As you know, the best time for grafting pears is spring. In order for the result of this process to meet all your expectations, you need to take into account some of the nuances of the spring vaccination. We will tell about them in this article.
Grafting fruit trees is not easy, but very exciting. On a pear, cuttings from plants of the same genus best take root. As a stock, use a tree resistant to diseases, frost and pests, and the escape of any varietal pear is perfect for the role of graft.
How to vaccinate pears?
A pear can be grafted with a cutting or a kidney (eye). For the first method, the most suitable time is shortly before or during intensive sap flow in plants, for the second one - the first half of summer.
Grafting a pear eye (budding) produced in the T-shaped incision or pripriklad. For more information about this method is described in the article "Budding by eye - an easy way of summer vaccination."
Inoculation cuttings (copulation) can be done:
- split (early April)
- lateral clearance (in mid-spring and throughout the summer),
- bridge (at the very beginning of sap flow),
- behind the bark (during sap flow - until bud break, when the bark is easily separated from the wood and there is no longer a threat of spring frosts).
The simplest one is the grafting of a pear over the bark. She is well accustomed from the first attempt, even for beginners. Therefore, it is this method that we will describe and illustrate in detail.
We prepare pear cuttings for inoculation
Although the vaccination itself is done in the spring, the cuttings that will serve as graft need to be taken care of in the fall: after leaf fall and the end of sap flow. Select one-year semi-woody shoots and cut from them cuttings of 10-15 cm in length with 2-3 well-developed buds.
At the same time, it is better not to use the tops of the branches as a graft: their eyes are not yet fully formed. The lower part of the shoot is also not very suitable: in this place the bark is too hard, and the intensity of sap flow leaves much to be desired. Therefore, the most suitable material for vaccination is the middle part of the shoot with a diameter of 5-6 mm.
After cutting, place the cuttings in a container with wet sand or sawdust, put it in a dry and dark place with a temperature of 0 to 5 ° C and store it until grafting. But this does not mean that all this time the cuttings should remain without supervision. They need to periodically inspect and moisten the substrate, if it is dry.
If you do not have a suitable place to store cuttings like a cellar, then for the winter you can put them in the compartment on the refrigerator door, after wrapping them with a damp cloth and plastic.
If you will defrost a refrigerator, do not forget to place a package with cuttings in a cool place for this time.
Spring grafting of pears for bark - step by step instructions
1. The day before the vaccination, transfer the cuttings to a warm room, then soak them for 20-30 minutes in water or any growth stimulator (for example, Appin).
2. Prepare a stock. Cut down the upper part of the stem and gently clean the place of the cut.
We clean the place saw cut on the stem
3. On the bark of the rootstock, make a longitudinal incision 4-5 cm long so that the top layer of bark can easily separate and the wood remains intact.
At this stage it is important not to damage the wood.
4. Take a cutting and update the cuts on it: make the top one smooth, and the bottom one, which will be directly attached to the stock, at an angle of 25-30 degrees.
Make a slanting cut on the handle
5. Use a sharp knife to gently move the bark and insert a cutting behind it, firmly pressing it to the rootstock.
The stalk should not fall out from under the bark.
6. Place the inoculation and the upper cut of the cutting to cover with clay or garden pitch.
This is necessary so that the graft does not dry out and quickly got accustomed to the stock.
7. After that, wrap the vaccination site with tape so that there are no gaps between its layers.
Wrap vaccination site
8. Put a plastic bag on top and fasten it so that it is not blown away by the wind. It is enough if it hangs only 1-2 weeks. Polyethylene will help protect the graft from the wind and maintain the required level of humidity.
So vaccination will take root better.
Inspect the grafted plant for 10-14 days. During this time, the stalk should settle down to the rootstock, and the buds on it - to swell.
If this does not happen, then the vaccine has not taken root. In such a situation, you can try to graft the remaining cuttings to another stem (of course, if you did not use them all last time). Or wait until the beginning of the summer and plant a pear budding method.
The vaccination allows you to solve the main problem - tasteless and small fruit. If the cutting takes root, then you can count on good harvest Many people buy seedlings and grow them for years. For an experienced gardener - this is not an option.
First, it is a long time. Secondly, no one will give a guarantee that in the end it will be the very variety that was supposed to be.
Thirdly, the cutting in the price is less than a sapling, and the graft can be grown from ordinary seed. By the way, for a good vaccination, it is advised to choose semi-cultural varieties.
Although some gardeners believe that the time of vaccination does not matter, it is not true. Already time and experience has been proven that the timing need to follow. So, the cutting root should be more successful.
Most experts advise to vaccinate pear in the spring, when sap flow was not started yet. During this period, all conditions are most favorable, especially the process of implementation itself. The bark in the spring is easier to pruning.
The main thing to look out for is time. flowering. It is impossible to inoculate during flowering; all work must be carried out before the beginning of this period. There should also be a steady night temperature. Vaccination may react poorly to freezing. The warmer the weather at night, the easier it will settle down and the further development will be more effective. Daily temperature also plays a small role. Vaccination of pear should take place in sunny, calm weather.
Is it possible to plant a pear in summer and autumn? In principle, this is allowed. How to plant a pear in the summer? If the process is conceived in the summer, or if the circumstances are right, then it is better to do it in early July.
You can not start the vaccination late summer. As for autumn, this time of year is less attractive for many experienced gardeners. It's about temperature.
In the autumn period, it is very unstable, which means there is a high probability that the pear will not take root.
Stock: how to choose
With the stock you need to decide before you purchase the cutting. From the choice will depend on such factors as:
- The size of the fruit.
- Crown of pear.
- The size of the tree itself.
- When the cutting starts to bear fruit.
As a graft, there are several options to choose from: pear, apple, rowan, quince, hawthorn, dogwood, plum.
