In the areas most often planted pine, thuja and fir. But there is one more evergreen plant, which is also unpretentious in its care and it survives well in the middle lane - this is hemlock. Only one species is widespread in our latitudes - Canadian hemlock.
Canadian hemlock (tsuga canadensis) looks great in both group and solitary plantings. Tall plants are used to create hedges, and dwarf varieties are suitable for rock gardens.
Description of Canadian Csuga
The hemlock has a wide cone-shaped crown, hanging down branches covered with brown flaky bark with deep cracks. Needles - shiny, flat, dark green color. Soft needles (up to 1.5 cm long) are arranged in two rows on protruding leaf pads, on the reverse side they have two narrow white stripes. Already at the age of 1 year, bumps up to 2.5 cm long with thin scales appear on the plants.
In the bark of Canadian hemlock contains 8-14% tannins. And in the needles - 3-5 times more vitamin C than in orange juice
Canadian hemlock (tsuga canadensis) is an unpretentious evergreen tree that survives well in our conditions. Plants of hemlock dwarf varieties are good in single plantings and rock gardens, and tall are beautiful when creating a hedge.
The natural habitat of hemlock are forests of Canada, and the name itself came from Japan, where this variety of coniferous trees is called.
The plant has a broad crown in the form of a cone, drooping branches, which are covered with thick bark of brown. The soft and tender needles of the hemlock are shiny, dark green, flat and long, up to one and a half centimeters.
On the back of the two-row needle needles are viewed in two thin white stripes.
Already in the second year of development, cones grow on small strands, equipped with small scales. They are oval in shape, about 2, 5 centimeters long. Cones appear in the autumn, on one plant there are male and female specimens.
The plant is most common in North America, but today it is increasingly being found in other countries around the globe. No exception is the Moscow region, where this beauty feels great.
This plant plays an important role in the entire ecosystem, not only of the Americas, but of the entire globe. The tree has a long period of growth. Used in landscaping, as well as in pharmacology, in the perfume industry and woodworking.
Most popular varieties
Canadian hemlock is distinguished by its decorative effect due to the original structure of the crown with lowered branches, fluffy, tender needles with an interesting color and small knobs. There are more than 60 species of this plant. Among them there are dwarf varieties, there are even creeping.
- hemlock grows well in shady places
- it can be planted in the ground with high acidity and high humidity,
- the tree perfectly tolerates even extreme cold
- this plant has enough five days of the sun for a year to grow and develop normally!
Due to these qualities, the plant is widely used in the design of the landscape. I'll tell you about some of the most popular in landscape design.
This is a very delicate tree with light, bright green at the ends, as if glowing twigs. The impression is created by newly growing conifer needles having a more delicate color. A real treasure for any plot.
The tree grows no more than a meter in height. The drooping branches of the cone-shaped crown resemble a mushroom. It is characteristic that an adult tree has branches bent downwards, and young plants differ in the horizontal arrangement of the crown.
For good growth and development, it is desirable to plant in a fertile and moist soil. Does not like winds and sun.
It is a taller plant, almost fifty centimeters taller than Ammerland, and in width it takes up to 1, 8 meters. It grows rather slowly, adding only one and a half centimeters a year.
Fan-shaped branches are densely covered with bright green conifer needles, long and tender. The crown of the bush forms a kind of cap because of the branches bowed to the ground.
This sort of hemlock is ideal for decorating the garden plot in the country or in a country house. The plant clings firmly to the ground with the roots, dropping the hanging branches to the ground. The perfect solution in choosing a landing site for Kohl will be elevated, rocky places.
This variety tsugi grows very slowly. For a decade of life, you can get half a meter of growth, and its width will not exceed a meter.
Many gardeners fell in love with this dwarf representative of the species because of the charming color of young shoots - it is a delicate shade of cream with milky-pink. Adult needles are painted with warm shades of green. The plant is a small oval-shaped bush with a dense and even crown.
The most impressive is the bright color in autumn and winter. For a better regrowth of new shoots, the bush should be cut.
Unique, round and fluffy dwarf - hem Dzheddeloh. Very good at decorating various hedges.
A special decoration of this planting will be fluffy, delicate needles, having a shade of light green.
This is a very slowly growing hemlock, which only in a dozen years will grow to half a meter height.
This bush is completely unpretentious, can grow in harsh conditions. But it is better to plant it in a place where there are no drafts, and the ground is with good drainage and is quite damp.
