More recently, the cultivation of cherry plum in places with a changeable climate seemed just a myth, but now it is not only possible, but necessary. Has the highest frost resistance sort of seedling rockets as well the largest fruits plum Tent. Early, ready for harvest in late July - early August: Vetraz, Monomakh, Nesmeyana. Average, ripening to the beginning - mid-August: Kuban comet, Chuk, Anastasia, Sarmatka, Karminna Zhukova, Apricot, Comet Late, Peach. Experienced Gardeners recommended to grow in the suburbs varieties of the Scythian Gold, Skoroplodnaya, Maru and Kolonovidnuyu. A description of the best varieties of cherry plum or Russian plum can be found below.
The most large-fruited varieties of cherry plum, description
The taste of many fruits depends on the size of the fruit, the same applies to cherry plum. Large-fruited varieties are very popular, the best of them are considered:
The tree is small in stature, it quickly reaches its height and begins to bear fruit already 4-5 years of life. Crohn rounded, dense, growing in a downward direction. Fruits are large, their weight can reach 40 grams . The flesh is sweet and sour, yellow, these fruits can be eaten fresh and used for blanks. The average yield of one tree is 35 pounds . Early ripening period, frost resistance is high, in addition to the winter cold of the kidney also tolerate spring frosts. The disadvantages include self-infertility and medium resistance to the absence of moisture.
The variety is of average maturity, the tree grows to medium size, the crown is thick, rounded, slightly flat. Fruit weight reaches 35-37 grams The flesh is rich yellow, the taste is pleasant, refreshing, sweet and sour. The first harvest of a tree can bring already in 3 years, and after some time from one tree it will be possible to collect up to 40 kilograms of delicious fruits. The variety tolerates both winter and spring temperature changes, drought resistance is average. Pollination occurs with the help of other varieties that bloom in the same period as the Found.
Variety, fruiting in average terms. The tree grows very quickly, but at the same time it reaches a medium height, the crown is thick, slightly lowered, rounded. Fruits weigh up to 35 grams, the color of the flesh is dark yellow, the taste is sweet-sour, the stone is separated with difficulty. The purpose of such cherry plum allows you to use it in any form. The winter hardiness of the variety is good, the same applies to the yield, which pleases with high stability. Pollination cross with other trees growing near cherry plum.
The fruits of this variety are inferior in size to other varieties and weigh only 25-30 grams , but distinctive feature will be excellent taste, juiciness and easy separation of the stone. Also such a plum has an unusual shape, reminiscent of Monomakh's cap and a rich, purple skin color. The crop ripens in early terms, the tree bears fruit annually and in large quantities.
The most frost-resistant varieties of cherry plum for the central and middle bands
To grow cherry plum in Central Russia, you need to carefully consider the frost resistance of the variety. Trees should not only relive the winter cold, but also spring frosts, because the main threat of an unstable climate lies in them. The best performance have varieties: Tsarskaya, Rocket Seedling, Vladimir Comet and others.
Gift to St. Petersburg
The variety has a good resistance not only to cold weather, but to unstable climatic conditions, heavy rainfall and frost. A tree of medium size, with a wide, dense crown of large size, the first fruits already brings on 4 year of life. Annual yield. Fruits of a light orange color, slightly elongated in size reach only 20 grams in weight. . The taste is sweet and sour, also the fruits tolerate transportation well and can be used for various types of preservation.
This variety was bred relatively recently, but already surpasses many old subspecies in all indicators. A medium-sized tree has a wide, but at the same time rare crown. Fruits of large size, round-oval shape with a pointed end, burgundy skin color, there is a slight waxy coating. The flesh is rich, dark orange with a sweet and sour taste. The purpose of this cherry plum is universal. The tree quickly enters fruiting and also quickly increases productivity, it is possible to collect ripe cherry plum in the middle of July. Frost resistance is very high, the same applies to the self-cultivation of the variety.
The variety is characterized by exceptional frost resistance, the tree of medium size can withstand temperatures down to -35 degrees. The crown of a tree is thick, spreading. Fruits are large, grow to 30 grams, the color is red, the shape is rounded with pointed ends. The yield of the variety is top notch.
The variety got its name in honor of the scientific institute in which it was bred. The tree grows to a height of no more than 3 meters, the crown is spreading, in its form resembles a cone, foliage is very rare. The fruits are small, egg-shaped, covered with a thin skin of light red color. The flesh is very tasty and juicy, loose, fibrous, the bone is separated without difficulty. Up to 30 kilograms of fruit can be harvested from one tree.while it does not require complex care, tolerates frosts and is not affected by fungal diseases.
