Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3, other names - ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium salt of nitric acid). The main active ingredient is nitrogen. It is contained in the composition of fertilizers from 26% (low grades), to 34.4% (highest grades). The second macroelement of classical ammonium nitrate is sulfur, which contains from 3 to 14% in the composition of this agrochemical.
chemical formula of ammonium nitrate
Ammonium nitrate, along with urea (urea) - an ideal fertilizer for spring use. At the start of their development, plants do not hesitate to consume nitrogen in large doses, and in tandem with sulfur, this element is particularly good, and is quickly absorbed. This property explains its presence in the composition of the agrochemical, because sulfur itself is not the most nutrient for plant organisms.
Physiologically, this is an acidic fertilizer that, at the same time, does not acidify the soil with a normal pH reaction. But if you apply ammonium nitrate on acidic soils, then in parallel it is necessary to make calcium carbonate, in the proportion of 0.75 g per 1 g of nitrate.
Ammonium nitrate is needed, first of all, for the active saturation of plants with nitrogen. This is its main task, which helps to solve additionally included in the composition of macro-and micronutrients.
Ammonium nitrate is an economically very beneficial agrochemical. Its price is about 20-25 rubles per kg. If we take into account that the rate of application of this mineral fertilizer is, on average, about 10-20 g / sq.m., then per one hundred square meters (100 sq. m.), you need to spend only 1 kg of fertilizer.
Even considering that the use of ammonium nitrate is not very rational without other mineral fertilizers, it is very beneficial to fertilize.
Buy ammonium nitrate can be in bulk, and in packaged form. Very often in the shops selling goods for gardeners, you can find varieties with various additives. They have a narrower application, but, at the same time, they solve specific problems better than the basic fertilizer with a wide range of uses.
Types of ammonium nitrate
Almost always, this fertilizer is produced using additives of various elements. The presence of such a large assortment is explained by the wide geography of the use of ammonium nitrate, and the attempt to adapt to the needs of agriculture in various climatic zones.
- Ammonia simple. This view was developed very first. The basic idea underlying it is to provide agricultural crops with a powerful supply of nitrogen. The use of ammonium nitrate in agro-industrial complexes in different countries has repeatedly confirmed its high efficiency as the optimal starting fertilizer for most plants cultivated in the middle belt. This type of saltpeter can be equilibrium to replace another popular mineral fertilizer - carbamide (urea).
- Ammonia brand B. It is divided into varieties, first and second. Great for applying and storing at home. Sold in stores for gardeners, and has a convenient packaging, from 1 kg. What can she need at home? For the flowers, ill after the winter spent on the window-sill, for the primary feeding of seedlings, which, in conditions of short daylight hours, is vital nitrogen.
- Ammonium Potash (K2NO3). In the people it is called "Indian saltpeter." This species is especially effective for early spring feeding of fruit trees. It is also ideal for pre-sowing, and subsequent fertilizing for tomatoes, because potassium improves the taste of the fruit.
- Calcium ammonium (Norwegian nitrate). It is simple and granular. It contains calcium. Its production is regulated by TU 2181-001-77381580-2006. The composition of this agrochemical, in addition to the main, includes additional substances - potassium, calcium and magnesium.
Lime-ammonium nitrate is characterized by high strength of granules, it does not cake during storage. It is alarming that it is treated with fuel oil, and this fraction lives in the soil for a very long time, causing it quite a lot of damage.
Lime-ammonia brand is used to fertilize almost all crops. Does not increase the acidity of the soil, is well absorbed. The main advantage is safety - lime-ammonium nitrate does not explode, and therefore it can be transported by any means of transport.
- Magnesium nitrate – water (magnesium nitrate). The formula of this substance is as follows: Mg (NO3) 2 - H2O. Used for vegetable and legumes as an additional source of magnesium.
- Calcium. Available in both dry and in liquid form, which does not need to be diluted. Called "ammoniated calcium nitrate solution".
- Porous ammonium nitrate (TU 2143-635-00209023-99). But this species has never been a fertilizer, and is very dangerous. It was originally used only to create explosives.
Use against plant diseases
Why is ammonium nitrate so widespread in industrial farming? is he not only nourishes the soil with essential macronutrients, but also protects plants from the mass of diseasesstrengthening their immunity.
