The lush flowering of summer cottages and gardens in spring is the result not only of a long selection of new plant varieties, but also the work of a true gardener. Only they know what it takes to decorate the plot with a capricious representative of the genus rosehip - a rose. This article contains effective tips on caring for roses in the country.
When to take shelter
Usually, the opening of the bushes is carried out with the first resistant spring heat, but depending on the weather and the region, the timing of disclosure varies. The main condition is sufficiently heated soil. First, you need to make a partial disclosure, leaving roses for a couple of days for airing. If you used a shelter made of dense material, for example, a tarpaulin, then you cannot pull away with the opening: vypryvanie bushes are much more dangerous than freezing. After removing the shelter shoots need to shade.
Inspection and trimming bushes
After wintering, healthy shoots should remain green, but the main hazards, such as mold, freezers - longitudinal ruptures of the bark, as well as infectious burns hide at the base of the bush.
In the spring, roses can have a lot of frozen, diseased and broken branches, while frozen shoots need to be cut until the middle of the stem is white and the moldy ones are completely removed.
To cut branches stands half a centimeter above the already developed bud, which grows in the outer side of the bush, but not the inner.
Cutting above may cause the wood to die off. You also need to cut off all the shoots growing inside the bush. Try to shape the crown so that the center of the bush remains empty.
Bedbed species, before covering for the winter, usually bend down, therefore, after opening and straightening the branches in spring, the bush may seem one-sided.
It is fixable with the help of supports. It is necessary to pry the bent edge of the bush with a pitchfork and support it with wooden rods or tie it with garden wire to the installed support.
Climbing roses need to be tied to supports in the summer, forming the desired shape of the bush. As a support for climbing roses, you can use stretched nets, arches, pillars and conical structures.
In spring, roses require rare but abundant watering. Since the air is not extremely dry, and the soil is not overheated, frequent watering can provoke fungal diseases of the bush.
As with all plants, irrigation is best done in the evening when there is no direct sunlight.
In the spring of roses, like the rest of the plants on your site, you need to feed. After the first winter after planting, it is enough to feed the bush with organic fertilizers - mullein and bird droppings.
Further fertilizers are also accompanied by mineral supplements, which should include potassium, magnesium, nitrogen, iron and phosphorus. Such fertilizers are produced both in liquid form and in granulated form. It is enough to apply fertilizer twice a year:
- Spring after pruning,
- In the summer after the first flowering.
After spring dressing, do the mulching.
This event helps the proper development of the plant: it retains the desired level of moisture, prevents root erosion and leaching of fertilizers, reduces the number of weeds, maintains soil looseness and maintains the temperature regime throughout the year.
It is possible to carry out mulching regardless of the season and stage of growth of the bush, but the best option, as with fertilizer application, will be twice a year - in spring and at the end of summer. As mulch, you can use both organic (bark, sawdust, hay) and inorganic (gravel, pebble) materials.
Agrotechnology mulching is simple:
- Free the root area from weeds,
- Cover the soil at the base of the bush with a small layer of mulch, without covering the branches themselves,
- If it is organic mulch, wait for the layer to rot, and shuffle it gently with the soil,
- Pour a new layer of mulch.
Caring for roses is a year-round matter of importance: fertilizing a bush in the summer is no less important than sheltering a plant from frost in the fall, pruning branches after winter, or treating from diseases and pests in the spring. Immediately after opening and pruning in the spring, roses are prevented from powdery mildew, rust, aphids and spider mites.
For washing frostbite from possible infections and fungi prepare a solution in the proportion of 100 g of copper sulfate with a concentration of 3% on a bucket of warm water, and this is sprayed with a brush and a root part of the soil.
Yes, the process of growing roses is laborious and long, but what affection brings beautiful delicate buds and almost elusive scent. A real gardener will never regret the time and effort spent looking at his result. What and we wish after reading the article!
In spring, three types of seedlings are sold.
- With open roots. In this case, already in the store, you can select an instance with a strong root system. An open seedling dries at home in a matter of days, so after buying it is lowered into the water, where it should lie at least overnight, and only then proceed to planting.
- Saplings in packages with roots packed in peat. After the purchase, the package is cut, the roots are twisted into a ring, straightened with their hands and start planting.
- Potted seedlings. Sapling before planting is removed from the tank and shake off the ground with the roots.
Saplings of flowers begin to sell early in the spring, in February-March, long before the planting of a rose in the ground begins. Keep them before planting better in the garden. They are taken to the garden early and instilled in light penumbra in a high place, free from melt water. A sapling with unbidden buds in the spring in a prikop can withstand up to minus 8 degrees.
