Cabbage is a botanical genus of plants that includes the following species: white and red, Savoy, Brussels, Kohlrabi, cauliflower, Beijing, Chinese and leaf. The agrotechnical cultivation of cabbage is different for each species, but is similar in general: abundant watering, regular fertilizing, soil loosening, etc.
White cabbage is a biennial plant, which in the first year of life forms a leaf-stem stem up to 50 cm high. The lower leaves are petioled, sprawling, the upper ones are sessile. The leaf plate is large, with thick veins.
By the end of the first year, the cabbage forms a head of cabbage. A head of cabbage is an overgrown apical bud, from which in the second year the stem grows up to 1.5 meters high. On this stalk, cabbage flowers are formed, gathered in racemes.
The fruit of white cabbage is a pod that contains round-shaped seeds, black with a brownish tinge. Cabbage seeds are small - 250–300 pieces are in 1 gram of seeds.
White cabbage is a cold-resistant plant, not demanding to heat. The germination of cabbage seeds begins at + 2 ° C, but at low temperatures, the seedlings of cabbage appear 8–10 days after sowing the seeds. But warm, at a temperature of +18. 20 ° C shoots appear in 3-4 days.
Cabbage tolerates frost to -5 ° C, but only if it was hardened.
The optimum temperature for the growth of white cabbage +15. 18 ° C. In hot weather, at temperatures above +25 ° C heads of cabbage are poorly formed, and fertility is lost in mother plants.
Fig. 1. Diagram of the formation of a head of cabbage: 1 - rosette leaves, 2 - axillary buds, 3 - apical bud, 4 - leaves that remain undisclosed, 5 - stumps
White cabbage loves moisture, so with a lack of rain, requires abundant watering. You should know that good growth and the formation of a high yield of cabbage are possible only with good water supply. Cabbage is particularly sensitive to the lack of moisture in the first time after transplanting in open ground, as well as in the phase of active growth and heading.
Excessive moisture is also harmful to white cabbage - the roots of plants die and the leaves turn purple and then die.
The optimum relative humidity for cabbage - 60–80%.
White cabbage can not be grown in the shade - plants are very demanding to light. With a lack of lighting cabbage will not form a head. Cabbage is a plant of a long day, with a long bottom the plants develop much faster.
In all varieties of white cabbage in the first period of the apical bud grows a rosette of leaves, which gradually acquire a horizontal position and are the active apparatus of photosynthesis. When a certain amount of spreading leaves is formed, the newly formed leaves remain in an unopened position and form a head.
Due to the fact that the apical bud does not open, and the process of formation of new leaves inside it continues, pressure is created from the inside on the covering leaves and they stretch. If the growth of cabbage continues, then the head will crack. Due to the fact that the light does not penetrate to the inner leaves, they are deprived of chlorophyll and therefore are white.
A head of cabbage cracks due to excessive growth of the leaves inside the head.
Where to plant cabbage. Soil preparation
White cabbage grows well on fertile soil with a neutral or slightly acid reaction, and on acid soils cabbage is quickly affected by the keel. For early ripening cabbage varieties, light loam is chosen, which is well warmed in the sun, and late and mid-season varieties are recommended to be grown on highly fertile soils.
The best predecessors cabbage: potatoes, cucumbers, legumes, onions and tomatoes.
White cabbage is demanding of fertilizers: nitrogen, potash, calcium. Fertilizer doses are lower in well-cultivated, humus-rich soils, and higher in the poor. Recommended doses of fertilizers for cabbage are shown in the table.
On sour soils before planting cabbage need to make lime or chalk:
- on sandy and loamy soils - 2-3 kg per 10 m 2,
- on medium and heavy loamy soils - 4–5 kg per 10 m 2.
Preparation of the site for growing cabbage begins in the fall. Organic fertilizers, superphosphate and potassium chloride are applied immediately after harvesting the previous crop, and then the soil is dug up.
In the early spring, as soon as the soil dries up, the place for growing white cabbage is loosened with a rake. If fertilizers have not been applied in the fall, fertilize with digging. Of mineral fertilizers, in addition to superphosphate and potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate or urea are added in the spring. With a lack of organic fertilizers they make before planting - 0.5 liters of humus at the root.
When and how to plant cabbage. Plant layout
On areas with excessive moisture before planting cabbages make ridge. The width of the bed of the ridge is about 1 meter, the height is 18–25 cm. While preparing the ridge, it is not necessary to compact the soil along the sides so as to avoid excessive loss of moisture due to evaporation. Where there is no danger of overmoistening the soil, white cabbage is grown on a flat surface.
The layout of cabbage plants depends on the variety. Early ripening varieties can be placed according to the 50 × 50 cm scheme. For medium and late ripening varieties, usually spacing is 60–70 cm. Distances in the row for early varieties are 25–30 cm, for medium ones - 40–50 cm, for late ones - 50– 70 see detailed information on cabbage placement specify on the seed packaging - the manufacturer is obliged to provide this information.
Terms of planting white cabbage also depend on the variety:
- Early and middle varieties for summer consumption are planted April 20 to May 10,
- late varieties - May 10-20,
- medium varieties for autumn use - May 20 to 30.
Before planting cabbage seedlings to a permanent place in the open ground, they make holes with the help of a hoe and pour them with warm water (500-800 ml per well).
Cabbage seedlings planted, planting depth before the first true leaf. If the soil contains little moisture, do the so-called upper watering - after planting. But in this case, it is necessary to fill the place of irrigation with dry earth after the water is absorbed into the soil.
Seedless cabbage growing method
When growing white cabbage in a seedless way, seeds are sown immediately to a permanent place. For this purpose, mainly early and mid-season varieties are used. In the south of the non-chernozem zone, late varieties can be grown, for example, Amager 611, Gift.
Before sowing, seeds are calibrated, then pickled in potassium permanganate solution or disinfected with hot water + 50 ° C for 20 minutes, followed by rapid cooling.
Sowing of seeds produced in well-cut soil, sown in the nest of 3-4 seeds. Then the seeds are carefully covered with earth or a mixture of peat and humus.
When the second and third true leaves appear, they are thinned, leaving two plants in the nest, and two plants each time they are thinned again. All other methods of plant care are the same as when growing cabbage seedlings.
A seedless way of growing cabbage has advantages in that plants grow all the time in one place and their root system is never damaged. This contributes to the development of more powerful roots penetrating deep into the soil and capable of extracting moisture and food from deep soil horizons.
Care for white cabbage is the regular loosening of the soil between plants. Weeds weed as they appear. An effective means of controlling weeds under a rosette of leaves is the hilling of plants at the moment when weeds begin to appear on the surface. The soil in the form of a mound, added to the plants, will contribute to the formation of adventitious roots in cabbage.
During the whole season monitor soil moisture on the site where white cabbage grows. Cabbage leaves should not be allowed to wither from a lack of moisture, because this means that the thinnest, fibrous roots begin to die in plants.
The time for watering the cabbage is determined as follows. It is necessary to scrape the top layer of soil to a depth of 5–7 cm and take a handful of earth, squeeze it firmly in your palm and throw a lump on a dense path from a height of 90–100 cm. If a clod of earth crumbles, it means that there is not enough moisture in the soil. Watering required.
Cabbage pest control
Juicy greens cabbage appreciates not only people, but also pests. Most often cabbage is damaged by the larvae of the cabbage fly and butterfly caterpillars, cabbage-weeds, whitefish. From the very beginning it is necessary to monitor the appearance of cabbage fly eggs (white, oval-shaped eggs, 1 -1.5 mm) around the stalks of plants, from which the larvae penetrate the root collar and the root of the cabbage and cause the death of the plants.
If you find eggs of cabbage flies, you need to otgresti them from the stalks along with the ground and pour fresh ground, and then pour the chemical preparations under the root or sprinkle the plant. Effective chemicals choose on the basis of the range of chemicals in the nearest stores for gardeners, gardeners.
Repeated spraying for the prevention of cabbage fly is carried out in 7-10 days. A good effect happens when adding 7% granulated chlorophos (50 g / 10 m 2) to the wells.
In the future, it is necessary to monitor the appearance of cabbage whiteflies on the leaves and, if they are found, collect and destroy them, and in the event of the appearance of caterpillars, collect caterpillars. To destroy the whitefish caterpillars, it is necessary to treat the plants with Alatar or another means, adding laundry soap to the water so that the solution adheres better to the cabbage leaves.
Top dressing of white cabbage
To speed up the growth of leaves, cabbage is fed with mineral fertilizers. The first dressing is done around the plants - at a distance of 10–15 cm in a circle sprinkled with a mixture of fertilizers: ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride - in 1 part, superphosphate - 2 parts per teaspoon per plant.
The first dressing is carried out 7–10 days after planting, when the plants take root and their vegetation begins. The second feeding is done 2–3 weeks after the first, increasing the dose of potassium chloride by 1.5 times.
In dry weather, fertilizers should be applied in dissolved form. To do this, 20–25 grams of ammonium nitrate, 30–40 grams of superphosphate, 20–25 grams of potassium chloride are dissolved in 10 liters of water. One watering can watered 18–20 cabbage bushes.
Fertilization of white cabbage with organic fertilizers gives a good effect: 1 part of the mullein is mixed with 7 parts of water or 1 part of bird droppings - 15-17 parts of water, add for every 10 liters of solution a glass of ash and leave for 24 hours, stirring occasionally. Watering produce watering without a strainer 400–500 ml each under each cabbage bush.
