Honeysuckle berries - one of the earliest, have a pleasant sweet-sour taste, ripen together and delight gardeners first tasty harvest. To increase the number of bushes in the garden or update old ones, you can independently grow new bushes. Reproduction of honeysuckle cuttings - the easiest way for which does not require special skills and abilities. In addition, honeysuckle multiply by dividing the bush, branches or seeds.
When and how to produce propagation by cuttings
For green cuttings cut off annual sturdy shoots. You need to cut with a sharp knife or blade, pruner and scissors are not suitable, because they deform the cut point. Then cut off the shoots should be divided into small segments of a length of 15 cm. An important condition is that at least 3-4 pairs of green leaves should be left on each prepared cutting. The most important thing: reproduction of honeysuckle cuttings carried out with the appearance of ripe berries. At this point, the growth of shoots stops (middle or end of June).
So that the harvested shoots are well rooted, the leaves are cut from them, leaving only one pair at the top of the cutting. The lower cut is shortened to the first kidney. The cutting prepared in this way is planted in a moistened primer under a film or in a greenhouse. For the rapid growth of the root system, the planting is tilted, deepening by 1.5-2 cm. Before landing in the ground, the lower cut can be dipped in a growth stimulator. The soil should be lightweight, capable of well-flowing air and water. To do this, take peat and sand in a 1: 2 ratio. The soil is watered and compacted a little.
Optimal conditions for growing
To speed up the process of root formation, honeysuckle reproduction by cuttings is carried out in warm weather. In the first days after planting the cuttings, the temperature should be at least 25 degrees. For this reason, young seedlings are placed under cover or in a greenhouse. Watered once a week, in hot weather - every 4-5 days.
If done correctly, the first roots will appear after 2 weeks. Then the root growth will be very active. By the end of the summer, the seedlings will be strong and ready to be transplanted to the place of growing. In about two years you will receive new full-fledged bushes and will be able to update your honeysuckle. Landing in the spring to a permanent place is carried out after the snow melts and the positive night temperatures are established.
Reproduction by dividing the bush
If the reproduction of honeysuckle cuttings seems to be too slow, since the berries will have to wait for 3 years, then you can divide the bush. This will require a young, not too overgrown honeysuckle bush. It is dug out, carefully cleaned the roots and divided into several parts. For the division will need a well-sharpened knife. Places of cuts sprinkled with ashes and planted bushes in the prepared holes. Planting should be done in fertile soil. It is possible to add to the soil well caked humus or compost. Do not use fresh manure, as the likelihood of rotting of the roots and destruction of the shrub is high. All this operation is carried out before the start of bud break or autumn. Reproduction in the spring is a better option, since over the summer the honeysuckle will root well and be ready for further wintering.
Honeysuckle on your site
When we talk about honeysuckle in our gardens, we most often mean an edible berry called blue honeysuckle or blue honeysuckle. The bush planted on the site grows quite quickly - 20-30 cm per year, and it lives and bears fruit almost under 30. In the fall, like most bushes, it sheds its leaves, and in spring it blooms again.
Fruits elongated, dark blue, with a pronounced gray wax bloom. The taste is sweet and sour. Depending on the variety may have additional flavors. Ripen in late June - early July. There are no bones inside. You can multiply the bush with cuttings or layering, as well as dividing it into parts.
Berries contain a rich vitamin and mineral set.. They strengthen our immunity and help in the treatment of the cardiovascular system, making the vessels more elastic.
Inedible varieties of honeysuckle planted for decorative purposes, decorating a variety of park and garden landscapes.
Independent reproduction of honeysuckle - the process is simple. There are several simple ways to do this. It is propagated:
- layering - one-year shoot tilt to the ground and secure to the formation of roots,
- cuttings - one-year growth is cut into cuttings,
- dividing the bush - it is divided into several parts.
All of them are widely distributed and are successfully used by gardeners and gardeners. Not all honeysuckle bushes can be propagated in the same ways, so for each variety they use the most suitable of them.