Dig a trench and lay the seedlings at a 45 degree angle. The roots are whole, and the shoots up to half fall asleep with earth, leaving only the tips of the twigs outside. In the spring in this position they can be up to a month. From prikopa they are taken out before planting, as required, and immediately planted in the landing pits.
Planting climbing roses, standard and bush spring is the same. At a sapling, before planting, they cut off the tips of the roots (so that they better branch) and refresh the sections. Sometimes the aboveground part is covered with wax. It is better to remove it before planting, otherwise it will melt in the bright spring sun and damage the bark. To accelerate survival, seedlings before planting are soaked in a growth stimulator: sodium humate, epine, heteroauxin.
- The pit for planting is made fairly large in size, given that the plant grows large in diameter and is generously filled with organic matter, because the flowers like good food.
- The soil in the planting pit should be rich in nutrients. The mechanical composition of the soil is very important. If the soil is clay, together with the organic make a little sand, and if sandy - clay.
- It is better to prepare a hole in advance - from autumn or two weeks before disembarking. It is necessary that the earth has time to settle down, otherwise the sapling “will tighten” deep into. Landing is dry and wet. In the first case, the roots are lowered into the pit, fall asleep and watered. In the second pit, first pour water over the roots, then lower the roots into this “porridge” and fill them with a dry mixture from above.
- In both cases, the roots necessarily spread on the bottom of the pit. Sapling after planting immediately watered. If it is “tightened” down after watering, then it is pulled out a little.
- After planting, slightly spud compost to preserve moisture in the shoots until rooting. After 10-15 days after planting, the compost is necessarily otgrebayut, otherwise the plant will go to its own roots. The first buds pinch off so that the plant that is still not sufficiently rooted does not waste force on flowering.
As a rule, grafted plants are grown in culture. When planting, the inoculation must be no more than 2-3 cm deep into the ground. If the inoculation is at the top, a growth will break out from the roots, which will later turn out to be an ordinary dogrose.
Stories about how a rose was “reborn” in a few years are connected precisely with the wrong position of the vaccine during planting. If the graft is deepened, then the shrub will grow its own roots and will grow much worse, will begin to freeze.
Important!Grafting a rose is a place on a seedling from which shoots grow.
Care of roses in the spring begins with the removal of shelters. Term disclosure depends on the weather. The exact date can not be called, even within the boundaries of one area, the time may differ by two weeks. If the plants were covered with foil or covering material, they should be removed as early as possible - otherwise the roses can get wet, which is much more dangerous than spring frosting.
CouncilSpring care for roses is carried out in thick cotton gloves, so as not to stab your hands with dry branches.
Bushes straighten, lift from the soil. If there is white mold at the base of the bush, then you should not worry - it will disappear in a few weeks. Snow mold affects damaged shoots - that is, it is not the cause of death, but its consequences.
It is much worse if in the spring at the base of the bush there is a fluffy gray mold (correctly called “gray rot”), as it indicates decay. The branches damaged by gray mold cut to healthy tissue, and the core of the bush is plentifully sprinkled with wood ash.
Shrubs, slightly covered with mold, can be treated with copper-containing preparations: oxyhom, copper sulphate. Also, a podporevshaya branch may have an olive color. Over time, such a shoot will either come to life, or freeze in growth and wither.
It is better not to raise standard and climbing plants in the spring immediately after opening, because in the bright spring sunshine they can dry in a few days - they should be left to lie on the ground for another week or two.
Immediately after disclosure, proceed to the primary pruning. Dry, frozen shoots in the winter pruning shears. They can be distinguished from the living in black color. Cutting off the shoot, you need to look at the cut - if the core turns out to be brown, it means that the shoot is frozen, and it is cut to the place where the bright core appears.
Frost holes can be found on the shoot - vertical breaks of the bark. If they are few, then leave the branch. But if the tissue around the crack has darkened, it means that an infection has already penetrated into the wound - then the branch is cut.
An infectious burn may appear on the shoot — black spots in a crimson border, which in severe cases completely ring the shoot. An infectious burn does not manifest itself immediately, but a week or two after the opening of the bush. Such shoots are also cut.
Climbing Roses - Spring Care
Care for climbing roses that are badly wintered through the winter is pruning: all damaged shoots are pruned as short as possible using a pruning shear or pruner. They try to remove the dead and the sick from the bush to the maximum. Sometimes, after spring pruning, not a single shoot remains on the rose. In this case, the stump is vacated on the stump by scooping up the soil - this is done so that the buds sleeping under the bark will wake up faster.