When to pick up cabbage
Early ripening white cabbage is harvested as the heads reach commercial ripeness (average head weight is 400 grams). Middle and late ripening varieties are harvested in late autumn. late September - early October.
When laying cabbage in the cellar or cellar for long-term storage, you need to keep as many green leaves as possible. Such cabbages should be carefully transported without causing injuries, without damaging the leaves and placed in storage.
Red cabbage is a popular variety of white cabbage. Its distinctive feature is the red-violet color of the outer and inner leaves. The nature of the growth and development of red cabbage is the same as that of white cabbage. In food, it is consumed fresh. Salads are prepared from it, and also used for marinating. Red cabbage has good transportability and is well preserved in storage for 3-5 months.
Agrotechnics and the cultivation of red cabbage are the same as in the average varieties of white cabbage.
in savoy cabbage, the grocery organ is a head of cabbage, like white cabbage. The plant forms sessile leaves with short petioles closer to the base of the stem. The leaf plate is bubbly or corrugated due to faster tissue growth between the veins, without wax deposits. The head has a loose structure. The leaves and cabbages are green or dark green with a yellowish tinge.
Savoy cabbage plant is more cold-resistant compared to white cabbage and better resists frosts.
Savoy cabbage is rich in protein so it is used to make delicious fresh soup.
Heads of savoy cabbage are not adapted for long-term storage. Agrotechnical cultivation of Savoy cabbage is similar to mid-ripening varieties of white cabbage.
Brussels sprouts are not the most popular type of cabbage. Cabbage on the fan, so to speak. In Brussels sprouts, small coaches are used as food, which are used whole, not cut into pieces, for cooking cabbage soup or main courses - they can be boiled, stewed with butter or meat. Among all types of cabbage, Brussels sprouts have a higher content of dry matter (15.5–17.5%), protein (3.5–5.5%), and sugar (4.6–5.4%).
The plant forms a stem with a height of 20 to 60 cm, on which grow long-leafed sprawling whole-edged leaves. Young leaf leaves are spoon-shaped - their edges are curved upwards. On the stem, large buds form in the axils of the leaves - oval shaped coaches, weighing 8–15 grams each. A total of 50 to 70 coaches with a total weight of 400–500 grams are formed on the plant.
Brussels sprouts can carry short frosts up to −5. -7 ° C
Agrotechnica Brussels sprouts
From the emergence of seedlings to the formation of the crop, it takes from 130 to 150 days. In the non-chernozem zone, a seedling growing method is used. Seedlings are grown in greenhouses or greenhouses for 45–55 days.
To get products in the early stages, Brussels sprouts are grown in pots, and for autumn consumption, without a potted way.
The soil for Brussels sprouts is prepared similarly to the soil for white cabbage. The seedlings are planted in a permanent place in late April - early May, providing a feed area of 70 × 40 (50) cm.
Caring for Brussels sprouts is similar to caring for white cabbage, with the exception of a specific method - remove the top of the stem in late July or early August. This technique is called decapitation and is carried out to limit the growth of the stem and the formation of larger coaches.
Harvesting Brussels sprouts is carried out in 2–3 doses, breaking out first the lower, larger cabbage, then settling down in the middle part, and last of all - on the upper part of the stem.
The phased disruption of Brussels cabbage coaches contributes to higher yields, since the nutrients absorbed by the root system and leaf assimilates will be directed to the remaining axillary buds.
In the late autumn period, rearing Brussels sprouts is used. In the fall, the plants are dug up with roots and instilled in greenhouses or basements, setting them in grooves close to each other in well-moistened soil. Kochchiki are formed at a temperature of +3. 5 ° C due to nutrients accumulated in the stem and leaves. Therefore, the process of growing can take place without light.
Kohlrabi is a variety of cabbage that forms a stelplod - a knotted thickening on which the petiole grows. The leaf plate is triangular or egg-shaped with jagged edges. The peel of the stebleplod and the leaves are colored light green or red-violet.
Kohlrabi stebleplod has a diameter of 10-15 cm, juicy, contains up to 88% of water, a large amount of sugars and vitamins, has a solid texture. It is consumed fresh, it can be boiled, stewed, fried.
For early consumption, kohlrabi are grown by seedlings, and for autumn, seeds are sown in the ground. When grown on ridges, plants are placed in 2 or 3 rows with a distance between plants in a row of 20–25 cm, between rows in the first case - 60–70 cm, in the second - 33 cm. When grown on a flat surface, the layout is 50–60 × 20-25, 50 × 20 cm
Care for kohlrabi consists in systematic loosening, weeding, fertilizing with mineral fertilizers, irrigation and pest control. With a seedless growing method, thinning is carried out when 2–3 leaves are formed, leaving a distance between plants of 20–25 cm.
Kohlrabi’s stalkers start harvesting when they are 6–8 cm in diameter.
Cauliflower is an annual plant that produces seeds in the first year of life, but this requires a long growing season - about 270 days.
В пищу употребляют головки цветной капусты, представляющие собой укороченные толстые цветоносные побеги. Формирование головки цветной капусты начинается после того, как образуется мощная розетка из 20–30 листьев, имеющих длину 30–40 см.
Головка цветной капусты имеет белый или бело-желтый цвет. It is a very valuable dietary product, has a high taste. It contains a large amount of proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins. Used in food in boiled form with butter or with egg-oil sauce, boiled heads can be stewed or fried.
Cauliflower is very demanding on soil fertility, heat and moisture. Therefore, it is necessary to grow cauliflower in areas that are well seasoned with organic fertilizers.
Cauliflower seedlings are cooked for 50–60 days to prevent young plants from freezing during spring frosts. It should be remembered that when frosted, cauliflower seedlings may die, and if it survives, the quality of the head will deteriorate, it will “crumble” faster.
Before sowing, seeds are calibrated, pickled and soaked in a solution of trace elements.
Cauliflower is more than other crops, responds to micronutrient deficiencies. In particular, when there is a shortage of boron and molybdenum, leaf deformation, rotting and poor head development, stump stump are observed.
When growing cauliflower seedlings, foliar feeding is carried out to improve the supply of trace elements. In 10 liters of water dissolve 2 grams of boric acid and 5 grams of ammonium molybdate and spray the seedlings with this solution. To lengthen the terms of consumption, the sowing of cauliflower seeds for seedlings is carried out step by step, in 7–10 days.
Preparing a plot for planting cauliflower should be made 3-4 kg / m 2 of humus or well prepared peat compost just before digging the soil.
Cauliflower seedlings are planted in open ground from the first decade of May with an interval of 7-10 days, as the seedlings of different sowing dates are ready. This will allow to get cabbage heads from July to September.
Planting cauliflower on a flat surface 50 × 50, 70 × 25 cm, on the ridges - in 3 rows with a distance between plants of 25-30 cm.
Care for cauliflower is to protect against pests, shading young heads from sunlight, regular loosening of the soil and fertilizing with mineral fertilizers.
From the time the seedlings are planted in the open ground before harvesting the cauliflower, plants should be protected from cruciferous flea and cabbage flies. In the order of prophylaxis along the edges of the ridges and between the rows it is possible to decompose superphosphate granulated soaked in chlorophos. When pests appear, young cauliflower plants are sprayed with a solution of 80% chlorophos (30 g / 10 l of water), or with more modern preparations from a cabbage fly and cruciferous flea.
To accelerate the growth of cauliflower leaves, the plants are fed 1-2 times, introducing 50 grams of potassium chloride for every 10 m 2 of 100–120 grams of ammonium nitrate and superphosphate. During a drought, mineral fertilizers must be dissolved in water and applied in a liquid form.
During the entire period of cultivation of cauliflower, it is necessary to monitor the soil moisture and watering systematically. To improve the development of the root system of the plant spud.
Cauliflower heads shading - an important agro-care cauliflower. For this purpose, 1-2 upper sheets are cracked and the head is covered with them. Reception protects the head from yellowing and premature disintegration into its component parts.
When the heads of cauliflower reach a mass of 250 grams or more, they are cut together with four to five leaves.
Seedless cultivation of cauliflower
The seedless cultivation of cauliflower is that the seeds are sown on a permanent place in the open ground. Before sowing, the seeds are calibrated, disinfected, treated in the solution of trace elements.
The soil for cauliflower is prepared very carefully so that there are no lumps and lumps. Sowing is done as soon as possible, as soon as the soil can be processed.
Sowing is done in a nesting way, sowing 3-4 seeds per nest. The soil is pre-leveled and marked out by planting sites After the emergence of seedlings and the formation of the first true leaf produce thinning, leaving one plant in the nest.
The remaining care measures are the same as when growing cauliflower in a seedling way.
Growing cauliflower in greenhouses is used to produce products in the late autumn period. For this purpose, they are sowing seedlings in the first half of June, and landing on a permanent place - on July 25.
Plants with a well-developed rosette of leaves and with a small head with a diameter of 3–5 cm are selected for growing. The digging is done in rows close to each other by 20–30 plants per 1 m 2. During the re-growing period, they provide soil moistening and maintain a temperature of +3. 5 ° C At a lower positive temperature, the process of growing will be slower, and the maturity of products will be shifted to the end of December. When rearing, you can get 8–9 kg of heads with 1 m 2 of protected ground.