Self-fruited Russian plum varieties
It is extremely inconvenient to grow varieties of cherry plum, requiring additional pollination. This creates unnecessary trouble or has to plant several varieties of the same crop in one area, which is extremely inconvenient for small farms and those gardeners who want to collect a variety of fruits. The following self-fertile varieties best recommended themselves.:
Perfectly suited for cultivation on the farms, the tree of low growth annually brings abundant crops up to 40 kilograms. Fruits with reddish, ruddy peel and yellow flesh weigh up to 28 grams, the taste is kilo-sweet, suitable for fresh consumption and for various types of processing. The bones are very difficult to separate. The variety does not require additional pollination, frost is well tolerated by both wood and flower buds. The tree requires timely watering.
Acting as a pollinator for other varieties, but at the same time annually brings a harvest to 40 kilograms . The tree of average height with an ordinary crown enters fruiting for 3 years of life, the ripening time is average. Traveler fruits can reach a mass of 30 grams , the flesh is colored dark yellow, a light banana flavor is characteristic of this variety. Frost resistance is high, as is drought resistance.
The self-fertile variety is well-suited for growing in conditions of central Russia, tolerates frost well and is immune to many diseases. A tree that grows up to 2-3 meters carries on itself a beautiful crown, resembling a ball, therefore it is necessary to carry out regular pruning. The fruits ripen in early July and can hang without falling until the beginning of August.. The skin color is saturated, yellow-orange, the skin is slightly lighter. The taste is pleasant, fibrous, very sweet, this variety is perfect for cooking jam and jams.
Perhaps the most unusual and compact variety of cherry plum. The tree grows in height up to 3 meters, while the diameter of the crown does not exceed 1.5 meters. The variety is not afraid of frost and recovers very quickly after freezing, while other species begin to languish and slowly die. The fruits are very large, their weight can reach 40 grams , peel of saturated red color with a slight wax coating, is not afraid of heavy precipitation and is not prone to cracking. The flesh is tasty, juicy, fibrous.
A low tree does not require complex care and adapts well to any weather conditions. The variety does not suffer from sudden changes in temperature and at the same time brings bright maroon fruit. with dark yellow honey pulp. There is no sourness in the taste of the cherry plum ripening in the middle of summer, which attracts lovers of sweet fruit.
The variety was bred in 2005 and is a tree that grows no more than 3 meters in height with a crown that resembles a wide cone. Large fruits have a rich, golden peel color.. The flesh is very sweet, juicy and tender. The tree is not afraid of an abrupt change of cold for heat and vice versa, does not require long-term attention to itself, and the Scythian Gold variety bears fruit very early and annually. The size of the harvested crops is average, needs additional pollination.
A variety of Chinese breeding. The tree is small, already for 2-3 years of life can bring the first harvest of reddish fruits of medium size. The flesh is very pleasant, tender and tasty, the stone is easily separated, because of what these fruits are well suited for fresh consumption. Possesses resistance to frost and gusty winds, requires planting a tree of pollinator next to it.
The achievements of modern breeding allow to grow plum not only in the southern regions, but also in the central part of Russia. If desired, every gardener can try to grow a tree with excellent and tasty fruits in his plot.
Peculiarities of growing cherry plum in the Moscow region
In the south, this tree grows like a wild-growing culture. In the middle lane in its original form it is impossible to grow it, because this culture loves warmly, capriciously and does not tolerate cold and frost at all.
- In the Moscow region, and in other regions with a temperate climate, the cultivation of this tree has become possible only thanks to the work of breeders who have been engaged in interspecific hybridization since the last century and successfully developed new varieties.
- In order for the tree to grow successfully and produce a good harvest in the western and northern regions, cherry plum was crossed with a Sino-Ussuri plum, which tolerates frost and drought quite successfully. The name of this culture appeared Russian plum, which, in principle, it is.
- The new hybrid varieties developed are not only resistant to low temperatures, but are also capable of producing an excellent yield, and they also have high positive characteristics of taste.
- Usually plum fruits early enough. This allows you to harvest before the onset of the first frost in the autumn.
The best varieties for the Moscow region
Almost all of them are self-fertile. A distinctive feature and advantage of this crop is that these fruits have taken a high yield, winter hardiness, large berry size from the plum, and the original sourish taste, high yield and high content of the most valuable vitamins and minerals from cherry plum.
Consider the most popular varieties of cherry plum, which are popular with gardeners.
Gift to Saint Petersburg
The variety is hybrid, self-productive, it is distinguished by its short stature, sometimes of medium height. The crown is dense and located on a short shtambe, sprawling branches.
- The berries are quite small (10 - 12 g), painted in bright yellow - orange color.
- The pulp with small fibers, juicy, bone is separated with difficulty.
- Regular fruiting can be collected from one tree to 60 kg.
- The variety is early ripe, but when fully ripened, the berries can crumble.
- The harvest is not only stable and large, but already in the third year after the inoculation, the first berries can be harvested.
- It tolerates frost well, quickly returns to normal after mechanical damage to branches.
- A variety that belongs to the few late, growing in the middle lane. Self-infertile.
- The crown does not differ in density, the form is cone-shaped, the branches are branched.