This is a small, densely growing type of tsugi, which also cannot boast of rapid growth. His difference is the dark, somewhat bluish color of the needles on densely located branches, which gives elegant splendor to the bush. This effect contributes to the radial location of the needles on the branches.
The height of the bush Jervis with its pyramidal crown does not exceed 30-50 centimeters. He prefers to grow on rich, wet lands, on the shady side.
Having such small sizes, this representative of Tsug will be ideal for a miniature garden or the Alpine hill.
This handsome man, very small, but extremely fluffy, has very dense needles, juicy, green color. For all his life he grows only up to 30 centimeters in height. It is an ideal choice when decorating a garden plot. The plant is often given a spherical shape by trimming the crown.
The mall grows up to 1.2 meters in height, while its branches are located somewhat chaotically, and the width of the bush grows to two and a half meters, occupying a fairly large space in the garden.
This bush grows rather slowly, but still somewhat more intensively than other representatives of the species: approximately five centimeters each year. The branches directed downwards grow in a fan and in various directions: they can descend, and some grow almost horizontally.
This bush feels equally good both in the sun and in the shade, it tolerates frost and hot weather perfectly.
For the garden plot Nana, perhaps, is the perfect decoration. This is a low bush, growing to a meter, and very rarely - up to two meters in height. He has a very beautiful crown: flat and round, giving in to formation. Needles have a dark, rich green color, against which young shoots begin to glow bright green.
The needles have a shiny and smooth structure, and densely growing branches are directed towards the ground. It is a shade-loving plant that cannot be tolerated by severe frosts.
From the soil Nana prefers wet alumina or mixed with sand.
Compared to its counterparts, it is a fairly tall tree - it grows up to even 4 meters in height and almost as wide as it is. It has a completely symmetrical shape, although the branches grow in different directions. The needles of this tree are dark green in color, with a bluish tint. The needles are thick and shiny.
Priceless decoration of the site will be Stockman Dwarf. This is a low bush, growing up to half a meter in height, growing only a couple of centimeters a year. But here in width can grow by a meter. He has a very lush and thick crown cap. The effect is due to the wide and short needles, densely strewing branches.
He likes partial shade and well-fertilized land, but does not tolerate transplants, does not take root well after them.
- This plant does not like drafts and wind-blown places, because it has a superficial root system.
- Plant a hemlock with the onset of heat, by mid-April, or - with the onset of autumn, when the growing season ends.
- When planting plants as a hedge, you must first take care of maintaining a safe distance between plants: it should not be less than eight centimeters and not exceed one and a half meters
- It is better to immediately determine a permanent place for seedlings, because they do not like transplants, often die.
- Young plants should be sheltered from winter frosts.
For moisture-loving hemlock irrigation is of great importance. The plant will not be able to live in dry soil. But this does not mean that the bush can be poured.
- An adult plant needs a bucket of water every 5-7 days,
- in the heat should be watered in 2-3 days,
- In addition, once a month they spray the entire plant with a hose. And in hot weather, this procedure can be increased.
Choice of seedlings tsugi
For planting choose saplings in containers. Before buying you need to carefully inspect the tree. It should be no more than 0.5 m tall, with healthy branches of intense color. You should also pay attention to the root system. If sprouted roots are visible in the pot, and they are not knocked down in one room, then this young plant is quite suitable for planting on the site.
Where and how to plant a Canadian hemlock?
For growing it is better to pick up shady and semi-shaded places, as in the sun, especially in spring, the needles can burn. Hemlock is a fairly unpretentious plant, but it is worth taking a responsible approach to the choice of a growing place, as the plant does not tolerate transplantation. You should not plant shaggy on windy areas, as well as along the road, as this tree does not tolerate air pollution.
The plant prefers fresh, moist, acidified, well-drained soil with lots of nutrients. And note: hemlock does not tolerate stagnant water.
Landing is made with end of april to mid may or from August to September. The planting pit should be twice the size of the seedling’s root system, not less than 70 cm in depth.
Step 1. Cover the bottom of the pit with coarse sand (a layer of about 15 cm) to provide the plant with good drainage.
Step 2. Fill the pit with a soil mixture of sod land, leaf soil and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 2. Or a mixture of compost with garden soil in equal proportions.
Step 3. Dip a sapling with an earthy clod in the pit and sprinkle with the remaining soil. In this case, it is important not to fill up the root neck of the hemlock (the place of transition of the roots into the stem).
Step 4. After planting, pour plenty of xugu (about 1 bucket of water for each seedling) and grind bark, gravel or wood chips.
