Lupine (Latin name Lupinus) is a genus of ornamental plants from the Bean family, which includes annual and perennial plants of grass and shrub type. In Latin, the word "Lupus" means a wolf, so the people often can be found as the name of the plant "wolf beans". Lupine is very common in nature and widely grows in the Mediterranean and Africa, where there are 12 plant species, 1 of which is perennial.
As for the Western part of the planet, the species diversity is even greater - 200 species grow from Patagonia to Alaska. American species of wild plants are domestically cultivated. The Incas grew lupine changeable, and in more modern times, lupine was refined with many leaves. The advantage of the plant is its ability to survive the lack of moisture. It is not surprising that it is found in the deserts of Texas, Arizona, California, Chile, Peru, in the Sahara.
But the history of hybrid varieties begins in 1911, when George Russell, a breeder from England, first brought the so-called hybrid varieties of Russell. Since then, lupine is a constant part of many modern gardens.
Lupine plant description
Lupine planting and care in the open field How to grow lupine
All lupins have a taproot root system, which can grow deep into the ground up to 2 meters. Like all legumes, there are swellings on the roots to absorb nutrients and nitrogen to enrich the soil. Stems can be both grassy and more dense, branches spread along the ground, upright or protruding.
The leaves have long petioles, are located on the branches alternately, have a palmate-complex structure. The inflorescence is the apical brush of whorled, half-cloudy or alternate type. Depending on the species, the brush can be small or even gigantic, about 1 meter. The flowers are also painted in different colors, depending on the type - white, red, pink, yellow, purple, cream, purple, etc.
At the end of flowering lupine throws seeds that may differ in color, shape and size. So beans of the Mediterranean varieties of lupine are slightly larger than their western counterparts. When the beans are ripe, they crack, scattering the seeds everywhere in the form of very small grains. Due to the easy distribution of lupins grown in flowerbeds, and as a siderat (that is, to fertilize the land rotted leaves and stems). Therefore, the farm can be found even stern lupine.
When sow lupine in open ground
When to sow lupine How to plant a lupine with seeds Photo of seedlings on a garden bed
Lupine is a perennial peel resistant to freezing, the seeds of which will germinate, even if it is sown in the fall towards winter. It reproduces perfectly by self-sowing, however, if it is not a hybrid (the seeds will sprout, but the plants will not be like “parents”). Given the properties of lupine seeds to germinate in all conditions, it is possible to sow in very early terms as soon as the earth ripens. It may even be the end of March and the beginning of April, until the end of May.
Seeds are large, planting them is very simple. Usually, even in the ground, lupins are planted on seedlings: plants grow quickly, but develop 1.5-2 months until they can be transplanted. It is desirable to organize a greenhouse at all: put the arc and cover it with a film. Then the lupine sown in March will delight you with flowering that same year.
Lupins growing from seed when planted How do lupine seedlings look
How to plant lupine seeds in the ground:
- Depth of seal is 1-2 cm.
- The distance in the row is 8-10 cm.
- The distance between the rows is 10-12 cm.
When shoots appear, they are freed from weeds, slightly loosen the ground. Watering need moderate, after 2-3 days. Once the plants reach a height of 8-10 cm, they can be carefully transplanted, trying not to disturb the root system. Lupine tolerates transplanting, is quickly accepted and actively begins to build up green mass, the main thing is to ensure good watering.
Lupine seed to seedlings at home
Planting lupine seeds Photo seedlings How to grow lupins from seeds
You can grow seedlings of lupine from seeds at home. Sowing begins in late February - early March, in April to plant the plants in the ground. True, it all depends on the local climate: the main thing is that the night frosts no longer appear.
The seeds are large, so the easiest way is to plant them immediately in separate cups, so as not to suffer from a dive. In addition, when growing plants without picking, at least two weeks of growth are maintained, which are lost when the roots are forced to regenerate again.
- You can use the usual substrate for flowers, which are sold in the store.
- Cups must be with drainage holes.
- The seeding depth is 0.5-1 cm.