- The variety is characterized by high yield, large berries - about 35 - 37 grams, reddish - pink in color with a slight whitish bloom.
- Pulp berries juicy, pink delicate shade, dense structure, gristly, bone separates quite well. The taste is pleasant, sour - sweet.
- The tree winters great, unpretentious care.
The variety is relatively new; it was introduced to the State Register only in 2005.
- The tree is tall, distinguished by a sprawling lush and dense crown.
- Fruits are reddish with a purple tinge.
- The flesh of the berries is quite dense, fibrous, pink, juicy, the taste is sweet with sourness. Stone separates well.
- Gives a good harvest. Fruiting comes early.
- The variety feels great at low temperatures, but resistance to infections is rather low.
- The variety is late maturing, the tree is of medium size and has a spindle-shaped form.
- The tree is frost-resistant, the fruits are bright yellow, small.
- The berries are very small, weight about 20 grams. The advantage of the variety is that the fruits are kept on the branches even after the leaves almost completely fall off.
This is not a complete list of unpretentious and fruitful varieties of cherry plum, intended for planting in temperate regions, including the Moscow region.
Brief information about the culture
Fruit culture is demanding to light, resistant to droughts and prefers a soil with a neutral acidity index. An adult cherry plum can reach 14 meters, but this is only in the southern regions, in the north and in the middle lane conditions the height of the tree will be 4-5 meters. In some cases, the tree is more like a shrub. The average lifespan of a fruit crop is 50 years.
Alycha is both single-barreled and multi-barreled. The barrel in diameter reaches half a meter. The tree branches well and its crown is thick, spherical-sprawling. The root system is more located on the surface, although on soils with a loose structure it can go down to 11 meters. But on more dense roots do not fall below 2 meters. They often extend beyond the crown of a tree, spreading within a radius of 10 meters. Radical growth occurs rarely.
Cherry plum for Moscow region, the best varieties
The leaves of the tree are dark green, and in autumn they simply turn yellow. The flowers are either white or have a pinkish tint, their size does not exceed half a centimeter. Cherry plum blossoms even before the appearance of foliage or at the same time, around the beginning of May. In rare cases, flowering is observed in the fall.
This is interesting: plum is a heat-loving culture and grows everywhere in the wild in the southern regions. To the north, as well as in the middle zone, this culture is found only in gardens, in its natural environment it does not survive due to frost.
Cherry plum trees bear fruit for 3 years after planting. The fruits ripen very quickly. In wild specimens, fruits are small, weighing 4-6 g, and in cultivated ones they reach about 50 g. Their ripening occurs in late summer or early autumn.
Cherry plum for Moscow region - the best varieties
Alycha is successfully crossed with a plum, which has good frost resistance. Thus, varieties of cherry plum suitable for the conditions of the Moscow region, among which there are hybrids, are derived.
Culture can be divided into several groups, which are a kind of cherry plum from the southern regions. For cold climate conditions, a hybrid based on the Chinese plum has been developed, which served as the basis for new frost-resistant varieties. Today, this group of varieties is called “Russian plum”. In fact, this is a plum that has a peculiar sour taste.
The best varieties of cherry plum for the Moscow region are presented below.
Alycha hybrid, suitable for cultivation in the suburbs. The variety tolerates drought and is very resistant to frost. It has an average maturity. It happens that fruits are unstable, as it depends on weather conditions.
The tree itself has a spreading thick crown and an average height. Fruits on average 30-35 g, dark red color. The flesh is juicy, sweet with a sour taste.
Other famous varieties
In addition to the above, many gardeners of the Moscow region cultivate the following varieties:
- Gift to St. Petersburg,
- Golden Scythians.
Attention! Most varieties of plum conditional self-fertility. Even if a particular plant is positioned as a self-fertile, if other varieties are closely located, the yield will be much higher and the fruits will be tastier.
Like all fruit trees, cherry plum has its own diseases and pests. This garden plant is slightly affected by various diseases, but can be infected from its garden neighbors.
Main harmful insects:
- apple shchitovki,
- copper or black goldfish,
- plum moths.
In order to protect your garden from their impact, it is necessary to carry out treatment with special means such as Iskra, Fitoverm, Akarin. Their use is allowed no more than once a month during the season.
Important! When processing with special means, it is necessary to spray not only the plum itself, but also the neighboring fruit trees.
Early spring is to spray the garden with a solution of urea, prepared at the rate of 700 g per 10 liters of water. Bordeaux liquid or another drug that contains copper is also suitable. To avoid burns on the leaves, the treatment is carried out before bud break. Это предохранит алычу и другие растения в саду от поражения грибком и другими болезнями.
Распространенными являются такие болезни как, млечный блеск и клястероспориоз. Они возникают до появления плодов. In the very period of fruiting plum is affected by monoliosis, or gray rot. If plum hangs close to each other, then the disease quickly spreads.