If the vaccination is done on a pear, then the most suitable varieties are: "Severyanka", "Svetlana" and "Forest".
Important moment! Varieties of cuttings and rootstocks should be different. So, get a good effect and the tree will delight its diversity. Pear cuttings take root well on semi-cultural varieties.
Quince - This is the most popular stock. Due to this, the tree will be low and small in size. Thus, the space in the garden will not be cluttered.
The fruiting process will also come earlier, and the fruits will absorb more sweetness.
As a stock hawthorn is chosen extremely seldomas the result and success of the vaccination is unlikely. You can choose cherry plum. It is a strong stock, suitable for any stone fruit, except cherries and sweet cherries.
Some gardeners have adapted to plant a pear on dogwood. Years of experience and observation have shown that dogwood with pear complement each other well, grow well, and the fruits get interesting taste.
Do not deprive attention and apple tree, you can get a good Effect from such a graft. Almost all areas of amateur gardeners, they are available, so why not use. These 2 cultures interact well with each other and grow together.
As a stock, you can use the apple variety “Antonovka”, and the pear “Cathedral”. This duet has a minus. It lies in the fact that the wood of apple and pear does not grow to the end. From year to year it is necessary to observe the tree. So that the branch does not break off, it is tied up or propped up. Experienced gardeners claim that the pear takes root better on the apple that is grown from sunflower seed.
As a stock, it is better not to choose rowan. Such a couple will not have long coexistence. The fact is that a pear grows faster than a mountain ash. As a result, an influx appears at the site of fusion, and the two cultures differ markedly from each other. After vaccination will constantly monitor and care for the pear. The graft period will not be long, and the fruits will become dry and tart.
How to plant a pear in spring: step by step
To do the right job, you need to be familiar with features and rules. Basic rules that must be learned before work:
- Choose a quality healthy stock.
- Examine the correct vaccination technology and select the desired method.
- The stalk must also be healthy and young.
- Timing vaccinations. It is desirable that it was spring.
- Depending on the type of pear, determine the place of vaccination. It should be noted that the upper crown is well suited for summer, lower for winter, and average for autumn.
- At one time you can make 2 vaccinations at once on one tree.
- An important point! Summer varieties do not interact well with winter ones, so it is better not to splice them together.
- First of all, the gardener must decide what he wants to receive from this tree in the future.
- The graft is worth choosing carefully. It should be suitable for biological and anatomical indicators.
- The buds on the branch with grafts must be strong and have a good appearance.
- Cuttings are preferably taken from the top of the crown. The site of the scion should be well lit, choose the south side without obscuring.
- Prepare cuttings in late autumn, but before frost.
- You can store in the cellar or refrigerator. The temperature should not fall below 4 degrees.
- A wet sand tank is also well suited for storage. Cuttings laid in the sand and lowered into the basement.
- For better preservation, the cuttings are wrapped in polyethylene or in a damp cloth.
Grafting pear step by step: how to start, tools, garden tools
In the process you may need:
It is worth remembering that before work all cutting objects must be OK ground. Only in this case can we expect that all the cuts will be carried out accurately, without causing much injury to the tree itself and its graft.
When the vaccination process is completed, it is necessary to carry out a decontamination procedure and treat the wound against a tree. For these purposes, use the garden bar, bought in the store, but you can cook it at home alone.
Required: rosin - 400 grams, beeswax - 200 grams, animal fat without salt - 100 grams, flax oil - 250 ml. All ingredients are mixed in oil and set on low heat, waiting for the liquid to turn. After the ingredients have become liquid, they are poured into cold water and crushed by hand until the mixture becomes viscous. Stored cooked in paper, and if necessary, heated.
How to plant a pear: popular methods
If the cuttings and branches of the stock are young and coincide in diameter, then an improved method can be used. copulation. It is possible to plant a pear in the spring and under a bark. This method is chosen when the stem of the stock is larger than the graft cutting.
To do this, use a sharp knife to cut the bark on a tree about 5 cm long and insert a pointed stalk. Also, the pear can be planted in the split. This method is applicable when the stem stock more cuttings graft. It is necessary to cut the stem of the stock at a height of 20 cm and make a cut of 5-6 cm. It turns out that it appears on the tree splitin which you need to install 1 or 2 branches of a scion. On cuttings in advance, you need to make sharp sections of about 4 cm.
A beginner can use the method budding. This is the easiest and fastest way to vaccinate the eye. Carry it out in late July or early August. For the stock they use a young sapling, which can be grown by yourself or bought in a special nursery.
Start vaccination with preparation stock. It is necessary to otgresti all the ground below, until the root neck appears. Then damply wipe the trunk with a cloth and cut all branches to a height of 10 cm. To carry out the inoculation, you need to make a T-shaped notch on the root neck up to 3 cm long. You must start with a horizontal one and end with a vertical line. It is advisable to make a cut on the north side. Many experts argue that the survival rate will be the most accurate.
From the prepared graft for the scion, you must take the so-called shield. To do this, a healthy kidney with attached tissues is cut out on the graft. It is necessary to ensure that the flap coincides with the cut on the seedling.
Very responsibly, it is necessary to approach the cutting of this kidney. The knife should be well sharpened. Begin to cut 1.5 cm from the kidney and gently lead down the same distance. Insert the flap into the T-neck, carefully pushing the bark apart. Be sure to remember that you can not touch the open places. Grafted flap firmly pressed to the incision and wrapped with tape. Gleams between the wound tape anywhere should not be, except the kidney itself. It must be left open.
Grafting a pear is a very interesting and at the same time responsible business. But in the future, such work will bear fruit and delight the gardener. Following all the recommendations, you can achieve a good result. A beginner gardener should initially get acquainted with all the tips and see all methods of vaccinations.
Pear grafting goals
Possible targets for vaccination:
- Vaccination is used if they want to prolong the youth of their favorite variety.