Broccoli is a vegetable plant, a type of cauliflower. The broccoli head consists of branched stem formations ending in modified green, blue, purple or white buds, gathered in the form of bunches.
The growing season of broccoli is 135–150 days. Larger heads are formed on the central part of the stem. After the heads are cut from the central stem, lateral (outgrowing) heads will sprout from the leaf axils.
Broccoli is less demanding than cauliflower to heat and soil conditions - it can grow on heavy moist soils, but it develops better on light and medium loams rich in humus. Floodplain and low areas are suitable.
To get the broccoli crop early, broccoli is grown in a seedling manner. Sowing seeds for seedlings spend for 50–60 days before landing on a permanent place. After 12–15 days, seedlings dive into pots 5–6 cm in diameter. Care for seedlings, soil preparation and fertilizer are the same like cauliflower.
Planting broccoli seedlings on a permanent place in the open ground produce simultaneously with early varieties of white cabbage. The landing pattern on the ridges is in 3 rows with 35 cm row spacing, the distance in the row is 25 cm. On a flat surface the plants are placed according to the scheme 60 × 20-30 cm.
Broccoli care consists in 3-fold loosening of the soil, two weeding, watering as needed, hilling of plants. Fertilizing produce a mixture of mineral fertilizers at the rate of:
- ammonium nitrate - 30–40 grams,
- superphosphate - 40 grams,
- potassium chloride 25–30 grams per bucket (watering can) of water.
One watering can watered 15 plants at the root.
When the heads are fully formed and reach a diameter of 8–25 cm, but the buds do not begin to bloom, they are cut with a part of the stem 10–20 cm long, which is also eaten. The average weight of a broccoli head is 400–600 grams.
After cutting the central heads, lateral stem formations grow from the axillary buds, on the tops of which heads are also formed with a diameter of 4–6 cm and a mass of 150–200 g.
The heads are boiled in salted water until soft, rolled in breadcrumbs and fried with butter or served with butter-egg sauce.
Beijing cabbage is an annual, early-ripening plant; if the plant is harvested in the 5–7 leaf phase, the crop ripens in 30–35 days, and it takes 60–80 days to get the heads out with an open rosette.
Peking cabbage can be grown in greenhouses, greenhouses and tunnels as an independent crop or in order to compact cucumber or tomato, and under small shelters - and zucchini.
Beijing cabbage seeds are sown with 20 cm row spacing, if they are to be harvested at a young age, and 35–50 cm when grown before heading. The distances in the row in the first case are 3-4 cm, in the second - up to 20-25 cm.
Plants develop better in the early spring period in greenhouses and greenhouses, where cruciferous flea harms less. Care consists of weeding, irrigation and loosening the soil in between rows.
The harvesting of leaf forms of Beijing cabbage is carried out in two terms. When 4–5 leaves are formed, clean in thinning order, leaving the distance between plants of 8–10 cm. When 9–10 leaves form on the remaining plants, they are removed a second time, pulling out from the soil with the roots.
Literary source: Karataev E.S. Handbook for the grower, 1990
Description of cultivars
White cabbage is represented by plants with thickened stunted stalks, covered with large foliage, and heads that are apical buds, which have grown strongly. Their weight and other parameters depend on the particular variety.
The most fruitful and well-proven vegetable varieties:
- "The number one Gribovsky 147" is an early ripe variety with excellent productivity indicators and the same commercial qualities. The weight of the head with the proper farming techniques can reach 8 kg.
- "June" - an early variety that has gained popularity with cold resistance and good tolerance of spring frosts. With proper care, the yield from 10 m² can reach 60 kg.
- The “gift” - many gardeners prefer this middle-late variety that can be cultivated throughout Russia, including the Urals and Siberia. Vegetable with large heads of cabbage has a high taste and is often used for pickling.
- "Glory" is a time-tested mid-season variety with an extended harvesting interval. The mass of moderately dense forks varies from 2.5 to 4.5 kg. Good quality.
- “Moscow Late” - late ripe cabbage is represented by plants with dense forks, which can reach a mass of 8 kg. Often used for blanks that differ in aroma and crunchiness.
- “Amager” is a variety with a long aging period, favorite for growers, which is not prone to cracking and easily tolerates transportation. Despite the more modest size of heads, the crop has a stable yield and good tolerance to drought.
Growing white cabbage in open ground can be divided into 3 stages:
- The preparatory period is the forcing of seedlings (March - April) or its purchase in a specialized store.
- Planting works - preparation of the correctly chosen site and planting of seedlings.
- Care is the longest and painstaking stage during which the grower will have to water, loosen the beds, and feed the plants and protect them from harmful organisms.
Site selection and soil preparation
For the cultivation of white cabbage, areas with excellent lighting are selected, where the representatives of the Cruciferous family have not been cultivated for the last 3 years.
Quality vegetables can be obtained on the fertile lands of a weakly acid reaction. The soil in the selected area is prepared as early as autumn, when, in weather without precipitation, the territory is dug up to the depth of the arable layer with a slight twisting of clods, which allows destroying the stock of the pest that had gone to winter.
With the arrival of spring heat, when the snow comes off, harrowing is carried out to “close the moisture”. Subsequently, before planting the seedlings, the plot is systematically weeded in order to keep the land clean.
The optimal time for planting crop seedlings in open ground depends on the selected variety:
- The signal for planting seedlings of early cabbage is the presence of 5–7 leaves and reaching 12–20 cm in height (as a rule, such parameters for seedlings are noted at the beginning of May),
- mid-season cabbage and late ones are planted when 4-6 leaves are formed, when the height is at least 15 cm (from the second decade of May to the first half of June).
The scheme of planting white cabbage, as well as the timing, is directly dependent on the vegetation interval of the crop:
- the early representatives of the vegetable crop are planted in increments of 30 cm between the specimens, despite the fact that the distance between rows remains within 40 cm,
- for vegetables with medium ripening periods, a 50x60 cm scheme is suitable,
- for later - 60x70 cm
After determining the intervals between the specimens and rows in the area, the wells are prepared, the parameters of which should slightly exceed the size of the rhizome of seedlings with an earthy ball. In the hollows poured on a handful of sand, peat, humus and wood ash. Also added some nitroammofoski.
Seedlings fall into the wells after the fertilizers are moistened, which protects the root system from burns.
First, seedlings are sprinkled with moist soil, and after compaction, the pristvolny circles are covered with a slight layer of dry.
Cabbage planting and care in the open field, in the garden
We grow strong and healthy cabbage in the open field
For the successful cultivation of cabbage in the open field and obtaining the ideal yield, you must responsibly approach each stage:
- select suitable cultivars,
- correctly prepare the soil and planting material
- observe the terms of sowing and planting cabbage,
- provide appropriate care
- determine the time of harvest.
Selection of cabbage varieties for planting
The choice of cabbage variety depends on the time of ripening and application of the crop:
- early varieties (Transfer, Pharaoh, Express) are ideal for fresh consumption. They are bad "lie" and are not suitable for salting,
- mid-season varieties (Aggressor, Glory, Gift) - ideal for canning, pickling and fermentation,
- late varieties (Sugar Loaf, Amager, Valentina) are grown for long-term storage in the cellar for the winter.
Cabbage of different varieties
Growing cabbage in open ground of different varieties will allow you to harvest several times per season, and stock up for the whole year.
How to choose cabbage seedlings
Growing cabbage seedlings at home requires a special approach. High temperature and low humidity in the room are destructive for young shoots, and not everyone can provide optimal conditions. In this case, gardeners have to buy planting material.
How to choose cabbage seedlings according to external signs
You can choose the cabbage seedlings for planting by assessing its appearance:
- the light green color of the seedlings signals its low quality (the root system is often poorly developed, the seedlings do not take root well). Healthy cabbage seedlings have a light purple tint on the stem and leaves,
- there should be no signs of disease or pests on the seedlings (spots, wilt, yellowness),
- short leg of seedlings indicates early variety of cabbage, long - about late. So you can check if the seller is not cheating,
- round leaves will later form spherical or flattened cabbages, and elongated - elongated, oval or pointed.
Late cabbage varieties can be grown in a seedless manner. For this, seeds are sown in the wells at the end of April and covered with a film or glass before germination.
Preparing beds and planting cabbage
When choosing a place for planting cabbage seedlings, you should adhere to the observance of crop rotation:
- It is best to plant cabbage in the area where cucumbers, carrots, onions, and beans were grown.
- It is highly undesirable to plant cabbage on a bed where other species of this crop were previously grown, as well as radishes, beets.
- Choosing a plot for cabbage, do not forget about the good neighborhood of crops. Cabbage gets along well with cucumbers, dill, potatoes, but grows poorly next to grapes, strawberries, tomatoes.
Planting cabbage in open ground
Cabbage gives a generous harvest on moisture-rich clay soils and loams with low acidity. When preparing the beds, keep this in mind, and, if necessary, deoxidize the soil.
To prepare the site for planting begin in the fall. For this, the soil is dug up deeply (for the length of the spade, 20-25 cm), and organic (manure, humus) and mineral (superphosphate, urea, potassium chloride) fertilizers are applied.
In the spring, they dig up the soil again, trying to break up the clods of earth as small as possible. Lime or dolomite flour must be added to acidic soils.