Especially this property is relevant in case of increased exploitation of land or cultivation of crops from one class in one area annually (non-compliance with crop rotation). For example, a lot of gardeners allocate one and the same piece of land every year for potatoes in small dacha plots. And then they wonder why the tubers that are still in the soil begin to rot. This problem is familiar to many people - you undermine a seemingly healthy bush, and the potatoes are half rotten and smell bad.
Long-term permanent cultivation of this crop in one place leads to the accumulation in the upper layers of the soil of pathogenic fungi in large quantities. Harvest is declining. For the improvement of the soil, it is treated with various disinfecting substances (the most accessible is potassium permanganate solution), and ammonium nitrate is brought under spring plowing., which helps to strengthen the immune system of the plant with the appearance of the very first leaflets. Physiologically healthy cultures deprive the fungi “at home”, the body rejects alien microspores.
The amount of fertilizer used in the before planting application depends on the quality of the soil. If it is necessary to feed already cultivated piece of land, it is enough to use about 20-30 g / m. sq. If we feed exhausted, and poorly nourished lands, then the consumption rate increases to 35-50 g / m. sq.
Ammonium nitrate can be used as a top dressing when planting seedlings. It strengthens young plants, nourishes them with essential macronutrients, and protects against various diseases. This tuk is used for transplanting peppers, cucumbers, melons, as well as for tomatoes, at the rate of 1 tbsp. spoon without a slide under 1 bush.
For subsequent feeding of various cultivated plants the following consumption rates are recommended:
- Vegetables - 5–10 g / m. sq. It is introduced twice during the growing season, in June, before flowering, and in July, after the ovary of the fruit.
- Root vegetables - 5-7 g / m2. It is recommended to make shallow grooves between the rows, and pour ammonium nitrate granules into it, digging them into the ground by 2–3 cm. Feed them once, 3 weeks after germination.
- Fruit trees - 15-20 g / sq. M. In dry form, ammonium nitrate is used once for feeding, at the beginning of the season, when leaves appear, and the solution is fed two to three times per summer, at the root. This method helps to quickly bring nutrients to the roots of the plant, so it is preferable. The solution is prepared in this proportion - 25-30 gr. must be diluted in 10 liters of water.
To dissolve ammonium nitrate, in contrast to many mineral fertilizers, is not difficult, and the diffusion process begins at 0 ° C.
Are there nitrates in ammonium nitrate?
Yes, it is a nitrate fertilizer. Among the wide range of ordinary people there is an opinion that nitrates are very harmful, and they appear in agricultural products when used for the cultivation of mineral fertilizers.
And this is true. But not 100%. As always, lack of awareness leads to massive confusion. The fact is that organic fertilizers, such as manure and compost, which are common to everyone, can overpower vegetables and fruits with nitrates even in the garden. They also contain nitrogen, and harm if they are excessively used will be noticeable, plant products will receive a powerful nitrate filling.
Therefore, when applying all types of dressings, both natural and mineral, it is necessary to observe the recommended application rates. And in order for nitrates not to accumulate in fruits, root crops and berries, It is necessary to stop the use of any dressings two weeks before harvest.
To make ammonium nitrate, use ammonia and concentrated nitric acid. The formula looks like this:
An isothermal reaction proceeds with a large volume of heat generated. The excess water is evaporated, and the process of obtaining the substance is completed by drying it.
At the production stage, ammonium nitrate is enriched with various elements - calcium, potassium, magnesium, to obtain different varieties.
In principle, the process of obtaining this substance is quite simple, so much so that you can even make this fertilizer at home. But it is absolutely inexpedient, since it is much cheaper to buy it, the price is low.
Since the main element of ammonium nitrate is nitrogen, if improperly stored, it can evaporate, significantly weakening the nutritional properties of this agrochemical.
When the temperature changes, the fertilizer will recrystallize, forming poorly soluble granules. Therefore, during storage it is necessary to protect it from sudden temperature shocks.
Ammonium salt of nitric acid is dangerous. It can cause great harm if the storage conditions recommended in the instructions for use are not followed. The fact is that this fertilizer is explosive. When heated above 32.3 ° C, it may explode. Therefore, in the summer, it should be stored under sheds, or in cool, well-ventilated areas, and monitor the temperature of the fraction.
The use of nitrate in the prevention of plant diseases
Why is ammonium nitrate so popular and widespread?
In addition to introducing minerals and essential elements into the soil, nitrate also protects crops from diseases, strengthens their immune system.
