Beetroot is a biennial crop. After planting grow large leaves, as well as the root. In the second year there are flowers with seeds. The root crop has a different size, shape and weight. The size of the root depends on the variety, as well as conditions of detention. Root crop has a rounded and conical shape. With one square meter you can collect 3-4 kilograms of the crop. Professionals collect 4-6 pounds of crop.
Planting crops requires adherence to certain rules. It is advisable not to plant beets near the corn. Corn is able to pull out a huge amount of moisture from the ground. In such conditions, the beets will feel hunger.
Harvest is increased when planting a plant next to such crops:
Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 5-6 degrees. Sprouts begin to sprout in 1 week. The shoots are resistant to a cool climate. Withstand sprouts up to -2 degrees. Adult plant can withstand temperatures up to -4 degrees. For beets, the optimum temperature is 18-20 degrees. When a beet forms a root crop, the need for heat increases. During this period, the air temperature should be between 20 and 25 degrees.
Selection of land
It is best to plant the culture on a loose and moist soil. The correct option would be a land with a low content of alkalis and acids. On alkaline soils, the plant does not yield. It is necessary to plant a plant on the lit plots of land. Culture begins to stretch when it lacks sunlight. In such conditions there is a risk of lack of harvest.
Fertilizer is applied a year before planting. Organic fertilizers are used as fertilizer. If fertilizer was not successfully applied last year, add humus before planting. Humus is introduced into the soil with the calculation of 4 kg by 1-2 meters of land. If the earth has a high acidity, then lime is added. Lime is added to the ground with the calculation of 300-700 grams per 1 meter.
How to plant seeds
You can start planting seeds then, when spring temperature reaches 5-6 degrees. Before planting, seeds are soaked in water so that the seedlings quickly ascend. Dried seeds at a temperature of 18-20 degrees. During the period of drying, individual sprouts appear. It is necessary to sow dry seeds.
Seeds can be sown in such a way so as not to thin out. To do this, you must observe the proportions in planting, as well as properly handle the seeds. In this case, the distance between the holes should be 10 centimeters. Seeds need to be treated with top dressing. Feedings that contain oxygen are especially useful. The seeds in this case will be strong, and the shoots are strong. These shoots appear quickly, and they do not have to thin out.
It is necessary to sow in three lines.. Seeds are buried in the ground to a depth of 4-5 centimeters. Heavy earth can slow the growth of beets. In heavy ground must be sown to a depth of 3 centimeters. Productivity depends on the weather conditions. Beetroot is able to freeze when the temperature drops below 5 degrees. Planting beets in 2 terms allows you to get a guaranteed harvest. The first landing occurs at the beginning of May, and the second at the end.
Culture needs to be fed, so that problems with the harvest was not. For 1 season 3 feedings are carried out.
- The first feeding is made after thinning. The first time you can make any fertilizer in the form of a solution.
- After the second thinning ammonium nitrate is applied.
- After making saltpeter, you must wait 15-20 days. After 3 weeks you can make a third dressing. Fertilizer should contain potassium chlorides and superphosphate.
You can thin the beets twice when necessary. First thinning occurs when the plant has 2 leaves. Leaves appear 10 days after germination of seedlings. Between shoots there should be a distance of 3-4 centimeters.
Second thinning occurs when 3-4 leaflets appear. The distance between plants should be 8-10 centimeters. Thinning is best done after rain or watering. The plant is easy to pull out of the wet ground. But to pull the beets entirely optional. To carry out the thinning will be enough to pinch the greens. This method eliminates the possibility of damage to the root of the remaining plants. Do not dive varieties with an elongated root. When transplanting such varieties, the integrity of the roots is injured. As a result, the root crop grows inferior.
It should be noted that round roots are not injured during transplantation. Varieties with such a system are not susceptible to injury after plucking. To make the beets sweet, they feed it with fertilizers containing magnesium and boron. Nitrogen is introduced when the leaves grow poorly.
Watering and tillage
Should pay attention to the care of the soil. Soil needed loosen regularly. Loosening allows you to eliminate the appearance of dry crusts on the soil. At first, the earth is loosened to a depth of 5 centimeters. Gradually the depth increases to 10. It is necessary to spud the root crop if it looks out of the ground. Beetroot loves moisture. The root crop begins to dry when it looks out of the ground. Culture beds need to be watered. The beds are moistened before planting, as well as after sowing.