The planting scheme for cabbage seedlings depends on the ripening time:
- for early cabbage there is enough distance of 30-40 cm in a row,
- for later - at least 50 cm (preferably 60-70 cm),
- recommended aisle cabbage beds - 60-70 cm.
Seedlings are planted in pre-prepared and moistened wells of one root. Deepen the seedlings to the first leaf, slightly tamping the top layer of soil. After planting, the seedlings are watered again.
Growing cabbage in open ground is impossible without regular watering, as it is a very moisture-loving plant. This requirement is particularly relevant in the first phase of growth.
Watering is carried out every 2-3 days plentiful, while the water should not be cold. When the cabbages are tied, watering cabbage in the open field is gradually reduced and completely stopped a month before harvesting.
This rule does not apply to early maturing varieties.
Watering and caring for cabbage
Fertilization in three stages
- After planting in the ground the first feeding is carried out in 14-16 days. The most successful fertilizer for this purpose is a mullein infusion, 1 l of which is diluted in 10 l of water.
Проводят ее калийными удобрениями и мочевиной (по 10 г на ведро воды).
Йод для капусты – подкормка и защита от болезней из домашней аптечки (40 капель на ведро воды), Раствор йода можно вносить каждые 10 дней из расчета 0,5 литра под куст.
Болезни и вредители капусты
Growing white cabbage in the open ground, as well as other varieties, requires regular treatment from pests and diseases:
- A colony of aphids or cruciferous flea can in a matter of days completely destroy all cabbage plantings.
- No less dangerous for culture and fungal diseases.
To avoid the appearance of parasites and infections, it is necessary to treat the cabbage with insecticides (Prestige, Commander Maxi, Lepidocid) and fungicides (Dr. Klop, Impact, Zoltan, Gamair) with a frequency of 10-12 days, or folk remedies.
Cabbage solution recipe
When fighting cabbage (cabbage), aphids and other pests, a good result is given by spraying with tobacco dust decoction (400 g boil for two hours in 2 liters of water, strain, add 50 g of soap and dilute with water to 10 liters).
To fight slugs in cabbage, they place baits and traps, and sprinkle a bed around the perimeter of crushed eggshell and sifted river sand.
Possible difficulties in growing cabbage
Many gardeners face a problem when cabbages are not tied on cabbages. The plant stretches upwards, densely overgrown with foliage. The reasons may be the following:
- late sowing of seeds (after March 10),
- thickened landing (should be thinned),
- excessive or poor watering (you can solve the problem by regular watering with sprinkling, but make sure that there is no stagnant water),
- a surplus of nitrogen fertilizers (during the formation of heads of nitrogen fertilizers are completely excluded, and phosphorus and potash fertilizers are introduced).
White cabbage, cultivation and care in the open field for which is carried out correctly, always gives the harvest of elastic and juicy heads.
The nuances of harvesting cabbage
The harvest time for cabbage depends on the type and maturity of the vegetable:
- early ripening varieties ripen in late June - early July,
- mid-season - by August
- late ripening - in October.
It is rather simple to check the maturity of the heads of cabbage - they become firm, crunch when slightly squeezed. Part of the harvest can be removed gradually, spending it on current needs. Mass cleaning is carried out when there are no unripe bushes in the garden.
Late cabbage varieties are best stored if collected in dry, cool weather. When cutting the crop for storage, you need to leave several lower sheets and a stalk, 4-5 cm long. So they will be less susceptible to the development of rot and remain until a new harvest.
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It is quite easy to get excellent harvest, because caring for cabbage in the open field does not require special skills. It is only necessary to adhere to simple recommendations at each stage of cultivation.
Description of the vegetable and growing conditions
In the first year of cultivation, the plant forms a head of cabbage, and in the second year, it is already a large flower stalk with seeds. The head itself can be of different shapes and sizes:
Its weight ranges from 300 g to 15 kg, depending on the variety, as well as the level of agricultural technology and growing conditions. The benefits of culture are:
- high yield
- resistance to different growing conditions,
- possibility of storage until spring.
The optimum temperature for development is 13-18 degrees, shoots sensitive to coldand young seedlings are able to tolerate slight frosts up to 3 degrees of frost, and an adult plant, even to minus 8, respectively.
But the heat inhibits the development of culture, at temperatures above 30 degrees, cabbies do not form at all. With the beginning of the formation of heads, the plant needs more water.
Cabbage loves plentiful light, even a slight shading can ruin the seedlings. It is not recommended to plant it near fruit trees, to make planting thickened, and to allow an abundance of weeds in the area.
Cabbage requires food, especially actively it absorbs such nutrients as:
At the seedling stage, cabbage consumes all the nutritional components, and when building up a rosette of leaves, more nitrogen will be needed, and more phosphorus and potassium are needed when forming and growing a head of cabbage. But feeding with the use of trace elements is needed in the case of planting culture in such conditions:
- in the swamp
- on peatlands,
- sandy or sandy soil.
Growing white cabbage: how to prepare a plot for planting
Cabbage very demanding on the structure and soil fertility. Planting is best done on loamy soils, where there is enough humus, the reaction should be slightly acidic or neutral, and the soil should be well retain moisture.
Land for landing is prepared in the autumn thus:
- remove the remnants of previous crops,
- loosen the soil
- when weeds germinate, they dig up the earth in 2-3 weeks,
- in the spring, let the soil dry out a little and loosen it,
- just before planting, dig up the soil.
Cabbage planting scheme
The period of planting seedlings, as well as planting scheme depends largely on the growing season. Early-grade cabbage seedlings are planted in open ground around the end of April or early May, when it comes to medium varieties, the planting is carried out at the beginning of summer, but not later than mid-June, and later ones - in May.
It is possible to plant white cabbage before, it will grow earlier, then even before harvesting, overripe heads may crack. It is not recommended to plant later than the specified period, as the plant may not gain weight before the cold weather and go through the necessary developmental stages, and also will not be able to form a presentation vegetable.
It is necessary to plant white cabbage in an ordinary way. The area of nutrition depends primarily on the cabbage variety. The schemes are as follows:
- for early varieties, the pattern is 60x35-40 cm, 70x30-35 or 50x50 cm,
- for medium grades 70x50 or 60x40-60 cm,
- for late 60x45-50 or 70x45-70 cm.
In the case of thickening to the desired limit, the crop increases with a unit of area, but the size of the heads is reduced. If plantings are thickened, then head ripening is inhibited.and they are not formed by their strong compaction. And varieties where the rosette of leaves is large are planted with a larger area of nutrition.
How to water white cabbage when grown?
The need of a plant for water is different, depending on the growing season. Also vary the rate of irrigation and depth of soil moisture. The plant has three periods of development:
- vegetative growth,
- the development of grocery organs,
- ripening period.
In the first period, when irrigating in non-chernozem regions, the depth of soil moistening should be 0.2 m and then 0.3 m. In the south, these figures are 0.3 and 0.4 m, respectively.
If the plant is watered rarely and in large quantities during cultivation, it will spend a lot of substances on the development of the root system, which can cause damage to the fruiting of the cabbage. Water regularly and in small portions., in the irrigation zone - first of all the root system.
Early cabbage should be watered abundantly at the beginning of summer, and later at the end when the forks are tied. During the expansion of the rosette of leaves, insufficient watering has a negative effect on the size of the head, even if in the future watering will be carried out without problems. Watering cabbage should be in the morning or evening water with temperatures up to 20 degrees.
Soil after watering or precipitation need to loosen to a depth of 8 cm, and the closer to the plant, the smaller, and the closer to the aisle, then more deeply. When the cabbage leaf surface becomes the most developed, and the head is finally formed, you need to carefully control the availability of water, and slowly reduce the amount of watering.
Twice the cabbage during the growing period. First, 20 days after landing, and then another 10 days.
Other growing activities
In addition to regular soil loosening, as well as watering and controlling pests and diseases, take measures to control weeds in the area. Otherwise, all efforts may be in vain, since diseases and pests can infest in weeds. And weeds tend to take away heat from cabbage and create problems with the processing of crops and soil, consume about thirty percent of the nutrient components of the soil or water. As a result, the amount of the harvest is greatly reduced and product quality suffers.
So, we have considered the features of planting white cabbage and its cultivation. If you know the details of the process at each stage, you will end up with a rich and high-quality harvest.
How to care in the open field
The answer to the question of how to grow cabbage in the country and get a high yield is very simple - you need to regularly and carefully take care of the vegetable crop.
- Watering. In order for the plant to fully develop and not hurt, it is necessary to establish the optimal irrigation regime and follow it strictly. Irrigation is always carried out in the evening, when the activity of the sun is not so high. If the weather is overcast, then the interval between heavy moisture can be 6 days. In hot and sunny weather, the interval is reduced by almost 2 times - 2 - 3 days.
- Ground treatment. After watering or heavy rainfall, in order to ensure free access of air to the roots of the crop, the soil under the plants is loosened and spud. To reduce the amount of loosening and retain moisture for longer, it is recommended to mulch the beds with the help of peat, which is also an excellent organic fertilizer that feeds the growing cabbage.
The first three times feeding is carried out before planting the seedling in open ground:
- After picking seedlings, the soil spills well, and then a mineral fertilizer complex is added, consisting of 2 g of potash fertilizer, the same amount of ammonium nitrate and 4 g of superphosphate.