This aspect becomes relevant when the exploitation of land is increased and the same plants are grown on a certain plot each season. So, planting potatoes at their dacha, some summer residents from year to year allocate the same land plot for this purpose.
Is it any wonder that, over time, potatoes begin to deteriorate even before harvesting, right in the ground? Long-term cultivation of one crop on a certain piece of land sooner or later leads to the fact that pathogenic fungus begins to accumulate in large concentrations in the soil, causing as a result - leading to a decrease in yield.
Improvement of the soil should begin with the treatment of it with disinfecting substances, for example, a solution of potassium permanganate, and before the start of spring field work, add ammonium nitrate to the soil. It will help healthy cultures to reject the fungus.
What do ammonium nitrate
Nitrate is obtained from concentrated nitric acid and ammonia. The substance belongs to the group of mineral fertilizers with a high content of nitrogen (26–34%). Sulfur is the active component of ammonium nitrate (4–14%). It helps better absorption of nitrogen by plants. The chemical compound is produced in the form of granules or powder. The size of the grains in diameter is 3–3.5 mm. Color is white, gray, light pink. Often other microelements are added to the main ingredients for use in different climatic zones. Saltpetre is permissible to mix with potash or phosphate fertilizers. The procedure for combining nutrients can be carried out immediately before entering into the soil.
Properties of ammonium nitrate
The moderate use of ammonium nitrate for plants gives good results due to its properties:
- Stimulates growth and rapid development of plants.
- Increases resistance of crops to various negative factors.
- Protects against possible bacterial diseases.
- Fruits grown using ammonium nitrate are subsequently stored for much longer.
- Fruiting crops increases.
- Does not affect the quality of the crop.
- The fertilizer is completely dissolved in water, and when irrigated, it saturates the soil with useful trace elements.
The disadvantages of ammonium nitrate is acidity. In acidic soils, a significant decrease in yield is observed.
Neutralize the pH of the soil can be using lime and dolomite, which are taken in the same proportions.
Varieties of ammonium nitrate
If nitre is used as a fertilizer, the composition may vary. There are several types:
- Simple ammonium nitrate - is intended for supplying agricultural crops with nitrogen. Serves as full-fledged replacement of urea.
- Potash - in the composition there is also potassium. This dressing is poured during the period of flowering and fruit ovary. Improves the taste characteristics of the fruit.
- Calcium - used to saturate the soil with calcium. With a lack of this substance, vegetable crops develop slowly, rotting roots, stalks suspend growth.
- Magnesium is an additional source of magnesium.
- Sodium - a type of potassium nitrate. Ideal for potatoes and beets.
- Calcareous includes potassium, calcium, magnesium. Produced in the form of durable granules, easily stored and transported. If the particles are treated with fuel oil, then there is no risk of increasing the acidity of the soil.
- Grade B is a common type of saltpeter for fertilizing seedlings and houseplants.
The chemical formula of simple ammonium nitrate is NH4NO3.
Basic conditions for the use of ammonium nitrate
Highly effective fertilizer is chosen taking into account the composition of the soil, the climatic characteristics of the region, the type of plants, their own agrochemical possibilities.
Universal remedy is suitable for almost all types of soil. In sandy soils, the composition will not change under the influence of nitrate. Applying the effect of acidification in podzolic lands. In clay, heavy soils fertilizer is applied in the autumn-spring period.
Ammonium nitrate is commonly used in gardening. It is fed fruit trees, berry bushes. Fertilize the soil with a nitrogenous substance in the planting of grain, vegetable crops, and also stimulate the growth of weakly growing flowers, decorative leafy houseplants.
It has been scientifically proven that using ammonium nitrate as a top dressing increases crop yields by 40–50%.
Norms and terms of making ammonium nitrate
The nitrogenous preparation is introduced into the earth in a dry and dissolved form. Each dressing is accompanied by abundant watering. If the soil is depleted, then the rate of 1 square. m is 40-50 g of dry matter. In a cultivated soil, the amount of fertilizer is reduced to 30 g per 1 sq. Km. m:
- For seedlings. The rate of dry fertilizer is 5-6 g per well when planting. In the process of growing feed with an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate. For 10 liters of water you need 35–40 g.
- For vegetable crops. The average dosage of 20 g per 1 square. m. In the initial cultivation of the soil rate can be increased. In the period of active growth, 20–30 g of saltpeter and 10 liters of water are needed.