Method 1. Reproduction green cuttings
Suitable for breeding green cuttings of the current season. If you cut the cuttings before flowering shrubs, they are likely not to take root and die. Cutting off the cuttings after picking the berries, there is a high probability that their root system will develop poorly. Therefore, the most favorable time for harvesting cuttings is the period after the appearance of green fruits (approximately in the second half of May).
For harvesting cuttings you need to choose not the hot time of the day or the appropriate weather. It may be an early morning or an overcast day. Cuttings must be cut obliquely. Choose only the young shoots of the current season. From one such shoot, 2-3 cuttings can be cut in length from 7 to 12 centimeters. Each cutting must have at least two buds.
Next, cut the green cuttings put in a container of water for twenty-four hours, after removing all the lower leaves. For better effect, you can use a biostimulator instead of water for better rooting. A day later, all cuttings must be planted in the soil.
Planting cuttings can be done in three ways.
1. The first method will suit the most industrious and patient gardeners. First you need to prepare a special bed for cuttings. On the selected plot of land you need to knock down a box of planks around the perimeter of the bed and insulate it from the outside. Inside the drainage layer is poured (for example, from medium pieces of broken brick) about 5-7 centimeters, then the main layer (from garden soil, peat and river sand) and the top layer - about three centimeters of sand.
The whole bed is poured abundantly with water. For the convenience of planting cuttings, holes must be made in advance (for example, with the help of a usual wooden stick). The distance between the cuttings should be at least 5 centimeters, and the row spacing should be about 10 centimeters. The cuttings are planted in the ground and watered. Immediately after planting, the whole bed with cuttings must be covered with any covering material.
2. If you do not have a suitable place to build a bed or do not have free time, then the process of planting green cuttings can be simplified. Instead of a bed, a small wooden or plastic box will fit (about 50 to 50 centimeters in size). Fill it with a soil mixture consisting of 20% sand and 80% garden soil, pour and plant abundantly, as well as in the first method, observing the recommended distances. Then you need to cover the box with plants with a film or cloth and put in a dark place for rooting.
3. The third way is the easiest. Each stalk planted on a free land plot should be covered with a glass jar or a cut off plastic bottle.
The rules for the care of planted cuttings are timely watering and regular airing. For these procedures, you can make small holes in the covering material, and cans and bottles sometimes need to be opened.
Rooting cuttings should not be fully opened until the end of the warm season. In winter, it is recommended to cover young plants with fallen leaves first, and later with snow. With the onset of spring, the cuttings can be fully opened. Stronger seedlings in a few months can be transplanted to the selected area.
With this method of reproduction in three years, it will be possible to enjoy the first berries.
Method 2. Reproduction with stiff cuttings
This breeding method can be used around mid-autumn. Cuttings are cut from annual branches. Each of them should have at least two to three buds. Wet cuttings need to be wrapped with paper or a wet cloth and buried in the sand or fine sawdust. All this should be stored until spring in a cool room.
Around the end of March, cuttings should be planted in a moist, loose soil at an angle of 45 degrees. Seedlings begin to take root in about 15-20 days.
The survival rate of cuttings of spring and autumn cutting is significantly different. In green cuttings - about 70%, and in stiffened ones - no more than 20%.
When to multiply?
Most varieties of honeysuckle are self-infertile; they require pollen of another variety for pollination. To get excellent harvest at the site should be grown at least three varieties.
Berry shrubs can be propagated by seed, dividing the bush, layering, green and stiffened cuttings. When breeding layers, the lower shoots sprinkle with earth in early spring. Honeysuckle seeds are harvested from mid-June, when the berries ripen, and sown immediately.
The most productive and easiest way to reproduce honeysuckle is grafting.
That it allows you to get a large number of young seedlings. When grafting, the highest survival rate is green. They begin to harvest in late May – early June, when flowering ends and the first ovaries are formed. The shoots to be used for cuttings are green at the time, but have already lost elasticity.
Honeysuckle stiffened cuttings can be harvested in the spring, until the buds have blossomed, or in the fall, when the leaves have fallen, around the end of September - the first decade of October.
How to propagate honeysuckle layers?