If there are lagging areas of bark on the stump, you can make a peeling - peel them with your hands and shears. After cleansing, grafting to accelerate the growth of the kidneys, rose creates conditions of high humidity. To do this, cover the stump with a trimmed plastic bottle. New buds can wake up even in June, so the bottle is not removed until mid-summer and even until autumn - there is always a chance that the plant will wake up and come to life.
In spring, all plant residues with pathogens are removed from the flower bed. Spring cleaning of the soil from last year’s leaves and branches will relieve many troubles in the summer. It is better not to put the collected leaves into compost, they are burned so as not to spread diseases.
In the spring, the ground in the flower garden should be loosened and even digged with a pitchfork, since it cracked over the winter, the air exchange was disturbed. At this time, weeds are actively growing, and digging will allow to get rid of them. The queen of flowers does not like competition, so caring for her involves maintaining the soil in a clean state.
After the first loosening in the spring, it is time to feed. For this purpose, rotted manure, compost or nitrogen-containing mineral fertilizers are used. Organic or tuki simply scatter on the surface of the soil and once again loosen a narrow rake. During the winter, the position of the vaccination relative to the level of the soil can change and this needs to be corrected: pour soil over the stem or, conversely, otgresti.
Features of growing roses
The main care of the grower in the cultivation of outdoor roses is to ensure a successful wintering. Despite the fact that modern selection follows the path of breeding more and more winter-hardy varieties, the middle lane, and especially the northern areas of the country, as far as the culture of roses, remains a zone of risky agriculture.
Winter resistance of the flower depends primarily on the variety. Hybrid tea varieties are worse than others, some roses of the open ground, such as Rugoza, withstand a drop to -40. Old European varieties and halters are now wintering in the middle lane, even without shelter.
The quality of overwintering is also influenced by the preparation for winter. Already in July, nitrogen supplements are completely stopped and start to potash. In September, to increase the winter hardiness, the bushes are fed for the last time during the season with potassium nitrate.
Under the shrub need to choose a good place. Plots without stagnation of water come from which snow comes off early. It is impossible to choose the areas where rain or melt water stagnates or close (closer than a meter) ground water is suitable. If there is no dry place on the plot, then good drainage is made under the bush.
Plants are important to properly cover. In October, the shoots pin down to the ground and cover with non-woven material or film. This is done in dry weather so that the bark is not susceptible.
The flower likes to ask riddles. It happens that even the bushes of the same variety, planted next to the same soil for roses, overwinter differently. Why this happens is impossible to explain.
Do not be afraid to cut the shrub, it is rapidly increasing new shoots and this procedure brings him only benefit.
Separate two types of trimming.
- Spring sanitary. Is the main pruning roses.
- Formative. Carried out after sanitary in order to give the bush the desired shape and height.
Formation can be strong, moderate and weak. In the first case, only a third of the shoot is left, in the second the shoot is cut off by half, in the third - the upper third is removed.
Strong - stimulates fouling of the base of shoots, in this case the bush will grow a good skeleton. Strongly cut during planting and on weak bushes, the growth of which they want to stimulate. Every year can not be strongly cut, so it leads to a weakening of the bush.
Moderate and weak - stimulates the growth of buds under cuts, that is, the main branches will be covered with lateral branches, which will later be flowers. They do this when they want to make a bush bigger.
Pruning can adjust flowering. After a strong first bloom in the season shifts by two weeks. However, there is a danger that the re-flowering will be too late or the plant will not bloom again. After moderate and weak pruning, more flowers form, but they will be smaller.
General rules for pruning:
- make a slice diagonally,
- shoots are always cut to the outer bud - it gives the bush the shape of a bowl and avoids thickening,
- side branches are cut, trying not to leave big hemp,
- always pay attention to the cut and cut to a healthy core.
If the shoots are cut by the same size, they will simultaneously grow over with young branches and bloom together. This technique allows you to get a massive, but short flowering.
If you cut the shoots in different ways - some a little, and others stronger, then the flowering period will stretch. It will be much longer in time, which allows for some varieties to achieve continuous flowering. This method is called combined pruning. When combined pruning adhere to the rules: thick powerful shoots pruned slightly, and thin - lower.
It is impossible to consider a rose as a capricious plant which is grown only by experienced gardeners. This is a rather plastic culture, the only problem of which is winter-hardness which is weak for our climate. Not every variety of roses can take root on the site, but the plants that remain alive twice a year will delight their owner with a fascinatingly beautiful flowering.
Place for planting roses in the garden
These plants are very fond of solar lighting.therefore, they are best planted in a well-lit place. But it is not necessary to plant roses in open places where the sun will illuminate the flowers with direct rays all day long. Освещение – это очень важное условие для образования молодых бутонов, однако на палящем солнце растения будут довольно быстро вянуть. Причем края лепестков засохнут или свернутся, а цвет растений будет не очень насыщенным.