When group plantings need to consider the distance from one tree to another. In order for plants to grow normally in width, the interval between them must be at least 1.5-2 m.
Hemlock is a moisture-loving plant, so mulch is used to preserve moisture.
Care for Canadian hemlock
Like most conifers, hemlock requires regular watering. Water the tree need every week. Per 1 square meter spend about 10 liters of water. Once a month, the tree likes to take a "shower", so do not forget about spraying the crown.
Hemlock does not require constant fertilization, it is enough to feed it with compost in the autumn or spring period. But do not overdo it: the tree does not like it. It is enough to dilute 200 g of fertilizer in 10 liters of water.
In addition to compost, the mixture with a high content of phosphorus, potassium and other trace elements will also be suitable for tsugi, but nitrogen fertilizers, on the contrary, are contraindicated.
Since the hemlock grows very slowly, she does not need a shearing. However, if the branches touch the ground, they are best cut to avoid rotting.
So that winter does not have a detrimental effect on the Canadian beauty, in October-November the plant must be watered abundantly. Then in the late autumn, before the onset of frosts, the hemlock should be covered with spruce branches or spunbond.
Only young Tsugi need mandatory shelter.
For the plant is dangerous not so much frost as snow. Therefore, it must be periodically dropped from the branches so that they do not break.
Currently, hemlock is rarely used in landscape design. And this is unfair! After all, it is no worse than other evergreens able to decorate your garden and does not require much attention to itself.
As already noted, zsugu can be planted independently. There are many ornamental species (about sixty), and they are attractive due to their small cones, tilted down branches and interesting color of needles.
It should be noted that the tree feels good in the shade, with severe frosts, in acidic and wet soils. From species categories, one can find dwarf variants, and even creeping ones.
Due to this, the range of application of tsugi in landscape design is quite wide. Therefore, below we present a short list of species diversity of Canadian hemlock.
A bright, beautiful and tall tree, Ammerland has bright green tree tips. So "shine" new shoots of needles. This is a real decoration for the green area. In height, it will not be higher than 100 centimeters. The crown has the shape of a mushroom, and the branches of an adult tree lean slightly down and are located along the entire length of the trunk, and at a young age take an almost horizontal position.
Grows well in fertile and moist soil. It is better if you cover it from the wind and the scorching sun.
This variety is half a meter taller than Ammerland. The width of this bush is 1.8 m. For the year it grows by 1.5 centimeters.
Bright green needles are quite densely scattered along fan-shaped branches, which lean down to the ground and create a kind of hat.
This type of hemlock is truly created in order to decorate the green gardens of country houses and country houses. The dwarf "Cole" tightly clings to the ground, blowing branches of a skeletal shape to hang gracefully under its weight.
The ideal place to land is high stones or curbs. Plant growth is very small, about half a meter in 10 years. Plant width - no more than one meter.
This dwarf shrub up to one and a half meters long is peered at by many garden lovers due to the color of new shoots - here they are soft cream, and a bit white with pink when the needles themselves have a warm shade of green.
Moments of particularly bright color are observed in the autumn and winter periods. To shoots grow in greater quantities, it is recommended to cut the hemlock. The bush grows densely, with an oval and flat crown.
Another of the unique representatives of Canadian hemlock is the Jeddeloh variety. This is a dwarf version, having a round shape. It is ideal for decorating hedges or borders due to its low growth.
Plantings are decorated with long and delicate needles with a light green color. The bush grows very slowly: a height of half a meter is reached only after 10 years.
The plant is not very fastidious to the climate, but prefers windless areas and well-drained, moist soil.
The small but very dense bush “Jervis” grows rather slowly. It is characterized by the density of branches and dark, slightly blue color of needles. The pomp of this species is also achieved due to the radial arrangement of the needles along the branches.
Its height is from 30 to 50 centimeters. The crown is shaped like a pyramid. Loves shade and well-fertilized, moist soil. With its small size, it will ideally look in compact and miniature gardens, on alpine hills or among stones.
The Hussii view is also distinguished by its slow growth. At the same time he reaches a height of only 2 and a half meters. Crohn in the form of a pyramid, but rather thinned out. Needles have a dark green color and tightly arranged on branches.
This is an amazing dwarf species, which for many years adds only a few tens of centimeters in height, but at the same time it is distinguished by a high density of beautiful juicy green needles.
An adult plant is not more than 30 centimeters in height. This is ideal for decorating the garden, which can be given a rounded shape, pruning branches.