During the whole season it is necessary conduct regular watering. It is best to water with a watering can. For irrigation of beets are well suited special sprayers. Such sprays automatically carry out watering. Sprayers evenly distribute moisture throughout the site. Thus, water evenly moistens the entire area. Breaks between watering when the root crop is actively formed are not allowed. Watering stops a month before harvesting.
The importance of proper timing of growing
There are different ways of sowing beets. Two planting options are seeds and seedlings. The suitable time may be spring or autumn, the main thing is to observe the correct dates. Spring planting of seeds in open ground is carried out in the period of 1-2 decades of May, when the soil becomes fully warmed.
The autumn period can also be chosen for planting beet seeds, usually the end of October or November, depending on the region. Landing is made in case of the onset of air temperature of -4 degrees. Planting should not be carried out too soon, as the seeds awakened from the heat may die.
Often the beets are planted in a seedling way. In this case, the seeds are planted at home. Also planting is made inside the greenhouse or greenhouse.
Seedlings are sown when the first days of April come and after a month they are placed in open ground. The seedling method of planting beets ensures early harvest and seed savings, since the sprouts remaining after thinning are suitable for planting.
What does it depend on?
Beet sowing time is determined by the climate conditions of the region in which you live. The optimal time for planting a vegetable is when the last frost is gone. The sowing time also affects whether you are going to cover the crops with a film.
Sowing time also determines the beet variety. Generally, early varieties are subject to earlier sowing, and later ones should be planted later. When planting late varieties, a more coarse root crop will occur too early.
Terms of sowing for seedlings and planting in the open land in the spring - what's the difference?
You can often hear the advice to plant beets in the early spring, in March. However, it is very poorly tolerated frost, it should be borne in mind. In the Urals, Siberian areas, planting beets in the open ground will somehow have to come when it is mid-May. When the seedlings are grown for a long time at home, it is drawn out and the future yield decreases. This means that for planting seedlings in the garden to sow it more correctly in April, in the first or in the middle.
The appearance of 2-3 true leaves means the readiness of seedlings for open ground. It is important to prevent excessive growth of seedlings. If the roots are supported on the bottom of the box, the shape of the roots may turn out to be incorrect.
The best thing
Beet is a heat-loving vegetable, so it is planted in the ground, which is heated to + 5-10 degrees. Terms of planting beets vary depending on the climate. For example, in the southern regions (Krasnodar, Kuban) beets are planted in March and April. At the same time, in areas of the Moscow region, planting takes place in the early to mid-May days, and in the Siberian and Ural areas this is the period of the second half of May.
Briefly about how to grow vegetables
- In order to grow beets, it is most correct to use lighted, not shaded, friable land plots. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account which cultures grew on the site earlier.
- Beets are not planted for several years in some places.
- Also, it should not be placed in the ground after carrots grew there.
- At the same time, cucumbers and carrots are good predecessors.
- Beets are considered a plant that conducts moisture well and does not tolerate an excess of water, preferring uniform moisture. It requires regular watering.
- Beets have special requirements for moisture, when it begins to grow and actively increases the mass of the root. At that moment, when two or three weeks remain before cleaning, watering is reduced.
We offer to watch a video on how to grow beets:
The time when beets are planted is the most important factor in caring for them. In open ground beet seeds are planted in spring and autumn. Seedlings are planted when there is one and a half months left before transplanting to open ground conditions.
At a temperature of +5 degrees, the seeds begin to germinate and withstand short-term cooling to -2 degrees. But freezing should be avoided as it leads to flowering plants.
Varieties of beets for growing in open ground
Varieties differ in terms of ripening of the crop, the duration of storage of the harvested root crops, color, shape, purpose. In the latter case, the vegetable can be sugar, fodder or table.
The popular varieties of beets for growing include the following:
- Detroit beetroot is high-yielding and excellent taste. It takes 100 days from sowing to harvesting. The variety shows resistance to frost and disease, shoots appear evenly and exhibit unpretentiousness during cultivation. The shape of the root is round, the flesh is maroon without rings and vein. Average root weight 200 g.
- Mid-season table variety Cylinder belongs to mid-season, high-yielding varieties. Harvest begins 120 days later. The shape of the cylindrical root, the flesh is dark red. The average weight of beets is 30 g. The harvest is well kept for more than 4 months.