Очень затененный участок также не подойдет для выращивания роз в саду. A plant without the sun will not be able to form new inflorescences, and flowering will be very weak. Due to dampness, the flower will be exposed to fungal diseases that can destroy the plant. Places with a southeastern direction are best suited, but the northeastern and northern regions can have a detrimental effect on flowers.
Recommendation: pick up areas covered partly by buildings or trees on the north side.
It is not necessary to plant a rose in the garden very close to other trees or bushes. Their strong root system will take all the moisture, and can also create a shadow. In this case, the plants will begin to form long shoots that are not capable of forming buds.
For good flowering and growth of a rose, it is necessary to plant it. in light loamy ground. It must be rich in humus and loose. Black soil is also well suited for planting roses in the garden. Sandy and sandy soils are unsuitable for these plants. This land is very warm by the sun and freezes quite quickly during frosts.
The roots of the plants are quite sensitive, and these temperature differences can harm the roses. In order to improve the composition of this soil, add manure, turf or peat to it. Clay soil is also unsuitable for growing these flowers. This soil is capable of absorbing a large amount of water; this can provoke the development of fungal diseases. To improve the composition of the land, humus, sand, compost and peat are added to it.
Required ground temperature
The temperature of the soil has an effect on the flowering and growth of roses:
- At a temperature of 17-24C, the rose will develop well and will be able to please with abundant flowering.
- If the temperature is more than 24C, the roots will overheat, which will negatively affect the whole plant. In this case, the ground around the flowers is mulched using humus, mowed grass or peat.
Important: The temperature of less than 14C will affect the ability of the roots to absorb nutrients, which will weaken the rose, and young seedlings will not be able to develop and form buds.
How to choose seedlings?
For average regions of our country the best option is grafted, and not own-rooted seedlings. These plants take root well in the new place, have a higher frost resistance and developed root system. They are also disease resistant. Care for these roses will require pruning of wild shoots that grow from the root of the bush. A large number of these shoots can turn a flower into wild rose. This reincarnation is due to the fact that the rose, as a rule, is grafted onto the root system of these shrubs.
Attention: own-rooted bushes do not need pruning.
When picking up seedlings, attention needs to be paid. on the appearance of the root. It can be closed or open. Exposed roots can be damaged during transport and transfer. Therefore, it is desirable to purchase closed seedlings that are easier to tolerate transplantation, and quickly go to growth.
Great attention during the selection requires foliage, which is located on the bush. Dry and sluggish foliage speaks of the weakness of the plant. If the rose is only three or fewer shoots, then this seedling does not need to acquire. Shoots must be free of stains and cracks. If the roots are open, inspect them for defects. Broken roots with scratches and cracks in the new place will not be able to grow.
When to plant roses?
In the open ground planted roses, both in spring and autumn. Do not forget that roses planted in autumn have time to settle down in the spring and bloom much faster than if you landed them in the spring. Because the best time for planting roses is autumn.
Planting should begin no earlier than September, so that young buds do not begin to swell before the onset of frost. And if the seedlings are planted later than the end of October, then there is a possibility that the bush will not take root and freeze. With a properly chosen planting time, the root system will have time to harden before the onset of frost and form young roots. In the spring after awakening the bush will be prepared for the development of the ground part and full of strength.
Attention: The planted bushes in spring will bloom later for a half month, unlike autumn ones.
Options for planting roses in the garden
Before landing you need clean and inspect the roots. All roots need to be shortened, leaving only 25 cm in length, and damaged and dry roots are completely cut off. You also need to shorten the shoots, leaving only 4-6 buds. Planting seedlings produced in the following ways:
During the dry method plantings dig a hole about 60 cm wide and 35 cm deep. Organic bait (humus, compost or biohumus), as well as mineral fertilizers (potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen) are added to it. They are thoroughly mixed with the earth and placed in the hole.
Seedlings are placed in the hole so that the root collar goes deeper into the ground by 4-5 cm. This will allow the plant to quickly settle down and will be able to help it not to dry out in hot weather. Dropping a seedling into the hole, it is necessary to gently spread the root system along the bottom and gradually fill it with soil, slightly compacting the soil. After that, the rose is watered abundantly and spud up to 25 cm.
During the wet method, dig a well in the same way as with the dry method. Then, a bucket of water is poured into it, where it is necessary to dissolve the heteroauxin tablet. A seedling is inserted into the well, and the prepared soil is poured directly into the water. Diluting with water, the earth completely fills the entire space between the root system, without creating voids. Periodically sapling need to shake and compact the ground. Of course, after this method of planting watering a rose is not superficial. The landing site must be compacted. Spud bush must be at a height of 20 cm.