- If you do not want to wait several years to try the harvest. Seedlings will please the first fruits at least 4 years. But vaccination will significantly speed up the process.
- Plant a plant to give it the properties of the best grade. It happens that gardeners are not always satisfied with a growing tree, which gives tasteless or medium-sized fruits.
- Conducted to breed a new variety. When combining different varieties, a sapling is obtained, inheriting the best properties of both plants.
What trees can be planted?
In nurseries like to use dwarf or semi-dwarf stock. This is due to the speed and ease of reproduction. The resulting plant is allowed to land on the ground with a close location of groundwater.
As a stock can serve various cultural plants. Consider the best options.
On a pear of another variety
Pear is allowed to plant on the same plant. It is impossible to inoculate on a pear, differing in maturity.This will shorten the life cycle of the tree..
- Plant on pear semi-cultural varieties that are grown in our climate. On these trees the graft grows together better and will develop successfully.
- If a late variety is planted on an early pear, then by winter the plant will still produce fruit. As a result, there is a high probability that the first frost will completely destroy the tree.
- The stock will serve well Ussuri pear. Get a new winter-hardy culture. But not all varieties take root well on this stock, so you have to tinker with the vaccine.
Culture, grafted on chokeberry, will allow you to get a plant with high resistance to frost. You can safely plant late pear varieties on it. The new tree will be compact, which will contribute to easy harvesting. When conducting vaccinations leave a fourth of the shoots of mountain ash. This is a prerequisite, otherwise the plant will not receive the required amount of nutrients for fruiting. On the new tree, the fruits will acquire a tart and rather sweet taste.
If you use the wilderness, then thanks to the inoculation it will be possible in a short period of time to get a full-fledged pear with remarkable characteristics.
Grafting on this plant, as a result, get a short crop. The pear will be early to bear fruit and have poor frost resistance. Therefore, this option is not suitable for regions with severe winters and late spring frosts. There is a high probability that the harvest will not appear.
But in a temperate climate or with a good shelter in cold areas a compact tree will grow, giving the maximum result.
The fruits will gain a new, unusual taste, which everyone will appreciate.
Graft better on wild plum. It is highly resistant to harsh climate. Therefore, a new tree will grow resistant to bad weather conditions and severe frosts.
Grafting will allow you to create an unusual tree. As a result, the plant will be located apple and pear branches. Proceeding from practice, vaccinations do not always take root. But the attempts are worth it.
Popular vaccination irgu. As a result, the gardener receives the fruits of the original taste and an excellent fruit-bearing plant that gives an early, maximum yield. Прививку следует делать низко. Высота не больше 20 сантиметров. Иначе ветви часто будут обламываться из-за тяжести груш и ветров.In the fruiting plant enters the second year.
The optimal timing of the procedure
They may be different:
- In the fall. Inoculation is carried out using cuttings that have been prepared in the spring. They need to germinate 1-2 months before the onset of frost.
- In the summer you can graft with fresh cuttings. Favorable time comes in July. But if during this period it is not possible to vaccinate, then you should not be upset. Summer vaccination can be carried out in August.
- In the spring. For this, the cuttings are harvested in autumn. They are placed in a dark cool place, and the ends fall asleep with wet sawdust. The procedure is carried out in the second half of spring, but before the start of sap flow. This will ensure a high survival rate.
How does a graft come up?
Pear implanted cuttings. They should be annuals. Take them only from the top well-lit part of the crown. Harvest in the last decade of autumn, but before frost. On the scion, the kidneys should be well developed. They also pay attention to the fact that he biologically and anatomically approached the stock.
The graft must be young and healthy - this will significantly increase the chances of success.
This method is used when the thickness of the branches coincides. For this place the cuts are joined and tied tightly. Process:
- Slice make oblique. To do this, use a sharp garden knife.
- Escape choose the appropriate diameter and sturdy. Cut a small stalk.
- The bottom of the cut should be the same size as the grafted tree. When the slices are prepared, do not touch them.
- Attach the cutting in such a way that the two plants are connected.
- Tie and secure with tape.
This method is most popular. Algorithm of actions:
- The diameter of the graft is chosen several times smaller than the thickness of the stock. The technology helps simplify splicing and increase the success rate.
- The stock is pruned with sharp shears. In the center of the hemp knife split. The depth will be about 5 centimeters. For a scion, the lower part of the branch, which will have the appearance of a wedge, is cut and inserted into the cleft.
- Around them they are smeared with garden pitch and they tie the places of contact with a film. After 3 months, it is removed.
Graft usually old trees. This procedure helps to rejuvenate the plant and restore its fruiting. Also extends the lifespan of the culture.
- Inoculated using kidney, hooked on the rootstock shoots.
- It is enough to make a small incision on the stock of the stock, attach a graft and tightly wrap it.
For eye grafting, you can use material that was harvested last year.
A distinctive feature of this method is ease of implementation. Recommended for beginner gardeners:
- With the help of a sharp knife on the stock make an incision, which should be vertical. Length 3 centimeters.
- The resulting incision is pushed aside and a scion with a bare cambium is laid in the resulting free space.
- The important point to consider is that there should be 2 swollen buds on the graft.
- Splice the joint in a boil, then wrap using polyethylene.
- After 3 months the junction will grow. Leaves are formed on the graft, and soon a sprawling, well-bearing tree will grow from it.
In the side slot
- At the bottom of the cut stalk, the result is a uniform wedge.
- At the side of the stock to make the same size cut as a wedge.
- Connect the two parts. Smear garden pitch.
- Tape the place of vaccination with tape.
Carry out the procedure in April.
This method is used if the bark is damaged by hares. A special bridge helps restore power to the crown and revitalize the tree. Process:
- In the damaged area make parallel cuts of the cortex. The size is about 3 centimeters.