- For garden trees and shrubs. A solution of 10 liters of water with 30 g of fertilizer dissolved in it is poured under the barrel. Nitrogen supplement contributes to the emergence of new shoots.
For foliar fertilizing, ammonium nitrate is not suitable, because you can burn leaves.
Regarding the timing of the introduction of ammonium nitrate - it is preferable to fertilize crops in the spring, at the beginning of the growing season and before flowering. In the second half of the summer, it is not advised to use nitrogenous feedings. This provokes the growth of shoots to the detriment of the formation of fruits. Vegetables need to feed twice before flowering and after the formation of the fruit. Garden trees are fed once, after the appearance of the first leaves.
The use of ammonium nitrate in floriculture
Nitrogen fertilizer is often used in the cultivation of flowers. Because they react to this lush and prolonged flowering. For example, during planting or transplanting petunias, gloxinia, or other colors, add 1 tbsp. l nitre per 10 liters of substrate. Or carry out watering with an aqueous solution of fertilizer.
Ammonium nitrate is also used for indoor ornamental leafy plants. Thanks to nitrogen, the leaves of palm trees, ficuses become larger, acquire a juicy green hue.
The disadvantages of nitrate
Gardeners need to know that in addition to the indisputable benefit ammonium nitrate can cause harm. A few years ago, this nitrogen fertilizer was banned. The reason is the explosion hazard of the chemical compound. Now its popularity has grown due to a wide range of applications and low cost. Однако в процессе работы с данным веществом необходимо соблюдать основные меры предосторожности.
- Chemical characteristics of ammonium nitrate do not allow storing it together with sawdust, peat, lime, straw. Since spontaneous combustion is possible.
- Do not allow the nitrogen solution to fall on the green shoots of plants.
- Exceed the specified dosage of the drug can not.
- It is not advisable to feed the saltpeter cucumbers, squash, zucchini. They tend to accumulate nitrates that are harmful to humans.
- When storing and transporting observe safety precautions.
- Do not leave an open container with fertilizers, nitrogen will evaporate.
- Do not overheat.
- Store in a dark, cool place at air temperature not higher than + 30 ° C.
There are a lot of areas where ammonium nitrate is used, but it is most in demand in agriculture. The usage rate is 80%. Saltpeter takes up more than half of the fertilizer market, and the demand for it increases every year.
Ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate) is a granular substance of a white color with a grayish tint, mostly consisting of nitrogen (up to 35%) - a substance that actively stimulates crop growth. The high efficiency of nitrate is due to the presence in its composition of sulfur (3-14%), which increases the absorption of nitrogen by plants. Fertilizer introduced in early spring is an excellent building material for plants at the start of their development.
Saltpeter used as a fertilizer is almost always produced with the addition of various microelements. The use of these additives due to the characteristics and needs of the soil in certain climatic zones. There are several types of nitrate produced by industry:
- Ammonia is simple. This variety was developed one of the first. Its main task is to fully supply crops with concentrated nitrogen at the initial stage of growth. Top dressing is successfully used in the agricultural industry of many countries as a starting fertilizer, as well as an alternative to urea (urea).
- Ammonia, mark "B". It is subdivided into first and second grade. Its main use is the cultivation of seedlings and houseplants, which, in limited natural conditions, are in dire need of nitrogen. Available in a small convenient packaging, well kept.
- Potash. Besides nitrogen, it also contains potassium. Ideal for pre-sowing in the soil in spring, and also as a top dressing during the period of active vegetation: budding, flowering, fruit ovary. It helps to improve the taste of the crop, so it is widely used by gardeners for fruit trees, vegetables, especially tomatoes.
- Limy. Produced mainly for the agro-industrial complex. Its composition is additionally enriched with magnesium, potassium and calcium. There are two types: simple and granular. The granules of the latter have increased strength - they do not clog during storage, they are safe during transportation. Among the shortcomings it can be noted that lime nitrate is treated with fuel oil, but precisely because of the use of fuel oil, it is well absorbed and does not increase the acidity of the soil.
- Calcium. Produced in granular and liquid form. Its main purpose is to feed crops in case of insufficient calcium concentration in the soil. Calcium deficiency leads to rotting of the roots and stunted growth, and after fertilization with calcium, plant growth is restored, yields increase, fruits last longer.
- Magnesium. Used as an additional source of magnesium for growing vegetables and legumes.
- Sodium. This kind of saltpeter can fertilize any crops on all types of soil. She also found its use in the food industry in the processing of meat.
