Cucumbers are always in great demand. They can make different soups and salads, canned, used in salted and fresh form. If the country house has a free site, then they should definitely be used to accommodate the greenhouse. Fresh green cucumbers grown with their own hands, much better than the market.
Conditions for growing cucumbers
An important factor for the cultivation of cucumbers is the creation of appropriate conditions. In winter, the greenhouse should be provided with artificial heat, and the temperature should not be lowered below 13 degrees.. Vegetables will not grow at low temperatures. There should be no drafts in the greenhouse, and it is also necessary to equip the room with a ventilation system.
Modern material - plastic, is an ideal option for the construction of the frame, unlike metal and wood, it does not rot. For plating, you can choose a glass that passes the maximum light, but there is a more advanced material for this purpose - it's polycarbonatewhich is much stronger than glass. Regular polyethylene is considered inexpedient to use, because its useful life is very low.
Cultivation in open soil
The greenhouse is being prepared since autumn, it replaces the upper part of the soil to a depth of 5 cm, because harmful microorganisms can remain in this layer. If the frame is made of metal, then it should be painted, and the tree treated with copper sulfate. Next is the fertilizer land. Approximately 25 kg of manure is placed per 1 square meter, horse or cow dung can be used, but mixed with phosphate and potash fertilizers (40 grams), lime weighing 500 grams is also added. At the end of the excavation is carried out soil depth of 25 cm.
In the spring, after warming up the soil, beds are made to a height of 30 cm, and a width of at least 100 cm. For ease of movement, it is recommended to make a passage 70 cm wide. Metal wires are mounted above the made beds, vegetables will be tied to it later on. But in the absence of heating in the greenhouse, it is recommended to fertilize the land before planting cucumber seeds. It is done this way: a layer of fertilizer and manure is placed on the formed bed, above the ground is 25 cm thick, then the soil is filled with water and the seeds are planted.
Features of growing cucumbers in the greenhouse
Often, many are faced with a common problem for the purchase of fertilizers, instead of manure allowed the use of chips, sawdust, foliage, tops and the rest of the material that is decomposed.
This compost is capable of generating heat. Fertilizer must be buried in the ground.. And in the future, sowing seeds of cucumbers.
How to grow cucumbers in the greenhouse: the right technology
Many beginners do not understand how to grow this vegetable. To know how to plant cucumbers in a greenhouse, you must take into account the advice of experienced gardeners. Most gardeners grow cucumbers without using seedlings. They planted about 4 plants per 1 square. m. Landing begins April 20. If the seeds are densely planted, the yield efficiency will decrease due to high density. For confidence, in one hole put 2 pieces of seeds - this is necessary in order for one of the two to germinate. If 2 plants grow, one, weaker, is removed from the root.
For the planting of cucumber seeds in the greenhouse, a hole 1 cm deep is made. Planting material is put in there and lightly sprinkled with earth. For greater effect, it is recommended to powder with perlite or vermiculite. Then the surface needs to be covered with a film, preferably on pipes that have previously been installed in an arcuate form, a covering material is stretched on them. For shelter it is also allowed to use plastic bottles placed directly at the seed locations.
The process of growing cucumbers in the greenhouse
With the help of an auxiliary shelter, a normal temperature is created in the manured soil. With such heat, cucumbers in the greenhouse begin to grow after a few days. To provide seedlings with oxygen, the film leans back for a while. The temperature of the compost begins to decrease after 30 days.
Weather conditions affect the further growth of seedlings. At high street temperatures, cucumber seedlings can burn. It is necessary to control the greenhouse microclimate, measure the temperature of the air, the ground every day, and also carry out a ventilation. The normal temperature range of the greenhouse is 18-30 degrees. It is in such conditions it is necessary to grow vegetables.
Soil for growing cucumbers in the greenhouse
The soil must have a carrying and absorbing capacity with the presence of fertile properties. It is in this soil should be grown cucumbers. It must contain a mixture of field soil, peat, humus, with the following ratio: 2: 5: 3.
For loosening sawdust ideal coniferous trees. For high-quality cultivation of cucumbers It is recommended to prepare the soil using this technology: sow the seeds with seeds and cover with additional film for additional heating.
On the day of the landing of vegetables, the heated greenhouse is released from the covering film, and the holes are made in staggered order. About 4 plants are placed per square meter, and the width between them is 50 cm.
The holes should be treated with potassium permanganate solution, then the soil is watered with warm water. The earth lump must necessarily be placed so that it silently protrudes beyond the surface of the bed a couple of centimeters.
Proper care of greenhouse cucumbers
Caring for cucumbers is necessary, it is: the formation of a bush, loosening the soil, garter, weeding and dressing. Do not expose vegetables to sudden temperature changes.. If an average of 11 degrees is kept at night and 24 degrees by day, then the ovary will be weak. But if the day will be from 12 to 15 degrees, the root system will stop absorbing moisture, then the leaves will turn yellow, in the end they can dry out and die. To avoid this, you need the right care for the plants.
For the other varieties also need care. When growing bee pollinating varieties tactics of bees are used. For these purposes, suitable sugar syrup. But they can harm the parthenocarpic variety, in this case, just before the blooming of the flower, the corolla is removed. Then the bees will not be able to sit on the flowers, but in the absence of the rim, cucumbers will not cease to develop the ovary.
Important! Gardeners who use parthenocarpic varieties for growing should know that when the first female flowers appear, hand pollination is performed.
Watering greenhouse cucumbers
It is necessary to provide aeration of the soil, because cucumbers prefer moisture, and in case of lack of oxygen, the death of the plant can occur. Normal soil moisture should be in the range from 70% to 80%. Water for irrigation heats up to 25 degrees, watering is done in the morning. It is impossible to subject cucumber leaves to watering, otherwise yellow spots are formed.
Before flowering itself, watering is done once a week, but after that, at normal temperature, it should be watered a couple of times in 7 days. In hot weather, you must provide moisture every day. It is not necessary to flood the plants with a hose, only the soil is moistened, and not the cucumbers themselves.
Feed additives for cucumbers in the greenhouse
Excess or lack of fertilizer is determined only by the appearance of cucumbers. Methods for determining:
- Experienced gardeners say that if there is an excess of nitrogen, there is an excessive planting of the plant, and the active formation of the bud begins, but such plants will not bear fruit. The sluggish development is associated with a lack of nitrogen, the cucumber foliage has a pale green color, their stems are very thin, then yellow color and dying out appear.
- Potassium starvation is manifested in the form of brown drying leaves, as a result, the foliage begins to die. This symptom has a name - opal or burn. The cucumber fruits themselves acquire an arcuate hook shape.
- Magnesium deficiency is expressed in meshylline chlorosis, the veins of the plant turn green, but the fabric brightens.
- For growing cucumbers in the greenhouse, phosphorus deficiency is considered a rare phenomenon, with such a shortage the plant grows slowly, the foliage becomes shallow, then the leaves become blue, then they become dark and dried.
Only on these grounds can we determine the shortage of nutrients. In order not to wait for the onset of such symptoms, uniform feeding of cucumbers is allowed. The first top dressing is done at the beginning of fruiting - 25 days after planting, then top dressing is done every 10 days. Cucumbers categorically do not accept chlorinetherefore, potassium chloride and potassium salt should be excluded. Useful substances include potassium sulphate and potassium nitrate. It is preferable for cucumbers to feed substances in a liquid state.
How cucumbers are formed in the greenhouse
The main stem of the cucumber can grow up to 3 meters in height. Pinching method is used for cluster formation.. Pinching and Garter:
- Topping. The stem of the hybrid should be pinned above the third leaf. For accelerated growth, pinching is carried out after the fifth sheet. After the ninth leaf begins the active phase of the formation of the bush. In the first four of the sinus should pinch all flowers, as well as all shoots. The following five nodes also pinch in the following pattern: one fruit - one leaf. Then after such a procedure a compact fruit-bearing shrub is formed.
- Garter. Vertical lanes are attached to the horizontal wire, along which cucumbers will grow. This is done very simply: it is enough to cut one twine to a length of 250 cm and transfer it through the wire, then the two edges become attached to the plant at the level of the third sheet. It is not recommended to strongly tighten the loop, because the plant will increase in volume. When the cucumber reaches its peak of growth, it should be pinched, tied with a wire and lowered down.
Cucumber pests in the greenhouse
As cucumbers grow in the greenhouse, various pests appear that destroy plants not only in open soil, but also in a protected place. Conceived they are attacked by spider mites, whiteflies and aphids. List of pests:
- White fly - the pest feeds on juice, and the larvae create stickiness, as a result a black fungus appears and covers the plant with a bloom of dark color. The whitefly is afraid of water, therefore the plant in this case should be sprayed periodically. Along the edges of cucumber plants, tobacco can be planted, which is a bait for these pests, after which they can be sprayed with Inta-Vir solution.
- Greenhouse aphid - Black aphids often appear on cucumbers. The pest resembles whitefly, they also leave a sticky substance on the plant, after which a fungus is formed. You can fight with aphids by treating with ashes: a bucket of water 200 grams. Then liquid soap is added and everything is mixed.
- Greenhouse spider mite - is one of the most dangerous pests for greenhouse cucumbers. When they appear, a web is formed, and the foliage takes on a yellow shade. They suck out cell sap and spread all sorts of diseases. To avoid such pests, plant residues and debris should be removed from the greenhouse, and the soil should be kept wet. Cucumbers are processed onion solution with garlic peels.
For high-performance vegetables, proper care should be provided. These are the rules in the field of growing cucumbers.
Illumination requirements for growing cucumbers in the greenhouse
The yield of vegetable crops, including cucumber, depends on the intensity of photosynthesis, especially in the greenhouse. The main influence on photosynthesis has a luminosity of plants. For the most optimal use of the illumination of plants, it is necessary to correctly place the plants in it. To tie a cucumber across the greenhouse, they pull the trellis, that is, the wire. Distance. between two trellis 100 cm. The specified trellis can be used not only for cucumber, but also for tomato, pepper and eggplant.
Planting cucumbers in the greenhouse: the scheme, distance, soil preparation.
Landing pattern Seedlings of hybrids Vyatka, Well done, Apollo, planted at the rate of 2,7 plants per 1 m 2. Planting pattern is 90 x 40 cm. Plants are planted strictly under the trellis in the dug holes. The distance between the plants is 40cm. Hybrids Vyatka, Well done and Shik have a strong shoot formation. They can be planted at the rate of 1.8 plants per 1 m 2. On the garden instead of six plants, you can place four. The wells before planting watered with warm water. Prepared seedlings are planted in the wells and covered with soil. Bottom part of seedlings mulch dry soil or peat. Plants after planting do not water. Moisture in the soil lasts for 2-5 days, depending on temperature. The first watering is carried out in 2-3 days in the root part with warm water (water temperature 25-30 О С) consumption of 100-150 ml. on the plant with the addition of humate.