- The cuttings are inserted into the received places, which have been prepared in advance, and are lubricated by barb.
The method aims to save a mature tree. The time is May. Stock and graft are joined by approach. Sequence:
- Cut off the bark of the same length on the graft and stock.
- Bring the pieces together to connect.
- Grease the compound with clay and roll it with a rope.
- After 3 months, remove the tourniquet. Crop trim, then detach the stock rootstock.
Vaccination step by step
For budding gardeners, a budding method is best suited. To avoid mistakes, you must follow the detailed description:
- For the rootstock used young seedling, which can be purchased in a specialized nursery.
- The procedure is carried out in the last days of July. It is also possible to carry out an inoculation in the first decade of August.
- Around the stock rootstock otgresti soil in such a way that there is a root collar.
- Remove all branches at a height of 11 centimeters from the soil and wipe with a damp cloth.
- Using a sharp knife to make a T-shaped incision. Length 3 centimeters.
- Now you need to properly prepare the cuttings. To do this, use the cutting from a varietal plant and cut off a developed bud. Adjacent tissue (shield) will also need to be cut. The flap is made the same length as the cut on the stock.
- Move the T-shaped incision to the edge of the knife. Put a cutting in there and press it tightly with your finger.
- With the help of electrical tape bind to the stem shtambu. Shake in such a way as to completely cover the shield, but leave the kidney.
Care after vaccination
Making an inoculation on a plant is half the battle, the main thing is to ensure proper care after this:
- After 3 weeks, the plant is examined. If the kidney is green and not dried, the procedure was carried out correctly and the vaccination took root.
- Before the winter cold to remove the strapping. But if the electrical tape does not pinch the culture fabric, then it is better to postpone this process until the onset of spring and remove after the snow melts.
- Before the buds swell in the spring, the stock should be trimmed slightly above the graft and covered with garden pitch.
- The plant is watered throughout the season, and the tree trunk is loosened. Also constantly remove weeds.
- A year later, the culture is transplanted to a permanent place.
The most common beginners make mistakes:
- Poorly fixed stalk. It should fit snugly to the base.
- Incorrect stock picked. Should choose a winter-hardy plants.
- Incorrectly prepared cuttings. They are harvested in the fall. Early cut will not ripen or will not survive. Harvested after frost - freeze.
- The procedure was carried out for a long time. Vaccination needs to be done quickly.
If the kidney vaccination method is chosen, then attention is paid to its condition. If it dried up or changed color, then it cannot be used for the procedure.
When to inoculate
High-quality inoculation of a pear in the spring will bear fruit if you take all the necessary care measures, learn the details of the process, etc. The choice of the timing of the procedure is also considered important. As a rule, domestic gardeners start this activity with the onset of spring - at this time the plants gradually come to life, but the buds on the trees have not yet had time to open.
It is advisable to plant new varieties before the sap flow begins. Thus, your tree will transfer the procedure without any problems. In addition, we can safely expect that the graft will take root.
However, there are times when the process is not very successful. This does not mean that it will be necessary to wait for the next procedure until the next spring period. Experts say that you can duplicate the vaccine in the second half of the summer.
To determine the time suitable for grafting pears in the garden or wild plants, you need not only on the basis of recommendations from experienced gardeners. Pay special attention to the climatic features of your particular region. For example, if you live in the south of the country, you can take up plant inoculation in the first month of spring.
It is desirable for gardeners in the northern regions to postpone this procedure and transfer it to the second half of April - the beginning of May. In general, finding out the optimal time for grafting pears, watch the temperature changes: if at night they are already insignificant, feel free to carry out the procedure. Otherwise, annual shoots may freeze.
For those who decided to plant new branches in the summer, it is best to do it in early July. Observe one rule in any case: until the beginning of August, all planned vaccinations must be carried out. At the end of the summer period, the temperature at night can drop sharply, which will negatively affect the condition of the grafts.
The choice of scion and rootstock
To instill a pear, you must correctly select and prepare cuttings. It is believed that representatives of the same species feel rather well on a pear. That is why often as a scion (material for vaccination) choose a sprig of varietal pears. The main thing is that your stock (the tree on which the procedure will be carried out) be strong and protected from pests or diseases. Do not forget: it is recommended to harvest cuttings in the autumn period, in the process of preparing the pear for wintering. Cut off processes should be placed in a container with wet sand and left for storage somewhere in the cellar.
Techniques and methods of grafting
Whether it is possible to implant pear cuttings on a pear is extremely clear: such a procedure is often effective. The main thing is to learn the main ways of its implementation.
These include the following techniques:
- copulation Very often gardeners decide to plant a new variety on a young tree, whose branches have not yet become stronger. This method is the best solution. Consider the fact that the branches of the plant and cuttings that you plant should be the same diameter,
- grafting on the bark. If the tree is already mature, and you graft a thin cutting, it is better to make a small cut in the bark (4–5 cm long) and place it there,
- in cleft. To do this, you need to cut the trunk at a height of about 20 cm, make a small split and insert one or two cuttings of a new variety into it,
- budding. This method is also called inoculation eye. Resort to it costs novice gardeners.
To plant a tree must be able to properly. Knowing when and how to do this, you can replenish your garden with new pear varieties.
After the graft has been fixed by you on a tree, it’s too early to relax. During the first two weeks you need to observe the plant: you need to make sure that the procedure was successful. During this time, the kidneys should swell. It happens that the result can not be achieved the first time.
In this case, you should try to use the remaining cuttings, or wait for a reasonable time to fully duplicate the vaccination. If everything went well, it will be necessary to observe the graft in the future. Do not forget that pritenyat acclimatized cutting in no case be impossible. If it is closed shoots or leaves, they are best removed. When the graft begins to grow, it is pinched. Do not rush to remove electrical tape or other strapping from the tree - if it doesn’t pinch anything, it is advisable to leave it on the branches until the next spring arrives.
