Trees

White willow - the use of wood, especially the cultivation and signs

As you know, willow grows best on moist soil near water bodies, but to the very composition of the soil it is undemanding. The annual growth of a tree is good, up to 1 m in height, but with a lack of moisture it decreases. For landing it is better to take a well-lit place - willow loves the light.

The tree is highly frost resistant and is excellent without shelter.

Care for willow planted at home is minimal and consists of such activities:

Silver willow lends itself well to the formation and with the help of trimming its crown can be given any decorative form. The worm breeds mainly by cuttings, which root quickly, but the seed method is also possible, but it has few root sprouts.

Botanical description

Vetly, depending on natural conditions, can be powerful trees up to 30 m tall or wide spreading bushes. Adult trunks are covered with rough dark gray bark with many longitudinal cracks. Old trees can reach 2.5 m in girth. On young trunks and branches, the bark is smooth, olive-green, bright, easily exfoliated. The shoots are long, very flexible, with reddish-brown fluffy tops. Willow branching starts low, forming rounded, marquee crowns, the ends of the lower shoots descend to the ground.

Buds narrow, pointed, about 5 mm in size, yellowish-brown. Flowers in the form of thick hanging earrings 4–5 cm long, with hairy yellowish bracts. Appear on the branches simultaneously with the blooming of buds - at the end of April or in the first days of May. A month after flowering, small seed pods ripen at the site of the earrings, which are then opened by the wind.

Leaves narrow, lanceolate, with pointed tips, 7–15 cm long, 1.5–3 cm wide. Arranged alternately on short stalks. The upper side is dark green, smooth, with central and lateral pinnate veins. The back - silver-gray, almost white. The base of the plates has a slight pubescence. The foliage of the vetela fades late, in the autumn it takes on a beautiful yellowish-bronze tint.

White willow develops on any soils, including on scant sandstones. He likes wet silt soils, but he also feels good on dry land with enough rainfall or shallow groundwater. The root system of the plant has many long side branches, in search of moisture extending to a depth of three meters. Trees located on wet terrain in warm weather often have droplets of water on the leaves. So willows regulate water exchange, getting rid of excess moisture.

They live up to 100 years old, grow very quickly, stretching annually by 80–100 cm.

Use in the household

Since ancient times, the willows that have grown in abundance along rivers and ravines have been used for various economic needs. Thin flexible rods went to the manufacture of baskets, boxes, woven fences. From the strong bast fibers weaved bast shoes and ropes, crafted coarse burlap. Young shoots and foliage fed livestock.

Willow rods are well suited for various types of needlework: making wicker decorative tableware, hats, armchairs, and objects of artistic design.

Willow wood is a soft, easily bending material with a narrow white sapwood and light pink core. It was used as a raw material for gouging decks, barrels, troughs, kitchen utensils. Shuttles, toys, various small crafts were cut from it, arcs were bent.

The bark containing tanning and natural pigment substances was used in the textile and leather industry as a dye.

Currently, white willows are valuable for their decorative qualities, rapid growth, wind resistance and the ability to strengthen crumbling soil. They plant trees on the banks of the reservoirs, parks, squares, planted along the road canvases. Hedges from vetela or single landings near the home pond create a fabulous peaceful landscape.

Medical applications

White willow bark - the first source of salicylic acid, which became known to mankind as the basis for the manufacture of aspirin. This compound has powerful antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, used in the treatment of malaria.

In addition to salicylate bark, vetla contains other beneficial substances:

  • ascorbic acid
  • lignins,
  • anthocyanins,
  • tannins
  • catechins,
  • flavonoids.

Preparations from willowbark powder have antipyretic, diaphoretic, astringent, analgesic effect, stop bleeding, relieve fever symptoms, headache and rheumatic pain, disinfect mucous membranes. They are used for:

  • inflammatory and erosive diseases of the digestive tract organs: gastritis, colitis, duodenitis, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, dyspepsia,
  • gynecological pathologies,
  • kidney and urinary tract diseases,
  • internal bleeding,
  • hemorrhagic syndrome
  • neuralgic, joint pains, migraines,
  • pleurisy, tuberculosis, pneumonia.

Tea made from bark powder helps to strengthen the immune system.