Care after landing in all cases need the same. The first week of the bush requires abundant watering. When the seedling grows and takes root, it must be unknowing and mulching the ground around it with straw or peat.
When spring open roses?
It is quite important to choose the right time.to take cover from the bush. Do not forget, if the roses open early, there is a risk of damage to young buds and the return of frost. And if, on the contrary, it is too late to do this, then it can lead to a heaving out.
No one will be able to name a specific date when taking shelter. In each area, this time may vary. The most important thing is to trace the thawing of the earth. If the frosts at night are not strong, and the earth around the roses has thawed to a depth of about 25 cm, then you can safely remove the shelter. Many flower growers shelter roses are gradually removed, accustomed to temperature changes and tempering the bush.
It is impossible to grow healthy roses without removing old and dry shoots. Pruning bushes allows you to create an attractive form of the plant and stimulates the formation of new shoots. Cut dry shoots from the bush should be 5 mm above the healthy buds. Pruning is done in autumn, summer and spring.
The first pruning is done in spring, when the plant is removed from the shelter. At this time there is an increase in the branches, because you can not hesitate with pruning. Pruning in the summer is provided to remove damaged "blind" shoots and dried flowers from the bush. If the bush is grafted, it is also necessary to clean wild shoots.
Wild plant growth is best crop immediately considering its appearance. To accomplish this, you need to dig a little ground near the root and cut off the shoots near the base. Then the soil should be back to sleep and slightly compacted. By removing the growth at ground level, you can achieve the opposite effect, the shoots begin to grow even stronger.
Pruning is done in the fall to remove the fruit that appears, dry buds and too long shoots.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
An important part of rose care - this is the right feeding. After planting, the plant is fed in small doses in the first year, producing 2-3 baits during the summer. Prikormki mostly begin to give from the second year.
Most flower growers make a big mistake in the spring by adding bird droppings or fresh manure to the ground; for young plants, this is destructive. These organic bait plants should preferably be given in liquid form.
For example, one liter of mushy bird droppings or mullein is diluted in 10 liters of water (bird droppings must be fermented in a bucket for 9-12 days, only after that they are used, spreading it out again, taking into account 500 ml of the prepared composition per 10 liters of water); under the root so as not to fly flies. After prikormki such necessary, but smelling unpleasant nutrients from above you need to "powder" the ground with chalk or wood ash and poryhlit to a depth of 4-7 cm.
As a rule, in the spring roses receive good nutrition from mulching, which was carried out in late autumn. Most often, poured to the bushes peat humus or decomposed cow dung, or just vegetable humus or well-prepared peat. This organic material is a great source of humus. Due to this, in the spring the rose more actively forms the root system, and if you feed it with nitrogen at this time (approximately 1 tablespoon of urea), the result can exceed all expectations.
Important: do not forget that roses do not like sour soil.
To keep your roses fragrant they should be provided with all trace elements.
- Phosphorus is required for the growth of strong shoots. It also affects the quality and intensity of flowering. Phosphorus is added from June to September (superphosphate double or simple).
- Nitrogen helps bushes grow, and they need it after pruning (in May), in preparation for re-flowering and during the emergence of new shoots. The last time nitrogen was added was mid-August (fertilizers that cause growth: organic liquid fertilizer Effekton-DTS and Effekton-C, urea).
- Trace elements (iron, magnesium, manganese, boron) are required throughout the growing season. The lack of iron in the ground causes chlorosis, the lack of manganese and boron lowers plant immunity. Wood ash, "Agricola-Rose", any full bait (always contains microfertilizers) and "Agricola for flowering plants" (mineral granulated fertilizer) are used.
- Calcium is required to neutralize acidic soil. The creation of alkaline soil has a positive effect on the activity of bacteria that decompose organic fertilizers. Use chalk, dolomite flour, organic fertilizer deoxidizer, wood ash, slaked lime.
- Potassium is required during flowering and budding, as well as during the preparation of roses for wintering. Potassium from the soil is easily washed out, it is added in June in the form of potassium chloride, potassium sulfate.
Diseases and pests
Caring for roses involves the indispensable prevention of disease, as well as the treatment of fungi and viruses that have appeared. In order to provide timely assistance to the rose bushes, it is necessary to periodically conduct a careful examination of the plants for signs of diseases and pests.