Optimum temperature in the first week after landing
The optimum temperature in the first week after planting is 20–22 ° C. After a week, when new leaflets form on the seedlings, and the root system grows, the temperature can be reduced to 18–20 ° C. The Vyatsky, Well done, Chic, Hybrids do not reduce activity growth with a decrease in temperature to 16 o C.
Pros and cons of growing cucumbers in a polycarbonate greenhouse
Growing cucumbers in the greenhouse allows you to:
- to significantly extend the growing season and the arrival of the crop,
- create optimal conditions for the growth and development of plants and ensure maximum returns per unit area,
- use constructive elements of the greenhouse to improve working conditions for plant care and harvesting.
With all the positive aspects, please note that:
- production of cucumber in the greenhouse requires a fairly high cost of materials, depending on the type of greenhouse, which increases the cost of production,
- requires constant disinfection of structures and soil, replacement of the soil, due to the accumulation of pathogens in an enclosed area,
- when planting pollinated varieties, it is necessary to ensure the presence of insect pollinators.
Types of greenhouses and their features
Different materials are used as the basis for the installation of a protected ground, therefore the cost of greenhouses, their heat-saving characteristics, and the service life differ significantly. The frame of greenhouses can be wooden or metal, differ in height and ability to withstand the coating weight:
Modern, durable, fairly lightweight material allows you to arrange greenhouses for early spring use. They retain heat well when heated. For winter operation, such greenhouses are not warm enough.
This coating material is quite heavy, so the frame must be durable. Glass greenhouses can be used all year round with proper design and heating.
Both high greenhouses and low temporary protective structures are built. Lightweight material allows the use of a simple frame made of wood, polyethylene, plastic pipes and thick wire. Such greenhouses are intended for spring use after thawing of the ground, growing seedlings for open ground and obtaining earlier products.
How to grow cucumbers in the greenhouse
Different varieties are grown in greenhouses for ripening, frost resistance, methods of pollination. It all depends on the technological capabilities of the protective structure and product requirements. In the winter heated greenhouses in the presence of insect pollinators, bee pollinated varieties give the best result, otherwise self-pollinated varieties are planted.
Landing dates depend on the type of protective structure, the possibility of heating, the region, the weather conditions of the current year. In the winter heated greenhouses, sowing of seedlings in the presence of bleaching is started in November, and planted in a permanent place from the end of January. In spring greenhouses without heating, seedlings are planted not earlier than April - May, as soon as the appropriate temperature level is established.
Lighting and temperature for growing
Cucumber grows well in lighted greenhouses, poorly tolerated constant shading, but in hot, very sunny weather without shading can get burned.
The optimum temperature before fruiting:
- at night - not below + 17 ° С,
- in the afternoon - not below + 20 ° C,
- at night - + 20 ° С
- in the afternoon - from + 23 ° to 28 ° С.
Watering cucumber is carried out using a watering can, a hose or a specially arranged sprinkler or drip irrigation. It should be carried out in such a way as not to wet the plants, not to blur the root system, to ensure uniformity.
Watering is carried out during the day, in clear weather, with closed windows, with warm water. The first watering after planting seedlings is carried out in a few days, when the plants pass acclimatization.
Подготовка почвы к посадке
В зависимости от плодородия почвы, количество органики составляет от 10 до 15 кг на 1 м² площади теплицы. Если органика не внесена с осени, заправку можно провести под весеннюю перекопку, при этом навоз можно использовать только хорошо перепревший.
Перед посадкой на 1 м² вносят:
- суперфосфат — 2 ч. л.,
- wood ash - 2 tbsp. l.,
- "Agricola-5" (complex for pumpkin) - 2 tsp.
Also add ready-made nutritional mixtures for cucumbers (up to 2 kg or in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions). A week before planting, the ground is watered abundantly with warm water, which heats the soil and makes organic matter work. You can add 2–3 l of the “Energen” solution per 1 m² of soil.
Seed in the greenhouse cucumbers sown rarely, and only in the warm season. To effectively use the area of protected ground, prepare seedlings in pots.
Seedlings aged 25-27 days with 4-5 sheets are planted in the main areas of the greenhouse. It is prepared both in the same greenhouses, and in warmer rassadnyh offices and home conditions.
Cucumbers are planted in ridges or ridges. The planting scheme is chosen depending on the width of the greenhouse, the variety and the seedlings are planted with one or two lines with a distance between bushes in a row of at least 40-60 cm. The distance between the ridges is left up to 80 cm.
The wells are prepared immediately before planting, their size should correspond to the size of the seedling pot. On one well spend 1 l of a solution of organic fertilizer "Effekton-O" (3 tablespoons. Per 10 liters of warm water). On average, 1 plant planted 4 plants.
Must provide soil moisture up to 50-60% and air - up to 70-90%. On hot days, 4-5 liters of water are used for 1 m² (temperature + 20 ... + 22 ° C). Before flowering, watering is carried out in 2-3 days, and with the appearance of ovaries it is increased. It is better to water in the grooves, so as not to bare the roots, or to sprinkle.
Carry out after watering to ensure the access of oxygen to the roots. Loosening should be careful, shallow, so as not to damage the roots. With a strong compaction, the soil is pierced with forks.
Conducted at all stages of development, but the food is different in composition:
- for seedlings (the first 10-15 days) - nitrogenous, organic fertilizers are combined with mineral fertilizers: for 10 liters of water, 1 l of mullein and 20 g of urea are added,
- prior to flowering, phosphoric, to the previous solution add 40 g of superphosphate,
- from the second half of the growing season - nitrogen-potassium, ammonium nitrate and potassium salt (3-10 g), boric acid (0.5 g), manganese (0.3 g), zinc sulfate (0.2 g ).
Solution consumption is about 0.5 l per adult plant. Before and after feeding spend watering.
Good effect is obtained from foliar fertilizing with a solution of copper sulphate, boric acid and potassium permanganate (2 g per 10 l of water).
From the video you can learn tips from an experienced gardener on how to grow greenhouse cucumbers.
The most rational and common method of cucumber garters in greenhouses is vertical tying. For his device used structural elements of the greenhouse. If their strength does not allow it, high (as far as the height of the greenhouse allows) and reliable metal or wooden supports are installed at the beginning and end of the row, between which a strong rope is stretched, a wire or a crossbar is placed.
Each plant and left side shoots are tied to this U-shaped structure with the help of long, soft ropes with a loose knot.
Peculiarities of pollination
To get a good crop of cucumbers in the greenhouse, you need to consider that there are varieties that require artificial pollination (bee-pollinated) and self-pollinated (parthenocarpik). Bee pollinated varieties have higher yields, precociousness and moderate requirements for light. If it is not possible to keep bees or bumblebees in the greenhouse, then self-pollinated varieties should be selected.
Fight against diseases and pests
In the conditions of a closed space, especially with poor ventilation, high humidity and temperature changes, favorable conditions are created for the development of various diseases: bacterial, fungal, viral. Fighting them is not easy, so the focus should be on prevention:
- decontaminate structures, soil, timely remove weeds, and remove diseased plants,
- use resistant varieties and seed dressing,
- Ventilate the room and maintain an optimum temperature / humidity ratio.
For disinfection use checkers "Fas", "Climate", drugs "Aktellik 2", "Bayleton", "Pharmaiod-3".
During the period of active fruiting cucumbers should be removed every 2 days. At the same time remove the injured and ugly ovary. Fruits are harvested early in the morning or in the evening. Work is done carefully, without tugging the plant, leaving the stalk in place.
Growing conditions for sheaf cucumber varieties
Currently, preference is given to the cultivation of sheaf varieties of cucumbers, which are small-fruited and form several ovaries at each node. The number of ovaries on one bush can reach 500 pieces, they are distinguished by high yield, excellent taste and commodity qualities.
In order for the plants to be able to feed and form commodity greens, it is necessary to maintain a high level of agricultural technology.
In order for cultivation in the greenhouse to bring moral satisfaction and dignified results, it is important at all stages of development to strictly carry out agrotechnical measures and carry out prevention of the development of diseases.
One of the important issues for the gardener - the choice of the greenhouse and its location. The greenhouse is chosen so that it is roomy in size and provides vegetables for the whole family. The optimum ratio of volume to area is 2: 1. The height in the greenhouse should be on average equal to 2 meters (more to the center, less on the sides). The ridge has an average height of 2.5 meters.
Smaller height is undesirable, since the lash of cucumbers over the season grows to 3-3.5 meters. And it is inexpedient to do the above, as the air will warm up more slowly. In the greenhouse should be provided for the ventilation system. Ideal if it is automatic.
The greenhouse is placed on a flat surface or with a slight slope to the south. The direction of the greenhouse is the same: from north to south, for better illumination of plants. In the greenhouse put capacity in order to water cucumbers only with warm water.
Selection of varieties for closed ground
Self-pollinated or parthenocapic cucumber varieties are suitable for closed ground. And those and others do not need bees. Plants tie the fruit in closed conditions without external intervention. But the process of formation of ovaries occurs in different ways.
Self-pollinated are such cucumbers, in which pollination occurs as a result of the fact that pollen is transferred from stamens to the pistil inside one flower. In this case, the plant has no female and male flowers, respectively, and there are no empty flowers.
Parthenocapic translated as "virgin", that is, the cucumber is tied without pollination. In adulthood partocapic fruits always stand out for their appearance. They have virtually no seeds. And if they are, they are very tiny, in their infancy.
Among self-pollinated there are varieties and hybrids. A variety differs from a hybrid in that it is a fairly stable form that transfers its basic qualities through seeds. If you buy a variety of a cucumber once, you can plant it year after year, collecting the seeds yourself. Its varietal characteristics while preserved.
Currently, hybrids are more common, they are denoted in the names as F1. Such cucumbers do not pass their qualities through seeds, so gardeners have to buy them every year. If this is not done, then splitting occurs in the second generation, and it is not known exactly which signs will appear as a result.
Consider several popular varieties and hybrids for greenhouses and greenhouses:
- Adam F1. Dutch self-pollinated high-yielding hybrid. Appreciated for setting fruit very early. In just a month and a half, you can begin to harvest. The second undoubted advantage is the extended period of fruiting. Cucumbers are located 5-7 together. With insufficient care, 2-4 fetuses are tied in the knot. Cucumbers grow not only beautiful in appearance: dark, small, with small spikes. They are tasty both in preparations, and in a fresh look.