- Watering is needed in moderation; moisture should be enough so that the substrate does not dry out, but maintains an air-permeable state. This means that water stagnation is unacceptable.
- Before planting on a bed, temper the seedlings: teach them to light and wind, taking out daily on the street. This should be done for at least 10-12 days so that by the end of the hardening the plants could withstand full days in the open air without damage
Planting lupine seedlings in open ground
How to plant a lupine? For a flower, soil is chosen that is close to neutral (slightly alkaline or slightly acidic), loamy or sandy, in a well-lit area. To prepare the site for fall in spring, too acidic soil is treated with lime or dolomite flour, adding 5 kg of substance per square meter. This will be enough for 4 years. If the soil is very alkaline, it is treated with peat, pouring the same amount as lime in the previous version.
How to plant a frost in the ground, look at the video:
- When in spring the seedlings have grown and matured, they are planted in ready and open soil at a distance of approximately 30-50 cm from each other.
- It is advisable to add humus to each well.
- Planted better by transshipment. To do this, water the seedlings well and let stand for about an hour. An earthen ball can be carefully pulled out of the container and immediately placed in the hole without disturbing the integrity of the roots. Sprinkled with earth, lightly pressed with palms.
- Water abundantly so that the moisture is well absorbed and soaked the ground in the hole.
Lupins will bloom this year, but the bushes will still be small. It is advisable to cut off the flowering inflorescences so that the bush does not waste strength on the production of seeds. So the plant is best rooted to the next season to please the flowering in full force.
How to care for lupine
Lupine in landscape design photo
There is nothing complicated about it. So, for the cultivation of perennial lupine, the first year you need to take special care of the plant, removing weeds in time and loosening the soil. After a while, the bushes will become strong and will choke the weeds themselves. Occasionally, hilling is carried out so that the root neck is not exposed and the side shoots are not separated.
When it takes 5-6 years, the old bushes are removed, since by this time the middle part dies off, which dramatically affects the quality of flowering. If you grow tall varieties of lupins, put them supports, to prevent the deformation of the stems from the wind. To maximize the flowering of plants, constantly remove faded flowers before they dry. If you do this, you can achieve double flowering of lupins. Watering is done moderately, and in spring it is plentiful to accelerate the growth of the stems.
- Mineral dressing for plants contribute to the second spring.
- Fertilizers without nitrogen are chosen for this, for example, superphosphate and calcium chloride, which are applied in quantities of 20 and 5 g, respectively, per 1 m² of area.
- After that, every spring they fertilize the soil under old plants.
Pests and diseases
When the buds are actively formed before flowering, the plant is prone to infestation by aphids, and then the larvae of the germ fly or nodule weevils can develop on it. May beetles, literally eating away flowers, cause great harm (beetles can even fly from neighboring gardens). To get rid of them, the plant and soil need to be treated with insecticides, and the beetles themselves are harvested by hand.
Gray rot or root is a particularly dangerous disease. Attention should be paid to spotting, fusarium wilt, mosaic, rust and fomopsis. If, however, to ensure adequate cultivation of a flower, observing all the rules and regulations, and also not to disturb crop rotation (lupine can be re-sown at the site only after 3 years), there will be no problems with it. A year before planting lupine at the site is recommended to grow cereals.
How to get lupine seeds
How to collect lupine seeds photo
When the plant blooms, it actively forms the beans. They ripen when ripe with maximum dispersion of seeds. This flower grower does not fit, so you need to collect the beans earlier, when they are just starting to dry out or tie up the pods with gauze, then the seeds will not exactly crumble.
Lupineus angustifolia or blue Lupinus angustifolius
Lupine narrow-leaved or blue siderat photo
The plant is a grassy type that grows up to 150 cm in height. It has a slightly pubescent stem of upright type, palmate-separate leaves, the lower part of which is also pubescent. The flowers have a white, pinkish or purple hue, because of which the species was called blue. Grown as a one-year green manure.