After hibernation, before the buds swell, the graft is recommended to trim almost to the ground.
To prevent the development of infection, the place of the cut must be treated with garden pitch. Now everything depends on the weather conditions and on the care that you will provide for your garden pear. For example, it needs to be watered regularly, as the plant does not like dry soil.
Another important point is the loosening of the soil near the trunk circle. If weeds are nearby, remove them. Take into account all the necessary recommendations for the care of the vaccinated pear, and after a while it can be put on a permanent place, if there is a need.
Signs of a successful vaccination
Graft cuttings and then correctly pinching them need to be able to every gardener. If all the recommendations were taken into account, the buds on the grafted branches should remain green and swell a little within a few weeks after the procedure. Update your pear, add new varieties to the plant, and you will be satisfied with the result, and your garden will be replenished with large-fruited and productive trees.
When a pear is planted:
One of the most important aspects, of course, is the time of the operation. Often, you can find the opinion that the timing of vaccination of pear does not affect the result, but this is far from the case. Empirically, the opposite has been proven.
According to many experts, it is spring that is the most suitable time of year. It is best to have time before the start of the movement of the juice in the plant system.
The flowering period, the most unfortunate moment for carrying out the grafting of a pear.
The temperature should not fall sharply at night, otherwise it can damage the tumors. Carefully watch the weather forecast, and only when the weather returns to normal, start work.
Work best during the day, in clear and warm weather. Clouds and dampness, plus the wind - not the best conditions.
The pear can be grafted in the summer, it will be well received by this procedure, if it is carried out in the first half of July. But in August it will be incredibly difficult for young sprouts to take root.
At this time of year, the operation is not recommended, especially in the middle lane. If you live in the south, there is still a chance for success.
What you can graft pear:
What can be planted fruit trees:
- An apple tree is an apple tree.
- Pear - on a pear, hawthorn, irgu, chokeberry, rowan, apple.
- Apricot, cherry plum - on the sink.
- Plum - on plum, sloe, cherry plum, felted cherry.
Pome on pome, stone on stone.
Since mountain ash is excellent in dampness and other adverse conditions for pears, for example, if your garden is located in a swampy area, and the root system does not cope with such conditions. After the grafting procedure, the tree will turn out to be quite compact in size, no higher than 3 meters, and it will begin to bear fruit in two or three years, while not feeling any problems due to high humidity. Suitable as wild varieties, mountain ash and sweet, selective.
But the lack of humidity and dry weather adversely affect the shrub, so for residents of such regions, it is not recommended to choose this shrub as a stool pigeon. If you are faced with such a problem, then you need to organize a constant watering during the dry season, as well as the mulching of the tree trunk zone. As a mulch use: hay, straw, sawdust, mowed grass.
Act carefully and reliably, then the crop will appear in two or three years.
In the garden it is necessary to plant rowan bushes. Suitable as wild varieties, mountain ash and sweet, selective. Important! This will be the permanent residence of the tree, so approach this procedure wisely. As soon as the bushes grow a little, it will be possible to inoculate a pear. Not only young seedlings fit the role of the base, you can also use old plants. The best time will be spring, until the bud breaks, or July, if you are late.
In order for photosynthesis not and excessive evaporation to take energy away, it is necessary to pinch off the leaves on the plant, leaving no more than three. If the mountain ash is young (1-2 years), then the height of the graft will be 20 centimeters from the root collar.
The barrel should be about 3 centimeters in diameter at a height of 1 meter. If the crown is higher than 1.5 meters, it can be cut off. It is recommended to carry out the operation of the stock in two ways: in the butt or in the side cut.
1 - preparation of the cutting 2 - inserting the cutting 3 - tying the vaccination site.
The most suitable varieties for mountain ash:
- Ussuriyskaya (and all its derivatives),
To instill an unsuitable grade, of which there are very few, you can solve the problem by double graft. First put on a mountain ash, one of the above options, and after a year - you need it.
In order for the root system to fully function, at least 25% of the branches of the mountain ash must be left in the crown.
Since the trunk of a pear is thicker than that of a bush, it will negatively affect the stability of the tree. But there is a way out, and it is quite simple, after a year, plant a few rowan bushes next to it, and plant them to the trunk, so you get a plexus, a very stable, decisive problem.
Grafting pears on apple trees in spring and summer:
From April 12-15, the best time for this operation begins, in the middle lane. Buy good addict material, better in nurseries, or cut in your garden, or from friends. Cut the stalk from the south side of the adult tree. Thick, the cutting should be with a regular pencil, and have about 6 buds. In the case when you have prepared the material in the cold season, it should be stored until the spring thaw in the refrigerator. Half a day before the procedure, these cuttings are cut along an oblique line and dipped into a growth stimulator.
Grafting a fruit tree to a fruit tree consists in the usual combination of sections of stock and scion.
- On an apple tree with a sharp garden knife, you need to make a cut, then you need to dock two cuts with each other and wrap them very tightly with tape or tape.
- Grease the joints with garden barb.
- Pristvolovoe space rootstock cleaned, raking the soil, until you see the root neck. To a height of 10 centimeters, with careful movements of garden shears or a knife, remove all the twigs. We take a damp cloth and wipe the trunk with it. In the area of the root neck it is necessary to make a T-shaped incision with a length of 3 cm.
- Дальше необходимо взять привой, груши, которую вы хотите выращивать. С помощью ножа необходимо срезать хорошо развитую почку, и прилегающие к ней ткани. Это называется — щиток. По размерам он должен быть равен крестообразному разрезу на яблоне.
- On the trunk, in the place of the T-shaped notch, move apart the cortex.
- The bud and shield are inserted into this cut, while pressing it very hard.
Do not touch the slices with your fingers.