- Zyatek F1. A very popular parthenocapic hybrid. His love for precocity, the first fruits appear already on the 40th day. A bouquet arrangement is still appreciated. Cucumber of this hybrid cornish type, the form is cylindrical. They do not grow large, the growth stops at 14-16 cm. The fruits of this variety are tasty and productive.
- All the envy of F1. Despite the fact that this hybrid appeared relatively recently, it has already become popular among gardeners because of the high yield and beam arrangement of the fruits. Scourge at a grade powerful. They develop up to frost and give a wonderful harvest on the side shoots. The thin peel makes it possible to use these fruits both in fresh form and in pickling.
- Fed dad F1. One of the salad species for closed ground. Long, smooth, cylindrical fruits are suitable for salad and fresh consumption. This variety is not suitable for whole-canned canning, but when cooking lecho and other blanks, where shredded fruit is needed, just right. As well as the previous ones, a variety with a bundle located in the ovary is precocious and resistant to diseases.
- Ekol F1. One of the new, very successful parthenapic hybrids. This cucumber is suitable for those who can preserve pickles (greens 3-6 cm). That is why it can be torn off within 35-38 days after the appearance of the first shoots. Zelentsy at Ekol equal, cylindrical, grow bunches. They are collected every day so as not to overgrow.
- Chinese cold-resistant F1. From the popular series of long and sweet cucumbers. It is suitable for growing in greenhouses, where it is easier to tie. Scourge him powerful, growing rapidly. The fruits themselves reach half a meter in length. Smooth and tasty cucumbers can be used in a salad or harvested slices for the winter.
The inscriptions on the cucumber bags “Parthenocapic (self-pollinated)” are incorrect. A variety or hybrid can be either that or another. Most often we are talking about parthenokapikah.
The preparatory process of planting begins with the soil. If you grow cucumbers through seedlings, then first you need to prepare or buy a special mixture in which you will plant the seeds.
Cucumbers are very fond of loose and fertile soil, so for sowing seeds need the same. The soil should be not only light, but also moisture-retaining, which is very important for cucumbers, drinkers. That is why it is better to exclude peat from the composition or use it in small quantities. Shopping land, which most often has a lot of peat in its composition, begins to dry quickly at home.
Watch for acidity, namely peat has an acidic reaction. In order for cucumbers to develop normally, the pH level should be about 6.5-7.
The composition of the substrate for seedlings of cucumbers:
- sod land - 3 parts,
- humus or fully matured compost - 2 parts
- sand - 1 part.
This mixture must be sieved, so that there are no large parts. The mixture can be ignited in the oven for 10-20 minutes or frozen. It is best to prepare the mixture in advance, in the fall and put it in a bag. Place the bag on the balcony to kill the pathogens. Before sowing, add a liter of vermiculite for looseness, a glass of ash and 2 tablespoons of superphosphate to a bucket of the mixture.
Properly prepare the seeds for sowing
Previously, before sprouting, gardeners performed a procedure such as warming the seeds. This is a long-term heating of dry seeds at heaters at a temperature of 30-35 degrees.
Such events have a positive effect on the increase in the formation of female flowers in all pumpkin.
When preparing self-pollinated and parthenapic hybrids for sowing, the seeds do not need to be heated, since they do not have the problem of the formation of barren flowers.
Now often sold seeds that have already been treated with thiram. Information is contained on the packaging. The seeds are painted in a poisonous green color as a warning about the toxicity of the applied substance. Thiram is a fungicide that is used against a complex of diseases. Such seeds are not soaked or germinated.
If you have ordinary seeds, they must be treated with a fungicide or a saturated solution of potassium permanganate. When there are many varieties, you need to decompose them in gauze bags and place them for 15-20 minutes in the prepared solution.
After that, you need to rinse the seeds and start germination. Sprouting does not affect the yield, but avoids planting empty seeds.
Before germination, seeds should be placed for a few hours or overnight in a small amount of water for swelling. Water should cover the seeds a little so that they do not “suffocate”. Hardening cucumbers is not necessary because they lack the cold resistance gene.
Advantages of the seedling method:
- allows you to get a result earlier than when sowing seeds
- the plant will grow and mature in comfortable conditions for itself,
- sorting is possible: you can see which plants are developing better and which are worse,
- some seeds do not germinate immediately or freeze during the growth of seedlings.
It will be easier to care for plants of the same height. The rest can be planted in a corner so that plants of the same type grow in one place. Such measures will allow to receive an early and amicable harvest.
In order for the cultivation of seedlings to become an advantage, you need to try to do it correctly. Ready for planting cucumbers should not be overgrown, strong, without signs of disease. Ideal - 3-4 sheet.
For sowing, individual cups are taken at once to ensure that the root system is properly formed. If this is not possible, then seeds are planted in the bath at a distance of 5-10 cm from each other. Seeds must be properly prepared and germinated. Sprouts are small, so-called "beaks", so as not to break.
Before planting, the hole into which the seed is placed is shed with hot water with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Top cucumber seed sprinkled with loose soil layer of 2 cm.
If possible, cover the container with cucumbers with a damp cloth or plastic bag for 1-3 days until seedlings appear.
Soil preparation in the greenhouse
Cucumbers are very fond of loose and fertile soil. Such are fertile loams. The clay is too heavy for them, there is no breathability in it. The sand is loose, but it does not hold water, and without it, cucumbers will not grow. In extreme cases, sandy loam is suitable, in which you can add a bit of heavy clay soil to balance the composition.
In the greenhouse you need to prepare the soil in advance. It is possible to plant siderats immediately after harvesting vegetables, and dig them with them before the frost. The best option would be leaf mustard. It disinfects the soil and enriches it with valuable trace elements.
With the onset of winter, it is necessary to shower the snow in the greenhouse, so that in the spring the moisture will saturate the soil. After all the snow has melted, they dig up the ground in the greenhouse. Holes before planting seedlings need to prepare in advance. The ideal option is warm ridges, because cucumber is a very thermophilic culture.
They can be made both in autumn and spring. If this is not possible, then they put humus or compost mixed with ashes and double superphosphate into the prepared grooves or holes: one bucket half a cup of superphosphate and a liter of ash. Then powdered on 10-20 cm loose soil.
If you change the soil in the greenhouse in the fall or spring, then you should take into account that you need to take the soil from those plots where vegetables were grown the day before that have no common diseases with cucumbers: cabbage, onions, carrots, peppers or potatoes.
Seedlings are planted in the ground when the soil temperature reaches 15 ° C. This is a very important point. The air temperature in the greenhouse is important, but secondary. Although any cover for growing cucumbers should be equipped with a thermometer.
Cucumbers love heat, especially the temperature of the soil is important to them. For objectivity you need to make measurements in the morning. Experienced gardeners cover the place where the temperature will be measured, board or plywood, so that the place is not heated by the sun.
Under the shelter is placed a thermometer to a depth of about 20 cm and left for 15-30 minutes. So you get a fairly objective result. In order for the soil to heat up faster, it can be covered with plastic wrap, as well as make a warm ridge.
But it starts to work only at a certain temperature, so you first need to shed it with hot water, and then cover it with a film. To activate biofuels on cold days, you have to do this several times before the start of the season.
Planted seedlings so. At the beginning, we make a depression in the well already filled with fertilizers by the size of the root system of the cucumber. The distance between the future plants is about 40-60 cm. Then it is necessary to shed with warm water with the addition of a weak solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection.
Seedlings need to be deepened to the cotyledon leaves or the first present. The soil around is slightly compacted, and around you can sprinkle with dry earth.
It is possible to additionally mix ridges with cucumbers to preserve heat in the soil.
Optimal conditions for the growth of cucumbers
Cucumbers and tomatoes are not in vain planted separately. Хотя некоторые умудряются получать неплохие результаты, выращивая их вместе. Огурцам для роста и хорошего урожая нужны особенные условия: свет, тепло, влажность, полив и другие. Условия выращивания огурцов почти такие же как у всех тыквенных.
Огурец очень отзывчивая на поливы культура. Он должен быть регулярным, без этого урожай не будет хорошим. In dry years, it generally may not be, because water is instantly absorbed by the soil. Watering in a greenhouse or greenhouse should often, do not allow the leaves to wilt.
This feature is associated with the structure of the root system of cucumber. It is located close to the surface of the soil, so the plant is not able to take water from the depth, as it is done, for example, by tomatoes. The condition of the plant depends on how often you water it. In hot weather, the formation of fruits should be done every day.
Cucumber recommended irrigation by sprinkling. With this method, the water is poured into small drops, partially evaporating. This increases the humidity in the greenhouse, which is very important for cucumber. The earth is saturated with water gradually, which allows the roots to better absorb moisture.
Water consumption per 1 m2 is approximately 15-25 liters per day or every other day, depending on the weather. With the formation of fruit water consumption increases and is 20-30 liters.
It is impossible to water cucumbers with cold water. It used to be said that the fruits become bitter from it. Now the fruits are genetically sweet, but cold water is undesirable for watering, because it increases the likelihood of plant disease.
We must not forget about feeding. The growth of cucumbers is rapid, the yields of modern hybrids are very high. In order for the plant to be able to “feed” them, it is necessary to apply fertilizer 1-2 times a month, literally from the first days.
Fertilizers are organic and mineral. Organic is natural fertilizer. These include manure, green grass fertilizer, ash, chicken manure. When growing seedlings from the listed fertilizers, only ash is used when preparing the substrate for sowing seeds.
Before planting in the ground, seedlings are fed 1-2 times with mineral fertilizers. The advantage is given to nitrogen or complex with a predominance of nitrogen, because first the plant must increase the green mass and grow strong.
After landing in the ground, cucumbers are not fed for 2 weeks until the plant finally takes root. In addition, in the wells is usually enough power. After that, you need to start to “feed” green fertilizer, solution of mullein, chicken manure and ash. From the beginning of flowering add potash fertilizers.
The time of entry into fruiting, as well as the yield of cucumbers depends on the intensity of the light and the length of the daylight hours. The second has a greater effect on plant growth. Cucumbers are plants of short daylight, so they need 10-12 hours a day to fully develop. During the period of growing seedlings - this is no less important. If the light is not enough, then create the conditions of a 10-hour daylight using artificial lighting.
Cucumber - the culture is very thermophilic. If it's cold outside, you can't wait for good harvests. In addition, the plants will be weakened, which will affect the increase in incidence. In a greenhouse, an average temperature of 17 ° C should be maintained. But at first after sowing, the temperature should be 25-28 degrees.
That is why at first it is better to grow cucumbers at home. Severe cold spells adversely affect growth. But too high temperatures are harmful cucumber.