For dermatological, dental diseases, sore throats, allergies, excessive sweating, bark decoctions are used for rinsing, washing, lotions or compresses.

With varicose veins of the lower extremities, arthritis, gout, symptoms of warm baths from willow bark are well removed.

Harvest raw materials can be yourself. For therapeutic purposes, suitable bark, removed from the shoots of 2-7 years of age. After removing it is dried, crushed and stored in paper bags or linen bags. Pharmacological properties of the plant maintains 3-4 years.

Planting and care

Wind can safely be planted in swampy clay areas. Powerful roots help her calmly relive regular flooding, and an excess of moisture does not cause any harm. On the contrary, the tree will be uncomfortable where water is constantly lacking.

For planting, it is recommended to choose areas that are well lit by the sun;

Work carried out with the onset of heat or in September. The wells in the soil are prepared in advance. In order to provide trees with good growth in the early years, it is desirable to enrich the soil with humus, peat, add to it a complex fertilizer with a high nitrogen content. When group planting between trees leave a distance of not less than 3 m, so that the growing willows have enough space.

During planting, the soil around the roots is thoroughly compacted, stakes are driven in near the saplings, and shoots are tied to them.. After the work is completed, young trees are watered abundantly: 20 liters for each copy.

If the willows are planted far from the reservoir, water them in the first years of life should be regularly: at least 1 time per week. One tree needs 2–3 buckets of water.. In hot, dry weather, you will need to spray the foliage.

In order that the moisture does not evaporate, the circles at the trunks can be mulched with a thick layer of peat. Such care will avoid the need for loosening the soil and damp the growth of weeds.

The hairstyle can be carried out in a year after landing. Wetles tolerate severe frosts, shoots frosting them rarely, so the trees require not so much sanitary as forming pruning. The crowns can be given any desired shape, although without it the long silver shoots of the tree look very picturesque.

If the winds are growing poorly, a nitroammofoska can be applied to the soil once a month, and watered twice a month with a mullein solution under the root.

Saplings of the first three years of life should cover for the winter. It is advisable to do this not for the entire cold period, but only in severe frosts in the absence of snow cover. Crown wrapped in a thin burlap. Late autumn leaves are filled with a layer of mulch 10–12 cm thick.

Diseases and pests

The main enemies of silver willow are: leaf-wrappers, aphid and flower fly. Insects eat leaflets and young shoots of trees. Laying of larvae and adult caterpillars from branches must be collected manually, regularly inspecting crowns. Other pests will have to be fought with insecticides: Karbofos, Akarin, Decis, Aktellik. Spray them trees should be weekly, in dry weather, late in the evening or before sunrise.

Strange white or brown spots, embossed thickening on the leaves can be signs of powdery mildew, rust, scab. Sick branches of the plant are recommended to be cut and destroyed, and healthy parts of the crown should be treated for prevention with fungicides: Topaz, Fundazole, Fundazim.

As an additional measure of protection, you can spray the greens of the trees with soapy water, garlic extract, sprinkle with tobacco dust.

Folk signs associated with the wind

With this tree is associated with many beliefs, superstitions and will. Many of them contradict each other.

The Slavs willow in the pre-Christian era was considered a symbol of constancy and the god of the sun - Yarily. The Greeks associated with the tree the will to live. In Japan, it symbolized the power of perseverance and patience. Blooming one of the first, this plant was used in many religious rituals.

Keeping a wicker broom in Russia at the threshold was considered to be a good sign in Russia - the plant protected the household from the evil eye and helped to sweep away the evil spirits from the room. However, planting a tree near the porch and generally close to home was not advised - it could attract misfortune: the death or serious illness of any of the relatives.

To protect against detractors and envious people, it was considered useful to plant willows near the gate, away from the walls. The tree neutralized all bad thoughts, slander and damage, the negative consequences returned to the offender himself.

It was recommended to stand near the willow in case of strong sadness, anger, anxiety or longing - she took away all the bad things that surrounded the person. But they didn’t advise to linger for a long time - removing the negative, the tree began to draw vitality from it.

Healers and healers recommend that you always have several branches of vetla at home and place them in different secluded corners. They perfectly reflect the damage, help to restore mental balance, reduce aggression, help reconcile with the inevitable losses, comfort.