There is still porous nitrate, but it is used only for the manufacture of explosives, and as a fertilizer can not be applied.
Video "Spring dressing of garlic ammonium nitrate"
Recommendations on the use of ammonium nitrate for plant nutrition in the spring at the summer cottage.
How to apply
Ammonium nitrate, due to its high nitrogen content, is widely used both in the agricultural sector and in individual gardening and horticulture. Despite the acidic environment, this nitrogenous fertilizer has a neutral pH reaction, and therefore it can be used on almost all soils, including acidic ones. But, when introduced into podzolic and acidic soils, simultaneously with nitrate it is necessary to add calcium carbonate to the soil in a ratio of 0.75 g / 1 g of nitrate.
A distinctive feature of ammonium nitrate is its ability to act immediately and at low temperatures, which is not typical of any other fertilizer. Therefore, the tool can be made in early spring, even when the snow is not completely gone. However, to carry out foliar treatment with nitrate is not recommended, since the product can cause serious burns to plants.
Nitrogen fertilizer is quite effective when used on soils of enhanced exploitation. It often happens that the same crops are grown from year to year (crop rotation is disturbed), which subsequently leads to soil depletion and accumulation of pathogenic fungi in its upper layer. It is possible to restore such soil only by disinfecting substances and special preparations, including nitrate.
Such fertilization of soil with nitrate helps to strengthen the protective properties of plants, increases their resistance to fungal putrefactive infections. Made in the ground in spring, it protects vegetable and fruit crops from diseases throughout the season. Ammonium nitrate crystals fairly quickly absorb moisture, which is why fertilizer often sprinkles - turns into large lumps that need to be crushed before use. It is very important that the product has a crumbly structure. Otherwise, lumps will dissolve for a long time, and can cause serious damage to the soil.
Is nitrate dangerous?
More than a third of ammonium nitrate consists of salts of nitric acid (nitrates), and 14% of sulfur, but this does not mean that the product is dangerous to human health. Nitrates are an essential element for plant nutrition, the only question is their quantity. For example, regular feeding of soil by bird droppings or manure, due to their high nitrogen content, also contributes to the accumulation of nitrates in fruit and vegetable crops.
To avoid excessive formation of nitrates in the fruit, you just need to follow the recommended dosage when making funds. It is important to stop using any fertilizer two weeks before harvest. In addition, plants such as melons and gourds, pumpkin, zucchini, cucumbers and squash have the ability to increase the accumulation of nitrates, so fertilize them with ammonium nitrate is not recommended.
Storage of nitrate
Fertilizer refers to agrotechnical chemicals. Its composition contains substances that require special conditions to preserve properties:
- Nitrogen contained in ammonium nitrate can evaporate, therefore it is necessary to store the product in a sealed package without damage,
- ammonium salt (the main substance of the fertilizer) is explosive - at a temperature of 32.5 ° C and higher it can explode, therefore in hot weather it should be stored in a cool room with good ventilation,
- salt crystals easily absorb moisture - in order to preserve the flowing consistency of the product, it must be stored in a dry room, and special moisture-absorbing substances should be placed in bags with ammonium nitrate,
- in the room where the substance is located, it is prohibited to store combustible and other materials that may react: acids, petroleum products, coal, wood, sawdust, lubricants, and also it is forbidden to smoke and use open flame lighting
- the distance from the folded packages to the walls should be at least 0.2 meters, and from the heat source 1, 5 meters.
When storing in warehouses, it is necessary to consider the following requirements: standard packages up to 50 kg can be stacked no more than 12 layers, and no more than 300 tons should be stored in one room. Fertilizer transportation is possible by any transport, except aviation. Ammonium nitrate does not adversely affect humans when inhaled, but can cause severe skin irritations and dermatitis, especially when it comes into contact with moist skin. Therefore, it is recommended to work with fertilizer only in rubber gloves.
This chemical compound has several different names: ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, nitrosulfate. The main active component is nitrogen.which is part of this mineral component. The properties of nitrogen, which stimulates the active development of plants, make it possible to use this mineral compound as an acid-physiological fertilizer for agricultural crops. With the addition of a small amount of sulfur, contributing to the good absorption of nitrogen, the effect of the application increases.
But for the proper use of acidic chemical components need to take into account some of the nuances. For example, you need to know the acidity of the soil, which is supposed to make an agrochemical. Methods for determining the acidity of the soil are many and easy to find on the Internet.