If on hot days the temperature in the greenhouse is above 30 ° C, then the plant should be aired and sprayed to reduce the temperature.
Cucumber has an increased need for air humidity. For cucumbers, this rate is 85-95%. If you compare with peppers, the difference is very big. Peppers need a moisture content of 60-65%. With low humidity, the process of pollination and fruit set is significantly reduced.
Of the greenhouse crops cucumber, perhaps the most demanding of moisture culture.
At first, when the cucumber seedlings are still small, it is necessary to air the rooms where it grows very carefully. Draft cucumbers can not tolerate at all. And in the greenhouse it is necessary to ventilate, especially when the thermometer rises above 30C.
The vents open only on one side so that there are no drafts.
Pinch the cucumber as follows:
- the first 40-50 cm - “blind” the shoots completely,
- the next 40-50 cm pinch on the first sheet,
- the next 40-50 cm above the second,
- then 40-50 cm above the third,
- and so on.
Some gardeners to save the power of the plant cut off his mustache. With the same purpose, not all ovaries are left, some are removed. If it is noticed that during the beam formation of fruits, some do not have enough nutrition and they begin to dry, then they leave one fetus in the sinuses. Watering and feeding in this case increase.
It turns out this "herringbone" on the contrary. At the end of growth, under the roof of the plant, the fruits are already tied loosely. Some pinch the whip under the roof so that it does not spend strength on growth. All potential is spent on the formation of fruits.
It is noticed that without pinching the harvest is significantly reduced.
Passing on cucumbers is appropriate only when the stepsons are removed at the beginning of growth, half a meter above the soil surface. Above this do not need to, because a lot of large ovaries are located on the side shoots. The meaning of pinching is that the forces of the plant are released for further growth and development.
For this procedure, gently bend the sheet and remove the shoot with a cloth or knives. In the future, the leaves at the bottom of the lash dry and the main stem becomes bare. It contains many root buds. If you put the stem ring, then very quickly the roots will begin to grow in this place and the cucumber will have additional food.
Diseases and pests
For the growth of cucumbers need a moist and warm microclimate. But just such an environment contributes to the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms. And this can cause a number of diseases.
To prevent the greenhouse in the spring thoroughly washed using a variety of non-aggressive detergents. For example, you can use soap. For additional disinfection in the greenhouse or greenhouse use sulfur bomb.
She successfully fights fungal diseases and mold.
Before using in the greenhouse, not only the vents and doors, but also the slots are carefully closed. Smoke from sulfur bombs can even penetrate where other means cannot penetrate. And in order not to bring the disease along with the soil, it is taken for the greenhouse only where the pumpkin cultures have not grown for 3-4 years. Additionally, you can shed the soil with a weak solution of copper sulfate.
Cucumbers are not too demanding culture. They grow well in closed ground, subject to the basic rules of planting, watering, feeding. With good care in the suburban areas, you can collect from 5 or more kilograms of cucumbers per square meter. Given that most of the fruits are broken in the state of the gherkin, this is a good result.
Forming (Correct) Cucumbers in a Greenhouse: Schemes
The main task of the formation is to obtain maximum yield by controlling the growth rates of the vegetative and generative sphere of the plant. Optimal formation allows redistributing food to the plant organs, rationally using the greenhouse volume, creating a more favorable mode of light and humidity.
Before you start forming the plant twisted around the string. At first, the twine is tied with a free knot on a trellis wire, then its second end is fixed to the plant at a height of 20-30 cm from the soil surface. Often when making a garter, mistakes are made that later harm the plants. The main ones are: fastening the plants to a tightly stretched twine, which, if the trellis wire oscillates, can damage the root system until it is pulled out of the soil, the loop size is insufficient when the plant is tied up - as the stump thickens, it will cut into the twine the arrival of assimilation products to the root system and its weakening, even dying off.
In the first period after planting seedlings, it is necessary to form a root system and create conditions for vegetative growth. Therefore, when twisting in the lower 3 nodes remove all ovaries and shoots. Due to low temperatures, individual plants can “complete” and stop growing. To create vegetative growth in such plants, the ovary is removed from the leaf axils to the point of growth. In the lower tier shoots pinch on 1 leaf and leave one fruit, in the nodes of the middle tier - 2 leaves, and in the upper tier 3 leaves. Carefully twist the top of the plant around the trellis wire at a distance of 40 cm, lower it down and pinch at a distance of 15-20 cm from the trellis. From the upper nodes of the main whip down two shoots. (Fig. 2) When tying up, all the vertices should be located in one direction, and on a parallel trellis in the opposite direction.
Preparing for sowing
At this stage, you must first calibrate the seeds. Next, they are disinfected. To do this, they are placed for half a day in a rag, which must be moistened in an aqueous solution of copper sulphate, boric acid and nitrophosphate (a pinch of copper sulphate and boric acid, as well as 1 tsp of nitrophosphate) is added to 1 liter.
After that, the seeds are rinsed with plain water and placed in a refrigerator for hardening. Pre-seeds are placed between the layers of gauze, which in the process must be constantly moistened. This procedure is carried out for a week at zero temperature.
Sowing and growing seeds
In heated greenhouses, it is possible to sow cucumber seeds at any time, since it is easy to set the temperature regime at 23-25 degrees, which is necessary for their germination. But if the design is not heated, then the seeds will have to be sown at home. It is better to do this in the first half of April, so that by mid-May we plant the ready seedlings in the greenhouse.
Note! After the first sprouts appear, the daytime temperature in the room should be lowered to 15-18 degrees and the nighttime temperature should be reduced to 12 degrees.
Photos of germinated cucumber seeds.
For sowing seeds, it is better to use low containers: pots, plastic cups, and so on. Each of them is planted in a separate container and goes down into the soil by 2 cm. Watering the seedlings is done every 2 days, periodically feeding them with a solution of mullein (proportion 1: 6).
Soil for cucumbers
When in the greenhouse before planting cucumbers, the crop of any other crop has already been harvested, then the soil will need to be disinfected with a hot solution of potassium permanganate and re-fertilized. You will also need to directly process the inside of the structure itself with bleach solution.
If you pay attention to tips on growing cucumbers in the greenhouse, which provide experienced farmers, the best soil for cucumbers can be obtained by mixing humus and sod land. Also successfully used and mixture based on peat, which is added humus and field soil. The ratio is as follows: peat is taken 50%need humus 30%while field soil is added 20%.
Tip! In order to increase the profitability of growing cucumbers in a greenhouse, sawdust substrate is often used. It is prepared in the following proportion: 50% of coniferous wood is taken from 50% of field soil for 50% of sawdust.
The device is warm beds for cucumbers.
There are different ways to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse. For example, in the northern regions with a cold climate, it is better to apply the method of growing cucumbers in “warm beds”. For their production is used either horse or cow dung, which also serves as a feed for plants.
If it is not possible to get manure, then you can replace it with compost. For it can be used sawdust, last year's foliage or tops and other organic materials.
Moreover, to speed up the processing of organic matter, often special preparations are added to the compost, which can now be purchased at any specialty store. The price for them is quite low, so saving on this does not make sense, since it greatly helps the work of the farmer.
Cucumber beds are shaped in such a way that the interval between them is from 60 to 70 cm. They must be 15 to 20 cm in height, and approximately 60 cm in width. It is better if their orientation is located from north to south. This will increase the resistance of cucumbers to disease.
Planting cucumber seedlings on the main site
The scheme is an example of the landing of cucumber seedlings.
Planting seedlings can be under the following conditions:
- if the plants are hardened,
- if the plant has 4 leaves (25 days).
In winter greenhouses, it is usually planted in the early days of February, and in spring with warm beds without a heating system — approximately from April 20 to April 25, with biofuels and heating — from the first numbers to April 5. But in simple designs with a film coating on one natural heating, seedlings can be planted not earlier than the initial numbers of May.
Immediately before the landing, it is necessary to make a moistening watering of the soil. The cubes with seedlings are buried in the soil mix by one third of the height so that their upper edge slightly rises above the surface of the beds. For this pre-made wells with a depth of about 10-11 cm.
When planting seedlings at the main site, it is very important to ensure that the ground does not cover the subfloor knee. The interval between cucumber seedlings should not be more than 40 cm and less than 50 cm. In conclusion, it is necessary to mulch the soil with peat. It is enough if its layer is small - 3-4 cm.
Top dressing and watering
Table of doses of fertilizers for the feed of cucumbers.
In order to achieve a good yield, you should feed cucumbers. This procedure is divided into types. So, there are foliar and root dressings. For this purpose, both mineral and organic fertilizers are used. When cultivating cucumbers, mullein has proven itself very well. The foliar feeding method is used mainly for weakened plants, in which the activity of the root system is reduced.
Also, this method helps to improve the quality of cucumbers and has a positive effect on the stability of cucumbers to adverse conditions. The root method is used when the soil has sufficient fertility. Usually two of these dressings are enough.
The first is carried out in the phase of the 3rd true leaflet, and the second - during the growing season. Water cucumbers every 2 days. If the weather is too hot and sunny, then the greenhouse must be well ventilated. For cucumbers, the optimum daytime temperature is an indicator of 26-27 degrees, and at night - from 18 to 20 degrees.
Formation and garter
Scheme garter cucumbers.
3-4 days after planting the seedlings, should be made garter plants to the trellis, which will serve as a support. Along each bed in 3 rows stretched wire. The first row should be at a height of 20 cm, the second at 60-80 cm, and the third at 150 -180 cm from the ground. To them with the help of twine will be tied cucumber lash.
The formation of cucumbers is an important procedure for a good indicator of yield. It is carried out depending on the characteristics of the variety or hybrid. Also of great importance is the condition of the plant itself.
The scheme of cucumber beds with a trellis.
When forming cucumbers, experts recommend using the following methods:
- If cucumbers are grown in the greenhouse on the trellis, then you do not need to pinch the main shoot. As it grows, the plant should be gently bent over the top row of the wire and lowered down. Side shoots should be pinned according to the following rules: the lower ones - above 2, the middle ones - above 3, and the upper ones - above 4 ovaries.
- The second method of cucumber formation is used if the stem grows into a trellis. Then its tip bends over the wire and twists one turn. The growth point must first be pinned behind the fourth sheet, and then tied up. Directly behind the trellis shoot, which is located in the bosom of the leaf, you need to remove, and the rest of the shoots should be evenly distributed over the support. After that, they pinch at a distance of every 50 cm. When the massive fruiting of the shoots that go into the aisle begins, it is also necessary to pinch and send them down.
The scheme of the formation of cucumbers.
Note! In order for plants to heal faster, this procedure should be carried out at low rates of air humidity. It is also impossible to simultaneously remove diseased leaves and pinch young shoots, otherwise it will lead to the spread of infection.
