options: using bones, cuttings, layering. The main method is the use of pits. This method has gained such popularity due to its efficiency, which reaches 80% - out of 10 planted bones, exactly 8. will be planted. It is better to sow seed material in the middle of October. To carry out the work, you need to collect the bones of the fruit, wash and dry them in a darkened place.
From late August to mid-October, the bones are stored in a cool place, mixing them with sand. Do not forget to prepare a place for planting pits: dig up the soil, make about 5–6 cm deep grooves on the site. After that, sow the grooves, sprinkle with sawdust and water the seedlings. Next spring, when the snow melts, the height of young shoots can reach 50 cm, after which they need to be seated.
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The second option is reproduction by cuttings. It is usually used when working with large-fruited varieties of felt cherries. Cuttings should be taken from shoots about 15 cm long of the second or third order of branching. Process the cuttings with a suitable growth stimulator and bundle them. After they have been in the mixture for about 10–12 hours, you can land. Dig a small hole about 3 cm deep and place a piece of felt cherry. Cover the cuttings with a film and sprinkle the edges with earth so that the shelter is not blown away. On sunny days, cover the film with gauze so that the rays do not damage the young plant. If the yard is too hot, water a little landing.
The third option is reproduction using layering. To carry out the work is very simple. As soon as the snow melts, cut off all the layers from the bush, leaving only the most powerful trunk - for the season new stems will grow on the tree, do not worry. Next spring, new stems need to be carefully laid in the groove dug in advance and pinned. After some time, vertical sprouts will start to grow from these branches - they must be constantly sprinkled with fresh black soil. Rooted shoots in the fall need to be separated from the parent bush and planted in a new place.