Willow planting

Let's start with the soil. Willow loves sandy soil and loam. If desired, you can fertilize with humus or compost. Although in general, willow is picky. If possible, choose the place of the site that is the most humid. But we have experience when a weeping willow was planted in front of the house, on rather heavy soil and it went perfectly. Now is a whole tree. Yes, it is so beautiful that people, passing by car, stop and ask for cuttings)).

By the way, there are such methods of willow planting. This is for a hedge. Looks great, tell me right?


Willow hedge. Photo from rose-club.ru

Or even for a gazebo:


Live gazebo from willow. Photos from thewillowbank.com

But, I think, not every willow can be planted like this. Yes, willow breeds cuttings. You can seed it, but I read that willow seeds are viable for just a week. Maybe a lie?

In any case, the tree grows faster from cuttings.

  1. Cuttings harvested in the offseason. Ideally, in November or February-March, when sap flow is slow. We choose shoots that are not younger than 2 years: more likely that the twig root. Cut cuttings from the middle of the branch, their length should be about 30 cm.
  2. Cut up? Then we plant in the ground. So far, at home or in the greenhouse. If you plant several cuttings in one container, the distance between them should be 20-30 cm.

Ideally, willow should be planted in a permanent place in the second year after planting, when the root system has already been formed. Planted also in the spring, when the snow melted. To do this, dig a hole of a certain size. For undersized willow there will be enough pits with dimensions 50x50x50 cm, for tall ones make more. Loosen the soil fossa, fertilize with humus and abundantly moisturize. And we bury the root of the stalk. Everything.

Do not forget to water the willow at the beginning when it is sick from the transplant. Now let's talk how to care for willow.

Willow care

The degree of care depends on the type of willow, planting site and climate. But basically it comes down to two actions:

If the summer is dry, do not regret the water to water the willow. We sing our every season, even if it is not very hot. Sometimes buckets, and sometimes just throw a hose under it for a while. And it feels great! Even in nature, willows grow best along rivers and reservoirs. They are not afraid of small flooding in the spring. Sorry, the summer photos of our willow were not preserved ...

This applies only to decorative undersized willows. Haircut gives these trees a special flavor.


Grooming gives these trees a special touch.

And if you do not cut, then why plant ornamental varieties? So do not be lazy to form a crown. The branches are thin, with a haircut there will be no particular problems.

But I prefer ordinary willows. They are also very different. Here we will discuss this further.

The following willow species are most common in the wild:

White Willow (Salix alba)

It is also called vetla or rakita. The tree reaches a height of 35 meters. The barrel is usually very thick.


White willow (Salix alba). Photo: Willow, ru.wikipedia.org

Babylonian willow, or weeping (Salix babylonica)

This grows mainly in reservoirs.


Babylonian willow, or weeping (Salix babylonica). Photos from tvemhaber.com

But once again I say, we got accustomed perfectly. By the way, why are weeping? Usually, this implies a special form of the crown with sadly drooping branches, but this is not always the case. Have you ever walked under willows on a hot, hot day? This is amazing! You get sick from the heat, and then large cold drops fall on you! Babylonian Baba is recommended to be used when growing in bonsai style. In room conditions, it grows to 60 cm. And if you constantly form, there will be a pretty little tree. Well, if you grow on the street and do not cut it, it will be weeping.

Goat willow, or bredin (Salix caprea)

Tree or tree bush. And the goats - because the goats adore her. Feature - if you remove the bark, the wood very quickly turns red. In addition, this willow blooms like willow. Male catkins oval, female cylindrical.


Goat willow (Salix caprea). Photo: Marina Skotnikova, plantarium.ru

We have plenty of these in the swamps. I remember every year after school they broke branches and carried them home. By the way, it is not easy to do, so we went with scissors)) You can read about personal experience in growing goat willow in the publication New plant in my garden: goat willow, or Bredin (Salix caprea).

Norway willow (Salix acutifolia)

She is a willow, or reddish.


Norway willow (Salix acutifolia). Photo: Igor Pavlov, plantarium.ru

Worth mentioning and ash willow (Salix cinerea). Her leaves are wrinkled and as if covered with felt.