- Now with the help of electrical tape we wind the place of joining, cover the shield completely, but the kidney should be visible.
In the butt:
- We make cuts on the graft and stock.
- We put them into each other.
Everything is quite simple, we make cuts on the branch and trunk, and we insert the first one into the second, on top of the joints we cover it with garden pitch.
Tree care after the procedure:
You performed the operation, right, what next?
- We remove the polyethylene immediately after the first leaves appear,
- Remove sprouts, those that appear below the point of merger.
- If the graft grows stronger than expected, perform the pinching procedure.
Fresh graft on an old tree.
We suggest you read the video on this topic.
It is easy to plant a pear in spring or summer; it can be done on an apple tree, on a mountain ash, on a hawthorn, or on itself. The main thing is to choose the right time for this procedure. It is best to do it in spring or summer. Autumn is a bad time for this. Follow our advice, and properly care for the tree after the operation, and the sprout will take root and in a couple of years will give an excellent harvest. We wish you good luck and see you soon, on our website about the garden.
How to plant a pear in the spring and why it is needed
In the spring, many gardeners actively plant trees. You can graft it on the same tree, and you can make a graft on the apple tree. Vaccination is necessary because:
- allows to increase frost resistance and resistance to external influences,
- improves the taste of fruits
- increases yield
- gives one variety the quality of another variety (for example, in a grafted tree, maybe the taste of fruits may change for the better),
- is the best prevention of varietal degeneration,
- contributes to the proper formation of the tree.
Secrets of successful vaccinations for beginners
Before planting a tree, you can consult with experienced gardeners or read specialized literature to imagine an approximate sequence of actions. And also you can watch the training video.
In order to properly inoculate the following:
- Prepare graft - cuttings. For graft, you should choose cuttings of medium length, healthy and strong, without visible damage, without traces of fungus and rot.
- Decide on the stock.
- To clear a place of a stock, to clear a surface from dust, dirt, a fungus.
- Carefully do the splitting.
- Precise, confident movement to insert graft in this split.
- Combine graft and stock.
- Insulate. To do this, you can use the usual bright blue insulating tape, which is sold in any hardware store.
After this, scars inevitably remain on the tree, resembling deep wounds. A tree with fresh can get a serious burn under the scorching sun. To avoid this trouble, any fresh scars and scars should be immediately after completion. treat with garden pitch.
Garden var quickly tightens wounds, and the tree becomes healthy again. And also for the treatment of scars and scars, you can use special means of industrial production.
The tree is afraid of frost and sudden changes in temperature, so plant a plant best spring, after the warm, mild weather has already been finally established. You can graft it in the summer.
But it should be borne in mind that the graft is very hot sun does not work welltherefore, many vaccinations taken at the height of summer do not take root. If the gardener did not have time to plant in the spring, and the summer is expected to be hot, it may be worthwhile to move this procedure to autumn.
Many amateur gardeners plant a cultured pear to grow wild, hoping to get a “cultivated variety” with large and tasty fruits. However, this may not always be the case. There are cases when wild and cultivated varieties for some reason are incompatible with each other.
In no case, do not instill early to late, and vice versa. Such a vaccination significantly shortens the plant life. Graft and rootstock should have approximately the same period of fruiting. It is very important. The graft should be better than the stock in quality, but not vice versa.
Grafting pears on apple and rowan
You can graft a pear on an apple tree, or you can get a graft on a mountain ash. Most often gardeners choose an apple tree for this purpose, because such a graft, made in spring, significantly increases the yield.
Usually, the cuttings perfectly take root on the apple tree, the main thing is to protect the apple tree from frost. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out vaccination on the apple tree when the threat of night frosts has passed. If you hurry, you can only spend time in vain, because at the very first cold snap the cutting will die.
With proper vaccination, the apple tree tolerates this manipulation well. Grafting on an apple tree allows increase yield, extend the period of fruiting, increase the size and improve the taste of fruits, as well as create original fruit hybrids.
Many gardeners inoculate pear cuttings on mountain ash. Usually those who have a plot located in a lowland or marshland do this. As a rule, in such places the pear grows very badly. But, if you plant a pear on mountain ash, the situation will change for the better. As well as grafting on mountain ash allows you to make the fruit more compact. And they will ripen more friendly.
Some even vaccinated on hawthorn. Hawthorn is a good material for stock. The cutting takes root well and rarely dies. However, a large number of thorns makes harvesting uncomfortable.
Good results are obtained by grafting pear cuttings on quince, irgu or chokeberry. If the vaccination is correct, there should be no difficulties. It is undoubtedly worth planting a pear on other trees, as this not only improves the quality of the fruit, but also the yield.
Most often, gardeners plant pear cuttings on an apple tree or on a pear of another variety. After vaccination, you must periodically inspect. There are cases when a graft graft dies very quickly. This is usually caused by night frosts or improper joining of the scion and rootstock. There are also cases of incompatibility of one variety with another.
When choosing a material for the scion should pay special attention to winter hardiness varieties. A more frost-resistant pear should be grafted onto a less frost-resistant apple tree, but by no means vice versa. If a heat-loving tree is grafted onto a cold-resistant tree, it will adversely affect the tree's endurance and its resistance to external influences.
Pear vaccination for beginners: practical recommendations
Many amateur gardeners are afraid of planting a pear in their backyards, because they consider this tree to be very capricious, demanding to care and sensitive to external influences. This is partly true, but only partly.
If you implant a pear in time, you can make it more resistant and unpretentious. The main thing - to choose the right material for the scion.
In order to take root, it is not necessary to conduct an inoculation in the heat, for example, in the hot summer afternoon. On the street should be warm, but not hot, otherwise grafted cutting will get sunburn.
And also you should not plant a tree in cold, windy, rainy or inclement weather. It is best to wait for a calm, clear summer or spring day, when the sun is shining, but not baking. Suitable time for vaccination - morning or evening hours.