They fight diseases by removing diseased parts of the tree, and for prophylaxis, use Bordeaux-type fluids and timely pruning.
Errors gardeners when growing cherry plum in the suburbs
When growing cherry plum, the climate near Moscow imposes its own conditions. Many gardeners make a number of mistakes in the cultivation of this culture. The main points to consider are as follows:
- You should not choose a landing in the shade or subject to winds. Olecha likes good lighting and reliable protection from the wind.
- It is recommended to plant plum not in autumn, but in spring, by mid-April.
- The tree does not tolerate acidic and alkaline soils, the soil should be well fertilized with organic matter.
- Excessive watering is not recommended, the culture is sensitive to the presence of excess moisture in the soil.
- Severe pruning of the crown will result in sunburn or freezing.
If you follow all the rules and recommendations, you can quite successfully grow cherry plum in a middle band. Moscow and the Moscow climate are well suited for hybrid varieties of this southern tree.
Varieties and varieties of cherry plum
Cherry plush perfect does not apply to frost-resistant plantsand therefore you will not meet her in cold regions. But at the same time, it is perfectly crossed with some varieties of plum, and it is precisely because of this possibility of interspecific crossing that it is possible to grow cherry plum in middle latitudes. Already in the last century, cherry plum was crossed with Chinese plum, which led to the possibility of breeding many varieties of fruit in the Moscow region and mid-latitudes of Russia. After all, the Chinese plum is frost resistant. All modern varieties of plum, characterized by frost resistance, are called “Russian plum”.
Varieties cherry plum, bred specifically for the Moscow region and middle latitudes do an excellent job with low temperatures and unexpected frosts in the spring. They have large and tasty fruits that have excellent keeping quality. Cherry plums are perfect for both fresh consumption and for processing. But before you decide on the grade of cherry plum, which will grow in your area, you should figure out how to properly care for it.
For cultivation in middle latitudes most often use such frost-resistant varieties of plum as:
- Kuban comet - it is presented by fruits of red and claret color with yellow pulp. Tastes in fruits of very high quality, and the regularity and height of fruiting allow you to get a harvest every year,
- Gilded Scythians - Cherry plum fruit has a bright yellow color. This type of plant begins to bear fruit very early; it has excellent medium-sized fruits with a light acidity,
- Traveler - the fruits of the plant are yellow with a light purple spray. The taste of the fruit is at the height and will delight any gourmet. Fruit ripening is already at the end of July and have good keeping quality,
- A gift to St. Petersburg - perfectly tolerates frosts, it ripens early and bears fruit abundantly and regularly. The fruits of the plant are yellow or orange,
- Nesmeyana - this species appeared relatively recently. It has pink fruits with bright dense pulp of yellow color.
But these are not all varieties that feel well in the middle lane and near Moscow. Perfectly behaves in conditions of the middle band and such a variety of fruit tree as Mara, Cleopatra, Late Comet, Kolonovidnaya. They all have amazing taste and early begin to bear fruit. Fruit ripening occurs in large quantities, which can not but rejoice the gardener. Most of the cherry plum is self-productive, therefore several varieties of the fruit tree should be planted on the site at once so that they pollinate each other.
If you believe the advice of experts, then you should plant on your site that plant that bears fruit very well in the conditions of your locality. This can be recognized by the description of the variety. They are more resistant and quickly take root.
Landing rules for cherry plum
For proper planting of seedlings is recommended to choose a well-lit area. It should also be protected from wind, cold and frost. The best time to plant a plant is early spring. This should be done immediately after the complete descent of snow and sufficient warming of the soil. However, you need to make sure that the buds on the plant have not yet begun to bite at the time of planting. In the middle lane is should be done in mid-april. If the root system of the seedling is well protected by the container, then it is allowed to plant it a little later.
Planting in the fall should not be performed. Cherry plum just does not have time to prepare for the autumn frosts. However, if the sapling is purchased in the fall, then it should be stuck on a dais and left in this form until spring.
The plant is not very demanding to the soil, but still it will feel better on well-drained, sublime and soft soil, rich in humus and organic matter. If the soil on the site is too acidic or alkaline, then plant a tree on it is not worth it. The soil should be carefully planted before planting and saturate with minerals.
On a permanent place sapling should be planted according to certain rules:
- Dig a hole 50x50 in size and at least 50 cm deep.
- Top fertile soil layer should be mixed with humus and rotted manure or compost. It is also worth adding a little wood ash and double superphosphate.
- Set in a hole strong stick or support pole and cover with prepared soil.
- Set the sapling next to pre-straighten the roots. After that, fill the seedling with soil, shaking it a little and compacting the soil with your hands.
- Carefully water the plant based on the amount of water - 1 bucket per small seedling.
- The soil around the plant should be carefully ground with peat or compost to preserve moisture in the soil.
- Sapling need tie to boarding stake extremely neat.