- After a two-week period of time, the seedlings are fed again with the same fertilizers, but in double quantity.
- The third fertilization is considered “quenched” and takes place 2 days before planting in the garden, when seedlings are watered with 8 g of potassium agrochemicals dissolved in it, 5 g of superphosphate and 3 g of ammonium nitrate.
When the cabbage is on the beds, the introduction of nutrients continues:
- For intensive formation and development of leaf plates, plants are fed with nitrogen-containing agrochemicals.
- After the beginning of the formation of heads, the nutritional composition changes: the soil is enriched mostly with phosphorus and potassium with a slight addition of nitrogen in the form of urea or organic matter.
Among the most dangerous stand out:
- Kila - a fungal disease that affects early cabbage in the seedling phase. In order to protect the affected specimens should be removed, the earth shed with a solution of manganese.
- Black leg - a disease that is also characteristic of the early stages of cultural development. In the event of defeat, diseased plants are removed, and the earthen room, where they grew, is replaced.
- Perinospora - pathogens are usually found in the seed, which must be pre-treated. With the development of downy mildew, it is recommended to treat the plantings with a fungicide with a short toxicity period so that no pesticide residue remains in the harvested crop.
- Fusarium is a dangerous disease in which diseased plants are destroyed, and the soil is well disinfected with fungicidal agents.
Among pests, the most dangerous are aphids, fleas, slugs and moths. Insecticides of contact action, which are used prior to the formation of heads, act as an effective method of protection.
Important! Gastropod pests are subject to mechanical collection and destruction.
White cabbage is a popular vegetable that is grown everywhere along with potatoes. At observance of simple recommendations even the beginning vegetable grower will receive a good harvest.
How to grow cabbage
However, in some cases, the opinion of the ease of growing cabbage may be wrong. The cabbage itself grows well in the Urals and the South; in addition, vegetables grow excellently in northern places. Despite the fact that the plant is not demanding in the care, it is very wayward. This may manifest itself in the form of a flower stalk, or the cabbage will not begin to wrap up in any way, and it may happen that all saplings start dying without any reason.
Because of the capricious nature of this vegetable. There are many varieties of cabbage, each of the varieties demanding care, planting and soil. But also your attitude towards cabbage can be attributed to the requirement, as the plants are also alive and they sense your mood when you are caring for them. Therefore, it is worth treating them carefully.
How to plant cabbage
It will not be possible to plant all the cabbage at a time, if you decide to do this, then the cabbage that is not adapted for early planting will simply die and you will not get the desired harvest. It is necessary to look at which variety when it is necessary to plant, some crops require a certain soil, while others require a specific planting pattern.
For this reason, plant all seedlings from your window sill at the same time. Below you will tell about the 9 most popular types of cabbage and when it is better to plant it.
- White cabbage. It is not picky, refers to the early, late and medium ripeness.
- Red. It contains more vitamin substances than the first cabbage, it can also be easily distinguished from other types.
- Cauliflower. A great option for cooking. It bears fruit very well, besides it has a pleasant taste.
- Broccoli. Also often used for cooking.
- Kohlrabi. In food I use only the stem of a vegetable, the taste is similar to a stalk, the shape of a vegetable is similar to a turnip.
- Brussels. It is considered the most favorite cabbage in children.
- Beijing Basically, this cabbage is used in salads. She has a very low shelf life because of this it will be great to plant it to a certain date.
- Savoy. Most often used in the preparation of cabbage. Also serve as an excellent decoration of dishes.
- Decorative. It is grown for beauty, most often in flowerbeds. In cooking, it is not used.
Each of the above species has a different attitude to temperature conditions. For example, the most frost-resistant species is Sivaysky, but cauliflower and broccoli like heat. Before you plant the cabbage in the garden, you need to know your variety, as depending on the variety, it can be planted in the garden after the first emergence of seedlings.
But if you cannot find out the variety of your vegetables, then there is nothing terrible in this, since almost all the seedlings can be transplanted into the garden two months after the emergence of shoots. You can also understand whether the sapling is ready to transplant by the number of sheets on it.
If 2 strong and adult leaves have already matured on it and two more are just beginning to appear, it is necessary to immediately replant it in the garden. Otherwise, you can ruin your further vegetable. As if he will re-spell in the seedling stage and start to head out, then he will be out of proportion, and most importantly he will be soft.
As a rule, these vegetables are not very afraid of low temperatures, but if the weather is cold, the plant may develop diseases. In Russia, the best period for growing cabbage is the May period, because at this time the weather starts to improve and the warm season prevails. The best temperature for placing seedlings in the garden is 15 to 18 degrees heat.
Before landing, you need to know the temperature conditions of your place of residence. Since, for example, in the southern territories during the summer season, two harvests can be harvested, as they can afford to start planting in early April.
And of course there are a number of folk signs, when you need to start planting in your garden. One of them is associated with bird cherry. It is believed that you need to start planting a garden only after the whole bird cherry stops blooming.
The next way to check is to feel the warmth of the soil with your body. It is necessary to sit on the soil where you are going to plant your further harvest. If you feel cold, it means the ground is still frozen and not ready for planting. You can heat it up with various rugs. Well, and vice versa, if it is pleasant and warm to sit on the ground, then you can safely proceed to planting.
We make beds
It is necessary to begin with a choice of place, a lot of shadow should not fall on it, also in this area the crucifer should not have grown for 4 years. The best places for cabbage will be those where earlier legumes or pumpkin were grown. Also gently look at the level of groundwater, vegetables such as cabbage are very fond of moisture, but not swampy terrain.
In the autumn period, it is necessary to dig up a future garden bed, remove all plants of parasites from the territory, and most importantly, check the level of acidity, cabbage does not like acidic soil. You also need to fertilize the soil with manure, an average of 5 kilograms of manure per square meter.
After the bed is ready, it is necessary to prepare places for future plantings. For this you need to make holes. When you start it is worth remembering that the cabbage loves free space, it also needs the sun's rays.
The distance between the holes must be considered from the possibility of growth of your variety, since you will not be able to disturb it until the harvest itself. Each variety has its own growth chapel. Но есть и закономерность, если капуста ранней посадки, не стоит ожидать от нее больших кочанов. А вот от поздней посадки появляется большой урожай.
Существует три размера:
- Для ранней капусты требуется место 40 на 50 сантиметров.
- Для пекинской капуст нужно 30х30 сантиметром площади.
- And for everyone else, on average, they take a distance of 60 by 60 centimeters.
Do not worry if the cabbage is located throughout the garden, she loves her neighbors. So you can easily plant any other vegetables close to it. But the main thing is that the neighbors have an upper root system. Since the cabbage will take all the food from the lower layers of the soil.
White cabbage features, short description
Cabbage is among the most popular vegetable crops grown throughout the world. Some historical sources claim that man cultivated this vegetable as far back as the third millennium BC. Since that time, the popularity of the product has only increased, as well as the number of varieties of the culture itself, among which in the territory of the former USSR proteinaceous varieties are especially in demand.
White cabbage is a plant with a two-year period of development. During the first year of its life, a round, elliptical or elongated head (depending on the variety) is formed from the leaves, in which the nutrients, trace elements, vitamins and moisture necessary for the further development of the bush accumulate. In the second year, the plant starts a seed arrow. On it grow yellow inflorescences, turning after pollination into pods with seeds.
Among the biological features of cabbage are the following points:
- The average height of the bush of this culture is 30-50 cm. The testicle can grow up to 160 cm.
- Head weight ranges from 300 g to 4 kg.
- The term of ripening of the heads, depending on the variety, is from 80 to 150 days.
- The forks are formed from round-shaped leaves. Each sheet has a waxy coating on the surface; it may be smooth or wavy on the edges.
- The optimum temperature for crop growth is 13–18 degrees. In addition, for the full development of the plant also requires a lot of moisture and good lighting throughout the day.
Such a vegetable is highly valued in cooking. It is consumed fresh, pickled, used in various salads, soups, hot dishes. For the body, cabbage is beneficial because of its high content of fiber and vitamins C, B, A. In addition, it also contains phosphorus, potassium, and a number of other trace elements.
Growing crops: how, when and under what scheme to plant cabbage
The cultivation of white cabbage is carried out by seedling or seedless method. Each of them involves a clear agricultural practices, including:
- optimal site selection for beds,
- specific terms of sowing seeds,
- proper care of seedlings
- following a clear plan for planting open soil,
- proper cleaning and storage of heads.
Planting seedlings in open ground
Choosing a place on the site for seedlings and soil preparation
Properly selected area under the beds will greatly simplify the care of the crop and increase its yield. The following requirements are imposed on the plot for cabbage planting:
- clay or loamy soil (on the sandy soil type, the plant also grows, but gives lower yields),
- neutral level of soil acidity,
- the lack of high buildings around the site and trees that can obscure it,
- It is advisable to plant cabbages where onions, tomatoes, potatoes or cucumbers grew in the past seasons.
It is also worth noting that the feeding of the soil in the autumn time contributes to obtaining high yields. During this period, superphosphate in the amount of 60 g per square meter is added to the soil. It is also recommended to use urea and potassium chloride. This mixture can be made independently or you can buy ready-made fertilizers in stores.
Reference. To reduce the acidity of the soil in the fall, it is also sprinkled with slaked lime. Sand is added to heavy soils. After making all the necessary additions, the site must be dug up.