- Yield, mid-season variety Darkie begins to ripen after 105 days. The plant tolerates cold, shows resistance to cold and diseases. The root crop is of flat-rounded shape, its weight is 300 g. Juicy pulp is bright red.
- For table varieties include Bordeaux beets. The shape of the root is round, slightly flattened. The weight of a vegetable is 350 g. The flesh is juicy, saturated burgundy. Productivity depends on the weather. The vegetable develops poorly in a cold and rainy summer.
Other popular beet varieties include: Merchant, Red Ball, Boyar, Red Ruby, Bohemia, Red Ice, Pablo.
Planting seeds in open ground in spring is practiced in early May, when the soil warms up to +10 degrees. The latest dates for beet planting are numbers not later than May 10th.
In the autumn, the last numbers of October or the first days of November are chosen for planting seed in open ground. It is better to wait until the air temperature drops below -4 degrees. In warmer weather, this is not worth it, because the seeds will stick out and die.
During the autumn planting of seeds, the beds are made high, raised by 25 cm so as not to be washed away by melt water. The depth of the furrows is 4 cm, they do not need to be watered before planting. To protect the seeds from frost, the beds are recommended to be covered with straw until spring.
If planting beets plan through seedlings, then prepare special boxes. Seeds for seedlings begin to plant in early April, a month before transplanting to a permanent place. This method of planting allows you to harvest early. In addition, sprouts remaining from thinning can be transplanted to free space.
It is necessary to plant the seeds at a distance of 4 cm, the distance between the rows should be 6 cm. After two leaflets unfold on the sprouts, thinning is carried out. Leave only strong and healthy shoots. As soon as 4 leaves appear, sprouts will be ready for transplanting to a permanent place.
Choosing a place in the garden
It is best to choose areas for planting beets, which are protected from winds through and where sunlight penetrates freely. The soil should be well drained, the vegetable does not tolerate clay composition and waterlogging. It is advisable to change the landing site every 3-4 years.
There is a list of crops, after which it is allowed to plant beets. The best predecessors for beets in the garden are cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, potatoes. The vegetable feels badly in the garden where cabbage, leaf beets or carrots used to grow. Neighborhood with celery and garlic should be avoided.
Beetroot belongs to the light-loving vegetable crops. It develops well during long sunny days. If the length of the day when growing a vegetable is 14–16 hours, then you can collect the most abundant harvest. In the case of a shorter day length of 3 hours or more, the formation of the root crop slows down.
For planting beets in the spring in the open ground you need to choose well-lit areas, away from fences and trees, so that they do not fall shadow. Do not plant the vegetable too thickly.
Vegetable growers can sometimes run into trouble when beets do not sprout.
Before determining what to do, you need to find out the reason why it did not rise. There may be several:
- poor or sour soil
- little light,
- substandard seeds,
- improper watering
- non-compliance with planting dates.
To ensure good germination of beets, you need to make fertilizer, and use additional lighting lamps. If the vegetable is grown by seedlings, then, if necessary, lighten up to 13 hours with fluorescent lamps, which are suspended at a height of 15 cm above the seedlings.
A good harvest can be obtained only under important conditions. It is necessary to feed the beds in time, remove weeds, follow the lighting and watering. It is important to carry out preventive treatment of pests and diseases.
What kind of soil does beets like?
To get a good crop of root vegetables, it is important to know what kind of soil loves beets more? Beetroot loves fertile, light land. Well suited peat and loamy composition. With too low or high acidity, the vegetable begins to suffer from fungal diseases, the ability to be stored for a long time is lost.
Since the vegetable loves light, drained soil, it is best to mix it with sand or sawdust. If acidity in the soil is increased, then liming is carried out. Culture loves a neutral or slightly alkaline soil.
Sowing root crops in open ground
Sowing beets can be carried out dry or germinated seeds. Germinated seeds are sown in moist soil. On a flat surface of the prepared area make the grooves at a distance of 20 cm.
If the soil is heavy, then sowing is done to a depth of 2 cm, if light, then to a depth of 4 cm. The distance in the row between the seeds is 2.5 cm. Later, during thinning, the distance should be increased to 7 cm.