Ash willow (Salix cinerea). Photo: BCB, ru.wikipedia.org

Total information

In Russia, the plant has several names - rakita, willow, willow, willow, tal, vine, lozina, sheluga.

Most often, willow is a tree about 15 meters high, or a low shrub. But some species of willow are represented by specimens with a height of more than 30 meters with a trunk diameter of 50 cm. In the North, a willow is no longer a tree, but a short, creeping shrub that does not grow higher than 20-30 cm. 2-3 centimeters.

Willow grows well along the banks of rivers and lakes, but there are species that grow on the slopes of mountains and in semi-deserts.

The willows of various species are very well developed roots, so they are planted to strengthen the loose sandy soil. Yves are bred and to consolidate the shores of natural and artificial reservoirs - dams, canals, rivers, lakes, ponds. Weeping willow is a good decoration of a park or a backyard plot, especially if there is an artificial reservoir nearby - a pond or a swimming pool, therefore landscape designers willingly work with it.

Variety of species

In this article we will talk about decorative varieties that are used in landscape design.

White willow is a rather large tree with effectively hanging down thin branches, with long silver leaves. White willow grows rapidly, is not demanding on the soil, can grow on waterlogged soil. This tree loves light and heat, and at the same time tolerates the harsh Russian winters. Magnificent krone easily gives in to a hairstyle. The tree can be used for a single landing in the park.

The willow has a crown-shaped crown, dark green, with a silvery shade of leaves that turn yellow-green in autumn. It blooms in April-May with fluffy yellow-green flowers - cats. In five years it grows up to 3 meters, it reaches its maximum after 15-20 years, and it is 25 meters. at the same time the diameter of the crown it increases to 20 meters.

Goat willow Kilmarnock - a low ornamental tree with hanging branches, the height depends on the place of vaccination. Goat willow is unpretentious to growing conditions, loves light, but can grow in shady places, suitable for planting near a reservoir. It develops well in wet soil, hardy.

The shape of the crown of the willow of this variety is weeping, the leaves are dull green with a silvery shade, in the autumn turn yellow. It blooms in April-May with fluffy golden flowers. Willow kilmarnok does not grow above one and a half meters, and its crown diameter rarely exceeds 1.5 meters.

Ива козья Пендула – невысокое декоративное деревцо, которое будет смотреться в групповых посадках на берегу водоема. Ее высота тоже зависит от высоты прививки. Светолюбивое и морозостойкое растение, хорошо развивается на любом типе почвы с различной влажностью.

The crown of the willow of this variety is weeping, the leaves are dull-green, silvery, turning yellow in autumn. It blooms in spring golden cats. Pendula willow is never higher than 170 cm, and its crown diameter does not exceed 1.5 meters.

Willow fragile - a small tree or shrub. It grows quickly in wet soil and flooded areas. Photophilous, but can grow in partial shade.

The shape of the crown at the willow of this variety is soft, round, in appearance resembles clouds. Green leaves in autumn are bright yellow. It blooms in April-May oblong green-yellow flowers. Fragile willow grows up to 15 meters in height, with the crown diameter it reaches 12 meters.

Purple willow - shrub with thin, reddish-brown branches that have a bluish bloom. Grows rapidly on any type of soil, even on sand. Differs in frost resistance and unpretentiousness to illumination. Krona is easy to shape haircut. Purple willow can be used in hedges or in a single planting.

The shape of the crown is spherical, the leaves are silvery-green, in autumn they acquire a yellow-green color. It blooms in April-May oblong purple flowers. Purple willow grows up to 5 meters in height, and the diameter of the crown - rarely exceeds 5 meters.

Purple Willow Lighthouse - winter-hardy, ornamental, openwork shrub with thin red-pink branches. Loves bright, sunny places and moderately moist soil. Can be planted in a hedge, and in compositions with other shrubs and trees.

The shape of the crown is spherical, the leaves are silvery-green in summer and yellow-green in autumn. Yellow-pink flowers are formed in spring. The dimensions of the willow beacon are 3 meters in height, with a crown diameter of 3 meters.

Purple willow nana - shrub with red-brown branches. It is undemanding to soils and light, frost-resistant, but in winter it needs protection from the wind. Krona is easy to shape haircut. The shrub can be planted in groups or alone, in hedges and for planting near water bodies.