Chaos-shaped bush "Moll" grows in height to 120 centimeters, but its diameter can reach two and a half meters. For the year increase is up to 5 centimeters.
The branches at the ends grow skeletally and in different directions: some branches take a horizontal position, others go down. "Moll" loves the sun and shade, and the heat and frost.
"Nana" - the most convenient option for decorating the garden. This dwarf species grows to one, rarely up to two meters and has a smooth circular shape that can be adjusted as desired.
Цвет хвои темно-зеленый, а новые побеги светятся ярко-зеленым. Сама структура иголки делает ее блестящей и гладкой. Ветки направлены вниз и растут довольно густо.
Растение предпочитает тень и хорошо переносит морозы. Почва должна быть влажной, с примесями глины или песка.
This type of decorative tsugi is higher than the previous versions - it reaches from 2 to 4 meters in height and width.
The form of this type is obtained symmetrical, given the fact that the branches grow chaotically. The color of the needles is dark green, slightly blue. Needles are shiny and thick.
Another adornment for the garden can be the “Stockman Dwarf” look. In height, this hemlock grows to 50 centimeters, and the increase for each year is about 3 centimeters.
“Stockman Dwarf” is growing in breadth, up to 1 meter. The crown is very dense in structure, as the needles are short, wide and very densely arranged on a branch.
It is better not to replant this species, as it is very “shy”. It grows well in partial shade, in fertilized soil and withstands severe frosts.
Having decided on a variety, you should choose a plot for planting hemlock in your garden. This may be a dark location, partial shade or place in direct sunlight.
Since there are both male and female cones on the tree, you do not need to look for a pair of hemlock for seed propagation. Landing is carried out in the spring, in more or less warm April, or transferred to the end of August, or at the beginning of October.
If you want to plant several plants nearby, then observe the minimum allowable distance between them - no more than one and a half meters and at least 8 centimeters.
Annual seedlings are better to identify in the pits very quickly, since the trees are rather difficult to handle with transplants. It is necessary to dig a hole 80 centimeters deep.
It is important to pay attention to the soil. The hemlock feels better in well-fertilized and fertile soils, in which sand is always present. The recipe for an excellent soil mix is as follows:
- 2 pieces of turf land,
- 2 pieces of sand
- 1 part of the land is leaf.
Also in each pit it is necessary to put mineral fertilizer in the amount of not more than 20 grams.
In order for the hemlock to delight your eye for a long time and to decorate the garden, you should take care of it. Young saplings are quite sensitive to frost, unlike more mature ones, so they should be covered for the winter.
It is advisable to do this for the first few years, depending on the climate in your area. Peat is ideal for winter, and in spring it should be otgresti and put a spruce that protects the shoots from the scorching rays of the sun.
Watering is an important procedure for tsugi. She can only live in well-moistened soil. But you should not flood the tree. An approximate calculation for one adult hemlock older than 10 years is 1 bucket per week.Moisture should be maintained not only in the soil, but also for the aerial part. Dry air can destroy a tree. Therefore, once every 30 days you can water the hose with a hose.
The first years after planting, provided that the soil is good and the fertilizer is in place, the hemlock does not need to be fertilized. For it will serve as an excellent dressing own needles that crumble and rot.
To keep the plant healthy and strong, you can do mulching. Peat is best for this. The height of the overlay of the peat layer should be between 3 and 5 centimeters.
You can loosen the soil from time to time, but you should not go to a depth of more than 10 centimeters.
Diseases and pests
One of the ailments that can strike a hemlock is a spider mite. To get rid of it, it is necessary to remove all the branches that were affected by the pest, and wash the tree every two days.
In addition to the tick, some conifers suffer from peppered moths and scale insects.
If you pour a tree abundantly, you can get a disease such as rotting of the root system, which in 99% of cases leads to the death of the tree.
Application in landscape design
All varieties that were listed in this article can be used as a decorative ornament for your garden.
The hemlock is convenient for use in landscape design with its variety: there are both high and creeping options, bright green with bright tips, and deep shades of blue-green needles. So, hemlock will look great as the center of the garden in the form of a tall tree with a pyramid shape, as well as a small low stone decoration design with other plants.
Now you know how to decorate your garden. The beauty and aromas of dough, like any other coniferous wood, are really worth the effort.
However, remember that it is important to plant the tree in the right place, to pay attention to the soil and the care of the plant.