Plant care rules
In order for the cherry plum to take root in a new place and feel great, you need to properly care for it. Plant care is quite simple, you need:
- regularly remove weeds around the trunk,
- water the plant with enough water
- make the necessary fertilizers,
- cut off extra branches on the trunk,
- to prevent pests and diseases.
Watering should be done as carefully as possible. Cherry plum does not tolerate a large amount of moisture in the soil. However, the root system of the plant is shallow in the ground, so watering should be carried out regularly. Watering is performed several times per season, 5–6 buckets of water per adult tree.
An extremely important part of care is timely pruning. The plant is grown in the form of a tree or a bush. Cherry plum is distinguished by the rapid growth of shoots, so they need time to pinch. Otherwise it will lead to the stretching of the branches and their weakness. Starting the formation of the crown, do not cut branches too hard. Most often cut only damaged, old and too crooked branches. Bottom growth must be removed, otherwise it will pull the sap from the main tree and will not allow it to grow. If the branches are very thin, it can lead to sunburn or to the plant freezing during harsh winters.
Pristal zone of the plant for the winter should be mulched. But if winters are expected to be too cold, carefully cover the trunk and tree roots. In order to protect the trunk and cherry plum roots from rodents should be covered with lapnik. This will scare off rodents and will not allow the plant to suffer.
Fertilizing and fertilizing
Alycha is extremely positive about fertilizing the soil. But in the first year after planting the tree fertilization is not required. After all, mineral and organic substances have already been added to the prepared pit. But as the plant grows, it is necessary to apply both mineral and organic fertilizers during growth and fruiting. Spring to soil make nitrogen mixtureand in the summer and autumn of potash and phosphorus. Organic fertilizers can feed the plant both in autumn and spring.
Alycha prefers neutral soils. Therefore, you should carefully monitor this. Too acidic soils need to shed lime or make wood ash in them. Perfectly helps to cope with alkali and gypsum introduced into the soil.
Breeding plum rules
Now you know what plum is, planting and care in the middle lane, for which there are some nuances. In particular, it concerns the reproduction of trees. She is performed by vaccination, seed method and layering.
The most popular method of breeding colony cherry plum is grafting. But this method has one significant disadvantage - the grafted plants lose their frost resistance and can freeze out in winter. For this, an incision is made on the trunk or a large branch and the graft is attached to it.
Perfectly proven and colony plum cutting. For this, a strong stalk is taken in spring or autumn and placed in sandy soil until the roots appear. For best results, it is recommended to place the tray with the handle in the greenhouse or under the film.
Diseases and pests
The plant is not very susceptible to pests and diseases. But often she is attacked by dangerous insects:
- plum moth,
- apple orchard,
- black and copper goldfish.
For to protect cherry plum from these pests should carefully monitor the condition of the garden and carry out preventive measures. To do this, use special remedies for pests that should be sprayed in the garden before flowering.
Southern cherry plum plant has long been grown in mid-latitudes. If you choose the right plant according to its description and care for it, it will delight the gardener with fruits and beautiful flowers.
What to consider when choosing a grade
Cherry plum is a heat-loving plant, so it is recommended for gardeners of the Moscow region to grow hybrid trees crossed with a plum. Hybrids easily withstand even severe frosts or unstable climatic conditions, differ in fruiting, resistance to diseases.
Choosing the best varieties, it is recommended to give preference to large crops that will delight the crops. Another rule is to acquire trees of early or middle ripening periods, this ensures that the fruits will have time to ripen. When buying late-ripening trees, it is recommended to study the characteristics more thoroughly.
Early varieties of cherry plum are popular with gardeners, because the fruiting of some trees begins in early July. The description of plants will allow to decide on the choice of culture.
The tree grows medium size, different lush crown. Fruits up to 40 g. Peel of a violet shade, pulp of a saturated yellow shade, with the pleasant refreshing taste.
It tolerates droughts, is immune to diseases. Productivity is high, the adult tree gives up to 50 kg of cherry plum.
Cherry plum, ripening in the middle of summer, is also favored by gardeners - trees bloom rather late (in the middle of spring), fruiting occurs in the second half of summer. Usually varieties resistant to diseases, frost.
A low tree, a crown lush, slightly thickened, although this does not affect fruiting. The hue of the berries is saturated, yellow. The stone is difficult to separate, so fruits are rarely used for jam. Polished with cross trees.
Gardeners like versatility, plum is recommended to use fresh, for baking, preservation. Berries are sweet, with a dense skin. The tree itself is large, up to 4.5 m tall.
Cherry plum justifies its name, magnificently and proudly stands out among the trees in the garden. Abundant fruiting, the berries have a sweet pleasant taste. Fruit weight - up to 30 g.
Cherry plum is ripening in the fall, so not many gardeners are at risk of growing this variety. A distinctive feature of the Gift Primorye - large berries, the mass of which often exceeds 45 g.
Lush tree with a dense crown, fruit is stable. The stem is short, strong, so even after ripening the fruit does not fall off. The quality is good.