The shape of the crown is fluffy, semicircular. The leaves are oblong, narrow, silver-green in summer and yellow-green in autumn. It blooms in spring with light green flowers. The height of the bush and the diameter of the crown does not exceed one and a half meters.

Pendula willow is a frost-resistant, lush shrub with thin branches of the purple color scheme. Loves wet soil and light, can grow in flooded areas, but at the same time tolerates drought well. Can be used for single landings at reservoirs.

The shape of the crown is open, weeping, the leaves are green with a bluish tinge, turn yellow in autumn. Flowers purple color schemes. The height depends on the height of the grafting site, but rarely exceeds 3 meters, and the crown diameter is 1.6 meters.

Sverdlovsk winding willow is a frost-resistant, ornamental tree with spiral-shaped, hanging branches. The soil is undemanding, but grows slowly, well formed by a haircut. Willow of this variety can be used for planting in a hedge or in a single planting.

The shape of the crown is weeping, the leaves are green in the summer and yellow in the fall, do not bloom. The maximum height of the winding willow does not exceed 3 meters, and the diameter of the crown - 2 meters.

Hakuro-nishiki willow is a spreading shrub or small tree with an unusual coloring and hanging shoots. The variety is not frost resistant, poorly suited for cultivation in the Russian climate. It grows well in moist soil, in a well-lit place.

Can be used for single planting, or in combination with plants that have a dark green color. Lush bush is easy to shape haircut.

The shape of the crown is round, the leaves are white-pink-green in spring and summer, turning pink in autumn. It blooms in April and May with yellow-green flowers. The height and diameter of the crown in this class are within 2 meters.

Swiss willow is a sprawling, dwarf variety. Slow-growing, light-loving shrub. Feels good on fertile, loose, moist soil. The color goes well with coniferous trees.

The shape of the crown is rounded, the leaves are silver in spring and summer, turning yellow in autumn. The flowers are spring, golden. The height of the bush is 1 meter, with a crown diameter of 1.5 meters.

Willow Babylon - sprawling tree with thin and long branches hanging down to the ground. Branches of red, yellow or green shades. This variety is frost resistant and unpretentious to growing conditions. Suitable for a single landing on the shore of the reservoir.

The shape of the crown is round, the leaves are long, dark green at the top, and gray-green at the bottom. In the autumn turn yellow. Blossoms white and yellow flowers - earrings. The tree grows to 10-12 meters, the crown can exceed these values.

A willow or holly willow is a shrub or tree with thin, flexible branches of red color, which is why the people are called a red-tailed tree or a red tail. There is wax on the branches, which is easily washable. It is frost-resistant, unpretentious, can grow near a reservoir on sandy soil.

The shape of the crown is oval, the leaves are long, shiny, green with a bluish tinge, they turn yellow in autumn. Blossoms in April, earrings with yellow pollen. Willow grows up to 8-10 meters in height, spreading crown - up to 3-4 meters in shrubs and up to 5-6 meters in trees.

Shaggy willow - an ornamental shrub or a small tree with lush branches. Frost-resistant variety, grows well in moist fertile soil. Great for planting in the garden near small artificial ponds.

The shape of the crown is rounded, formed by a haircut. Leaves of the original form - elliptical, silvery-green, yellowing in autumn. Leaves and branches covered with silky hairs. The flowers are yellow, spring, similar to a vertically set candles. Plant height 1.5-3 meters, crown diameter - 3-4 meters.

Armando creeping willow is a small shrub with bare flexible branches. This variety of willow is grown in the form of a trout. It can be planted not only in the garden, but also indoors or on a balcony in a tub or container. Frost-resistant, loves wet soil and a lot of light. The tree can be used to design stone gardens, planted in small artificial ponds.

The crown is spreading, leaves are dull-green above and gray-green below, with shiny fibers. Flowering occurs in the spring, inflorescences fluffy, silver and pinkish color scheme.

The bush does not exceed 1 meter in height, the diameter of the crown is 2-3 meters. Sometimes gardeners give shtambovym form of the bush.