For preventive purposes, you can use the following methods:
- water the plants regularly with infusions of calendula, onion, garlic,
- You can plant a plant with a sharp aroma next to the roses, which will scare off the parasites. Great for these purposes sage and decorative onions,
- do not plant roses very densely. This leads to the defeat of fungi,
- From the middle of July, you need to start the bushes with ashes,
- the leaves affected by black spot should be immediately cut off from the plant and burned so that the fungus does not spread to other plants.
Growing and caring for roses in the garden is within the power of every gardener. By planting these flowers for the first time in your backyard, you are most likely want to make other varieties. With the help of them in your yard you can create a real rose garden.
Hybrid and flower beds
Pruning begins with the identification of damaged, weakened stems. Dead ends are removed with an oblique cut to the first dormant bud, leaving 3-8 stems. They are cut off, counting from the ground the fourth and sixth kidney. After that, the remaining young shoots will develop evenly.
Weak, dry and damaged branches are cut in April. The remaining stems shorten to three or five of the strongest shoots. Each of them should have six to eight healthy kidneys.
The branches are shorter by one second, and the side - by two thirds, leaving three to five buds (if the height of such a germ is 30 centimeters, it is cut to 10 cm). With a height of a shoot of 120 centimeters, it is shortened by 30-60 centimeters. The weeping type of a standard flower is only thinned out.
They are single and repeatedly blooming. The first does not cut at all, only slightly thinned. In the second - young stems are left, which are cut by one third, the old - cut out.
They are divided, as well as shrubs, into single and multiple blooming. The first thin out immediately after flowering. Flowers appear on young roses, so they are not touched in spring. After trimming, the branches are again tied to a support. Repeatedly flowering pruned on the side shoots to two to four buds, without touching the main long branches.
Pruning roses is made with sharp garden shears, shears (for example, LIST 'OK, BISON "EXPERT") in order to make the cut smooth and smooth. Due to torn edges, infection can get into the escape. For too thick branches, loppers or garden saws are used (for example, Palisad).
Branches are cut 0.6 to 0.7 centimeters higher than a developed bud that grows on the outside of the shrub, and not inward. The cut made above can contribute to the death of wood.
Mineral tuski for care of roses in the spring
They can be bought in ordinary or specialized stores. Such fertilizers are both liquid and in granules (“Rose”). Top dressing they begin six weeks before frost, using 150 grams under a bush monthly. Fish dressings (emulsion and flour), seaweed extract, alfalfa flour with growth stimulant are also well known.
Organic tuki for the care of roses in spring
Organic aqueous solutions are most suitable for feeding roses. They not only nourish the plant, but also improve the structure of the earth. They make to the end of the summer. The most famous organic substances are chicken manure, mullein. They contain all the necessary elements of roses: phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen.
Chicken manure fertilizer is produced in many ways. Here is one of the most simple and effective:
- Litter along with litter (for example, coconut fiber) is poured under each rose bush for a bucket in a season,
- It is better to lay out such a fertilizer little by little (one scoop) daily,
- From above it can be mulched
- It is important to remember that fresh chicken droppings can burn the roots of a plant. Therefore, it is better not to bring it deep into the ground, but scatter it from above.
You should also know that roses love water. It is best to keep the earth constantly loose and wet. This will help you mulch.
Fertilizers are applied for the first time at the end of April of the second year of the plant’s life, before the beginning of the shoot growth, after pruning. It is desirable to carry out this dressing with nitrogen fertilizers, urea, or ammonium nitrate — a table spoon for one bucket of water.
Of mineral - suitable "Gloria for roses", "Kemira" (1 tbsp. 10 liters of water). Complex feeding can be done with this mixture: 1 tbsp. "Agricola Rose" and 1 tbsp. urea - 3 liters per bush.
The second feeding occurs at the beginning of the growth of shoots when the air temperature reaches +10 degrees. Experienced gardeners and rose lovers, for example, often use high quality Toprose fertilizer (from Bayer), which includes elements such as potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and nitrogen. Distribute it on the soil around the rose and cultivate the land chopper. One bush needs 28 grams. Or potassium sulfate and superphosphate: one spoon for 3 liters of the mixture.
Fourth and fifth stage fertilizer
After the first colors. During this period, roses need potassium and phosphorus. For example, 1 tablespoon for a bucket of Kemira Universal water. From organic - chicken dung, mullein. About 5 liters per rose.
The fifth - after the 2nd flowering (end of July). We use any organic fertilizers, in two weeks - potash-phosphorus. And so on until the end of the summer, every three weeks. At this feeding you need to stop, so that young shoots do not start to appear for the winter.
Pests, diseases. Methods of struggle
Roses, like other plants, are attacked by pests, affected by diseases. This can lead to damage or even death. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to pay due attention to the problem and treat it in a timely manner, as well as to make preventive care. Do not forget about your own safety. When carrying out the procedure, use protective equipment: rubber gloves, respirators. After the event, thoroughly wash your face and hands with soap.