The berries of large crops are often compared with plums. Use universal, look great in conservation, desserts, baking.
The advantages of Monomakh include:
- early ripening,
- taste (juicy, sweet),
- easy pitting,
- universality of use.
Fruiting annual, abundant.
The first berries will be eaten in the third year after planting. The advantages include endurance - even temperature drops will not affect the number of fruits.
Fruiting srednee, winter resistance stable. Pollinating varieties will be needed. Use in any form.
Varieties of yellow cherry plum
Most varieties of plum have yellow fruits. Among the most popular cultures note:
- Gilded Scythians
- Gift to St. Petersburg,
Yellow fruit varieties have no particular advantages, they are no different from red fruit to taste and keeping quality.
Fertilizers and fertilizing
Usually use complex fertilizers. Experienced gardeners use mulching - a nutrient layer of compost or humus. With melted snow or rainwater plant receives the necessary components.
What difficulties do gardeners face?
Difficulties with growing cherry plum does not arise, the only thing that gardeners face is that without pollinators, the tree refuses to bear fruit. That is why it is better to find out in advance which variety will do without cross-pollination or immediately plant several plants.
Alycha is a tree that will delight the fruits of the gardeners of the Moscow region, even if they first started growing a crop. Making mistakes in caring for a plant is not easy, it is characterized by small requirements and even with minimal attention will please with juicy sweet fruits.
Planting cherry plum
To accommodate the cherry plum seedlings, it is necessary to choose a well-lit, sunny, protected from frost and cold winds place. The best time for planting is spring after the snow melts and the earth warms up sufficiently, but until the buds of the plant swell, which in the middle lane corresponds approximately to the first half of April. Saplings with a protected root system in containers can be planted in the ground later.
In the fall, planting plum is not advisable, as it may not have time to prepare for frosts. When you purchase a seedling in the autumn, you can simply put it on a raised place until the next season.
Cherry plum is not very demanding on soils, but, of course, it prefers well-drained, fertile, rich in humus and organic matter. It is undesirable to plant a tree in too sour or too alkaline soil. Before planting such a soil is better to first ennoble.
When planting a prepared seedling at a permanent place, it is necessary to follow a certain sequence of actions:
- Dig a hole about 50 by 50 cm in size and about 50-60 cm deep.
- Mix top fertile soil with rotted manure or compost, you can add a small amount of ash and double superphosphate (about 0.5 kg).
- Install a sturdy stick or landing pin in the pit, cover it with prepared soil.
- Dig up the seedling, straightening its roots in the ground, cover it with soil, shake the plant easily and carefully tamping up the soil with your hands so that there are no voids.
- It is good to water the cherry plum seedling at the root in the amount of about 1 bucket per small plant.
- Mix the root zone with peat or compost to preserve soil moisture.
- Gently tie the tree to the landing stake with a string or rag harness.
Proper care for cherry plum
In order for the cherry plum to take root in a permanent place, grow well and bear fruit, it is necessary to properly care for it. Tree care consists of:
- regular weeding from weeds of the stalk zone,
- sufficient watering plants,
- making the necessary dressings,
- a scrap of extra branches,
- preventive measures against diseases and pests.
When watering plants should be respected. Cherry plum does not tolerate excess moisture in the soil. But the root system of the plant is located superficially, so watering is still necessary. It is carried out several times during the growing season, about 5-6 buckets of water per adult tree.
An important part of care is trimming the crown and excess branches. Cherry plum can be grown in the form of a tree or a bush. The plant is characterized by rapid growth of shoots. With a strong pull, the young, still green shoots pinch. When forming the crown, the tree is not pruned too much. Only injured, diseased, excessively stretched and top-shaped branches are cut. Root growth is usually removed. A strong rarefaction of the crown can lead to both sunburn and freezing of the plant in the climatic zone with severe frosts.
In winter, the near-stem zone is usually mulched; it is possible to cover the plant for a cold period in order to avoid its freezing in extreme frosts. Для защиты дерева от грызунов нижнюю часть ствола и прикорневую область прикрывают лапником. Это помогает уберечь растение от порчи мышами и другими мелкими грызунами.
Как происходит размножение алычи?
Размножение алычи может происходить несколькими способами:
- при помощи прививки,
- семенным способом,
A fairly common way that propagated cultivars is grafting. But there are some drawbacks. The grafted plants lose their frost resistance and can almost completely freeze out in severe winters.
Received sufficient distribution and rooting cuttings and layering. For better survival, they can be placed in a greenhouse. Do not forget about the cultivation of own-leaved cherry plum. It is resistant to frost, recovers well after freezing in severe cold.
Varieties for the Moscow region
Varieties bred for growing in the middle lane are distinguished by their general quality - early ripening. The harvest has time to fully ripen before the onset of low autumn temperatures. There is a common informal name for these varieties - “Russian plum”, which combines many frost-resistant varieties of cherry plum.