Lupine coniferous Lupinus polyphyllus
Lupine spider Lupinus polyphyllus photo
The homeland of the plant is Northwest North America. It has a high degree of winter hardiness, which means it is perfect for our latitudes. The height of an adult body is 80-120 cm. At the same time, the straight stem is almost bare, and those leaves that are there have long petioles and palmate leaves pubescent from below. Inflorescences have a length of 30-35 cm and are formed by a large number of blue flowers. Flowering time is all June. If you cut faded flowers, you can wait for re-bloom in August and September.
Lupine Yellow Lupinus luteus
Lupine yellow Lupinus luteus photo
Annual plant, the stem of which is also poorly covered with leaves and heavily pubescent. The leaves are located on long cuttings, the lower part of them is pubescent. They consist of 5-9 blades. The plant blooms in yellow and has a strong aroma similar to resedu. The shape of the inflorescence is whorled brush.
White lupine Lupinus albus
White lupine Lupinus albus photo
Plant height is up to 150 cm. The stem is straight, branches only at the top. The leaves are also palmate, covered with fibers from below, and smooth from above. The flowers are white, light pink or light blue, do not smell, grow in a spiral.
These are the main species of this plant, but perennial, small-leaf, nutcan, dwarf, tree, hybrid, etc. can be cultivated as well.
Lupine in the flowerbed photo Flower Lupine planting and care
If we talk about hybrid varieties, the following are popular:
- Princess Juliana - plant height 110 cm, blooms with white and pink flowers, inflorescence size - 40 cm, flowering time - 40 days in June and July,
- Aprikot - plant height 90 cm, has orange flowers, collected in 40-centimeter inflorescences. It blooms for 30 days in June and July.
Breeder Russell was the first to start breeding lupine varieties, but they still remain the best among modern varieties.
- This is a white variety of Burg Frahulin,
- the red-brick Mine Schloss,
- undersized Minaret, Splendid and other hybrids.
Lupine plant growing and care Blue lupine in the photo
History and interesting facts
The name of the flower comes from the Latin word lupus, which means “wolf” - for this reason it is often called wolf beans.
Perennial Lupine: a striking flower
The native land of lupine is North America, but its growing area is much wider, because it is well acclimatized not only at sea level, but also at an altitude of up to 5 thousand meters, and alpine species often reach four meters in height. People have known this plant since the times of ancient Greece, where its tombs decorated Pharaohs with inflorescences. Initially, the flower was considered an ordinary weed, but after the appearance of hybrid species it began to be grown for decorative purposes. Special contribution to the cultivation of lupine was made by the world famous breeder Russell, who brought the most beautiful and beloved varieties of gardeners: “Mein Schloss”, “Splendid”, “Burg Froilin”, etc.
Lupine Perennial (Lupinus polyphyllus)
Some plant species contain a substance called lupine, which is a strong natural poison. But "safe" flowers are often used as animal feed, as they contain large amounts of protein and proteins. Lupine is also used to produce oil for the cosmetic industry, which, by its characteristics, is close to olive oil, but does not contain substances that slow down the digestive tract.
Lupine by the lake
But lupins have found the greatest use in gardening, as its cultivation has a positive effect on the quality of the soil. The roots of the plant rod, and can reach a meter or even two in depth, making the soil more loose. In addition, there are small swellings on the root system of a flower that are able to absorb nitrogen and enrich the soil with it. Finally, the decaying processes of lupine can serve as organic fertilizer - to reduce the acidity they are buried in the ground to a depth of 20 cm.
Today, at least two hundred plant species are known, among which are both annual and perennial. In Russia no more than ten species are cultivated, but they are distinguished by a wide variety of colors and shades.
Tall lupine flowers
Lupine bushes can grow up to 1-1.5 meters tall (depending on the species), and have dense grassy or tree-like stems that can grow straight, protrude or travel along the ground. The felted leaves of the plant are collected in 5-6 pieces on the basal rosette. Flowers that slightly resemble the fruit of peas, are interconnected, forming a large brush. They bloom in early summer, and may have very different colors - white, yellow, red, pink, cream, as well as all shades of purple. Lupine fruits look like bean pods — after ripening, they dry out and crack, throwing out seeds. In order to prevent self-seeding, seeds should be harvested immediately after the fruits turn yellow.