The owners of dachas, gardens and private houses often seek to decorate homestead plots belonging to them, therefore, besides garden crops, ornamental plants are planted in their territories. Green plantings can make any place cozy and suitable not only for growing vegetables and fruits, but also for spiritual rest. The smell of pine needles and fresh air will help to relax and have a good effect on health. This atmosphere will help to achieve an unusual evergreen beauty - Canadian hemlock.
Description and care - this information is sought by beginning gardeners about this conifer tree, having heard about it from more experienced gardeners. Compliance with some very simple rules will help grow a real garden decoration without spending a lot of time and effort on it.
Homeland Canadian hemlock is the eastern part of North America. In natural conditions, it grows in the mountainswhere it forms mixed forests in which spruce and wemouth pine trees grow. Also, this species can be found in Asia as a cultivated plant it is grown around the world.
Hemlock plays a big role in the ecosystem of the planet, especially for residents and wildlife of America. Such a tree grows very long, its needles live up to 10 years or more. It is grown not only as an ornamental plant. Needle extracts are widely used in perfumery and medicine, and trunks in the woodworking industry.
In addition to the beautiful appearance, the plant has drought resistance and winter resistance. The ability to adapt to any climatic conditions makes possible the maintenance of Canadian hemlock in the Moscow region and the regions of the middle belt. Many varieties allow you to grow such trees even in small areas.
Botanical features of the plant
Canadian hemlock is a slender and tall plant with a height of 20-30 meters and a trunk with a diameter of 0.5-1.5 meters. The cone-shaped crown consists of sturdy branches inclined to the ground. The bark of brown color is rough, scaly, with deep cracks.
The highest species of these conifers is the western hemlock. In the natural, it can reach 75 meters in height.
Soft needles up to 1.5 centimeters in length are arranged on leaf pads in two rows. Their upper shiny part is painted in saturated green color, and the lower one is decorated with two parallel stripes of bluish tint.
In the first year of life, in the autumn, male and female small oval-shaped lumps are formed on the tree, covered with thin scales.
Such an unusual name in 1855 gave the plant a French botanist Eli-Abel Carriere. The word "tsuga" comes from Japanese, so called one of the varietal varieties of this coniferous beauty.
However, the first records about this tree appeared in scientific literature much earlier, namely in 1763. They made the naturalist from Sweden - Karl Linna. In his notes, he called this species Pinus canadensis, which translates from Latin as Canadian pine.
Varieties and varieties
In total there are about 60 ornamental varieties of Canadian hemlock. All of them are distinguished by small and neat cones, the color of the crown and hanging branches. Such a tree only needs five light days per year for normal development. It grows well in shade, moist and acidic soils, tolerates severe frosts.
Among all varieties, every gardener will find a plant to his taste. There are tall, creeping and dwarf trees.
Among all the species diversity of such trees is the following varieties of hemlock:
- Dough Coles Prostrate is an unusual weeping form. A ground-covering and graceful plant with creeping branches, which are decorated with fresh needles of golden hue every spring. This dwarf species at the age of 10 is a small tree half a meter in height with a crown 1 meter in diameter. This unique plant is not to be confused with anything, it is not similar to any creeping evergreen form. The needles do not change the color all year round, the prostate wheels hem is tolerant of industrial emissions and the atmosphere of a big city.
- Nana - suitable for decorating small gardens. This dwarf species usually reaches one meter in height, less often - two. It has a rounded neat crown, which can always be slightly adjusted with a secateur. The needles are smooth and shiny, the color of the needles is dark green, the young shoots are painted in bright green. Thick branches look down. Nana tolerates winter cold, loves shade and moist sandy or clay soil.
- The Pendula Canadian hemlock is a plant taller than other species, it grows up to 4 meters in height and has a magnificent crown from 2 to 4 meters in width. A peculiarity of the Pendula view is the symmetrical shape of the crown, which is truly amazing. If you look at the tree, you can see that its branches are arranged chaotically. Brilliant needles grow thickly and have a dark green color with a bluish tint.
- Ammerland - can serve as a real decoration of the site. His bright green young needles and the tips of the branches stand out noticeably against the dark background of the rest of the needles. The height of such a tree does not exceed 100 centimeters. Unusual crown (mushroom) form attached branches. In young plants, they grow in a horizontal position, whereas in adults they are located along the trunk and lean down. Prefers moist and nutritious soil. It does not tolerate direct sunlight, drafts and wind.
- Gentsch White - this dwarf plant has the appearance of a bush up to one and a half meters high. It attracted the gardeners due to the unusual creamy-pink color of the young shoots, which stand out on the green needles of a warm shade. The tree looks especially bright in autumn and winter. It has a dense, oval crown, which is recommended to be cut periodically so that fresh shoots grow back more often.