Large fruit, description
Gardeners appreciate this variety of cherry plum varieties for the size and taste of the fruit.
Low tree, actively bears fruit already at 4-5 year after planting. The branches form a dense crown, growing in a downward direction. Resistant to frost, the crop ripens early.
The fruits of the plum tent are very large, up to 40 grams. To taste the fruit is sweet and sour, suitable for fresh consumption, and for a variety of preparations. The flesh of the fruit is dense, yellow.
The average harvest from a single cherry plum tree is 35 kilograms.
The tent tolerates spring frosts. Cons of the variety is self-infertility (inability to form ovaries without pollinators) and not very persistent tolerance to drought.
Medium-growth tree, grows very quickly, but not higher than 2 meters. The harvest begins to bring in 3 years after disembarkation. Crown cherry plum is very thick and round. Huck fructifies in average terms (second half of July), it is very frost-resistant.
Fruits weigh 30-35 grams, they are sweet and sour to taste. Like many other large-fruited varieties, Huck is suitable for any use - both in fresh form and in blanks. The flesh of the plum is dark yellow.
The yield is high (up to 40 kilograms) and stable, while the branches do a good job with the weight of the fruit. Variety Huck is considered very adaptable to climatic conditions and soil quality. Transportable.
The disadvantages include self-infertility and susceptibility to gray rot.
Middle ripening (second half of July). Low tree with a flat rounded crown of medium thickness. Resistant to frost, brings a bountiful harvest.
Fruits Found weigh 31 grams, the flesh is saturated yellow. The taste of cherry plum is sweet and sour, suitable for canning and for eating fresh.
When overriding berries Found for a long time do not fall, resistant to cracks. The average yield from one tree of this variety is 40 kilograms.
Among the shortcomings can be called only selflessness and complex separation of the bone from the pulp of the fetus.
The best varieties of cherry plum for the Moscow region
Cherry plum in the diet of people is very appreciated for the healthy, tasty fruits, besides having medicinal properties. And if in the south cherry plum grows without any special problems, then in the Moscow region with its unfavorable climatic conditions it is quite difficult to grow ordinary varieties of this crop. In the spring, because of cold, rainy weather, cherry-plum flowers are poorly pollinated, and severe frosts in winter can damage flower buds and young shoots. In order to grow this heat-loving crop in the middle lane, it became necessary to develop zoned varieties with high winter hardiness and early fruit ripening, as well as resistance to the main diseases of stone fruit. As a result of selection work, varieties of cherry plum were obtained for cultivation in the Central region, to which the Moscow region belongs.
Video: review of varieties of cherry plum for the middle band
To get rid of the negative qualities of varieties and enhance their best properties, breeders use multiple crosses between different types of plums. In the early 90s of the last century, the Russian scientist, academician G.V. Eremin, in the process of selection, developed a new variety of cherry plum, crossing Chinese and winter-resistant Ussurian plum resistant to fungal diseases with hybrids of southern plum. New perspective culture received the name "Russian plum" or cherry plum hybrid. In the Moscow region, varieties of this cherry plum showed quite high winter hardiness, good quality of large, very tasty fruits and yield higher than that of ordinary plums.
Cultivated cherry plum variety
To improve the taste and resistance of trees to fungal diseases, during breeding, the most promising varieties of cherry plum and pommel are attracted to the selection, as well as plum and cherry hybrids. So as a result of the use of cherrywood Gayovata, a variety of hybrid cherry plum Colony was obtained.
A new variety was bred by the breeders of the Crimean OSS VNIIR them. N.I. Vavilova by crossing wild-growing cherry plum and cherry plum seedling. A tree with a height of two to three meters has a column shape, with a crown diameter of 1–1.2 m. Rare branches extend from the trunk at an acute angle and grow along it.
An interesting feature of this variety is the huge number of flower buds (annuli), which are laid not only on the branches, but also on the trunk - on short processes, called spears.
In this case, the fruit is loaded mainly with a tree trunk, due to which the role of the lateral branches is insignificant. The stem has strong, tough wood and does not bend under the weight of the crop. Cherry plum fruits are large, weighing 50–70 g, evenly spaced along the entire height of the trunk, starting from 0.5 m from the ground. The color of fruits - from purple to dark burgundy, with a slight touch of prune (fruit wax). The taste of cherry plum is sweet, sweet, slightly sour. Variety refers to the mid-late, the crop ripens in early August.
Video: plum Column-shaped
The compact size of the crown makes it possible to plant many more trees on the site, and the rare arrangement of the branches makes it possible to effectively process the tree in the process of care, making it convenient to gather fruits.
A variety of columnar cherry plum is a variety of column-2. These are tall (up to six meters high) trees of late maturity, with fruits of a dark red color with a whitish touch. The fruit of this variety is smaller than that of the Column-like, each weighs about 35 g, the taste of the fruit is ordinary - sweet and sour. In contrast to the columnar, the bone is easily separated from the pulp of the fetus.