Lupine can be grown from seed as well as cuttings, basal rosettes or side shoots. It should be noted that in the first case, a plant of a different color can be obtained (the white color almost disappears, and violet prevails), therefore, pure-quality seeds can be collected only if the plantings of the same color are isolated.
Lupinus Polar Princess
The most common plant species include:
- Tree lupine. A perennial that came to us from North America. It reaches about two meters in height, has straight branchy shoots and white, yellow or red flowers,
Growing from seed
Lupine is a durable and drought tolerant plant, but still prefers a slightly alkaline and slightly acid loamy soil. The flower can live on alkaline soils, but then it will turn yellow, so before planting it is best to bring peat - about 5 kg per square meter. If the soil is acidic, you need to balance the level of acidity, making a similar amount of dolomite or lime powder.
Acidity of various soil types
It is possible to start growing lupine already in April - for this, seeds (it is recommended to pickle them with a 50% foundation base) are sown in loose mixture consisting of sod land, peat and sand (1: 1: 0.5). Beforehand, it is better to mix it with the crushed roots of old flowers in order to accelerate the reproduction of bacteria that absorb nitrogen.
Water the seeds should be moderate, and the first shoots appear after about 1-2 weeks (if you want the shoots to be simultaneous, they should be covered with moist gauze and placed in heat).
Sowing lupine seedlings
In the flower garden shoots are transplanted after the first strong leaves appear on them (this happens approximately after 20 days), and the weather is warm outside the window, and the last frosts are past. Tightening with this procedure is not worth it - the lupine root system develops quickly enough, and it will be rather difficult to plant it.
Example of planting seedlings in the ground
When planting shoots between them, it is necessary to maintain a distance of at least 30-50 cm. In addition, it is possible to plant lupine for the winter, right in open ground, simply by scattering the seeds and lightly sprinkling them with peat. The appearance of the first flowers on the podzimnyh plantings should be expected in August.
Cutting and other breeding methods
Vegetative methods of reproduction of lupine can preserve the color of the plant, but is only suitable for young bushes, as they are less hardy and too deep-rooted. To get the cutting you need to cut a side shoot with a sharp knife (one of those that is formed in the leaf axils) - you need to plant these cuttings in the summer. If planting will be carried out in the spring, you should use the basal rosettes, which are formed on the stems below.
Despite the unpretentiousness of lupine, for the first time after disembarkation, it requires attention and some care measures.
- В первый год почву вокруг побегов нужно разрыхлять и выпалывать сорняки.
Важно удалять сорняки вокруг люпина
Люпин нужно окучивать
Example of shelter for perennial flowers for the winter
Lupine flower care
Diseases and pests
Lupins are subject to a number of ailments and pest damage - among the latter one should be distinguished aphid, weevils and sprout flies. Insects are especially dangerous for planting in the period of budding, therefore, in order not to lose planting, they should be sprayed with insecticides, regularly treated the soil and cut off overgrown bushes, giving them shape.
The most common diseases of lupine include brown spot, powdery mildew, white and black rot. They are caused by fungal microorganisms that multiply actively in wet, marshy areas, so plants are better planted in sunny areas.
The main signs of damage are round gray spots with brown edges that appear on the leaves, stalks and cuttings. In this case, the leaves can curl, grow and fade. In order to prevent diseases, it is necessary to select only healthy seeds for planting, pickle them beforehand, and keep the leaves dry during cultivation. Infected plants should be immediately removed and destroyed. Likewise, you need to do, if a part of a flower is affected by an affliction - young shoots usually grow healthy.
In landscape design, lupine looks especially good in mixed plantings with irises, delphiniums, lilies, peonies, etc. Cultivation of this beautiful and useful plant is not without difficulties, but more often it takes root well even for beginner gardeners.
Lupine in the flowerbed
When to plant perennial lupins in open ground?
The plant can be planted on the soil after melting snow and the onset of heat. April is best suited to these conditions. Land for planting must be processed in the autumn. With this option, flowering occurs next year.