This is the easiest way to reproduce honeysuckle, similar to gooseberry breeding. To get the layers, the soil around the bushes is dug up and “lifted up” a little. From the lower tier of the bush choose several strong annual branches, wire them pinned to the ground and sprinkled with a layer of soil with a thickness of 3-5 centimeters. Periodically during the season they are watered and spud.
Child branches remain in this form until the next spring. During this period, they manage to take root and then you can divide them with the mother plant with the help of a shears and transplant them to another place. From each “daughter” in 2 years you get a full-fledged honeysuckle bush.
Honeysuckle reproduction by layering has only one drawback: this method is not suitable for all varieties. Some bushes annual lower branches just does not happen.
Propagating honeysuckle division of the bush is very easy. This method can be used in the presence of young honeysuckle bushes in the garden. To do this, you need to dig a healthy shrub no older than 5 years old in early spring or in September, using a secateur, divide it into several parts together with the roots and plant the formed bushes into a new place. Disinfectant solution to handle the place of cuts.
Conditions for successful breeding honeysuckle
Having caught fire with ideas to start a honeysuckle, but not fully understanding the intricacies of its cultivation, gardeners are often disappointed in the culture. It seems that everything was done correctly, care was provided, and the plant refuses to bear fruit or gives few berries, and even those are bitter. To get high-quality planting material, and then fruitful berry, it is not enough to know how to propagate honeysuckle. Obligatory plus to the technique - knowledge of the biological characteristics of the plant.
The most important condition for the yield and taste of berries is the cross-pollination of different varieties of honeysuckle (at least 3-4), located in close proximity to each other. It is desirable that in the garden collection were varieties with different ripening, dessert, sweet and sour, with a savory taste.
To get high yields, plant a bush in an open, sunny place. The preferred planting pattern is not a row, but a curtain. A large area of flowering attracts bumblebees, and these are the most effective pollinators of tubular honeysuckle flowers.
For vegetative breeding, choose young honeysuckle mother shrubs with good growth energy, with no visible signs of disease.
At the first stage of reproduction, the main task is to stimulate rooting. This requires a favorable thermal regime, high humidity of the soil and air, shading from the bright sun. In essence, these are greenhouse conditions that are necessary to get out of the emerging life.
Grown up seedlings need rearing, hardening, adaptation to growing conditions in an open environment. During this period, a viable root system is formed, the plant acquires immunity. The optimal age for transplanting seedlings to a permanent place is 2–3 years.
Methods of vegetative propagation
At home, vegetative honeysuckle propagation methods are used more often than others. They allow you to reproduce offspring with the preservation of all the genetic characteristics of the parent plant. To do this, use different parts of it:
shoots (stems) - green and lignified,
cuttings from shoots in contact with the soil,
root shoots, developed from adventitious buds on the roots,
root by mechanical division into several parts.
Consider each option in more detail.
The method of propagation of honeysuckle green cuttings used in the summer.
First of all, it is necessary to correctly determine the time of harvesting cuttings. In the literature there are various recommendations - simultaneously with the appearance of green fruits, when the first berries ripen, immediately after the harvest. The optimal date is mid-June. By this time, the escape of the current year completes the growth, it is no longer so juicy, not prone to decay in a wet environment. In addition, there is plenty of time ahead to form a viable root system and prepare for winter.
Tip! Before harvesting, test young shoots for flexibility. If the stems bend, let them grow even more, if they have not lost their green color, but are already breaking, they are suitable for grafting.
For grafting choose the most powerful young growths. From the middle part of the branch, pieces of 8–12 cm long are cut so that each part has one internode and 2 pairs of leaves. Slice under the lower node oblique, at an angle of 45⁰, the leaves are removed. The upper cut is straight, 1–2 cm above the node, the leaves are shortened by half.
Apply 2 ways of rooting green cuttings of honeysuckle:
in water, with a change in the soil after the appearance of the roots.
In the first case, the stalk is immediately planted in a light, friable, moist substrate consisting of peat and sand (1: 3), immersing the lower section to the middle of the internode. Top cover with a transparent cap to create a greenhouse effect. If it is a bed, put the arc and cover with a film (to retain moisture) and spunbond (to protect from the direct rays of the sun).