It is best to use for graft varieties of pears, suitable for cultivation in the northern regions of Russia, as they are quite hardy, resistant to diseases and pests. Use southern varieties are not worth it, as they grow poorly in the conditions of the Russian Central Band.
If the gardener wants to get larger fruits, a tree with small fruits, a pear or an apple tree, should be planted, which is characterized by large fruits. The same goes for taste. If a tree with sour, tart fruits, such pears are popularly called “blew”, to instill a pear stalk with large, sweet fruits, the taste of small pears will change for the better.
Before the first vaccination of the pear, the gardener must read specialized literature and learn about all the intricacies of this process. However, no book can replace communication with experienced gardeners. Experienced growers are usually happy to share their experience with newbies.
At first glance, grafting a pear can seem quite complicated and troublesome. However, experience comes with time. If for the first time the vaccination does not go very well, you should not be upset. Graft can die for various reasons. The main thing - correct vaccination.
Grafting pears on other trees is practiced everywhere, because it helps to rejuvenate the tree and restore its vitality. The best thing plant a pear on an apple tree, but other vaccination options also have the right to exist.
What is vaccination for?
Novice gardeners do not always give due importance to the art of vaccination, completely in vain ignoring this opportunity to increase the composition of varieties on the site.
In the young garden there is enough space for planting all the necessary plants. However, the old garden, although it provides the gardener with many fruits, does not allow for the expansion of the assortment. In this case, grafting can help out.
Vaccination is one of the forms of plant breeding. Its essence lies in the accretion of two dissimilar plants to produce a new organism with altered characteristics.
The plant that is propagated is called graft. It is obtained by cutting the young escape. The graft is connected to the root part of another plant, which is called a stock or mother tree. Combining parts of several plants to produce a new one is called grafting.
Important! Inoculation has a useful property that cannot be obtained using other breeding methods. This is a combination of certain positive properties of stock and propagated varieties.
For example, many pear stocks were purposely bred to control height or yield. So were obtained dwarf varieties from traditionally tall trees.
Grafting fruit trees can solve the following problems:
- regulation of height and size of pear,
- increasing resistance to pests and diseases
- growth in adverse conditions of high soil moisture, salinity, in alkalized soil or with high acidity,
- increased yields by better pollination, when good pollinators are grafted onto the pear,
- breeding pear without planting seedlings.
Of course, it was not without problems. The incompatibility of parts of different plants limits the possibilities of grafting. Therefore, the operation is done on different varieties of the same species or on closely related plants. This article describes in detail the process of how, when and what can be vaccinated pears.
Stocks for pears
What can a pear be grafted on? The choice of rootstocks for the middle zone of our country is quite extensive:
- grafting pear cuttings on pears of different varieties,
- grafting pear cuttings on an apple tree in spring and summer
- grafting pear cuttings on irgu,
- grafting a pear on a dick
- plant a pear stalk on a mountain ash,
- plant a pear on chokeberry,
- graft on plum,
- plant a pear stalk on hawthorn.
Choose what to instill pear, it is necessary on the basis of the presence of a good mother tree. Grafting pears on mountain ash, aronium, irgu, hawthorn, wild pear and plum species is carried out in cases where it is important to get an unpretentious and winter-hardy plant. Or when a tree is planted on inappropriate soil.
This stock allows pears to put up with infertile land and grow in adverse conditions. For example, vaccination to mountain ash makes it possible to grow a pear in conditions of high soil moisture. A tree to get short and skoroplodnym.
The disadvantage of this grafting is not very good compatibility of the rootstock and the scion, the small durability of the life of the new plant. Improves the state of the plant remaining in the crown of the shoots of the rootstock.
If you plant a pear on random rootstocks such as chokeberry or irgi, the trees will turn out to be dwarf. After a few years, you can already taste the first fruits. But it is necessary to take into account that for the northern regions, it is possible to inoculate a pear only winter-hardy varieties. Otherwise, in winter, pear branches will simply freeze.
Usually, in gardening, they try to plant a pear on an apple tree. This procedure allows you to harvest pears on an already growing apple. In central regions, pears are grafted on an apple tree in mid-April.
It is possible to plant a pear on an apple tree with the help of a cutting. It is cut in advance in the fall and stored in a refrigerator or a cold basement. Cutting cuttings is carried out from the southern part of the pear. The thickness of the cutting is not more than a pencil, and the length is determined by six buds. Prior to the operation, the cutting is put on water with a growth stimulator solution for one day.
You can plant a pear on an apple tree in various ways:
- using a cutting or kidney,
- on adult apple trees,
- on young seedlings.
At the same time, mother trees are prepared in advance, abundantly watering and feeding.
Important! How to plant a pear on an apple tree, what ways to use for this depends only on the skill and training of the gardener.
Excellent results of growing pears gives the old monastic way. It is necessary to collect the seeds of apples from the local winter-hardy wild animals and scatter them in a not dug-out plot. In a year, a few dozen seedlings will grow with a finger thickness.
Plant a pear in the spring apple cuttings of any kind. For the northern areas are suitable only winter-hardy type Petrov-3. In the fifth year, such pears will begin to produce crops.
There are a lot of ways of vaccinations:
- in cross
- in the cut,
- in the butt,
- closer together
- in polurasheppe hemp,
- on the side with two oblique cuts,
- behind the bark.
These techniques are used in the case of different diameter stock and scion. Each method is also performed by different methods. For example, vaccination for the bark is made:
- with a cut bark
- without cutting the bark,
- the saddle
- a saddle behind the bark, leaving part of the stock,
- with a thorn.
In the case of the same diameter of the parts of the plant for grafting, apply copulation. When using the kidney as a scion, the vaccine is called an ophthalmic.