It is possible to plant flower seeds in winter. With this option, work in the garden is best done in October. In the spring sprout sprout, and lupins bloom in summer.
Planting seeds in open ground
Works on planting flowers traditionally carried out in the autumn or spring time.
In October or April there is sowing in open ground. The distance between future plants should be from 30 to 50 cm. The holes are made at a depth of 3-4 cm, if the soil is sandy, or 2-3 cm, if it is heavy. Seedlings appear as soon as the ground warms up to 3 degrees. Plant shoots are able to withstand short frosts down to -4 С Bloom, with this method of planting, lupins begin next year.
When sowing in autumn, the plants will show themselves in all their glory in the summer. Before winter, the seeds do not have time to germinate, but they ripen perfectly in the cold season. In the fall, plant lupins to a depth of 2 cm and sprinkle (mulch) peat on top. Watering them is not worth it.
The seedling method requires preparation. It is necessary to make a mixture of soil from one share of peat, one share of sod land and half of the share of sand. Before sowing, seeds can be mixed with the crushed root part of old flowers so that the bacteria that absorb nitrogen grow faster. After a couple of weeks sprouts appear.
Please note that when planting lupins seedlings or when sowing seeds, mostly flowers grow in mostly purple or pink colors, and the white color most likely does not show itself.
As soon as the plant has 5-6 leaflets, it needs to be moved to open ground, since it has a pivotal root system and, on a later planting, survives worse. The soil before planting is loosened, optionally fertilized with organic matter. The distance between the bushes of seedlings is 30-50 cm.
Use in landscape design
The unusual form of inflorescences, resembling candles, has become a real boon for designers and owners of private plots. If you want to decorate the garden with a bright and incredibly spectacular flower bed, then it is better not to find a wolf grass of a plant. An absolutely unpretentious plant, peeling a free plot of land with its flowering, will make the landscape colorful and summer-like succulent. Universal lupins can be planted both in single and in group plantings.
In the mixborder you can use several varieties, creating a multi-colored carpet. Tall "candles" are suitable for creating a bright background, they are able to emphasize other, more relaxed color of culture. With their help, camouflage traces of communications and other unsightly phenomena. Garden paths and borders make out low-growing varieties.
Combination with other plants
Mixed group planting presents wolf grass in the most favorable light. If you plant it in the center of the flower arrangement, the neighboring plants will effectively complement it and reveal all the faces of the color.
By planting a plant in the middle of a mixborder, you can not only create an original planting, but also protect the lupins from drafts. Most successfully combined with:
For seedlings sown in March. Before planting, they are soaked in warm water for a day, wrapped in gauze. During this time, they will break through the shell. A special mixture should be filled in the tank for planting: turfy ground, sand and peat in equal parts. It should be light and loose, so it is necessary to loosen before landing.
Experienced gardeners advise change mixed with tubers dried bushes. They contain special bacteria - nitrogen-fixing bacteria that stimulate the active growth and development of seeds. Deepen the planting material in too large holes is not worth it. The optimal depth is 1 cm. After sowing with a spray gun, the soil is watered and covered with film or glass to create the greenhouse effect and maintain the necessary moisture in the container. After 14-16 days, the first shoots appear.
In the open ground they are transferred after the appearance of 5-6 leaflets on a seedling. It takes up to 28 days. Perederzhivat young plants in containers is not worth it. Otherwise, you can seriously damage the root system during transplantation.
In open ground, seeds are sown after the risk of repeated frost has passed. The optimal time is the end of April. The soil is prepared long before planting - in the fall. Her digging, getting rid of the roots of weeds, with the aim of prevention is treated with special chemicals from various diseases. The hole is 2-2.5 cm deep. The representative of the flora will delight in its bloom only in a year.
In winter, seeds are planted in early November. The plot is covered with frost peat.
Site selection and soil preparation
Choose the right location, you can achieve a special decoration of the plant, bright and long flowering. Best suited sunny plot, which is a small shadow. A place located in full shade contributes to the appearance of greenery at the expense of flowering.