In case of processing by this mineral compound of soil with normal acidity, excessive soil oxidation will not occur. But if nitrogen fertilizer gets into excessively acidic soil, the crops being harvested can be harmed. To avoid this, a component is introduced into the soil with high acidity together with calcium carbonate in a ratio of 0.80 grams per 1 gram of granules.
In the structure of plant development, nitrogen participates in the formation of chlorophyll.due to which the process of photosynthesis occurs, which helps the formation of proteins necessary for active growth. The use of the nitrogen component stimulates the growth, development, fruiting of agricultural crops, increases the quantity and quality of the crop.
Lack of nitrogen is the cause of the sluggish development of many plants. This is expressed in weak stems, yellowed foliage, poor root system. Excess nitrogen is expressed in large, fleshy foliage, delays in flowering and fruit ripening.
This fertilizer is an indispensable growth stimulant. in modern agriculture, including successfully applied to home gardens and vegetable gardens.
The main types of agrochemical compositions based on this chemical compound are available to every gardener and gardener:
- Nitrosulphate, the main nitrogen ingredient with added sulfur. The content of sulfur and nitrate may be different and depends on the grade of nitrosulfate. This is indicated on the fertilizer packaging. The content of the main component ranges from 25 to 34%, the sulfur content is from 3 to 14%. This proportion of basic chemical compounds increases the uptake by plants of other elements necessary for the active development, especially phosphorus. Fertilizer is produced in granular form and perfectly soluble in water.
- Ammonium nitrate is a nitrogenous fertilizer in pure form without added sulfur with a nitrogen content of at least 33%. Consists of fertilizer saltpeter and ingredients that prevent caking. It is produced in the form of granules, it is well dissolved in water. It is produced in Russia, so it is inexpensive.
Universality of mineral fertilizer
Ammonium nitrate, Nitrosulfate and other fertilizers of similar composition include nitrogen of two degrees of plant digestibility.
- Nitrate form - instant and easily absorbed by plants. It is used for feeding.
- Ammonium form - slowly soluble, providing plants with a constant, long-term feed. Used for crops with a long growing season (for example, turnips, onions, cauliflower). In the soil is brought, mainly in a dry form.
These mineral compounds are used as a universal nitrogenous agent for the cultivation of almost all crops.
Methods of use in various types of soil
Soils have their own acidity, and experienced gardeners know this. Soils are divided into acidic, neutral and alkaline substrates. There are some features of making compositions on the basis of this mineral compound in different types of soil.
- In acidic soils from the introduction of nitrosulfate, ammonium nitrate acidification occurs. To prevent this from happening, it is recommended that liming be made by adding lime or other acid-neutralizing mineral compounds.
- Neutral and alkaline soils do not require liming. Acidification does not occur in them.
Fertilizer of various garden crops
Before planting any plants or at the beginning of the season of active growth, it is necessary to enrich the earth with the necessary chemical elements, including nitrogen.
The amount of fertilizer that needs to be treated in the soil before planting or at the beginning of the season of active growth, i.e. in the spring, depends on the application form and the condition of the soil substrate. Forms of fertilizer two:
- Liquid - granules are diluted in water, and dry - granules are introduced directly into the substrate. Exhausted soil requires about 40-60 grams of granulated chemical per 1 sq. Km. meter.
- For well-kept permanently cultivated land is enough 25-30 grams per 1 square. meter.
Additional nitrogen fertilization is also required during the season, and this is done as follows.
- For vegetable crops the chemical is applied twice during the growth period. Once at the beginning of summer, the second - in the middle of summer, 5-15 grams. on 1 square. meter.
- For root vegetables Nitrogen chemicals are used after the emergence of young sprouts in 25 days in the interier and sealed to a depth of 3-4 centimeters. The number of granules is 5-10 gr. on apt. m
- Fruit trees fertilized once in spring in the period of occurrence of foliage to 10-25 grams. on 1 square. m. in dry form or three times per season in liquid form, dissolving 30 grams of granules per 10 liters of liquid to be watered under the root of the tree.
It must be remembered that in one tablespoon fits 17 grams of fertilizer, and in one glass about 170 grams of fertilizer
Some plants do not really need nitrogen, and in the process of assimilation of this mineral component a large amount of nitrates is concentrated. For different crops, the rates of fertilizer application as top dressing during the growing season are different. We need to dwell on this in more detail.