When seedlings of cabbage are planted in the ground?
In the case of the implementation of the seedling method of growing cabbage, you need to know exactly when to transplant plants into open soil. The dates of planting in this case largely depend on the general maturity of the variety:
- Early ripe cabbage. The planting of such vegetation is carried out from the second half of April. Thus, by the beginning of August, the heads completely matured.
- Mid-season varieties. It is recommended to carry them to the garden in the second decade of May.
- Late varieties. This kind of culture is planted in the last days of May. Accordingly, the harvest is carried out in the fall.
In general, it takes 55 days to grow white cabbage seedlings from seeds. Seedlings are ready for planting when several full leaves appear on them. In addition, the height of such a plant should be at least 15 cm.
Seedlings ready for planting
Another key to high productivity cabbage planting is the proper care of such vegetation. He suggests the following points:
- High-quality lighting beds.
- Regular watering.
- Loosening and hilling beds.
- Pest control.
As noted earlier, near the site there should be no objects covering vegetation from the sun. But when planting seedlings, if excessive heat can be traced, it is better to cover the sprouts with a film so that the leaves do not get burned. Remove it gradually after a few days, when the seedlings will get used and take root in the soil.
The frequency of watering cabbage beds depends largely on the weather conditions of the summer. In dry, hot weather, the crop is irrigated more often, and with increased humidity, the opposite is true. On average, watering is carried out once a week.
Cabbage is watered only in the evening
Water the cabbage only in the evening. At the same time, water consumption in the first 2 weeks after transplanting into open ground is 6 l / sq. m. After this period, the volume of liquid is increased to 15 l / sq. m. From the moment of the ovary of the head of cabbage consumption is up to 10 liters for each bush.
Attention! For irrigation can not use water directly from the tap or well. It is recruited into containers in which it is pre-settled and heated. It is not recommended to water the vegetation with water whose temperature is below 18 degrees.
Loosening the soil must be carried out on a mandatory basis. It is carried out with a hoe, flooding the top layer of the earth 7–10 cm deep. This can be done after watering, at least once every 15 days. In parallel with loosening, weeds are removed from the garden bed.
Hilling is another important care point for white cabbage. It allows you to strengthen and align the stem of the bushes, provides the appearance of additional roots, due to which the plant absorbs more moisture and nutrients from the soil.
Hilling is carried out after the rain or immediately after the completion of watering. For early varieties, one procedure is required - in June, before the beginning of the forking of the forks. For middle and late varieties, another 1-2 hilling is assumed with an interval of 20-30 days.
To reach maximum yields, the plant is necessarily fed. Conduct fertilizer soil after transplanting three times:
- The first feeding is approximately two weeks after the seedlings are transferred to open ground. At this time, nitrogen-rich compounds are introduced into the earth. The best option for the first feeding is a solution that includes 10 liters of water, 20 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium chloride and 10 g of urea. All components are thoroughly mixed and poured 0.5 l of the composition under each bush.
- The second time the soil is fertilized 15 days after the first procedure. To do this, the following composition is suitable: 10 liters of water, 0.5 liters of liquid cow manure, 15 g of Kemira or fertilizer of similar composition, 30 g of nitrophoska. The fluid flow is 1 liter under each bush.
- The last fertilization is carried out 10 days after the previous one. To do this, use 1 liter of liquid mullein, diluted with 10 liters of water. Additionally, 30 g of superphosphate is added to the solution. The resulting mass is distributed in the area of 6–8 liters per square meter.
These feeding patterns may vary, as are the compositions of the fertilizers used. So, for later varieties, another feeding is allowed, which is carried out 3 weeks before the expected date of harvest.
Planting white cabbage is often attacked by pests. The greatest damage to the crop is caused by the following:
Butterfly caterpillars scoops
- Caterpillars moths moths and butterflies. Such insects quickly destroy the leaves of culture. Insecticides or folk methods help in the fight against them. The latter include spraying the bushes with infusion prepared from 2 kg of fresh tomato stems steamed in 5 liters of boiling water.
- Cruciflo flea. In large quantities, insects are also able to cause significant damage to the crop. The following composition will help scare away the pests: 10 liters of water, 200 g of ash, 200 g of tobacco, 50 g of soap. This solution is sprayed with cabbage leaves.
- Aphid. This type of insect sucks the juice from the leaves, so that they quickly fade. Vinegar, 200 g of which is diluted in a bucket of water, is an effective remedy against the pest. There also add 50 g of soap and spray on the site.
Reference. It is worth noting that purchased insecticides are much more effective in the fight against harmful insects. But it is recommended to go over to their application when folk methods do not work.
Collecting ripe cabbage heads also involves a number of features. Their observance will help preserve the harvest longer in the winter and not spoil the taste of the leaves. When implementing the procedure, the following points are taken into account:
- 2-3 weeks before the planned harvest stop watering the crop. This will prevent head cracking.
- Cleaning is carried out on a sunny dry day.
- Forks are cut with a sharp knife so that they still have 3-4 cm of stump and a few covering leaves.
- If the heads are frozen, then cleaning should be postponed for 4–5 days until they thaw. When laying forks for storage frozen, they quickly begin to rot.
Important! After cutting, all the forks are placed outside on wooden boards, where they are dried for several hours. Further, damaged and insufficiently dense heads are taken from the total mass, and all the others are transferred to the winter storage area (garage, basement, shed).
White cabbage is one of the main components of the national cuisine of the post-Soviet countries. Due to this popularity, the culture is grown in almost every garden. But not all gardeners practicing this occupation clearly follow the established agricultural techniques. Meanwhile, compliance with the correct planting scheme for cabbage and the main points of care can significantly increase its yield.
Cabbage planting schemes
There are several popular cabbage planting schemes: 40cm × 40cm, 50cm × 50cm, 70cm × 30cm and 50cm × 40cm. The soil in the garden under the cabbage is prepared in advance. Humus is brought there or manure from the fall. It responds well to phosphate and potash fertilizers. When planting seedlings should be deepened to the first true leaf. Seedlings are planted in overcast weather, or shaded in sunny for a while until the seedlings are fully rooted.
Properly growing white cabbage is not easy, because in the open field the culture is attacked by pests and diseases. It is especially important to take into account the soil moisture shown: an excess of moisture in the soil leads to diseases of the root system.
Varieties of white cabbage are grown seedlings if planting occurs in an area with a temperate or cool climate. Hardening of seedlings is carried out in advance to reduce the risk of disease.
Particular attention is paid to the choice of the site: all varieties of white cabbage belong to the light-requiring. Plant them in well-lit areas.
If you follow all the recommendations, it is easy to independently grow high quality products.
It is better to give preference to a landing method of landing. For starters are determined with seeds. You can buy them in a specialty store or use them at home. Own material should be properly processed:
- Place in warm water (about 60 ° C).
- Rinse thoroughly under running cold water.
- Treat with disinfectants and growth stimulants: oxychol, manganese solution or Bordeaux mixture. Seeds are soaked for 20-30 minutes: this is enough to destroy all bacteria and microorganisms.
- Rinse under running water and place in the freezer.
The ideal time for sowing seeds is mid-March. It is better to plant seeds in separate containers: this significantly reduces the risk of damage to the root system when transplanted into open ground.
Optimal conditions for seed germination
Shoots need to temper
Until the first shoots began to form, a temperature of about 22 ° C should be maintained in the room. After 2 weeks, it should be lowered to 10 ° C. Since the beginning of the formation of leaves, the temperature is again raised to 18 ° C.
After the appearance of the leaves, the containers with the seedlings are placed on the windowsill of the sunny side of the house. Every day, the containers with different sides turn to the street. This allows the seedlings to form evenly.
When 2 pairs of leaves form on a plant, it is taken out to the street every day. The first few days of cabbage seedlings should be on the street no more than 30 minutes. Every day, the ventilation interval is increased to temper the plant for future planting in open ground.
The future harvest and the quality of the seedlings depends on the soil. Attention should be paid to the acid-base balance of the soil: it should not exceed 4%. If the level is much higher, then you need to process the land with lime.
- the crop under consideration is not planted after radishes, tomatoes or beets: these vegetables have a negative effect on soil fertility,
- preference is given to sites where cucumbers, peas, beans or potatoes were previously grown.
- Only fertile soils are chosen, they should contain a large amount of peat, preference is given to loose soil without clay.
Sowing white cabbage in open ground is possible only after 2-3 pairs of leaves form on the plant. Wait, when the soil warms to the optimum temperature of 13-15 ° C. The best time for landing is the end of May and the beginning of June.
For proper planting of cabbage should follow a specific scheme. Usually the distance between the rows should be 75 cm, but between the holes should keep a distance of 50 cm.
The agrotechnical planting is based not only on a certain distance, but also on preparatory activities. Before planting the crop within the specified time, at least 1 liter of water is poured into each well and about 500 g of mullein is poured. This allows you to increase the fertility of the earth and simplify the adhesion of the root system to the soil.
Proper care will increase plant yield.
It is important to follow the rules of growing and caring for white cabbage. Plants are watered no more than once every 3-4 days. Watering is carried out only in the morning or in the evening.
Culture needs fertilizer.
The first feeding is carried out 3 weeks after planting in open ground, it involves the use of phosphorus compounds or organic fertilizers (manure or mullein).