- Dug canadian Dzheddeloh - a unique representative of conifers. This bonsai has a dense round crown. Because of its low growth, it is most often used to create low hedges or decorate borders. This copy has delicate and long needles of light green color. Jeddeloh grows slowly, for 10 years it stretches only half a meter in height. It does not have strict climate requirements, but still it is better to grow it in the windless corners of the site.
Having decided on a variety, you can proceed to the selection of a site for planting based on the needs of the seedling. It can be a penumbra, a well-lit or dark place.
Features of landing on the site
Seedlings should be purchased in stores for gardeners or specialized nurseries. The trees in plastic bags are better not to look and give preference to plants in containers.
Before buying it is important to have a good look at the tree.. It should have healthy and strong branches, rich-colored needles and be no higher than 50 centimeters. If the container is transparent and allows you to check the root system, you need to take advantage of this opportunity. Sprouted roots, not knocked down in a general room, make the plant suitable for planting in open ground.
Canadian hemlock will feel good in a semi-shaded corner of the garden. Direct sunlight can burn tender needles. Although this tree is considered an unpretentious plant, it’s better to guess right away with the landing site, since the hemlock doesn’t tolerate the transplant. No need to plant such trees near the roads and on windy areas, they do not like dust and dirty air.
The accumulation of moisture in the soil badly affects the root system of coniferous beauties, so for planting it is better to choose elevations or places that are not submerged during floods, snowfall and long rains.
Such a plant will definitely have a taste of well-drained, moist soil with a high nutrient content. If the soil at the site does not meet such requirements, do not get upset, you can prepare the soil yourself and fill them with planting pits. To do this, mix:
- 500 grams of sod land
- 250 grams of leafy ground
- 0.5 kilogram of river sand.
The sand is recommended to be well washed and calcined in a frying pan with a thick bottom. This will disinfect it and kill the dangerous bacteria.
You can also cook the soil mixture from equal parts of garden soil and humus.
The landing of the Canadian hemlock is made in the spring (end of April - mid-May) or from August to September. The width of the hole should be twice the root system of the tree:
- Dig a landing hole with a depth of at least 70 centimeters.
- Cover the bottom of the hole with drainage material, it will absorb excess moisture. For this you can use coarse sand, expanded clay or crushed stone.
- Fill the planting hole with soil mixture mixed with 15 grams of mineral dressing.
- Place the seedling in the hole with the old earthy ball, sprinkle with the remaining soil so that the root collar remains on the surface.
- Water the plant well, one bucket of water will be enough.
- Grouch the ground in the circumferential circle with chips, sawdust, gravel or bark.
If the hemlock participates in group plantings, it is worth to leave at least 1.5-2 meters between the landing pits. This distance is necessary for trees to freely increase the green mass and not interfere with each other.
Canadian Hedgehog Care Rules
In order for the hemlock to delight the eye and adorn the garden for a long time, it should be properly maintained. Young saplings, unlike adult trees, are very sensitive to winter frosts, therefore from the autumn they should be covered. For this you can use peat and fir twig. Such a procedure is desirable to conduct the first few years.
Mature plants are not afraid of the cold, and snow. Therefore, it is periodically necessary to shake it from the branches, so that under its weight they will not break.
Watering and feeding
Watering is very important for tsugias for most other conifers. However, everything should be in moderation, you should not flood the plants. One adult evergreen beauty is enough to spend one bucket of water per week.
Too dry air can destroy the tree, so once a month it should be doused with water from a hose. In dry periods, it is recommended to increase the number of irrigations up to 2–3 times a week, and also to spray the needles more often.
The first few years after planting the hemlock does not need additional feedings. As a fertilizer, it serves its own needles, which crumble and rot in the near-stem circle. To keep the plant for a long time strong and healthy, it is possible to produce mulching of the soil. For these purposes, peat is usually used, it is placed in a layer of 3–5 centimeters thick. Periodically, the ground near the hemlock is weeded and loosened, without going to a depth of more than 8 centimeters.
The main varieties of Canadian hemlock: photos and description of species of coniferous tree
The following description of the varieties of this conifer gives a general idea of the varieties that can be used in various regions of our country. These are the most resistant to external adverse factors of plants with a strong root system and excellent decorative properties. The main varieties of Canadian hemlock are bred by breeding. The wild plant of this breed has a large number of rather unpleasant properties, including uneven growth of branches and coniferous mass.