Both varieties of cherry plum are known as excellent pollinating donors for most of the hybrid varieties of Chinese and Ussuri plums.
They characterize cherry plum columnar qualities that distinguish it favorably in comparison with other plum varieties:
- A high degree of winter hardiness of flower buds due to the length of the growing season.
- Trees tolerate winter cold and do not freeze slightly at temperatures as low as -28ºС. If, however, a tree is damaged by severe frost, then it is quickly restored and continues to grow and develop normally.
- The variety is resistant to most fungal and viral diseases of stone fruits.
- High taste qualities and good transportability of fruits enable their various uses: fresh, frozen and processed.
- Unpretentiousness in the care and drought resistance make this variety indispensable when grown on various types of soil and in any conditions.
Colony-shaped fruits grow right on the trunk, have a spectacular color and a wonderful taste. A thin wax coating on the fruit allows you to transport them without loss of presentation
Both varieties of columnar cherry plum do not belong to self-pollinating. For their pollination the best varieties are the late flowering Mara, Pchelnikovskaya, Podarok Saint-Petersburg.
Winterharding and frost-resistant varieties
Winter hardiness of the variety is one of the determining factors when growing cherry plum in the Moscow region. And you should definitely pay attention to it, because in the spring late frosts can cause freezing of flower buds and ovaries. The best indicators of resistance to cold weather have the following varieties: Vladimirskaya comet, Present to St. Petersburg, Ariadna, Anastasia, Nesmeyana, Cleopatra. Winter-resistant varieties of cherry plum obtained mainly by crossing hybrid cherry plum with a related species - Chinese plum, whose wood can withstand temperatures up to -50ºС.
As the earliest, it is possible to characterize the varieties of cherry plum Gold Scythians and Timiryazevskaya. These varieties, despite a number of differences, have much in common:
- both varieties bred in the Moscow Agricultural Academy. K.A. Timiryazev,
- hybrids are the result of free pollination of a seedling of the Kuban comet and are recommended for cultivation in the Moscow region,
- the height of mature trees does not exceed three meters,
- Both varieties of cherry plum are early ripe and have large fruits weighing from 25 to 40 g,
- regular fruiting, the average yield is 25-30 kg of fruit from a tree,
- trees are not capable of self-pollination and need pollinating donors, the best pollinators for these varieties are Pavlovskaya yellow, Traveler, Present St. Petersburg hybrids,
- both varieties have a high degree of winter hardiness and unpretentiousness to growing conditions.
The cherry plum trees of the Golden Scythians look very decorative during the ripening season
The hybrid variety Golden Scythians opens the cherry plum season in the garden. In late June and early July, the trees are a magnificent sight: the branches are literally covered with clusters of large juicy fruits, with a unique aroma and amazing sweet taste. Cherry plum stands out. Scythian gold and color — amber yellow fruit sparkles against the background of dense greenery.
Large fruits of unusual color are the "calling card" variety Timiryazevskaya
Timiryazevskaya trees attract attention due to fruits with a smooth, as if polished surface of burgundy color and light pink sides. The sweet and sour, refreshing taste of this cherry plum tree makes it very popular at the beginning of summer, when fruits are still being tied on the bulk of fruit trees.
The main differences of early varieties are as follows:
- In Timiryazevskaya, the bone is poorly separated from the pulp, in Zlata the Scythians - it separates easily.
- Timiryazevskaya has good resistance to major fungal diseases, Scythian gold - medium.
Video: a little about the beneficial properties of cherry plum
According to experienced gardeners, it is possible and necessary to grow hybrid cherry plum - Russian plum in the Moscow region. Plant a young sapling twig and, after 2–3 years, see the fruits of their labors - the cherry plum tree, flourishing in spring and hung in summer with ripe fruits. Just try!
In the southern regions, with their mild climate, wild cherry plum grows everywhere. In the northern regions, in the middle lane, as well as in the Moscow region in natural conditions, it cannot grow, because it is not winter-hardy. But it is easily crossed with the usual plum, more resistant to frost to sudden temperature changes and frost. In the article we will tell about the best varieties of cherry plum for the Moscow region, we will give their detailed description.
In the suburbs you can grow different varieties of cherry plum
Cultivation of cherry plum in the Moscow region
It was the plum that served as a stock for breeding hybrid forms and new varieties of thermophilic cherry plum for the Moscow region areas. Today cherry plum is divided into several groups, which are varieties of wild cherry plum growing in the southern climatic zone. In the last century, domestic breeders developed a hybrid form based on Chinese plum, from which new winter-hardy varieties were obtained.
Now breeders have given these varieties an informal joint name - “Russian plum” - a regular plum with a specific acidic taste. The cultivars of cherry plum for cultivation in the Moscow region have the best qualities derived from the plum - high winter hardiness and large-fruited, and directly from the cherry plum itself - excellent taste.