Of course, it’s impossible to write all about growing cucumbers in a greenhouse in one article, therefore this instruction is only a brief guide. If you want to get even more information about the cultivation of cucumbers, then we recommend to watch the video in this article, which will help even a novice gardener to more accurately understand the whole technology of growing this useful, juicy and tasty vegetable.
By the way, industrial cultivation of cucumbers in the greenhouse occurs in much the same way as described above. If you plan to build a business on this agricultural business, then you should first try small. After you manage to collect, albeit a small but high-quality crop from the planted plants, you can increase the momentum with each season.
Сорта, рекомендованные для тепличного выращивания
Первый этап – подбор сортов или гибридов. Для выращивания в теплице рекомендовано выбирать холодоустойчивые огурцы, которые легко переносят перепады температур. Самыми распространёнными являются:
- Шедрик – даёт отличный урожай (до 25 кг с квадратного метра) и может расти в любое время года.
- Courage - an early ripe grade. Productivity to 30 kg from square meter of soil. It has high taste characteristics.
- Cadet - different abundant root system and the ability to grow in the shade. Resistant to many pathogens.
- Cartoon - bears fruit within 30-40 days from the date of disembarkation.
- Bobrik - unrealistic cold-resistant hybrid. Recommended for growth in the winter.
- Matrix is a very popular hybrid that has medium size and high parasite resistance.
Variety of cucumbers "Cadet"
Only large seeds are suitable for sowing. First you need to spend their heating, holding at a temperature of 22-26 degrees for 1 month (near the batteries, in specialized dryers).
After should be processed antimicrobial agents. A solution of potassium permanganate is excellent, for the preparation of which 1 g of the crystals is diluted in 500 ml of water. Seeds are dipped for 20-25 minutes, then rinsed under clean water. After disinfection, they should be removed in gauze bags and immersed in a nutrient fluid (1 liter of water, 1 tsp tree ash or nitrophoska) for half a day. Then the future cucumbers are again washed under water and placed in a warm room before swelling.
Soaking in potassium permanganate
It is necessary to control so that the seeds do not germinate, but only slightly bite!
After all procedures, the embryos are placed in the refrigerator for 24 hours. The temperature should be about 1-3 degrees. If the seeds are hybrid or purchased in specialized stores packed in bags, then processing is not required.
Compost Bed Method
If it is impossible to find fresh manure, you can use compost - a mixture of wood products, foliage, tops, shavings and other materials of organic origin. The principle of creating a compost bed is as follows. Organic matter should be added to the soil. Top cover with a 15-20 cm layer of soil and then add 5-7 cm of sawdust.
Important! The disadvantage of the method is lower temperature in the greenhouse, which means the method is suitable for gardeners from the warm regions of the country. In the northern cities with this method of soil preparation, it is possible to plant cucumbers only with the beginning of spring.
In the ground pits are made for planting, about 10 cm deep. With insufficient fertilization in the previous stages, 5 grams of superphosphate and 2 tsp should be added to each well. ash. Fertilizers are mixed with the ground and poured with warm water.
Important! Cucumbers that grew in specialized pots or nutritional cubes are planted with them.
When planting, you need to make sure that the edge of the pot is at ground level. The ideal time is the second half of a cloudy day. The soil temperature at the time of planting should not be below 16, and air should not be below 18 degrees.
The planting scheme directly depends on the design features of the greenhouse. For example, if the width of the frame is about 3-4 meters, the cucumbers are planted in 2 rows, leaving about 0.8-1.2 meters for the passage. Between the rows, the distance should be about 80-90 cm, and the distance between the future bushes - about 0.4-0.5 meters.
You can not plant plants close to the walls of the greenhouse. It is necessary to keep a distance of 50-55 cm. For better lighting and air exchange cucumbers should be placed in a checkerboard pattern.
One of the landing options
Plants require careful maintenance, including:
- timely garter,
- airing the room
- the right harvest.
After landing for 6-7 days you need to make a garter. To do this, each row at a height of 1.5-1.8 meters stretches 2 rows of strong wire, keeping a distance of 20 cm. Next to each sprout you need to plug a small peg into the ground and tie it to the wire. Cucumbers should be manually wrapped around the “growth guides” so that every internode is captured. This is extremely necessary, otherwise cucumbers under the weight of fruits and leaves will slide down.
Garter cucumbers in the greenhouse
Important! For garters, it is better to use synthetic twine. Hemp quickly breaks off under the weight of growing cucumbers.
In the upper parts of the greenhouse, the illumination level is much higher, therefore, there will be higher quality fruits. The top and side shoots should be pinched as soon as they begin to touch the adjacent shoots. This will provide an even greater influx of sunlight.
Pinching cucumber tops
Cucumbers require water every 2-3 days. Watering liquid should be at room temperature (25 degrees). Water consumption - 3-5 liters per square meter of soil. On cloudy days you need less water - about 2-3 liters. In winter, watering should be in the morning.
Since the beginning of flowering and fruiting, water consumption increases - up to 6-10 liters of water per quadrometer of soil.
Important! Do not water the plants with cool water! This leads to disease and the death of the ovaries.
During the growing season, mineral fertilizers are used. The first intervention is done on the 15th day from the moment of landing. For the preparation of a nutrient mixture, 200 g of chicken droppings dissolve in 10 liters of water, 1 tsp. urea.
The second feeding - 10-14 days after the first. To prepare for 10 liters of water, 500 g of mullein and 1 tsp are added. potassium sulfate. Consumption - up to 5-6 liters per 1 m 2 of soil.
From the moment of the beginning of the formation of the fruit of the plant, it is necessary to fertilize 3 more times with an interval of 10-15 days. The composition of the last 3 feedings is as follows:
- 10 liters of water
- 1 kg of mullein (can be replaced with chicken manure),
- 1 tsp superphosphate
- 1 tsp potassium sulfate,
- 1 tsp urea.
Mix consumption - 5-7 liters per 1 square. m. soil.
The use of mineral fertilizers steadily causes soil oxidation. To neutralize the habitat of cucumbers need to spend 3 dressing with an interval of 15 days. 1 tsp. Is diluted with 10 liters of water. urea and sprayed on the whole foliage of plants.
Feeding cucumbers accelerate the growth of fruits, increase yields and help prevent the development of diseases.
Seed cucumbers make it possible to obtain seeds from which it will be possible to grow cucumbers in the future. It is recommended to choose the largest fruits, lowering it from the leg to the ground and placing it in the shade, covering the leaves from the sun.
Seed cucumbers need to choose no earlier than the beginning and middle of September. To ripen such a product should be a long time - until the last harvest. When the cucumber begins to get brown color - you can get seeds.
Seed collection procedure
Preparing greenhouses for winter
After the last harvest, the greenhouse must be prepared for the next year. To do this, remove all the plants and 4-6 centimeters of the top layer of soil (as it contains the main pests). This soil is laid out on the street beds. In the absence of protection, the parasites do not survive. The earth should be immediately dug up and loosened, adding along the way a solution of copper sulphate, for the preparation of which 25 grams of copper sulphate, dissolved in 10 liters of water, is taken.
Digging up after removing plants
This is a fungal disease. A white or reddish blotch in the form of spots is formed on the leaves and stems. Over time, the affected area increases. The pathogen multiplies actively in cool weather in the absence of sunlight. At 18-20 degrees, he quickly dies.
Perinospora or downy mildew
The problem affects the foliage of the plant, on which multiple spots of a light yellow color are formed, and the leaves themselves gradually fade. The cause is also a fungus that actively reproduces in a humid environment. The provoking factors are cold winds, lack of ventilation, and watering with cold water.
Viral disease that develops at the seedling stage. It is characterized by bright spots that spread extremely rapidly throughout the plant. Treatment is not subject.
Fusarium wilt occurs when a fungal infection develops against the background of high temperatures in the greenhouse (35 degrees and above). Cucumbers begin to quickly lose their vital signs. The leaves gradually become wrinkled, turn yellow and fall off. In the absence of an ambulance, you can lose the entire crop.
It affects the leaves, fruits and loops. The first signs are visualized still on young seedlings: root cervix with a lot of brown impressions. Then the pathology quickly affects the stems, which break under the weight of the plant itself and the fruits and die.
Table. Diseases of cucumbers and ways to deal with them.
Selection and preparation of seeds
Seed preparation consists of calibration and decontamination. For greenhouse conditions, it is desirable to use 2, 3-year-old seeds - it is believed that they give stronger seedlings and, accordingly, provide better yields.
But since the seeds dry out and deteriorate over time, the first thing to do is to select the highest quality ones. If it is difficult to visually identify empty seeds, you can soak them in warm water for several hours.
After some time, healthy seeds will sink to the bottom, while weak and empty seeds will remain on the surface, where they will be easier to select.
The next stage of preparation is disinfection. For this you can use many different solutions: boric acid, potassium permanganate, copper sulfate, wood ash, mineral mixtures (nitrophoska). There are several methods of disinfection.
The easiest way is to simply fill the seeds with one of the solutions, but you can also wrap them in gauze moistened with disinfectant solution and leave for 10-12 hours.
Aloe juice or ash solution is good for these purposes, since both products, besides that have disinfecting properties, are also a natural growth stimulant.
The technology of growing cucumbers in the greenhouse in winter involves the creation of the most favorable microclimate and the implementation of a number of activities for the care of cucumbers. The first thing you need to pay attention to is the heating of the greenhouse.
For winter growing need stationary greenhouse with water heating. It is not recommended to use any heaters or stoves in winter, as the air is already drained.
It is necessary to heat the greenhouse until the middle of spring, and then by the end of May it is necessary to turn on the heating at night, as night frosts are still possible.
In winter, plants need additional lighting, so the greenhouse must be equipped with high-quality lighting devices.
For these purposes, special lamps with a red and blue spectrum, imitating sunlight, have been invented, but, unfortunately, they consume a lot of energy.
If this is unacceptable for you, then you should limit yourself to the usual energy-saving long lamps around the perimeter of the entire greenhouse. When growing cucumbers in large volumes, it will not be superfluous to establish an irrigation system.
Superphosphate, nitrophosphate or other complex mixtures containing nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus can be used as mineral supplements. The excavated and fertilized area should be covered with a transparent film for several weeks so that the soil and fertilizer come into contact.
In the warm season, cucumbers in the greenhouse can be planted immediately by seed, but for the winter and autumn planting need to grow seedlings.
Seedlings at the time of transplantation should be at least 1 month old, and if you plan to grow the crop continuously, you should sow the seeds every 1.5-2 months.