The following shows the main varieties of Canadian hemlock in the photo and offer brief descriptions of varieties of coniferous trees:
Canadian hemlock "Jeddeloh" (Gedeloh)
This plant has a semicircular shape, dwarf.
The branches are arranged spirally.
Needles are hard, about 8-16 millimeters in length and up to one to two millimeters in width, light green in color.
Canadian hemlock "Pendula" (Weeping)
This plant is a weeping form of Canadian hemlock.
The Canadian hemlock is a straight, wide tree, has many trunks, there is no leader-trunk.
Reaches heights and widths up to 2.5-3.5 meters.
Cones on a short scape, oval-shaped, one and a half to two centimeters in length.
Canadian hemlock "Nana"
This is a dwarf form. In height grows to one meter.
The branches are short, sticking out.
The needles are about two centimeters in length and one millimeter in width, green, glossy on top.
Natural growing conditions
In nature, hemlock grows in North America, in areas with a humid cool climate. The dense crown of these plants creates a unique sustainable ecosystem in the lower tiers of the hemlock forest. low temperature and high humidity. The hemlock is very shade-tolerant - five percent of sunny, clear days suffice in a year so that the plant receives the amount of light necessary for development.
Canadian shugu is grown in parks and gardens as a decorative culture. Bushy forms are used to create hedges, and large specimens are used in single or group plantings.
Plants are planted in the spring or in the middle of autumn. The soil is preferably wet, with a high content of clay. Примерно за 3 дня до посадки в почву вносят минеральные удобрения и перегной. Для посадки обычно используют небольшие, но хорошо сформировавшиеся, крепкие экземпляры с компактным комом земли, защищающим корневую систему. Если посадки групповые, необходимо учитывать расстояние между деревьями. Для нормального развития пространство между саженцами должно быть не менее полутора метров. Observe the following sequence when planting young plants:
- Prepare a pit depth of 75 centimeters.
- To ensure good drainage, the bottom of the pit is covered with a 15-cm layer of sand.
- From above lay out a small layer of soil mixture consisting of leaf, sod land and sand.
- The seedling is lowered into the pit so that the root neck is at the level of the edge of the pit and covered with earth.
- Then the plant is well watered (no less than a bucket of water for each seedling) and mulch with bark or wood chips.
Hemlock is a shade-tolerant plant, but it also requires moist air. In the hot season, it is advisable to conduct sprinkling twice a week and, as necessary, watering.
Canadian hemlock (Canadian pine) is resistant to both low and high temperatures. However, in cold regions, young plants should preferably be covered with peat and dry branches in November. In April, the shelter can be removed.
Canadian hemlock varieties
The most common types are::
- Dzheddelokh - a dwarf plant of a semicircular form with the branches located on a spiral. The needles are small, light green in color. Crown pillow, dense.
- A dwarf variety of this plant - Nana does not exceed a meter in height. The needles are green, glossy, up to two centimeters long, the branches are thick, short, hanging arcuately.
- The weeping form represents Pendula. This is a wide tree with many trunks. Branches at right angles away from the trunk, and then hang sharply, which makes it possible to create standard specimens, instilling Pendulu on a straight trunk stock.
In the culture most often propagated by shingles, but seed reproduction is also possible. To create original forms using vaccinations on the main view.
Decorative specimens are propagated by semi-woody cuttings. In September, they are cut from the side shoots and planted in the land mixture in an unheated room. When roots are formed, seedlings are planted in pots one by one, and young plants are planted in open ground after 2 years.
Seeds are sown in a protected place. Grown up seedlings are planted in separate containers. And planted in a permanent place in 2-4 years, depending on the type.
Tsugi wood is durable and contains almost no resin, it is easy to process and paint.
The bark of this plant is source of tannins and is used in the leather industry. At the same time, a decoction of bark is used as a styptic, and the essential oils obtained from Canadian hemlock are used for inhalation and the manufacture of therapeutic ointments.
Essential oils are also components of perfume compositions used in the manufacture of detergents and air fresheners.
Canadian hemlock: description and care for her
In Europe, these ornamental trees appeared in the second half of the 19th century and have since been widely used in gardening. The most durable and stable was the view from the north-east of America - Canadian hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Unlike other members of the genus, rare and sensitive to negative temperatures, it is quite winter-hardy in central Russia. Only annual growths of young seedlings can be damaged by frost.