Every year, in the fall, the ground for planting lupins is carefully dug up, removing weeds and treating from diseases. Suitable for active growth and development of wolf grass slightly alkaline or weakly acidic soil, sandy and loamy when using fertilizers are also suitable. The acidity level of the soil is measured with a special device. If the soil is acidic, the pH level is reduced by adding dolomite flour to it. Alkaline soil suitable for planting lupins will make the addition of peat. In the hole it is imperative to make a drainage layer. Stagnant moisture contributes to the rotting of the root system.
When landing, the optimum distance is maintained - 45-50 cm between the holes. The process ends with abundant watering. The holes for the plant are dug a lot more than seedlings.
Loosening is very important the first 2 years of a plant’s life, when it is too weak to repel weeds. For older adults, hilling is necessary to hide bare roots.
Watering and feeding
Potassium chloride is suitable as a fertilizer for lupins.
Watering requires rare and moderate. Culture belongs to the group of drought-resistant. Waterlogging and stagnation of groundwater and melt water does not tolerate well. Most of all watering needs gardening in the spring, when it is actively growing and developing, and on hot summer days. The benchmark between watering is the drying of the upper soil layers. The average frequency is once every 10-14 days.
Frequent fertilization is not necessary. The representative of the flora is able to fertilize itself. The first year of life a young sapling does not need feeding. It is made in a year (mineral, potassium chloride or superphosphate).
Narrow-leaved lupine (blue)
Self-pollinating annual varietywhich can grow in height to 1.5 meters. Despite the characteristic name of this variety, the color of the inflorescences is the most diverse: white, pink, purple, blue. Seeds have on the surface of the original pattern, round shape.
The level of alkaloids in a certain subspecies of this variety, speaks of its intended purpose. If the amount of organic compounds is high, then the shrub is grown to fertilize the land. The remaining varieties are used as feed for livestock. Very rarely, this plant is planted for landscape decoration.
Reproduction using cuttings
Peculiarities of plant reproduction by cuttings:
- For this purpose, basal rosettes are used, which are formed in spring from renewing buds, which are located near the base of the stem. The stalk is cut at the same time as the root neck and planted in sandy soil. In about 15-20 days the bush will give roots and it is transferred to a permanent place.
- In the role of cuttings used and side shoots, grow, if the inflorescences pruned before the time of flowering.
- It is not necessary to divide the bush during vegetative reproduction during breeding: the taproot can be easily damaged, and it may not recover in a new place.
- In August, basal rosettes are used for grafting.
- If you produce in the spring breeding cuttings, then in the fall the plant will begin to bloom.
Lupins do not have significant ground requirements., perfectly coexist on subacid, slightly alkaline, neutral soil types. Prefer places well lit by sunlight.
The plant may begin to turn yellow on alkaline soils. In order to prevent this phenomenon, dolomite or lime powder and peat are added to the earth at the rate of 5 kg per 1 sq. M. Liming is performed in spring or winter before digging, in autumn after harvesting.
Due to the special root system, independently feeding the earth with nitrogen, the shrub develops fully, even in sand.
Care of a plant in an open ground
Flower care is unpretentious: it can itself fight with pests and fertilize the soil. But still, when plants are specially planted for some purpose, they need to be provided with the necessary care.
- Weed control. In periodic removal of weeds and hilling the flower needs in the first year after planting. It helps the growth of lateral roots, and, of course, prolonged and violent flowering. Alkaloid species emit special substances into the ground that are detrimental to weeds, so very little appears on the bed of the latter.
- Watering. The frequency of irrigation will depend on the soil, on the variety, on the method and time of planting. More moisture is needed for plants only planted in open ground during the tie-up of buds. In other cases, watering must be moderate.
- Care in the winter. Although certain plants can survive even very cold weather, it will never be superfluous to shelter for the winter. If lupins are grown on open ground, they are tied up because of the high probability that tall bushes can break the wind.
- Lure. Given the fact that lupins are sideratami, they do not need a special bait. Superphosphate or potassium chloride is added to the ground for perennial varieties in anticipation of flowering. During flowering, it is recommended to pour a few tablespoons of ash near each bush.