How to plant a pear? The choice depends on her age, condition and time of the operation. Grafting on fruit trees begins on reaching a pear of three years of age. The best pear age for vaccination is up to ten years.
For a successful splicing of the mother tree and cuttings, it is necessary to make the cuts correctly.
Important! Successful splicing occurs in the case of a tight pressing of the stock and scion and the combination of cambium layers.
This layer is located directly under the bark and is responsible for sap flow. The connection parts of the plant is possible only in the case of the restoration of the movement of juice.
Terms of vaccination pear:
- in spring - in April-May before flowering,
- in summer - in July-August until the end of the growth of fruits,
- in autumn - in September (only for the southern regions of the country),
- in winter - in February after the danger of night frosts has passed (only for the southern regions of the country).
The right moment, when it is better to vaccinate a pear, comes in sunny and warm weather. Overcast, damp weather reduces the chances of a successful accretion.
Replanting pears with cuttings in case of failure or the need to increment a new graft is possible not earlier than one year after the previous operation. Only then the tree will be ready for the next cutting.
Spring vaccination step by step
The most suitable time to work on grafting is when the bark peels off easily. After all, any vaccination technique implies the introduction of a graft for the bark of the stock. There are several such moments during the season. The longest period is observed in early spring. Therefore, it is better to plant a cutting at this particular time.
Important! In addition to peeling the bark for the success of grafting, it is important to choose the time when the activity of the movement of juice in the bark is maximum.
This period begins in spring and lasts until the end of the growth of new shoots in summer. The best time to start work on the vaccination on the pear is the beginning of April. Inoculation of a pear in the spring begins with the establishment of positive temperatures at night.
Important! The warmer the air at night, the higher the possibility of successful accretion of vaccination.
How to plant a pear in the spring will consider step by step. The spring graft for the bark is especially good at this time, during this period the bark easily peels off. The method is used when the stock is much thicker than the thickness of the scion.
- The day before grafting, cut the cuttings into the water with a growth stimulant such as Appin. Well, if you have the opportunity to work with fresh cuttings. Then it is not necessary to soak them, but cut them off after preliminary preparation of the stock.
- Saw the top of the rootstock at chest level or at another convenient place.
- On the bark of the stem, make a longitudinal section from a cut down with a length of 5 cm. The cut should cut the bark to wood.
- Remove the cuttings from the water, make a sharp cut below at a distance of 4 cm. The cut is made at an angle of 30–45 degrees. Hands can not touch it.
- With a knife, carefully spread the bark on the stump.
- За кору вклиниваем черенок, совмещая срез на нём с древесиной на пеньке. Очень плотно обматываем место стыковки черенка с пеньком эластичной садовой лентой. Все срезы замазываем защитным составом.
- Прививку укрываем полиэтиленом для утепления и удержания достаточной влаги.
- In 2 weeks the stalk grows to the rootstock, the buds swell and germinate. If not the industry leaves, then grafting failed.
Grafting a pear by cutting the splits is used on an adult tree. Inoculation time - before the disclosure of the kidneys, in early April.
Phased work is carried out in the following order.
- The selected branch is cleaned of dust, cut and cleaned with a knife.
- Thin stump is cut with a knife in the middle to a depth of 2-3 cm. A thick stump is cut differently. First, the bark is incised. Then with a knife or chisel they split the stump to a depth of about 7 cm. The gap is slightly enlarged with a wedge or chisel, which is left in the slot before the cutting is inserted there.
- The lower part of the cutting is cut into a wedge, leaving 3-5 eyes at the top. Do not touch the cut-off area.
- Introduce the stalk counter, trying to combine the cambial layer of the two plants. Above the split on the handle remains a small strip of cut.
- In split on a wide stump, you can insert 2-4 cuttings. The place of accretion is tightly tied with tape. From above, all places with bark removed are covered with a protective agent. A cellophane bag is put on the stump and tightened at the bottom. The bag is not removed until the leafing on the graft.
It is possible to plant a pear on an apple tree in the spring by any method described. Success is almost 100%.
In the summer, the bark on a pear exfoliates with difficulty. At this time, there is often not enough moisture for successful accretion, and the temperature is too high. The cutting often does not stand strong heat, for its normal development it lacks moisture and it dies. Therefore, in the summer it is customary to perform a kidney inoculation - budding or in the butt.
For summer vaccinations, it is important that the graft has time to merge with the mother tree before the onset of cold weather. At this time, it should not actively grow, as the sprout does not have time to mature before winter and will die. Usually summer vaccination is carried out in areas where there is no harsh winter.
Important! The best time is from July 20 to August 10. In August, the vaccine should have released the leaves.
In the not hot summer for grafting, fully matured cuttings are used, which are cut either in autumn or early spring.
Autumn and winter vaccination
Pear, since it is still a southern plant, it is desirable to form and plant it in spring. At this time, the weather contributes to a more rapid wound tightening. But in the fall of any wound becomes a conductor of cold and reduces the hardiness of the tree. Therefore, in the fall, vaccination is done only in the south of the country, where the weather is warm for a long time.
Inoculation is not necessary on a tree growing in a garden. For this, excavated seedlings are kept, which are stored dug in a cold basement.
Winter vaccination is carried out in the house. Perform it on the seedlings prepared in advance, planting cuttings hidden from the fall in a cold place. After the operation, the seedlings are again laid in a prikop, which is located in a cold basement.
Important! Production of vaccinations in the winter is convenient because the operation takes place in a warm room at the table.
Gardener makes it neatly in comfortable conditions, unlike spring vaccinations, when the air temperature is still low.
The time for the vaccination of pears can be chosen throughout the year. Gardeners invented a great many ways to do it. It is necessary to use these methods to obtain the harvest of a wide variety of fruits on one tree or many times the taste of pears. To do this, just prepare theoretically and practice a little with the available material.