In nature, this conifer grows to a height of 40 m, in culture it can grow to 25–30 m with a girth of the trunk about one meter. Arc-shaped or almost horizontal branches with drooping ends of the apical and lateral shoots form an expressive crown with a shape in the form of a wide cone. The bark of the trunk, scaly in young trees, thickens with age, becomes covered with deep cracks and exfoliates. Its color varies from red-brown to brown.
Small (up to 1.5 cm) blunted needles from above are shiny, dark green, and from the bottom they have a bluish or whitish tint. The hemlock is a monoecious plant; by the years 20-30, small cones appear on the ends of the branches (2-2.5 cm), which do not open for a long time and fall only the next year.
This long-lived tree grows slowly, reaching a height of about 10 meters at 30 years of age. Seedlings first form deeply penetrating main roots, and over time, the surface root system also forms.
Features of growing
Canadian hemlock will decorate the site for many years if from the very beginningadhere to the following conditions.
- Place for landing - in light penumbra, protected from strong winds.
- The soil is moist and fertile, from acidic to neutral. A lack of moisture can cause the tree to dry.
- Despite shade tolerance, good lighting is preferable so that its decorative qualities do not decrease.
The optimal landing period: in the spring - the beginning of April, in the autumn - from the end of August to the beginning of October.
Container plants can be planted throughout the season:
- At the bottom of a pit 70–80 cm deep, sand or gravel is poured with a layer up to 15 cm (drainage).
- The plant is placed so that the root neck is at ground level.
- The pit is filled with a soil mixture consisting of 2 parts of turf and 1 part of leafy ground with the addition of 2 parts of sand.
- If necessary, add a special fertilizer for conifers or Kemira wagon.
- The distance between plants in a group planting from 80 cm to 1.5 m, depending on the habit.
Moisture-loving tsug need regular watering.
Mature trees are watered once a week at the rate of 15–20 liters per plant, and crown is sprayed once a month. In dry and hot summer, these procedures are repeated more often. Conifers especially need this in the first year after planting. A droplet spray rather than a hose is preferable.
If the soil is strongly compacted, shallow loosening is carried out, and young plantings mulch with a layer up to 5 cm. Crown pruning is carried out only in case of freezing or damage to the shoots.
In a temperate climate, hemlock is almost not affected by diseases and pests.
Occasionally, individual plants may be affected by root rot, spider mites, or the tongue moth.
In such cases, treatment with fungicides and insecticides is used.
Prophylactic spring spraying with drugs before the first signs of disease do not interfere.
This conifer breed is well propagated by seeds and cuttings, and decorative forms - grafting.
Variety of varieties
Species hemlock Canadian - a tree for parks, gardens and large areas. But in nature she gives many varieties with valuable decorative features. In the culture introduced dozens of new forms with different types of crown, color and length of needles, growth rate.
Very interesting is the variety of Canadian Pendula hemlock with weeping branches. It is a shrub or tree plant with thin hanging branches covered with short, dark green needles. It looks especially impressive as a tapeworm against a lawn.
The miniature creeping variety Coles Prostrate is unique. His creeping olive branches with soft, soft needles of rich green color by 10 years do not exceed half a meter length at the same height of the bush. Especially elegant appearance in the bush in June, when there is a young light green growth. Stony gardens, alpine hills, retaining walls - here Cole’s Prostrate will show itself in all its glory.
Both of these varieties are often grown in the standard form, the height of the plant in this case depends on the place of inoculation.
Such specimens with a waterfall of branches descending to the ground look very picturesque in a single landing.
A dwarf variety with horizontal shoots and short, sticking out branches is Canadian Nana hemlock.
Planting and caring for this miniature coniferous shrub are the same as for other varieties of this species.
They feel great in places:
- with light penumbra,
- cool and wet
- with fertile soil.
And react negatively to:
Among other interesting varieties of T. Canadensis are compact trees with dense needles, such as: Jeddeloh, Popelescu Dwarf, Von Helms, Conica and many others.
Use in landscape design
Thanks to the original openwork crown and the spectacular coloring of the needles, Canadian hemlock and its many varieties will become a real decoration of any plot. Coniferous trees and bushes with a picturesque cascade of branches are equally good in both single and group planting.
Especially beautiful are tsugi growing near the water and on the lawn. An interesting effect is obtained when creating compositions of varieties with different forms of crown - weeping and creeping, columnar and spherical.
Canadian hemlock will be appropriate in both large and small gardens. Among the abundance of its varieties there is a variety for planting at the reservoir and at home, on an alpine slide and in a rock garden.