Within 2–3 weeks it is monitored to keep the soil and air moist — this is easy to check by evaporation on the inside of the film. After the appearance of the roots, watering is reduced, the cuttings are aired, but the shelter is retained for some time, teaching the young plant to the street gradually.
In the fall, young plants rooted in the garden are covered with fir branches and leaves. Early in the spring they will start growing and will be growing at least one growing season, after which they can be transplanted to a permanent place.
Some gardeners prefer to start breeding honeysuckle with the germination of green cuttings in water. Only the part with the lower unit is immersed in the tank, the water is periodically poured, but not changed. To enhance rooting during the first day, the cuttings are kept in a growth stimulant solution. As soon as the roots are folded, the cuttings are transplanted into the substrate.
It is possible to use lignified cuttings for reproduction of honeysuckle, only they are harvested not in summer, but after leaf fall. Cut strong healthy branches with a diameter of at least 7-8 mm. Store the uterine material in the basement, previously wrapped it with a damp cloth and pripyat in the sand.
In the spring, as soon as the honeysuckle in the garden begins to grow, the prepared material is cut into cuttings, planted using the same technology as the green ones. Rooted and accustomed seedlings by the fall will form an independent root system, we will win over without any problems. A year later they will be ready for planting.
Root and horizontal layouts
For those who do not dare to grafting or considers this method too troublesome, a simpler variant of honeysuckle reproduction is possible - obtaining cuttings and subsequent transplanting of daughter shoots to a permanent place.
Горизонтальный отводок получают, если рано весной одну или несколько веток нижнего яруса пришпиливают к земле. Для стимуляции корнеобразования в месте соприкосновения побега с почвой делают неглубокие надрезы на коре (бороздование). Этот способ дает 100% приживаемость, так как до укоренения дочерняя ветка поддерживает связь с материнским кустом. By autumn, the layering forms its own roots, but it is separated from the main bush only next spring, when it is transplanted to a permanent place.
Note! Honeysuckle infrequently, but still gives root cuttings (scions). This happens when an adventitious kidney wakes up on an overgrown root system and sprouts into an above-ground shoot. Such an offspring is grown on site for 2 years, then separated from the mother bushes and transplanted.
Another method of breeding honeysuckle - air layering. It is used for vertical growth of branches and the inability to bend them to the ground. The branch selected for the layering is furrowed in the lower part under one of the buds. A plastic cup for seedlings or a bottle is cut lengthwise, the halves are filled with a loose, moist bud and "put on" them on a branch at the place of furrow. Halves connect, fasten with adhesive tape, as shown in the photo below. During the summer, the aerial otvodok watered, and after the formation of the roots are cut below the planting capacity, sent to the garden for re-growing.
Generative reproduction (seeds)
Experimental gardening lovers practice seed reproduction of honeysuckle. With this method, it is impossible to predict the varietal characteristics of the seedling in advance — it can turn out to be both a completely edible variety and a wild-growing form.
Seeds are harvested from large ripe fruits, washed from the pulp, dried. Practice 3 sowing terms.
In the summer, immediately after collection. By autumn, they will germinate, will form several leaves. For the winter, seedlings need to be covered, and in the spring they will continue to grow.
Subwinter seeding (late October) has its advantages. Seeds undergo natural stratification, hardened with cold. Such seedlings are stronger, they have a stronger root system. In the summer they are transplanted to rearing.
In early spring (March-April), seeds are sown in closed ground. The container is filled with a loose nutrient substrate for seedlings, honeysuckle seeds are buried by 1 cm, moistened, covered with film or glass. In this form, the planting capacity is before the emergence of shoots, about a month. They are then opened and grown in a container for a year. Dive into the open ground in the spring of next year (in May).
Taking up the reproduction of honeysuckle, do not be afraid to experiment and try different ways of obtaining planting material. A win-win, but with a limited number of copies - layouts. Great opportunities are provided by grafting - this technology should be mastered by a gardener.
Reproduction of honeysuckle green cuttings:
What kind of berry - honeysuckle?