The second feeding is carried out 14 days after the first. At this time, it is advisable to use potassium and phosphorus. Further fertilizers are applied at slower growth or poor fruit formation.
Care for white cabbage involves regular weeding and removal of weeds. The soil is loosened every time after watering. Weeding depth should be 6-8 cm. This condition is necessary for the root system to receive the required amount of nutrients and oxygen.
Harvesting and storage technology
Harvesting is done only after the fruit reaches a weight of 1 kg. You can wait until the weight increases. Crop harvested in sunny weather. You can chop the cabbage heads and lay them in the basement. Late ripped up, and then dug into the basement ground. It is important to leave a stalk 3 cm long: this significantly reduces the risk of injury or infection.
Large cabbage is stored on the shelves, but so that the heads are not in contact. Each fruit is suspended on its own stalk. According to technology, it is important to correctly maintain distance when positioning: about 25 cm from each other.
Cunning cabbage cultivation, Pests and diseases of cabbage
When to feed the cabbage / Subtleties growing cabbage in open ground
Growing cabbage in open field
In the cellar there should always be a temperature of about 1 ° C. You can store crops in such conditions until the beginning of May. Attention is also paid to the air humidity in the basement: the recommended level is 90-95%.
How to grow white cabbage: planting and care
Cabbage in the past was very much appreciated by our ancestors for the presence in it of many useful nutrients. Today, most gardeners grow it in the garden. Productivity depends a lot from the correct care of the plant, so you should read the information on how to grow the cabbage correctly.
Most of the cabbage varieties are biennial plants, it gives the first seeds in the second year. Exceptions are certain types of annuals - Broccoli, Peking and Kale. Сегодня существует большое разнообразие разновидностей, но наибольшей популярностью пользуется капуста белокочанная.
Белокочанная капуста при выращивании способна выдерживать пониженные температуры, но этот вид предъявляет повышенные требования к уровню содержания влаги в воздухе и почве.
For successful cultivation of a plant and obtaining a good harvest, sufficient watering should be provided.
Temperatures above 25 C0 very badly affect the condition of the plant, and an increase in it over 30 C0 leads to the fact that forks are not formed.
The success of growing white cabbage and future yield is largely due to seed quality. In the southern regions, the plant can be grown from seed. by direct landing in open ground. For other regions, this method is unsuitable and growing occurs with the use of seedlings.
Planting seeds in the ground is the first stage in the long process of growing cabbage. The average time from the moment of emergence and planting of seedlings is 50-60 days.
It is with this in mind that the need to start work is determined. In southern areas, you can start planting in late January or early February.
In the northern regions disembarkation begins at the end of Marchand for some types of cabbage this period is shifted to April.
It is recommended to check the cabbage seeds for germination in advance, which will avoid problems when growing seedlings. To do this, a small amount of seeds is placed in a wet gauze for 4-5 days, after which a visual assessment of the seeds that have sunk is carried out. With poor germination, other seeds should be purchased.
Without fail, before planting, the seeds are treated with hot water at a temperature of about 50 C0. Seeds are kept in such water for at least 15–20 minutes, after which they are removed and placed for 2 minutes in a container with cold water. Such manipulations will allow in the future to reduce the risk of disease of seedlings.
It is recommended to hold seed soaking within 12 hours in a solution of nitrophoska. In the morning, rinse with clean water, after which the seeds are dried. To enhance resistance to cold temperatures, the seeds are aged for 24 hours in a refrigerator at a temperature of 0-2 C0.
How to prepare the ground
Soil for seedlings can be purchased at the store or do it yourself. The most popular substrate manufacturing options are:
- mix the land for vegetables and manure in equal proportions,
- mix pine pine needles, sand and earth for vegetables in the proportion of 60:20:20,
- use turf soil.
Nutritious soil can be prepared by any means, but at the same time it should not have increased acidity. Any soil passes the following processing steps:
- prone to chalking,
Disinfection is carried out by calciningthat allows you to get rid of weeds and harmful microorganisms. The recommended substrate heating temperature is 100–200 C0.
Screening is carried out to achieve uniformity of soil particles and remove excess components. It is recommended for sifting to take a sieve with a mesh size of 1 centimeter.
Adding lime or dolomite flour to the soil reduces the soil acidity.
Fertilizer is carried out by adding the following components per 1 bucket of soil:
- superphosphate 1 tbsp. l.,
- ash 2 tbsp. l
Thoroughly mixed soil is poured into the tank for seedlings and spilled with a weak solution of potassium permanganate at the rate of 1 gram per bucket of water. Small grooves with a depth of no more than 1 cm are made in the tank, the distance between each groove is 3 cm.
Seeds are sown in such a way that the distance between them is 1 cm. Each of the grooves is filled with soil and containers are placed in rooms with a temperature of 7-10 C 0.
Such a low temperature will allow the seedlings to be strongly do not pull when growing.
After 8-12, the first true leaf is formed, after which you can begin to dive the seedlings.
How to care for seedlings
For diving, small containers with a diameter of 6-8 cm are prepared, in which the same soil used previously for planting seeds is poured.
When transplanting each seedling, it is necessary to ensure that the deepening occurs to the cotyledon leaves.
For several days, the seedlings are aged in a bright place at a temperature of 18 C0, after which the seedlings fit again in a cooler place.
In the first 2 weeks after the dive procedure, the growth of seedlings will be very weak. After 3 weeks, 2-3 leaves will appear, the seedlings will take root, growth will be activated. Watering seedlings produced warm water with a temperature of 18-20 C0. It is necessary to do periodic airing of the room.
The need and type of feeding depends largely on the condition of the seedlings. There are the following types of dressings:
Foliar top dressing performed after the appearance of the first 2 leaves by spraying the plant with a solution of fertilizer with the calculation of 1 tsp. on 1 liter of water. Root top dressing is carried out in the period of hardening cabbage. For this, 1 tbsp. l
Potassium sulfate and urea are diluted in 10 liters of water. Weak seedlings are recommended to be fed twice with a solution of nitrophoska prepared from 1 tsp. means and 3 liters of water.
The first feeding is carried out with the appearance of the third true leaf, the second with the formation of the fourth.
Cabbage seedlings are very susceptible to black leg disease. At the first signs of illness it is necessary stop watering completely, treat the plant with a solution of potassium permanganate, sprinkle it with ash or chalk.
It is necessary to carry out measures to harden the plant by gradually lowering the temperature and adding light. Such hardening is recommended to begin 15 days before disembarkation.
Good hardening is achieved by bringing cabbage to the open air. In this case it is necessary to adhere to the sequence in dosing the sun's rays.
If the seedlings grew in conditions of insufficient light, then carrying it out to the open sun for a long time can lead to the burning of the plant.
10 days before transplanting into the open ground, the abundance of watering is reduced, and 4 days before it is completely stopped to stop the growth of seedlings. 2 hours before planting produce abundant watering of each plant. Healthy seedlings are planted with 4-6 leaves, a strong top, a thick stalk and a good root system.
How to choose a place to grow
Choosing the right place for planting cabbage largely determines the quality of the future crop. It is recommended to choose flat open area with sufficient and prolonged exposure to sunlight. Soil preparation begins in autumn:
- vegetable garbage is removed,
- the plot is dug up to a depth of at least 25-30 cm,
- fertilizers are applied in the form of manure or compost.
In the spring, the soil is re-digged and loosened. An additional complex of mineral fertilizers per square meter is added to the cabbage planting area:
- superphosphate 20-30 grams,
- potassium chloride 20–35 grams,
- ammonium nitrate 15-30 grams.
White-white can not be grown in one place for more than three years in a row. Re-planting to the previous place landing is permissible after five years. It is recommended to plant cabbage in the place where cucumbers, onions, potatoes, legumes and grain crops were previously grown.
How to land in open ground
The time of planting seedlings depends on the variety of cabbage. It is recommended to observe the following terms:
- early varieties - from April 25 to May 5,
- late varieties - from 10 to 20 May,
- mid-season species - from May 20 to 30.
The width between rows for early ripening varieties should be from 40 to 50 cm. For later varieties, the distance should be greater, the recommended value is 60 cm. The distance between each seedling should be at least 25 cm.
For disembarking in open ground it is worth choosing a not hot day, work should be planned for the evening hours. Two hours before disembarking place thoroughly and plentifully shed water.
Directly when planting in each well pours 0.5-1 liter of water. Seedlings are deepened to the level of the first leaves and sprinkled with soil. The first 3 days it is necessary to provide seedlings protection from the sun.
In case of poor survival or death of a plant, a new one is planted in its place.
How to grow white cabbage
Care for white cabbage is simple, but involves frequency and continuity. Care is to perform the following work:
- timely watering,
- weeding weeding,
- soil loosening
- pest prevention and control.
Watering is carried out every 2-3 days and the calculation of 10 liters per 1 square meter. As the plant grows, the abundance of watering increases to 15 liters. It is advisable to spend it in the morning or evening. Care must be taken that the water temperature is between 18 and 20 C0. Wilting leaves indicates a watering failure.
After 10 days have passed since the landing, the first loosening of the soil between the rows is carried out. This procedure is recommended to perform weekly, especially after watering and rain. Hilling of cabbage is carried out 20 days after the landing, after 10 days after the first hilling procedure, repeat the procedure. Work carried out on wet ground, which contributes to better rooting.