- Crop. In order for the flowers to retain their decorative effect until winter, they remove timely dried inflorescences and branches. The appearance of young shoots contributes to re-flowering in August. When growing plants with branched inflorescences, initially in the compost you need to send the central part, after the side flowers. Introduce additional complex bait when this procedure was not performed at the beginning of the year.
Pests, diseases and probable problems
Although lupine is a hardy plant, in some cases sprout fly larvae, weevils, the invasion of aphids can harm the flower. To get rid of this problem, plants are treated with chemicals.
Lupine is not immune from fungal infections (white rot, powdery mildew). The fungus is most dangerous for shrubs that grow in wet and marshy areas. In this case, the correct solution is to remove the infected parts of the plant. In some cases, it is necessary to dig up the soil and lime. In order to prevent the bushes are treated periodically with a solution of manganese in the ratio of 1:10.
In certain situations face the problem of yellowing leaves. The reasons for this may be:
- alkaline earth
- excessive amount of organic fertilizer
- lack of moisture.
In order to prevent the subsequent wilting of the plant, it is necessary to carry out the process of liming and to normalize the care.
Recommendations for growing
The following tips will help in growing:
- Lupins are often planted with other flowers in mixed plantings. The neighboring plants, planted in front, of medium height will be able to protect from the wind and will not allow the roots to grow strongly, while the flowerbed gets a beautiful appearance. For lupine, the best neighbors are: irises, phloxes, daylilies, nivyaniki, hosts.
- Lupins bloom in late September. Then, the peduncles and leaves are cut, and when necessary, seeds can be collected. Perennial bushes before the arrival of frost spud in order to protect the root bare neck, and wrap for the winter.
- In order to avoid self-sowing, the seeds should be harvested when the fruit has dried a little and turned yellow.
Uses and properties
First of all, the beneficial properties of lupine are explained by the presence in the shrub of protein, oil, which contains bitter alkaloids, iron, fatty acids.
- in landscape design both in combination with other colors and individual groups,
- in medicine. It can help get rid of acne, ulcers, tumors, reduce nausea and increase appetite.
- in agriculture as a siderata,
- in cosmetology in the care of sensitive skin.
Lupine is a shrubWhich is ideal for almost any climatic conditions. Due to the large variety of sizes and shapes of lupins, pick up a suitable plant will not work. The flower is almost not susceptible to invasions of pests, in addition, due to the original root system of this plant contributes to the enrichment of the earth with nitrogen.
Varieties and varieties of lupine
Lupine is not just an ornamental plant. Seeds and aerial parts are widely used in the food industry. Ornamental articles are made from the plant stems; straw from lupine is used in the pulp and paper industry. Lupine seeds are used in the production of medical plasters, cosmetics, medical preparations, for the production of soap, plastics.
Feed lupins are grown for livestock feed, fish farms feed seeds with fish. Lupine is a valuable siderata crop, one hectare of lupine is equivalent to adding 20 tons of manure.
Lupins are very unpretentious plants that do not require complex care, so they are distributed almost everywhere, although the native land of this plant is North America. There are lupins annual, biennial, perennials and fodder, they are used in agriculture. In general, annual feeds are used for animal feed: white, many-leaved and yellow lupine.
How garden species grow the following annual lupins:
- Lupine Hartwega King.
Many-leaved lupine - perennial. It is the most frost-resistant and undemanding in care, it is found even in the taiga.
Numerous hybrid varieties of lupins with inflorescences of various colors are derived. Here is a list of the most popular varieties that are used in landscape design:
- Edelknabe - carmine,
- Burg Fraulein - white,
- Aprikot - orange,
- Carmineus - red,
- Princess Julianna - white with pink,
- Roseus - pink,
- Albus - white,
- Rubinkenig - ruby with purple,
- Castellane - blue-violet with a white sail,
- Minaret - undersized variety population with brightly colored inflorescences,
- Lulu - a mixture of different colors.
The perennial tree lupine, which does not hibernate in our latitudes, unfortunately, is popular abroad.