It is known that the berries of edible honeysuckle contains an incredible amount of vitamins. And if you consider that they ripen in the earliest terms, when the main part of the fruit in the garden is only tied, then this bush simply does not have a price. Of the berries were allocated:
- organic acids
- vitamins C, A, P of group B,
- various trace elements.
It is especially worth noting that vitamin C contains almost as much as black currant. This quality is very valuable when considering the lack of nutrients in the spring.
A high percentage of vitamin P also plays a significant role. The substance helps to digest other components, supports the work of the heart muscle and blood-forming processes in the body.
Appearance and features of the plant
Honeysuckle is a very fast-growing crop and can produce crops the following year after planting.
Council Do not allow the plant to bear fruit so quickly. It is better to wait for 2-3 years, which will allow him to get stronger.
The plant begins to bloom before the leaves develop, and the fruits ripen within 30 days after the formation of the ovary. The frost resistance of honeysuckle is very high. But during the winter thaw, the plant can suffer greatly.
Honeysuckle can be described as follows:
- shrub 1-1.5 m tall with growing upward, branched shoots,
- flowers green, inconspicuous, resistant to frost,
- berries blue color with a clear waxy bloom, elongated,
- the weight and length of the fruit varies depending on the variety - 1.5-1.8 g and 1.0-2.0 cm, respectively,
- it tastes sour,
- powerful roots, strongly branched,
Honeysuckle yield is not very high, but with some adult bushes you can get up to 3 kg of berries.
How to reproduce honeysuckle
To breed on this site a useful crop, gardeners use the following methods:
- with the help of layering
- division of the bush.
The last two ways are not very popular. You can only divide old, heavily overgrown bushes, and it is sometimes difficult to bend a branch to the ground to use it as a layering. The shoots are quite fragile and grow vertically, therefore they often break.
Reproduction by cuttings
Honeysuckle can be propagated by both green and lignified cuttings. The first option is practiced in spring, the second - in the fall. For reproduction of parts of shoots that have not yet managed to lumber, you will need to perform the following manipulations:
- Prepare cuttings.
- Prepare cuttings or boxes for planting.
- Correctly plant shoots segments.
- Provide care.
How to prepare cuttings
Cuttings from the young shoots are cut immediately after the bush has blossomed. With earlier or late harvesting periods, a low survival rate is noted - half of the planted specimens do not germinate. For grafting choose the most powerful shoots of this year. They are divided into segments of 10-12 cm, including two or three buds. This will be the cuttings.
Council To avoid drying the cuttings, it is better to harvest them in the early morning.
From the cuttings, you need to completely remove the lower leaves, and leave half of the upper ones. This technique reduces evaporation and accelerates root growth. The upper cut, at a height of 1.5 cm from the final internode, is made horizontal, and the lower cut is oblique. Then the cuttings are placed in water with the addition of root stimulants. So stand day.
How to make a handle
The planer bed is the same box, but without a bottom. Arrange it in the case when you need to sprout a lot of cuttings.
For the frame it is desirable to use wooden boards. They do not heat up in the summer to a high temperature, and in winter they do not cool much. The bottom of the cuttings strewn with drainage material. Prepared soil is poured on top (sand, garden soil and peat 1: 1: 1). The soil is well moistened and evenly made holes keeping a distance of 5 cm.
The stalk is planted so that the lower internode is completely immersed in the hole. After it is well compressed ground. A frame is installed above the cuttings and covered with a film.
Council If you want to sprout a few cuttings, they can be planted directly into the ground and cover with bottles of transparent plastic.
Care for cuttings
In the care of the cuttings of honeysuckle is nothing complicated. It all comes down to watering and ventilation. Shelter completely removed in the fall. For the winter, the rooted young plants cover well with leaves or spruce branches. In spring, honeysuckle can be planted at a selected place in the garden. If the cuttings are weak, then they grow one more season in the cuttings.
For good pollination and, consequently, obtaining a decent amount of berries, you need to plant several bushes close to each other.
Honeysuckle multiply with green cuttings is quite simple. With this method, already in three years, it will be possible to harvest a great crop from self-grown bushes and please yourself and loved ones with early vitamins.