During the growing season spend from 3 to 4 dressings. The first dressing aims to enhance the growth of leaf mass. To do this, 0.5 liters of the barn is diluted in 10 liters of water. Everyone feeds organic fertilizer at the rate of 0.5 liters.
After 10 days, re-feeding is carried out, with the volume of watering for each bush increased to 1 liter. The third dressing is needed only for late cabbage varieties and is carried out in June. The purpose of the fertilizer is to increase the growth of the head.
To do this, prepare a solution of the following components:
- 10 liters of water
- 0.5 liters of barn
- 1 tbsp. spoon superphosphate,
- 1 tablet with trace elements.
Such a solution is prepared at the rate of 6-8 liters per 1 square meter. To increase the yield, the fourth dressing is carried out with the same solution in August.
The most common pests of heads are:
To combat major pests toAsh is used ash, which is sprinkled with each bush at the rate of 1 cup of ash per 1 square meter. Well proven popular recipes solutions for spraying:
- 2 kg of tomato tops are poured with 5 liters of water and infused for 4 hours, boiled for 3 hours and after cooling, diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 2,
- infusion of onion peel with soapy water.
Beneficial to the growth of cabbage has a neighborhood with marigolds, mint, rosemary. Such plants scare away pests and attract ladybirds and gold-eyed - natural enemies of aphids, slugs, flea.
Harvest time depends on the cabbage variety. Early ripe species begin to cut in late July or early August. Mid-season varieties are harvested at the end of September, late ripening - in mid-October.
If the cabbage is grown for further fermentation, then it can not be removed until the end of October. Heads of cabbage are able to withstand cold to -10 C0. It is recommended to use a sharp knife when pruning. If the harvest is planned to be stored for a long time, then each fork is left long stalk with three loosely fitting leaves.
Cabbage is recommended to be stored in a dark dry room at a temperature of 0-5 C0 and humidity of 80-85%.
Growing white cabbage in open field - planting and care
Cabbage has always been a rich source of vitamins, minerals and other beneficial substances. It has not only nutritional value, but also healing properties.
Its use is the most versatile, and therefore it is preserved in various forms: fresh, pickled, pickled and dried.
Growing cabbage in your backyard in the country is not so difficult, if the process technology is not violated.
Cabbage grows well in the open field under the condition of heat and good lighting
White cabbage - refers to cold-resistant plants, but an important condition for its growth is soil moisture and light. Intensive growth of cabbage is possible only with sufficient moisture in the air and soil. The optimum temperature for seed germination is about + 20 ° C. Strong heat inhibits leaf growth and prevents the head from forming normally.
White cabbage badly transfers extraneous intervention and transplantation, therefore it is better to sow seedlings in peat pots. Sowing on seedlings is carried out from late February to early May. Early June cabbage appears on the garden, if the sowing of seeds carried out in early April. After 40 days, the matured shoots can already be actively developed and grow in open ground.
But now the most important thing is not to miss when the first shoots sprout from the earth. Small “loops” of sprouts appeared on the surface, therefore the film is removed from the box. It is exposed to the light on the glassed-in balcony or window sill, windows located on the sunny side.
Do not let the sprouts stretch, such seedlings can not be called strong. Malfunctions occur due to low or too high air temperatures and improper or insufficient humidification.
The optimum temperature for the active growing of seedlings is no more than + 17 ° C. Otherwise, the sprouting is pulled and thinned.
Excessive moisture has the same effect on plants, since watering should be moderate.
To seedlings were friendly, and the shoots are strong and well developed, you need to provide them with good access to sunlight. If the light is not enough, the shoots become thin, pale and elongated, their growth slows down.
If a seedling struck a disease called “black leg”, which is characterized by darkening of the lower part of the leg and bending of the plant, then it is pulled out carefully along with the root, and healthy sprouts are transplanted into another box with a new ground.
If the disease has not yet strongly struck the plant, you can try to save it by irrigating the stem and the ground around it with a weak solution of manganese, sprinkling it with slightly wood ash and stop watering for a while. If resuscitation did not help, then the plant is recommended to throw out, so as not to infect the rest.
Cabbage sprouts love good lighting
When the seedlings reach 3 weeks of age, it is desirable to plant them in separate cups so that they do not interfere with each other's development.
To do this, using a special spatula or spoon, the plant is removed along with the earth and transplanted into a cup filled halfway up with earth. Above the sprout covered with soil to the cotyledon leaves.
The cups are placed on the windowsill, the main thing is that the seedlings should not burn in direct sunlight. Picked seedlings should be kept in cups for at least three days in order to settle well.
Some gardeners prefer to place the cabbage seedlings in the greenhouse, where there is an optimal environment for active growth. This technology will ensure the growth of healthy and strong seedlings, which will quickly adapt to the conditions of growth in open ground. Then a pick will not be required.
Cabbage pick should be done carefully so as not to damage the roots.
Before digging up the seedlings, the ground is watered abundantly and only the most developed sprouts are carefully removed from the moist soil so as not to damage the root system.
The choice of a site for a bed is a very important point. It is necessary that it is well lit, and the earth was wet and loose. It is advisable to place the bed with white cabbage in the place where last year winter wheat, tomatoes, cucumbers or peas grew. You can also grow good heads after eggplant, corn, or pepper.
Planting seedlings need, adhering to a specific scheme. Early June cabbage planted in the ground at a distance of 50 cm from each other. After the seedlings after disembarkation, it is necessary to provide active care, which consists in:
- daily watering, if the ground is dry (do not provoke overmoistening),
- anti-parasite treatment
- regular loosening of the soil between the rows,
- top dressing.
Immediately after planting, you should sprinkle the shoots with woody ash, which will be able to protect the seedlings that have not yet become stronger from pests.
Also, after planting, it is advisable to pour white cabbage with a weak-pink manganese solution in order to protect it from all sorts of diseases.
Every day, after watering, it is recommended to loosen the ground in the garden, so that there is a constant access of oxygen to the root system.
Another problem with growing cabbage in open ground is the caterpillar. The butterflies lay their eggs on the cabbage leaves, from which these pests subsequently emerge.
Therefore, it is recommended that seedlings after planting be treated with chemicals. If you want to grow an environmentally friendly product at your dacha, then you will have to actively collect eggs with your own hands. This method will be effective only in the case of a small area of the bed with cabbage.
For cabbage is very important to choose the right place.
Sowing seeds immediately in the ground
Some gardeners at their summer cottage prefer to grow white cabbage by the seedless method. For this, sowing of seeds is carried out immediately in open ground. This method does not affect the quality and quantity of the crop. And since the processes of seed growth do not stop even at a temperature of + 3 ° C, this allows them to be sown in early April.
The seedless method hardens the sprouts of cabbage; they germinate strong with a developed root system. Такие растения менее привередливы к подпитке грунта и его влажности, но наличие солнечного света для капусты обязательно.
Посев семян в открытом грунте характеризуется сокращением вегетационного периода как минимум на 15 дней. Но при появлении ростков нужно контролировать их густоту и по надобности проредить. The process technology also involves treatment from pests.
Note that early varieties of white cabbage are not suitable for growing in this way. The seedless method is the optimal solution only for late varieties.
Before sowing cabbage seeds need to properly prepare the garden. To do this, after harvesting wheat, peas or corn for silage, the land is plowed up.
With the onset of spring, weeds are destroyed, which sprouted at the site of the future garden bed and, using a conventional cultivator, loosen the ground to a depth of 10 cm
If there are a lot of weeds and it is difficult to weed them out, you can treat the land plot with herbicides.
On cabbage beds there should be no weeds.
The best time to sow late varieties of cabbage is from mid-April to early May, and for medium-late varieties, it is advisable to sow seeds in mid-May. When it's time to plant the seed, you need to properly prepare. To do this, they are calibrated and heated for several hours in hot water at + 50 ° C.
After this procedure, the seeds are dried to a friable state. For ballast, one part of the seed is mixed with five parts of superphosphate and the mixture is sown in open ground using a vegetable seeder. The width between the rows should not be less than 70 cm, and the depth of landing is not more than 3 cm.
The standard is to sow a kilogram of seed on a hectare of land.
After the seedlings appear and not less than 2 leaves form on them, the sprouts should be thinned, after the opening of the 5th leaf the thinning process is repeated.
The technology assumes an optimal distance between saplings of about 50 cm. The subsequent care of cabbage, which is grown by seedless method, does not differ from that which was planted from seedlings.
It is possible to grow a good white cabbage with tight heads, but for this it is necessary to make maximum efforts. But on your table in different dishes will be present organic cabbage, which you could gather in your garden.
Cabbage protection from pests
Very important is the protection of cabbage from pests. At the beginning of growth is cruciferous flea, cabbage fly. Means of struggle - regular weeding, shelter of beds with non-woven materials (agrotex, agril and others). When pests appear, pollinate cabbage with ashes and tobacco dust. In the middle of the growing season appears cabbage bed, cabbage scoops and moths. Large caterpillars should be collected by hand. Small caterpillars are sprayed with the soap-soap solution or “Itavir”. Modern bacterial preparations Entobacterin and Lipitocid infect caterpillars with deadly diseases and do not harm cabbage and humans.
Slugs also cause a lot of trouble, especially in rainy summer. From slugs they use “hairy ropes” that wrap approaches around sprouts, scatter egg shells, make traps in the form of small wet rags, planks, under which slugs gather for a day.