For the cultivation of seedlings, you can use any disposable containers, but the most convenient are paper cups with a peat substrate, such seedlings can be planted in the ground with a cup, and thus protect young plants from stress caused by survival in a new place.
Caring for greenhouse cucumbers consists of maintaining the microclimate that they need for normal development and fruiting.
Cucumbers are moisture-loving, and since dry air prevails in greenhouses in winter, watering should be regular and abundant. This does not mean that the bed should be wet - excessive moisture is also harmful to cucumbers.
The soil should always be in a condition that is capable of ensuring normal evaporation and maintaining humidity at a level of 75-80%.
For cucumbers in greenhouses temperature is important. For active flowering and formation of the ovary, the average daily temperature should be 22-25 ° C. Avoid sudden temperature changes, especially at night.
In winter, the plants need additional highlighting. Top dressing is made 3-4 times during the season by irrigating the bushes with organic solutions (litter, mullein).
Mineral solutions are not recommended, as they contribute to the accumulation of nitrates in fruits.
Cucumbers have long shoots spreading on the ground, therefore the installation of trellis in greenhouses is obligatory. The support allows you to direct the plant strictly vertically, and thus avoid many problems with disease, care and harvest. Garter shoots should be carried out regularly, and if the bushes grow too large, it is recommended to pinch the tops of the shoots.
Greenhouse cultivation of cucumbers in the winter is always fraught with certain difficulties, which are not in the warm season. The first thing you will encounter in the winter is the lack of moisture in the air and soil due to heating. Cucumbers ripen very quickly and during fruiting take a lot of nutrients from the soil, which should always be wet.
If you want the grown crop to not disappoint you with its quantity, you will have to pay attention to watering. This will not only moisten the soil, but also increase the humidity of the air. If watering alone is not enough to humidify the air, place containers with water in the greenhouse, water the floor, spray the bushes.
It should be borne in mind that in winter the seedlings develop more slowly, so the sowing of seeds should be carried out in advance.
If you plan to grow cucumbers in December or January, then the seeds for seedlings should be sown at the end of September, so that by the beginning of November it can be transplanted into the greenhouse.
It is necessary to provide additional lighting at a distance of 50 cm from the plants. As cucumber grows, the lamps gradually need to be raised to a height of 1.5 m.
Greenhouse cucumber varieties are designed for stable growing conditions, and the difference between night and day temperatures in winter is often tangible. Ideally, the temperature in the greenhouse at night should be 15-18 ° C, but if this is not possible, then make sure that the thermometer does not fall below 10 ° C. If it is colder, the ovary will no longer form, and the nutrition of plants through the roots will be difficult.
Knowing these simple rules, you can easily grow home-made cucumbers for the New Year's table or other winter holidays.
What you need to know about growing cucumbers in the greenhouse in winter: a guide
Cucumber is a vegetable crop that grows in almost every summer cottage. In accordance with all rules and regulations, plant cucumbers should be started from the beginning of April.
During this period, growers are able to create all the conditions for culture. They make the soil hot and comfortable, and these moments are incredibly important for heat-loving cucumbers.
Cucumber period ends in the fall. But those who want to eat cucumbers throughout the year, including in the winter, have to adapt. So what does it take to grow cucumbers in winter in greenhouse conditions?
Is it possible to grow in the winter in a greenhouse?
To grow cucumbers in the winter season in greenhouse conditions is not only possible but necessary. This makes it possible to use fresh vegetables throughout the year.
It is only necessary to remember that this culture requires special care. Cucumbers are incredibly badly in need of warmth and watering. You should also remember that the shrub needs to be formed, only this way you can get a good amount of harvest and save the plant from many types of viral diseases.
In the winter time, cucumbers continue to bear fruit in accordance with their type of variety. The external environment will not have any influence on the development and growth of the plant, if only the necessary temperature regime is maintained in the greenhouse.
How to grow?
Growing cucumbers in a polycarbonate greenhouse in winter requires special knowledge from the grower.
A novice summer resident should not refuse advice and help from experienced growers. The trial and error method is certainly good, but you should value your own work and time.
When the winter chill rages outside the window and the trail of spring long ago caught a cold, sometimes you really want something natural and fresh. For example, a spring vitamin salad would be good in this situation. Especially if the vegetables are grown on their own.
Cucumbers in winter by themselves will not be the same as those grown on an open garden in the warm season. But they will be natural and without preservatives.
Cucumbers grow well in the greenhouse in winter under the created comfortable conditions.
The main thing is that a person who is engaged in cucumbers has the opportunity to regularly receive vitamins. Moreover, in the greenhouse you can grow not only some cucumbers.
What should be a winter greenhouse?
Перед тем, как начать возводить тепличную конструкцию зимнего типа для огурцов, необходимо предварительно определиться с габаритными размерами, S всей конструкции и ее V. Многолетний опыт подтверждает, что в соотношении один к двум, изменение температуры внешней среды теплицы не оказывает особого влияния на температурный режим внутри.
Это соотношение площади конструкции к ее объему является самым оптимальным для благоприятного выращивания огурцов в теплице в холодное время года.
For the construction of winter greenhouses often use polycarbonate and glass, if a greenhouse is constructed in the south, in regions with low temperature fluctuations, then everything can be arranged with the help of a dense polyethylene film.
Growing like a business
If growing cucumbers in a greenhouse has become a business for a grower, care should be taken to ensure the quality of the product sold. It should focus on equipment and mineral fertilizers.
Also, any vegetable grower, regardless of the purpose of cultivation, should know that planting the same one on the same piece of land is not worth it, because the yield level falls and the crop starts to hurt a lot. It is necessary to combine varieties and do not forget about the mandatory feeding.
The volume of the crop and the taste of the fruit depend on the methods of care, on irrigation, the type of feeding and the acidity of the soil. Cucumber - this culture is very capricious. To get the result - you need to perform a lot of work. Of course, nothing will grow.
How to equip for growing a greenhouse in winter
Climatic conditions in central Russia do not allow growing cucumbers from seeds in open beds without additional film shelters. This popular vegetable crop is very demanding for heat and light.
When frosts to -1 degrees young seedlings can easily die, and when shaded, adult plants will bear bad fruit.
Therefore, the cultivation of cucumbers in the greenhouse is the most popular and common option among Russian vegetable growers.
Popular varieties of cucumbers
Cucumbers in the greenhouse in winter and in the summer are capable of producing high yields, if the plants are provided with suitable conditions. So, in the presence of a heated greenhouse, even in the winter months you will be able to please your loved ones with fresh vegetables grown without chemicals.
Before you start planting, you need to pick varieties of cucumbers for greenhouses, because not every variety is suitable for growing in such conditions. For example, bee-pollinated varieties will have to be pollinated manually every day (insects fly into the greenhouse reluctantly, and in winter they are completely absent), otherwise the ovary will fall off. Most popular:
- Self-cured high-yielding cucumber hybrids: Hercules F1 (salad), Emelya F1 (pickling), Dynamite F1 (universal), Zozulya F1, Anyuta F1, Picnic F1, Liliput F1, Hummingbird F1, Machaon F1, Calendar F1, April F1, Courage F1, Lukhovitsky F1 et al.
- Harvested and at the same time quite unpretentious varieties: Moscow greenhouse, Zarya, Manul, Granata, Surprise 66.
- Special shade tolerance and adaptation to low humidity are different varieties: Marfinsky, Relay, Home, NK-mini, Willow, Regatta, Rykovsky, Russia.
Detailed technology of growing cucumbers in the greenhouse
For the germination of cucumber seeds, a temperature of + 22 + 25 degrees is recommended. Therefore, if the greenhouse is unheated, of film type, sowing of seeds is carried out at home in the first half of April in order to transplant the already prepared seedlings into the greenhouse by mid-May. In heated greenhouses, it is possible to sow cucumber seeds at any time of the year.
Cucumbers love fertile soils rich in organic fertilizers. In order to produce greenhouse cucumbers brought good results, prepare a soil mixture in advance: humus and peat in 2 parts, 1 part sawdust (preferably old), wood ash 3 tbsp. and nitrofoski 1 tbsp.
You can buy ready-made soil with fertilizers. Level the soil surface and spread mineral fertilizers on top. Then cover the surface with foil and leave for a couple of weeks for fertilizer to be absorbed.
This will help protect seedlings from cucumber diseases, increase yields and improve fruit taste.
Calibration and disinfection of seeds
It is best to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse from seeds that are 2-3 years old, since they will provide the highest yield. Calibrate the seeds by hand, removing the diseased and empty.
Then the seeds should be decontaminated from diseases and pests by placing them for 12 hours in a rag moistened with aloe juice or a solution of microelements (add boric acid and copper sulfate at the tip of the knife to a liter of hot water, as well as a teaspoon of nitrophoska).
Then rinse the seeds in running water and place them between layers of wet gauze to place in a refrigerator for hardening. Hardening is carried out at a temperature of about 0 degrees for a week, do not forget to moisten gauze from time to time.
Seedlings recommended to grow in small pots or plastic cups.
Each seed is placed one by one in a pot to a depth of 2 cm, covered with a layer of soil and covered with a damp cloth on top so that the top layer of soil does not dry out.
You can sow seeds for seedlings for 10-15 days - planting cucumbers in a greenhouse using a conveyor method will provide you with a continuous harvest throughout the year.
Until the first shoots appear, the temperature in the greenhouse should be maintained at +25 degrees, and with the appearance of sprouts for 5 days, the daytime temperature should be reduced to +15, and the nighttime temperature should be reduced to +12 degrees. Water the seedlings should be every 2 days, periodically feeding solution of mullein (at the rate of 1: 6). After feeding, wash the seedlings with clean warm water.
Transplanting seedlings and cucumber care
A month later, transplanting seedlings begins. In rack greenhouses, seedlings are planted on shelves covered with soil, and in other types of greenhouses they simply form even ridges. You can plant plants in the ridges right in the pots, digging down to the ground by ¾ the height of the pot. Between plants, the distance should be at least 20 cm, and between rows - at least 90 cm.
During the day, the temperature in the greenhouse should be kept at + 25 + 30 degrees, with mandatory ventilation on sunny days, and at night - within + 15 degrees. When the third true leaf appears, the first dressing is done with fertilizers, the second is done at the beginning of flowering.
During fruiting, you can feed cucumbers 4 times with a solution of mullein, or with a solution of chicken manure. Before flowering, it is recommended to water cucumbers once every 5 days, after flowering - every other day, but if you notice that the leaves have started to fade - this is a signal for urgent watering.
As the plants grow, they will need to be carefully tied to two wires stretched in the upper part of the greenhouse.