Rosemary willow in Russia is known as Netala, Nicelosis or Siberian willow. This is a low, sprawling shrub with flexible shoots of red or purple. It grows slowly, on any soil, tolerates strong frosts and winds. Suitable for planting among stony hills.

The form of the crown is sprawling, the leaves are straight with a silky down. The color of the leaves is dark green on top and bluish from the inside. It flowers in May with numerous fragrant earrings of yellow or purple color. The height of the bush is 1 meter, the diameter of the crown is 3-4 meters.

Location and lighting

Willow is a very light-loving and moisture-loving representative of flora. These factors should definitely be considered when choosing a place for planting.

It is best to select the wetland areas. Ideally - land near a pond, lake or other reservoir. Such a place is a guarantee that the tree will never suffer from a lack of moisture.

Planting rules

Starting planting willow, it is worth considering the type of its root system. For planting willow, the root system of which is closed, is suitable any time - from April to October. Plants with an open root system are best planted in early spring, before bud breaks, or in late autumn, after the leaves have fallen.

The landing process itself consists of the following steps:

  • Dig a pit for planting, the diameter of which for shrub species should be 50 cm, tall trees 60 cm. The depth of the planting pit for both species is 40 cm. A willow sapling with a closed root system is placed in a pit the size of which is equal to the earthly coma.
  • If the soil is heavy, the bottom of the pit should be laid sand or rubble (20-30 cm) to provide drainage.
  • For the direct planting of a willow sapling a substrate is prepared from peat, compost, soil in the same proportions, an azophosh is added to it (200 g for one plant). One third of the planting hole is filled with this substrate and a sapling is placed in it.
  • After that, the pit is filled up, and the ground around it is tamped down, making a small depression for watering.
  • After finishing the process, you need to pour two buckets of water on the soil.
  • A tall seedling is tied up to a previously forgotten cola so that it does not break, and locked in an upright position.

How to care for a tree

Silver willow needs special care only during the adaptation to the new seat. Despite the fact that the plant is unpretentious, do not forget about it in the next years of life:

  • The main rule of caring for a willow that was recently planted is watering, because the tree is extremely fond of moisture. It is necessary to water a sapling once a week early or in the evening. For the organization of the process using 2-5 buckets of water. Also, the tree needs spraying.
  • Young white willows need to loosen the soil to the depth of the spade bayonet.
  • In order for the tree to grow qualitatively, it is necessary to carry out soil mulching with peat, the layer of which should be 5-7 cm.
  • For the formation of a decorative crown, vetli make "haircuts" of long shoots and trimming dead branches.
  • If you have noted a weak growth of the plant, it needs feeding. As a fertilizer, nitroammophoska (60-80 g / plant) is best suited.

Spheres of application

Willow is distinguished not only by the diversity of its species, but also by the richness of its uses.

Ever since ancient times, its branches have been widely used in basket weaving, verbal fishing was very popular, which can be traced in our time. Such popularity is due to the excessive flexibility of the verbal branches. From the willow weave baskets, chairs, fences and other items. Fiber for bark is made fiber for laces, ropes, burlap. The palm bark is a well-known drug. Tinctures from crushed bark are used to treat colds, fevers, and compresses from such tinctures reduce fever. In addition, a decoction is made from the verbal bark, which effectively cleans and heals wounds, burns, sores and other injuries.

One of the main purposes of willow is to help designers create superb landscape designs. Willow is an indispensable element in the landscaping of city parks, the decoration of summer cottages and gardens. An unrivaled decorative ornament is a willow hedge. At first glance, willow is an inconspicuous plant. We got used to the fact that the tree grows at almost every step and often do not pay attention to its feminine attractiveness and value. But, despite this attitude, willow gives a person not only aesthetic pleasure, but comfort (if it is a material for making furniture) and health, it is a question of the medicinal properties of the vetla.

Given the fact that planting and caring for a tree does not require a lot of work and time, such a plant rightfully occupies the title of the leading decorative ornament of garden and park areas.

Where meets

The growing area is very wide. Europe, Asia (Western part), Siberia, Iran are familiar with varieties of Silver Willow firsthand. For the Russian middle zone, it is a completely common tree with cultivated ornamental subspecies and varieties.