Hunting huge colonies. It settles on the bottom of the sheet, buds. Its larvae are practically invisible. They multiply very quickly, during one growing season they can produce 2 million larvae. Rosana aphid harms plants by sucking their juice. At the same time the flower is spoiled, bent, weakened. In winter, may die.
- Karbofos (60 g per 10 liters of water),
- kerosene (2 g per 10 l of water) - every 10-13 days,
- Искра (10 г на 10 л воды),
- Фитоверм (2 мл на 1 л воды).
Появляется летом в жаркую и сухую погоду. Самка производит около 180 яиц. Селится паутинный клещ на нижней части листьев, высасывая сок из растения и вызывая нарушение обмена веществ. Листья желтеют и опадают.
Control measures: Agrovertin, Fitoverm (2 ml per 1 l of water) every 10-20 days, enough for 10 square meters. Colloidal sulfur (40 g per 10 liters of water) - one liter is enough for five rose bushes.
Diseases and methods of dealing with them
Roses most often begin to ache from adverse conditions, such as lack of moisture, nutrition, light, an excess of nitrogen in the soil. Infection can also occur from the leaves of diseased plants that remain on the site. Below are the main, most dangerous diseases and methods of dealing with them.
It starts in the middle of summer. It spreads very quickly between bushes. Such a disease looks like white bloom on buds and shoots. Subsequently, the infected plants are deformed and dry. Excessive moisture, a lack of lime, a glut of soil with nitrogen contribute to the formation of powdery mildew.
Methods of struggle: the affected parts are cut off, removed. Ground digging. Shrubs are treated since the beginning of spring with copper sulphate (100 grams per 10 liters of water). Seeing signs of powdery mildew, the rose can be sprayed: Topaz (4 ml per 10 liters of water), Skorom (2 milliliters per 10 liters of water), Gray colloid (40 g per 5 liters of water).
Distributed by controversy. Orange pillows are visible on the foliage and shoots of roses. The most resistant to this disease is climbing, hybrid, polyanthic varieties, less resistant - remontant and red-leaved roses.
Methods of dealing with rust: Hom (40 grams per 10 liters of water) - sprayed on a hundred meters square. Soap solution for spraying is prepared as follows: 300 grams of soap are diluted in ten liters of hot water, cooled, sprayed with a pump. Sick roses uproot and burn.
This is a lack of iron, often manifested on alkaline, neutral and supersaturated calcium soils. The leaves of infected plants first turn yellow around the edges (especially young ones), and a green stripe remains near the veins. Later they become white, die off and disappear.
Methods of struggle: Kemira Universal 2 (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water) - 2-3 times in the ground. Ferrylene, Ferovit, Iron Chelate, Antichlorosis are also used. Iron chelate can be prepared at home: 20 grams of ascorbic acid and 10 grams of copper sulfate are dissolved in one liter of boiled and cooled water.
Rose - a pearl and a beautiful decoration of any garden. Knowing everything about pest control methods and providing appropriate care your site will be the most beautiful to the envy of the neighbors. Provide a good dressing for roses, cut them according to our advice and enjoy the excellent aroma and appearance of flowers.
In the spring, after winter, the timing of removing the cover from the rose bushes depends on the following factors:
- snow melting
- temperature rise,
- warm soil
- type of shelter.
As a rule, begin to remove covering material when the snow is almost all come down. That is, the timing of the removal of shelter depends on weather conditions, climate zone and is not tied to a specific date. When the snow in the country and the ground warms up a little, the shelter can be removed.
How to cut flowers
Be sure to after removing the shelter is pruning rose bushes. When pruning a bush, as a rule, gardeners leave up to 5 developed shoots. These shoots should be shortened to 4 buds. Usually the height of the bush after trimming is about 20 cm.
Shoots that grow into the bush or are too weak and thin twigs are also cut. When pruning leave the branches that have younger bark. You can not leave a thickened bush, as it will have an unattractive appearance and poor flowering.
Hybrid tea varieties are cut to a height of 25 cm. At the same time, about 6 buds are left on each shoot. Roses of this variety bloom on the branches of this year, so all the old shoots can be safely cut.
Rules for garter roses after winter
Most species and varieties of garden roses require support. Once the buds begin to grow, the branches should be tied up. Optimally attach shoots with soft wire to the support.
Metal supports in the form of a cone can be installed around the bushes, but they are not available to all growers. Usually, two or three sticks are hammered around the bush, and shoots are tied to them.