How to plant
For growing lupine in open ground, soils of different texture are suitable, except for heavy clay and soils with close groundwater storage. Sand and sod-podzolic soils are the most suitable in composition. Acid and alkaline soils are not suitable for lupine. If you have an alkaline soil - add peat, if sour - add lime or dolomite flour.
As for the choice of landing site, the lupine prefers sunny areas, but also grows well in partial shade. Place for landing should be prepared in the fall.
Lupine seeds can be planted in spring in April or in autumn in October at a distance of 30 - 50 cm between plants, to a depth of 3-4 cm on sandy soils and 2-3 cm on heavy ones. Семена начинают прорастать при температуре почвы выше 3 градусов, всходы выдерживают кратковременные заморозки до -4 градусов. Зацветёт растение на следующий год весной.
Можно применить рассадный метод. Fill the seedling boxes with the usual mix for flower crops. In early spring sow the seeds, beforehand you can slightly scratch them with a needle for better germination. Seedlings will appear in 8-17 days, after the formation of 5-6 sheets, you can transplant seedlings into a flower garden. Do not tighten with a transplant, the root system of the lupine is pivotal and the plant does not take root well at a later age.
Council Lupine seeds remain viable for 5 years.
In the first year after planting the plant in the open field, care consists in timely removal of weeds and keeping the soil loose, as well as in watering. When lupine root colony is exposed, it is necessary to pile up the stem. At the beginning of the development of the plant, the above-ground part develops slowly, at which time the lupine intensively increases the root system and needs watering.
In the second year, care is reduced to the timely hilling of the plant and fertilization.
Older plants lose their decorative effect, and flowering becomes less abundant, therefore, lupine plantings should be renewed every 4-5 years.
If the place where the lupine grows is subject to frequent strong winds, then it is necessary to tie the bushes to wooden pegs.
To prolong flowering remove wilted buds, it stimulates the plant to re-bloom in August. In addition, flowered peduncles do not look attractive.
Perennial lupine for the winter should be well mulled with peat or sawdust to protect the root from freezing. In the dry autumn spend water irrigation.
Top dressing and fertilizer of lupine
In the second year of life, the lupine needs feeding. Prior to flowering, you can make the following fertilizers:
- superphosphate and potassium chloride 2: 1 per 1 m2,
- a few spoonfuls of ash under each bush,
- organic fertilizer
- on sandy soils, fertilizing with magnesium or dolomite flour is necessary.
Council Be careful with nitrogen mineral fertilizers: high doses of nitrogen adversely affect the growth of lupine, especially yellow and narrow-leaved.
- root rot,
- gray rot
- brown spot,
- blackish spotting
- fomopsis (desiccation of the stem),
- bacterial spotting,
Council The introduction of potash, phosphate fertilizers and trace elements of boron, manganese and molybdenum increases the resistance of lupine to diseases.
Lupine: combination with other plants
Lupine looks beneficial in mixed plantings with other plants, so it is often used in landscape design. It is best to plant it in the middle of a flower bed: plants of medium height, planted in front of lupine, will effectively complement and emphasize its beauty, as well as protect it from the wind and prevent it from growing excessively. Well combined with lupine
A prerequisite for good growth and drawing up beautiful and harmonious compositions of lupins with other plants is compliance with several rules:
- Pick up plants with similar requirements for soil, moisture, and light.
- Plants with a short flowering period are inappropriate.
- It is necessary to take into account the timing of flowering and plant height.
- Choose plants with contrasting lupine-shaped inflorescence.
Lupine in landscape design
Do not underestimate the role of lupine in landscape design, with proper use of its merits, it will become the king of any suburban area. Lupine fits in perfectly with any stylistic trend: from classic to modern concepts, or simply create a “wilderness area”. Combined with many plants.
Most often, lupine have separate groups with other perennials in a mixborder, or on an open lawn. Lupine looks good at the entrance area, in the front garden of the house or along the buildings. In group plantings, lupins are placed in the background. Low-growing varieties are used for planting along the borders. You can combine lupins of different varieties and colors or create monophonic compositions, it all depends on your imagination and the impression you want to create.