It is found in abundance along the banks of large and small reservoirs, forming extended clean or mixed groves. Not uncommon and lonely standing trees. Prefers moist soil and in the absence of water tanks nearby. Dwarfs are easy to find in mountainous areas. And you can see shrub specimens in Central Asia and Siberia.

External characteristics

Silver White Vetla (Latin Salix alba f. argentea Sericea Splendens) is a form of Willow White. The tree belongs to deciduous species. It has a large size, powerful "skeleton" and thin elegant top branches, tilted almost to the ground. The height of the silvery beauty is capable of reaching twenty-five meters.

  1. Trunk formed with growth. The diameter of an adult tree varies from one to three meters (giant willows). Often found forked at the base. The bark is ashen gray with longitudinal cracks. Old shoots are represented bare, in yellow, red, brown mixed colors. Young or green with an olive shimmer, or brown with red, but in any case with pubescent silver ends.
  2. Crown during growth, it forms from a columnar into a spreading, loose, wide and rounded shape. The central and apical branches are directed upwards, while the side bends in places to the ground. The cast shadow is relatively light, “sifted”.
  3. Leaves on short petioles arranged alternately on branches. At length stretched to fifteen centimeters, but the width is not more than three. There are species with a wide elliptical structure of sheet plates. The edges are finely serrated, double color. The upper side is represented by dark greens, the lower part has a silver or bluish tint, which gave one of the names. Autumn color yellow with a clear bronze. Long fall period.
  4. Flowers divided into female and male. Differences in centimeter difference in the length of flowering representatives (women lead), and in anther color (in men yellow). Appear with disclosure of leaf buds in the second half of spring. Collected in earrings, have a pleasant aroma. Superb peduncle, pollinated by bees.
  5. Fruit. Bivalves of oblong structure, pear-shaped. Filled with small seeds, thin with white pubescence. Distributed by the wind at a very decent distance. Annual fructification occurs at the end of spring and the beginning of summer.

Decorative varieties, shapes and varieties

Used in landscape design combined and individual plantings. There are types for decoration of a small garden. Perfectly decorated with spherical trees due to crown compliance with curly pruning.

The widespread use of this species has not gone unnoticed by the development of new varieties, subspecies, and decorative forms. Here are some of the varieties:

• "Vithellina"(lat. S. al. var. vitelline). The tree rises in height to eight meters. Crown shapes are formed oval or ovate. The color of the bark is gray with a brown tint, as it grows, it becomes cracked. Fresh shoots are distinguished by bright golden tones with admixtures of yellow shades from autumn to the beginning of spring. Long and thin stand out sharply against a snowy background at the height of winter.

The leaves are located next, lanceolate leaf plates are painted in dark green color on the upper side and silver fluffy lower. Blossoms in the month of May, releasing earrings at the same time with the unfolding foliage. Fruit ripening occurs at the beginning of summer. Characterized by rapid growth, surface root system. The decorative effect is represented by a dense foliar crown and color solution of young shoots in the cold season.

Silky (lat. S. al. var. Sericea). Another name is Brilliant. A middle-growth tree about ten meters tall has a rounded crown. Slow growth allows you to reach the maximum height of only fifteen, twenty years of life. The leaves, pressed against the branches, are painted with an emerald silvery shade, accentuated brighter from the bottom.

Blue (lat. S. al. var. Caerulea). One of the giants of the form (up almost two dozen meters up). The crown line is oval, but the branches grow obliquely (albeit upwards). Often differently called Sizoy for leaf coloring. This is confusing, as there is a separate species of Yves Sizaya (Latin Salix glauca). Deciduous color Blue willows cover the front surface with a tone of aqua (blue with green), the reverse of a bluish gray light color.

In the spread of decorative forms of great importance is the brightness and variety of young shoots and leafy color. For example:

  • Weeping Yellow (lat. S. al. f. vitellina pendula) is a hybrid form. A small height of two and a half meters well settled down on the backyards, as a rule, the background in rocky gardens, near the water and in flower beds. Sparse crown with weeping long and thin yellow branches gives a lace shade in sunny weather. Narrow leaves look spectacular stripes on the background of pine needles (with contrast plantings, coupled with coniferous representatives of the plant world).
  • Oval (lat. S. al. f. ovals) attracts with unusual outlines of leaf plates with oblong elliptical contours.
  • Britzen (lat. S. al. f. vitelline britzensis) decorative fiery young shoots.