Features of growing cucumbers in greenhouses in winter
Before you grow cucumbers in a greenhouse, it is worth considering the most likely difficulties that you will have to face. The first problem is the lack of moisture in the air due to furnace or water heating of greenhouses.
Since cucumbers are very moisture-loving, you will have to constantly take care of maintaining a comfortable humidity. Arrange trays, barrels of water, moisten the floor, pipes, spray the plants with a spray bottle, etc.
If you are interested in growing cucumbers in the winter, in December-January, then start sowing the seeds in late September, and plant the seedlings in late October.
But note that due to lack of sunlight in January-February, growing cucumbers in a greenhouse in winter is almost impossible without additional artificial lighting. With an increase in lighting, the quality of fruits improves and the content of ascorbic acid and sugars in fruits increases.
It is advisable to hang the lamps first at a height of 50 cm above the plants, and as they grow, raise the lamps higher, up to 1.5 m.
Be sure to keep an eye on the temperature regime in the greenhouse: there should not be sudden daily temperature drops and lower temperatures less than +10 degrees, otherwise the leaves will actively grow, but the fruits will stop pouring and the root system will not be able to absorb water.
Now you know how to grow cucumbers in the winter, which means that by the New Year's table you will have your own harvest of delicious homemade cucumbers!
How to grow cucumbers in winter - planting technology and nuances of care in the greenhouse
Many growers want to realize the cultivation of cucumbers in the greenhouse in winter, but do not know how to do it.
The culture of a cucumber hailing from the tropical regions of India is a gentle, moisture-loving, and particularly heat-loving plant.
This vegetable has a pleasant taste, is a dietary and easily digestible food product.
Growth conditions of culture in greenhouse in winter
Experienced growers grow crops in the winter in greenhouses. A good result depends on the equipment of the greenhouse, the proper preparation of the soil, the selection of seeds, the timely application of fertilizers.
Plants in greenhouses are not affected by powdery mildew. Seeds germinate at a temperature of 12 degrees, but slowly and rarely. At a temperature of 25–27 degrees, friendly shoots appear 4–5 days after sowing.
This mode is necessary for the growth and development of plants. When the temperature decreases, the growth retards, the plants get sick or die at all. Cucumber does not tolerate lowering the temperature to 0 degrees.
Interesting to know: fruits of cucumber contain silver.
The seedlings are most sensitive to lowering the temperature, but plants with two true leaves are significantly resistant to cold. Therefore, in order to grow cucumbers in the greenhouse during the winter period, it is necessary to provide conditions for the growth, development, flowering and fruiting of the plant.
Design features of the winter greenhouse
Winter garden should provide favorable conditions for plants. The base of the greenhouse, its foundation is made of stone.
Inside, the foundation is insulated with sawdust of deciduous or coniferous trees, straw. It is necessary to close up the joints of the structure, to exclude drafts.
It is advisable to disinfect the greenhouse and thermally sterilize the soil. To ensure a sufficiently high temperature, the facilities are equipped with a heating system.
In small greenhouses, you can put a stove-stove. Greenhouses of a larger area are heated with electric, solid fuel or gas boilers.
It is important to know: 10–12 hour light day in the seedling period will accelerate the formation of female flowers.
Carry out around the perimeter of the heating pipe, if necessary, install radiators. Since the cucumber is a moisture-loving plant, drip irrigation will deliver sufficient moisture to the root system of the plant. Cucumber - light-loving culture, so be sure to organize the backlight.
For the cultivation of cucumbers special materials and tools are not required. It is important to stock up claydite for drainage, manure, mineral fertilizers.
Seedling boxes or peat pots are needed to grow seedlings. In winter, it is important to keep warm in the root system of plants, for this use mulch.
Note: The use of natural suspender material contributes to the development of diseases.
In greenhouses for mulching use needles, tree bark, reed. For garter plants, it is useful to stock up with synthetic twine and special clamps.
Seedlings in winter greenhouses for winter-spring crop rotation are planted until the end of December.
- to obtain seedlings, seeds are kept in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, disinfecting them from fungal diseases,
- and to activate germination, they are soaked in a solution of organic or mineral fertilizers,
- germinating seeds conveniently in seedboxes or peat pots. They are filled with wet, steamed boiling water sawdust. Fertilizers do not contribute to sawdust,
- seedlings are transplanted into the ground when the plant has 5 or more true leaves,
- after the plants take root, they are tied up,
- when female and male flowers appear, pollinated varieties must be pollinated by hand,
- harvesting is carried out in two days, not allowing the fruit to grow over.
From the choice of seeds for planting depends on germination, plant development, the ability to resist diseases, yield.
The market is saturated with a variety of seeds. Packing with planting material should contain:
- cellophane window for viewing seeds,
- name of the country of origin
- name of the packer company,
- culture name
- an indication of a hybrid or variety,
- crop year
- indication of the germination period,
Gardener's comment: cucumber seeds can germinate after 8–10 years with proper storage.
Foil or laminated packaging best preserve the properties of planting material. Seeds should be large, filled, free from stains and mold. There are seed seeds, they are considered the best. Such seeds are treated with a fungicide, they provide 100% germination.
In greenhouses, cucumber is grown on soil enriched with organic and mineral fertilizers. During the development of new greenhouses make manure, superphosphate and potassium sulphate.
Allow this substrate to stand for about two weeks. Before planting seedlings, while loosening the soil, ammonium nitrate is added. Every year they hold events to improve the properties of the soil.
Technical moments and agricultural technology
Growing cucumbers in the winter in a greenhouse is not only an exciting activity for an agronomist of any level, but also a good way to earn some money and even build your own business.
The process itself is not particularly complex, although to create suitable conditions it is necessary to make some efforts to equip the greenhouse space.
With the correct application of theoretical knowledge, modern methods and equipment you can collect a chic crop.
Greenhouse requirements for year-round cucumber production
Depending on the climatic region, greenhouses of various designs are used. In any case, the facility must be heated and reliably protected from the effects of precipitation. You can buy ready-made modern greenhouses for use in the winter or build your own.
Recommendations for equipping winter greenhouses
It is important that the greenhouse keeps heat well and carries minimal heat losses. Therefore, you need to carefully consider the design.
Preference is given to these types of winter greenhouses:
- Pit - due to the deepening into the ground they perfectly retain heat and practically have no energy losses.
- Thermal greenhouses - thanks to a two-layer polycarbonate coating, they allow to maintain a favorable temperature regime with low heating costs.
- Shed-wall - get a lot of heat from solar energy, do not require additional communications.
In areas with mild winters and little rainfall for growing cucumbers, you can get by with glass or even reinforced plastic wrap in several layers.
What should be the perfect plot
Of great importance is the location of the greenhouse, as it is an artificially heated structure. Special conditions are necessary for its normal functioning:
- The slope of the terrain should not exceed 10 ° to the south.
- The site should be fenced with trees or other structures from the cold winds on the north side.
- It is desirable to place on a small hill, where precipitations and sufficient solar lighting do not accumulate.
- Nearby you need to have a source of water for irrigating the appropriate temperature.
- The building should be able to bring the necessary communications (electricity, heating).
Little about heating systems
Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse in winter in the areas of the middle belt and to the north will not do without installing a heating system.
Indoors, it is necessary to constantly maintain the temperature within + 18-25 ° С, and it is impossible to implement this due to even the most thoughtful design and high-quality covering material.
Therefore, based on the size and type of the room, as well as the remoteness of the heating system, they install suitable heating devices.
In most cases, use of autonomous systems, such as electric boilers, collectors, stove heating.
The latter option is the most economical and simple to perform, and with proper installation, it gives even a very high efficiency. In addition, for more uniform heating of the room, infrared heaters or fan heaters are used.
Artificial lighting - a necessary criterion
Without access to plants of sufficient light it is impossible to get a good harvest. Cucumbers need at least 14 hours of coverage per day, which the sun can not on short winter days.
LED Lighting for Indoor Ground
Although they are more expensive than, for example, mercury or luminescent, but their service life is much longer - about 10 years. In addition, the spectral characteristics of the light waves are in a favorable range, and it is impossible to get a plant burn from such lamps.
How to ensure optimal hydration
Cucumbers are the kind of culture that feels best at maximum air humidity of 75-95%. In greenhouse conditions, when heating is in operation, it is difficult to maintain a high water content in the air. To do this, you can periodically spray water with a spray gun, arrange the vessels with liquid in the room, use special humidifiers.
Why do I need a ventilation system
Without ventilation and free air circulation inside the room, especially at high humidity levels, ideal conditions are created for the development of fungal and bacterial diseases.
Поэтому продуманная система вентиляции – немаловажное условие для успешного выращивания в теплице огурцов зимой.
Стимулировать циркуляцию воздуха можно 2 способами: естественным путем – через открытые двери или форточки и принудительно – за счет вентиляционных приборов.
В зимние морозы не может быть и речи о проветривании через форточку, это влечет за собой большие потери тепла и резкие падения температуры. An ordinary fan can help, which should be turned on 2 times a day for short intervals of 5-10 minutes. In addition, if you are not going to grow parthenocarpic varieties, ventilation will contribute to the process of pollination.
When buying a fan, you need to pay attention to its capacity: for an air volume of 10 cubic meters. m will be enough power to 200 kum. m per hour Too powerful devices in a small greenhouse can only harm.
Fans equipped with humidity and temperature sensors are automatically turned on and off when the set values change.
Methods of soil disinfection
Before using, the soil must be cleaned of weeds (their seeds) and sanitized, especially if it was taken from the garden or used to grow other crops.
The easiest way is treatment with water vapor, after which most of the pathogenic microorganisms die.
More effective methods are the use of toxic substances and special preparations that require strict compliance with the instructions for use:
- Copper sulfate - with 7% water solution, the soil is treated at the rate of 0.5 l per square meter.
- Formalin is poured into narrow ditches, the greenhouse is sealed for a while, and then the windows are left open for 14 days to volatilize the substance.
- Store preparations - used in accordance with the attached instructions.
The processed soil can be brought in the greenhouse in 3-4 weeks.
Preferred soils for growing cucumbers in greenhouse conditions in winter are sandy loam and loam, enriched with mineral and organic components.
To give lightness to such a substrate, you can add a little sand or pine sawdust. The ideal mixture is a combination of soddy soil and ordinary humus.
And you can make a substrate for cultivation on the basis of peat, for which in appropriate proportions are taken:
- peat - 5 parts,
- compost or humus - 3 parts
- garden soil - 2 parts.
Flower Board Tips
When forming beds it is necessary to take into account the size and location of the greenhouse. Their most favorable direction is from north to south.