If you do not tie up the bushes, the young branches can easily break the wind at the very root. If it is not possible to establish a support, then the branches should be fastened with a rope at least between themselves so that the wind does not break them.
Watering, feeding, mulching
As soon as the shelter is removed and the bushes are cut, they should be mulched. The layer of mulch should be at least 7 cm thick. Sawdust, peat can be used as a mulching material.
Mulching retains moisture at the roots, and the bushes will not dry out so much when real heat comes. In addition, mulching helps restrain the growth of weeds, which greatly facilitates the care of rose bushes in the garden.
Mandatory care for roses in the month of May, when the weather is warm and the soil begins to dry out, is watering. Water the roses should be regularly.
Especially important is watering during the growth of shoots and the formation of buds.
It should be watered as the soil dries out, in no case allowing the soil to dry out at the roots. After each watering the next day, the soil around the bushes loosened.
Growing garden roses in the open field should be given special attention to fertilizer. Particularly important is the first, spring feeding, which helps plants to recuperate after cold weather.
The main nutrients for roses are potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and nitrogen. But we must not forget, by introducing fertilizers, that their excess can weaken the rose bushes. It is advisable to purchase a special complex fertilizer for garden roses, in which the dosage will be correctly calculated.
Roses are fed in the period of active growth. The second dressing is made after the first flowering.
In order for garden roses to not only grow well and be strong, they also bloom profusely and continuously, in addition to mineral fertilizers, organic must also be added to them. As organic fertilizer, it is good to use rotted manure or very diluted chicken manure. You can make organics along with minerals at a rate of 1: 1. Manure enough for each bush to make 1 scoop.
Fertilizers under rose bushes are made only in wet soil. Immediately after feeding, the bushes should be shed abundantly.
In the spring, treatments against pests and all sorts of diseases are also needed. Roses are highly susceptible to fungal diseases, often suffering from insect attacks. Therefore, it is important to timely handle the bushes.
As soon as the buds begin to grow, in the early spring, almost immediately after removing the shelter, the bushes are treated against insect larvae and microorganisms. Terms depend on weather conditions and climate of the region. In the middle lane, this time usually coincides with April.
As soon as the bushes are cut, the ground around them is sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate. This venture helps prevent flowers from developing infectious burns or, alternatively, stem cancer.
So that the flowers do not fall ill with powdery mildew or black spot, they are treated with iron sulfate. Such treatments are carried out not only in spring, but also in summer, immediately after the first flowering.
If there are more than two stems on a rose affected by a fungus, then it is better to dig up such a plant, move it out of the plot and burn it. Such roses are no longer curable.
After the initial treatment, after a couple of weeks, the rose bushes are sprayed with universal blends containing insecticides and fungicides. Such a measure will serve as an excellent prevention of the spread of rust, aphids and powdery mildew. This procedure should be repeated every two to three weeks throughout the season, starting in early spring.
How to care for roses in the garden after planting
After planting, roses need careful care, which consists of proper pruning, proper fertilization and even a whole range of activities. All this will help add flowering in the first year.
We carry out the first pruning
Pruning stimulates the rose bush to drive out new shoots. If, after planting, the rose is properly cut, then in the first season it is possible to form an ornamental shrub.
The first pruning should be weak. Perform its sharp shears. Cuts above the external kidney 1 cm above. Each escape should be pruned. If there are branches growing on the rose, they should be removed.
Spring dressing, soil mulching
Experienced flower growers are advised to start feeding in the summer only in spring, or only in organic matter. Well, if you can fertilize planted roses horse dung or horn shavings. Excellent fertilizer for saplings slurry.
In total, from mid-spring to the end of summer, fertilizing should be made four times. You can make and mullein, but it is diluted with water at the rate of 1: 3. Feeding up young plants they need to be watered abundantly at once, and the next day loosen the soil around the roots.
After planting roses in the spring, they should definitely be mulched. Mulch protects the soil from drying out. Conduct mulching after making the first fertilizer. In addition, the mulch in the future will save from frequent loosening and weeding. First, the ground is shed, then loosened, and then lay a layer of mulch with a thickness of about 7 cm.
Disease and pest prevention
In the spring, roses are often attacked by aphids, which are especially dangerous for spring seedlings. Be sure to take preventive measures - the bushes need to be more often inspected and regularly processed. In the spring of young roses sprayed for preventive purposes. It is especially important to spray varieties that do not have immunity to powdery mildew. Also, those bushes that have had last year's disease should be carefully inspected and sprayed.
Handle roses after spring planting need fungicides and insecticides. Many growers use Bordeaux liquid and iron sulfate. Biopreparations based on tansy, nettle and other plants are also very effective. Spray can begin immediately after planting.