Most of the subspecies and forms are additionally represented by the cultivated varieties, with an emphasis on the individual peculiarity of the parent specimen.

  • Golden Cape”-’ Golden Ness ’- accented elegant branchy shoots that have a shade of yellow and gold together.
  • Tristis”-’ Tristis ’is a classic, fast-growing tree of impressive size (up to twenty meters). Derived for regions with low temperature indicators. The main advantage is increased frost resistance. Хороший медонос с декоративной кроной из ярких желтых поникших ветвей и ланцетных листьев.
  • Йелвертон” - ‘Yelverton’ - произрастает невысоким кустарником или деревом с насыщенной апельсиновой окраской ветвей.
  • Чермесина кардиналис” - ‘Chermesina Cardinalis’ - ветла до семи метров вверх, представленная как деревом, так и кустовым строением. The most remarkable are young twigs, brightly colored in scarlet with the presence of an orange tone. Gray with green leaves make up a dense crown in adult plants. Perfectly transfers frosty winters, wind-resistant. To maintain the maximum decorative shape requires regular pruning. The purpose of the process is to obtain a large number of young shoots (it is of priority importance), clearing away the dull obsolete branches.

Care on the backyard

Grow Willow, Verba, Vetla, Rakita (a small part of the names of the same plant) no difficulty. Basic care procedures consist of timely pruning, dressing and sufficient watering. Certain species require an extended range of work, which depends on the selected instance.

Location selection

With the onset of spring, it is necessary to determine the site for planting trees. Good fit light sandy soil with the addition of ripened compost, or humus. General requirements for the landing site (in the absence of specified conditions) wet and nutritious land.

The soil that has opened out from under the snow is dug out by a pit with dimensions of half a meter in all directions (length, width, depth). For tall crops, the landing hole is done a little more. The prepared seedling is placed in place, covered with earth. This is followed by good watering and soil mulching.

Watering mode

Life "in the wild" makes adjustments for the "home" content of any of these species representatives. The specimens growing along the shores of various reservoirs and in garden maintenance require sufficient soil moisture. Psites with high groundwater levels.

Spring floods will not harm the plant's pet. It is important to avoid marshiness. But in the dry season it is necessary to take a closer look at watering. This issue is especially acute for young plants. They should additionally be sprayed throughout the crown.

The need for additional nutrition in willow along with other woody individuals. Regular application of mineral and organic fertilizers supports decorative appearance. Top dressing is carried out throughout the season, focusing on the shape or variety of vetla.

Decorative trimming

The first experience in trimming the crown is recommended when the branches reach the meter mark. Until then, shoots grow freely. Corrects the specified form after the flowering period. Pruning young branches is carried out over the kidney, looking outward, shortening the existing shoot by twenty centimeters.

Regular formation helps to obtain a dense crown in selected specimens. Experienced gardeners with periodic pruning achieve amazing species decisions of the tree crown.

Reproduction in nature and in the garden

Natural existence expands the area of ​​growth through the transfer of light seeds by wind. The distance from the parent tree to the young sprout can be very large. Seeds remain viable for a different period of time, which depends directly on the storage environment. In the air, the ability to germinate persists for several days, while in the water they can wait several hours in the wings.

Domesticated species are propagated by grafting. The resulting offspring has all the characteristics of its parent. Cuttings are used in two states: lignified and current season. In the first case, the preparation of planting material is made before buds begin to bloom. You can wait for the first roots by placing the cut branch in a container with water. It is also possible to place it directly into the ground.

Green cuttings (young branches) are cut along the scythe. The upper kidney is removed, a third of each leaf is cut. The workpiece is placed in the soil, located under a can or in a greenhouse. In any case, a lighted sunny place is required. In the shaded areas willows do not grow. The initial weeks of rooting are accompanied by a separate care for the plant.

As mentioned earlier, important constant watering, feeding, spraying (in the heat). In the absence of rain on a significant time interval, each tree will need from two to five dozen liters of water. Pruning is the removal of dead shoots, later the formation of the specific crown.