These plants are planted, as a rule, seedlings. Before planting, put 3 gr. pellets in each well. During the flowering period, 35 gr. pellets per 10 liters of water and abundantly watered each bush under the root. During the period of fruit formation, it is impossible to apply fertilizer in order to avoid accumulation of nitrates in them.
It does not really need nitrogen for productive growth, so the rate of fertilizer is low. Before the first hilling diluted 20 gr. mineral component per 10 liters of water. Water in the area, trying not to fall on the tops.
Fertilize begin in the second year of culture growth to avoid excess nitrogen. During this period, between the rows of bushes make grooves, and make fertilizer at the rate of 10 grams. on 1 meter.
In the third year, water is poured into the grooves between the rows of bushes with the composition of 20 grams of the mineral component per 10 liters of water.
Feed twice. For the first time after the appearance of bushes in several sheets. The solution is diluted in proportion to 15 grams. 10 liters of liquid water. Bushes watered at the root. The second time fed in the middle of summer in the same proportion. The third time, cabbage, exclusively late varieties, is fed about 20 days before the fruit is harvested in the proportions described earlier.
Fertilizer is applied before the formation of buds. Bred 1 tbsp. a spoonful of granules per 10 liters of water. Excess nitrogen can adversely affect flowering and bud formation.
Squashes, squash, cucumbers
These crops are not suitable for such a chemical compound. When digesting fertilizers, they concentrate a large amount of nitrates. It is dangerous for health. Replacement can be urea. You can spray the foliage with a one percent urea solution (one part fertilizer per hundred parts of water).
Feeding plants, most importantly, abide by the norm. An excess of nitrogen adversely affects the fruiting crops and provokes the active development of foliage and barren flowers. And also there is an accumulation of nitrates.
When applying fertilizer, you need to follow some precautions:
- Fifteen to twenty days before harvesting, it is imperative that all supplements be stopped with the nitrogen component for all plants. This will help save the fruit from the content of nitrates.
- Application of fertilizer must be accompanied by abundant watering of the plant. This will compensate for the loss of moisture by the root system. Top dressing is better to produce liquid fertilizer solution.
- It is undesirable to get a dressing solution on the leaves and shoots of crops. This can cause severe burns and, as a result, wilting of the plants.
Ammonium nitrate fertilizer explosive and should be stored in a dry place with a temperature of not more than +30 degrees. Smoking and open fire are very dangerous in the storage of this fertilizer. Bags with this fertilizer must not be located closer than 1 meter to heat sources. От сухости помещения зависит, насколько качественно будут сохраняться необходимые для удобрения свойства. Он очень хорошо впитывает влагу, и поэтому в сухом помещении, возможно избежать слёживания.
Аммиачная селитра универсальное азотное удобрение, но применение должно быть умеренным, разумным и строго дозированным. In areas with normal humidity it is used, in the first half of the growing season of growth of agricultural crops, and in areas with high humidity there is a need to use it even in early autumn.
1 Features of ammonium nitrate
Ammonium nitrate, or ammonium, Available in white powder or granule form.. For its production used concentrated nitric acid and ammonia. The composition is highly soluble in water, which allows it to be used both in a dry form and in solution format, for example, for watering fruit trees, bushes.
Buy ammonium nitrate today can be scattered or already packaged. Quite often in specialized stores you can find complex fertilizer from saltpeter, further enriched with other mineral components.
The main difference between nitrate and other popular types of nitrogenous fertilizers, such as urea or urea, is in a more balanced composition, which makes ammonium more versatile and applicable to a larger range of soils.
Ammonium-based fertilizers are represented by a large product range due to geographical, climatic and soil characteristics of various regions.
The most popular types of nitrate are traditionally considered to be:
- simple ammonium or grade A - the first universal starting fertilizer on the basis of nitrogen, used for plants in the middle band,
- brand B - represented by the first and second grade, often packaged in small batches (1 kilogram), suitable for storage at home and is most popular among summer residents and amateur gardeners,
- potash - the best solution for spring feeding of fruit trees,
- calcareous - universal fertilizer that does not affect the soil acidity level and is used for almost any soil,
- calcium - it is used for flowers, it can be used for a lawn depending on the initial characteristics of the soil,
- magnesia - the nitrate enriched with magnesium, is used for top-dressing of vegetable cultures, bean and melon plants.
Like carbamide (urea), ammonium nitrate is best used in the spring. At the early growth stage, almost all cultivated plants require active consumption of nitrogen.