Splitting into beds of large-scale greenhouses
The beds should be shaped in such a way as to best distribute the space and in the future not to experience any inconvenience in caring for the plants. First, the ground is carefully digged, loosened, and then determined with the number of ridges:
- One bed in the center is convenient to maintain, there is access from all sides, but the site is used irrationally.
- Two beds, separated by central, lateral and transverse paths, further simplify maintenance, but from an area planning point of view, it is uneconomical.
- Two side wide beds with a single track in the center are quite good in operation, the area is used efficiently.
- Three beds - the best solution for a wide greenhouse, especially if the bed in the center to make large, and the side - narrower.
The number of beds varies depending on the size and the selected section of the greenhouse. For marking wooden bars are used, which will keep the shape of the ridges. The width of the walkway should be at least 60 cm, it can be laid out with stone, brick, paving stone, or simply covered with gravel.
Competently selected varieties - a pledge of the harvest
When purchasing seeds for seedlings, one should have an idea about parthenocarpic hybrids of cucumbers. They are mainly grown in greenhouses in the winter, they do not need pollination, these hybrids are resistant to various diseases:
- "Emerald F1"
- F1 Murashka
- "Blick F1"
- "Gerda F1"
- Chipmunk F1
- "F1 Romance"
- "Orpheus F1" and others.
For winter cultivation, it is necessary to choose parthenocarpic type cucumbers (not requiring pollination)
The only drawback of parthenocarpic cucumbers is the not too saturated taste and aroma of the fruit.
How to grow healthy seedlings
The ideal time for sowing cucumbers in winter is the second half of November. In the greenhouse, they are advised to grow it in a seedling way, thanks to which plants are sturdier and more resistant to diseases, the period for harvest is reduced. If store seeds are used, there is no need for preplant preparation. And personally harvested seeds should be:
- Sort and select intact and full-bodied.
- Soak for a few days in water at room temperature with the addition of aloe juice.
- Hardened for 2 days at a temperature of 0-2 ° C.
After that, using small pots, containers or peat tablets, produce sowing on seedlings. In each container to a depth of not more than 2 cm, one seed is buried, then it is covered with a damp cloth.
The first week before the emergence of shoots it is necessary to maintain the temperature during the day about + 24-28 ° C, and then you can reduce it to +20 ° C. Seedlings are not subjected to dive operations due to poor survival after transplantation.
During this period, they also organize additional lighting up to prevent the shoots from drawing out. As you grow, you will have to gradually fill up the soil in pots. After 3-4 weeks, after the development of strong stems with a height of 10-25 cm with rich green leaves and a formed root system, you can start planting in the ground.
Overexposed seedlings are uncomfortable in disembarkation and take root rather poorly.
Planting and aftercare
Grow cucumbers in the greenhouse is convenient on the trellis, which greatly facilitates the care and reduces the risk of developing fetal diseases.
To do this, before planting on the edges of the beds set the pillars, between which stretch the wire or strong fishing line.
Plants on a low trellis up to 0.5 m do not need a garter; they simply throw shoots through a fishing line. And long shoots on a high trellis tied up with twine.
Before planting the seedlings on the beds prepare the holes with a depth of 10-15 cm and water them abundantly. The average density of landing on 1 square. m is 2-3 plants for vigorous and 3-4 plants for compact varieties. Thus, there are 2 traditional planting schemes for the greenhouse:
- For strongly gliding varieties - in one line with a minimum distance between rows of 1.0-1.2 m, between plants - 0.3-0.5 m.
- For compact hybrids - in two lines with a minimum distance between the lines of 0.5 between plants - 0.3 m. The landing is done in a checkerboard pattern.
Immediately after planting the plants are well watered. Peat pots are placed in the well so that the edges are level with the ground and pour 3 liters of water into each well.
At first, the plants do not need strong lighting, just at least 12 hours a day.
During the vegetative period, the blue range with wavelengths of 400-500 HM is considered more favorable for plants, and red in the 600-700 HM range during flowering and fruiting.
They should be watered very abundantly every 5 days before flowering and every 2 days thereafter. The temperature in the greenhouse during the day should not fall below +22 ° C, and at night - below +18 ° C.
Mineral and organic supplements
2-3 days after planting, soil is fertilized with urea, dissolving 1 g of the substance in 1 liter of water. On 1 square. m is about 0.5 liters of such a solution. A week after that, make a complex mineral supplement, including potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. To do this, put 4 g of each fertilizer containing these elements in a bucket of water. Solution consumption - up to 1 l per 1 sq. m
At the beginning of flowering and every 10 days of the fruit ripening period, it is necessary to enrich the soil with organic matter using an aqueous solution of bird droppings or mullein in appropriate proportions of 1:25 or 1:10. About 5-6 liters of such dressing are consumed per 1 m2 of bed area.
The use of advanced methods of cultivation of cucumbers in the off-season, familiarization with the experience of experienced vegetable growers allows you to get the desired crop at the lowest cost and in a relatively short time. Modern greenhouses, equipped with all necessary, help to facilitate the cultivation of cucumbers in the winter.
Works with soil
Preparation of the soil must be completed so as to perform the sowing at the end of September and get a crop of crops for the New Year. The next sowing can be done in the second half of January.
If the greenhouse is new, prepare a mixture rich in organic matter, disinfect the soil, fertilize and dig up to 25-30 cm.
Replacement and disinfection of soil
If the greenhouse was used, it is necessary to remove the top layer of soil and replace it with a new one (10-15 cm). The soil mixture can be composed of humus and forest and / or sod land (1: 1).
In areas rich in peatlands, highland peat is used as a base and garden soil is added, which has not been treated with herbicides and other toxic chemicals and humus, respectively, 50:20:30 percent.
Mix well shovel and fill the ridge.
The next stage of preparation is the disinfection of the soil. The most acceptable way is to shed the substrate with a 5-7% solution of copper sulphate.
Fertilization and EM
Ripened soil is fertilized with mineral fertilizers: Kemiroi, Nitrofoskoy or other full complex fertilizer (40-50 g / sq. M.). They dig at 25-30 cm. The soil for sowing should have +18 .. + 20 ° С.
Approximately 7-9 days before sowing seeds / planting of cucumber seedlings in the soil, you can make a solution of a biological product "Ecomik Urozhayny" or "Baikal EM-1" in a concentration of 1.0 liter of water 100 ml of the drug. Effective microorganisms of biological products will enrich the soil with useful microflora and destroy the negative.
In the prepared soil at the end of September, seeds are sown or seedlings are planted in the last decade of October.
Varieties of cucumbers for winter cultivation
For greenhouse cultivation is better to use hybrids. They do not require pollinators and normally develop in low light. Such varieties and hybrids of modern breeding include “Russian”, “Home”, “Moscow evenings F-1”, “Iva”, “Ladoga F-1”, “Marfa”, “Rykovsky”, “Relay”, “Northern Lights” F-1, Olympiad F-1 and others.
The choice of cucumber seeds for growing in winter should be approached in detail
Sowing and planting seedlings
The density of sowing / planting seedlings directly depends on the variety (hybrid) and averages 2-4 bushes per square meter.
m of area so that during the formation there is enough space for growth and optimal lighting. When an ordinary landing in the row between the bushes leave a distance of 40-45 cm.
Immediately after planting, wire lanes are installed, to which twine or a special net is tied.
Watering and humidity
Cucumbers are moisture-loving crops, so they need regular and sufficient watering. Unacceptable changes in the moisture state of the soil.
From the period of sprouting or planting of seedlings to flowering, watering is maintained moderate, so that a large leaf surface is not formed. Conduct watering after 4-5 days. From the mass flowering phase, the water rate is increased, watering is carried out 2-3 times a week.
In the phase of active fruiting, the rate of water is adjusted to 10 liters per square meter. m square. Water is watered with heated distilled water, the temperature is close to the temperature of the soil soil (+18 .. + 20 ° С). Water is usually watered along the grooves between the rows, so that the soil around the bush is dry.
This significantly reduces the rotting of the root system of the culture.
Folding leaves serves as a signal for increased aridity of air. In this case, urgent watering by sprinkling or additional spraying of plants with a fine sprayer is necessary.
If the roots of the plants become naked from irrigation, it is necessary to carry out hilling or pour in a sandy-soil mixture. Watering is preferable to spend in the morning and / or evening, so as not to burn the plants during the high solstice.
When the temperature in the greenhouse is +25 ° C, ventilation without drafts is necessary.
The first top dressing at sowing with seeds is carried out in the phase of three leaves with full fertilizer. When planting - seedlings in 2-3-4 days. It is best to feed with fertilizer solutions (Kemira, crystal, urea, nitrophoska), the concentration of which does not exceed 1-1.5%.
The second feeding in the phase of mass budding is carried out with nitrophoska. The concentration of the nutrient solution is 5-10 g / 10 l of water.
The third dressing is performed at the beginning of fruiting. During this period, cucumbers need magnesium, potassium, phosphorus. The solution is prepared of the following composition: 1 cup of ash insist 2 days in 3-4 liters of warm water. Filtered. Potassium nitrate, water-soluble superphosphate in one teaspoon are added, the solution is adjusted to 10 l and watered in furrows.
The same composition can be foliar and top dressing, just add trace elements to the solution. During the fruiting period, fertilizing is carried out with a gap of 10-12 days with phosphorus-potassium composition or filtered infusion of ash. You can use for feeding a solution of nitrophoska - 1.5 table. spoons on a bucket of water.
Cucumbers respond well to fertilizing with special mixtures containing trace elements - “Fertility”, “Breadwinner” and others.
Business of growing cucumbers in the winter greenhouse
Cucumber - a vegetable demanded in any period of the year. In the off-season and in winter, cucumbers in stores are mostly imported, their price sometimes does not match the taste. But more and more people require natural food, including cucumbers.
Discover the business of growing cucumbers in a greenhouse in winter, because the competition between producers in the country is low, and the quality of products is better than foreign ones.
Cucumbers in the winter greenhouse: cultivation technology
If the air due to heating in the greenhouse is dry, it should be moistened by sprinkling the walls, floor, air, and installing water tanks.
In winter, not enough natural lighting, so you need electric lamps, which are hung over the plants themselves, and rise gradually during their growth.
The temperature should not fall in the greenhouse in winter below + 10 ° C. Reducing this temperature will stop the fruiting.
It is impossible to name a simple cultivation of cucumbers in a winter greenhouse as a business: you cannot do without the financial costs of lighting and heating. But hard work will be rewarded with fresh crunchy cucumbers.
Grown products need to be sold, so you need to take care of the sales channel in advance. The products require certificates confirming its quality.
If you have a small business in growing cucumbers in a greenhouse, you can sell cucumbers on the market on your own, and yet wholesale sales are more profitable, as cucumbers are perishable products.