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1.2 Production and storage
Production of ammonium nitrate involves the creation of conditions to stimulate an isothermal reaction, during which a large amount of heat is released. At the final stages of the process, excess water is evaporated and the residual sediment is thoroughly dried, enriching the fertilizer with various additives and additives, the most popular of which are potassium, calcium and magnesium.
Ammonium nitrate production scheme
The nitrogen content in the finished fertilizer depends mainly on the concentration of additional components. It should be noted that an increased concentration of nitric acid may affect the composition and chemical characteristics of the soil.
For this reason, urea (urea) is not recommended for inclusion in acidic soils. The concentration of nitric acid in the composition of ammonium nitrate is lower and does not affect the acidity level of the earth with a normal pH level. Urea (urea), in contrast to ammonium nitrate, is also considered a more aggressive type of top dressing, the dosage of which should be reduced and more carefully calculated.
When storing ammonium nitrate should be remembered that the main element, which is part of it, is nitrogen - a volatile substance, which can evaporate over time. The temperature differential also has a negative effect on the composition and chemical properties of this type of agrochemical.. In this case, the composition can recrystallize, turning into an insoluble powder with loss of quality. The main condition for successful storage is to ensure normal humidity and temperature conditions.
Use the agrochemical carefully, as it is explosive. when heated above 32 o C, during application you should use a respirator and eye protection (when working with a powder mixture).
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Feeding ammonium nitrate is extremely useful for most ammonia-looming crops, in particular, for strawberries, onions, for tomatoes, for cucumbers, for roses, and even for lawns.
The use of ammonium nitrate
It should be noted that the cost of this fertilizer is more than available at its quite economical consumption. The standard dose of making ammonium nitrate per 1 hectare is only 1 kg, respectively, a 50 kg bag is more than enough to fertilize a plot of 50 or even more weave.
Fertilization with ammonium nitrate can be used at almost any stage of the growing season. The timing of fertilizer is usually quite early. For example, for flowers, you can use it almost immediately after the snow melts. Its use is also justified for the fertilization of winter crops and for onions planted before winter.
The effectiveness of feeding with nitrate depends on how and where it is applied, it is recommended to make ammonium nitrate in the following dosage:
- 20-30 grams per 1 sq.m. cultivated soil
- 35-50 grams per square of depleted soil.
On average, the application of agrochemical can be done 2-3 times during the vegetative period. For winter crops and root crops, 1 dressing may be sufficient during sowing. For roses and lawns, early spring irrigation with a solution of low concentration of ammonium nitrate is recommended. Strawberries respond well to root watering at the stage when the flower potential is formed.
A good result also gives the processing of ammonium nitrate sawdust, which are used for mulching the soil around fruit crops and berry bushes. This agrochemical quality impregnates wood pulp and gradually enters the soil during rains.
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2.2 Fighting Disease
The use of ammonium nitrate as an effective means of combating diseases and pests is more than justified if crop rotation is not observed. For example, at the summer cottage the same site can be used from year to year for planting potatoes, as a result of which a favorable environment for the development of pests and soil diseases is formed.
Spraying of crops by solution of ammonium nitrate
Spring dressing will saturate the soil with necessary microelements and contribute to its decontamination. Ammonium nitrate and sugar mixed in equal parts are considered to be an excellent means for disinfecting the soil - this combination works on any type of soil.
The best time to apply is at the stage of preparing the soil for sowing. The same feeding rule can be used for lawn and perennial berry crops.
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2.3 How to make ammonium nitrate with your own hands?
Independent production of fertilizers is very popular among summer residents, especially when it comes to compounds containing nitrates. It is believed that they adversely affect the taste of the fruit and can adversely affect the health of those who eat them.
Home agrochemical properties may differ slightly from the industrial. Its production may be subject to non-compliance with key technology. It is often difficult to maintain the desired temperature and humidity conditions, the inventory used may not meet the technological standards.
Receiving ammonium nitrate at home is quite possible, but we must warn you - the process is rather laborious, and the cost of the agrochemical is low enough to buy it ready.
The main components, however, can be obtained easily - you will need:
To prepare the fertilizer, it is necessary to take the blue vitriol and gradually mix it with ammonia until the composition takes on a light blue tint and precipitates. In the next step, it should be mixed with calcium nitrate and the remaining liquid should be drained. Self-made fertilizer can be used for feeding vegetable crops, and for lawn, and for flowers.
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