If the summer is short, then planting beets with seedlings in open ground. You can grow seedlings at home or in a greenhouse. You can replant a plant that does not exceed 8 cm in height. The higher the sprout, the lower the quality of the root crop. Do not deepen the seedlings too much. The distance between the shoots is 13 cm, between the rows - 30 cm.
In order for the beets to quickly climb, you need to properly prepare the land. The soil for planting seeds need to prepare in the fall. From the site where it is supposed to plant beets, remove all plant residues from the last harvest (tops, leaves, roots, weeds). The earth is dug up to a depth of 25–30 cm, and complex mineral fertilizer and humus are simultaneously introduced.
In the spring, before planting seeds or seedlings, the land is loosened to a depth of 10 cm and leveled with a rake.
Recommended to make mineral ingredients. For the entire growing season, the culture requires nitrogen and potash-phosphorus fertilizer. Beet responds well to cultivating the ground with wood ash and does not tolerate fresh manure at all.
During the preparation of beet seeds for sowing, they are sorted, soaked in solutions that stimulate plant growth. You can put the seeds in a solution based on wood ash. Ash allows you to saturate the seed with all the necessary mineral components.
It is also recommended to conduct a decontamination procedure.
A simple way to quickly germinate beet seeds:
- семена замачивают в воде комнатной температуры (всплывшие семена следует выбросить),
- воду сливают и помещают в раствор Эпина или Циркона на 4 часа,
- после этого семена помещают в теплое место на сутки.
Эти действия помогут семенам набухнуть и проклюнутся. После этого можно приступить к посадке семян.
Two beet planting patterns - one-line and two-line. Allowed landing and three-line way. This makes it easier to care for the plant. The beds are more convenient to water, loosen and weed.
In the case of planting in a one-line method, furrows are made into which seeds are placed at a distance of 10 cm. The interval between the furrows is 45 cm.
In the two-line variant of planting vegetables, two furrows are made at a distance of 25 cm, then leave free space of 50 cm. Such a pattern is alternated several times.
Beet seedlings in open ground are planted at intervals of 11–14 cm. The spacing between rows is 25 cm. This will allow you to collect large roots, while retaining the benefits and juiciness of the pulp.
Beets begin to germinate when the soil temperature is +9 degrees and ambient air is +7 degrees. But active development is observed at an air temperature of +20 degrees. How many days does the beet roost after sowing? The first shoots appear on day 6–8.
Caring for beets is to comply with certain rules:
- beds should be weeded regularly and to prevent the growth of weeds,
- conduct regular soil loosening to ensure free access of oxygen and nutrients,
- fertilizer recommended,
- It is important to set the correct watering mode.
The first loosening is carried out 5 days after the appearance of the first shoots. Initially, the depth of loosening is 3 cm, gradually, as the plant grows, it can be increased to 7 cm.
Feeding is carried out at least twice during the whole growing season of beet growing. Fertilizers help increase plant resistance to diseases and pests.
For the normal development of culture help the following solutions. When planting seedlings in the soil is recommended to make a tablespoon of wood ash in 1 hole.
During the first feeding you can make a nitroammofosku or a mixture of sodium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium chloride. If there is a shortage of nutrients in the soil, you can make a solution of mullein or bird droppings. Urea can be added to the solution. Feeding with organic solutions is carried out only at an early stage of plant development.
The second fertilization is carried out in two weeks from the previous feeding. Use superphosphate or potassium chloride. Mineral components can be replaced with wood ash.
It is useful to conduct and foliar dressing. In the stage of formation of 4-5 leaflets can be treated with a solution of boric acid or infusion of wood ash. With a lack of phosphorus, you can spend additional spraying superphosphate (taken a teaspoon of superphosphate per liter of water).
During the cultivation of crops need to observe the correct mode of watering. Beets should be watered regularly, but you should avoid over-wetting the soil. An excess of moisture causes various diseases and reduces the shelf life of the crop. With a lack of moisture, the pulp of the root crop loses juiciness and becomes coarse.
During mass sprouting beetroot care involves the frequency of watering up to once a week. During the formation of root crops, the frequency of irrigation can be increased. 3-4 weeks before harvesting, watering is stopped.
If the seedlings were planted in a common container, when two true leaves appear, they pick the beets in separate containers, but do not shorten the roots of the seedling.
When planting a vegetable with seeds, as soon as the first shoots appear on the surface of the earth, thinning is carried out:
- The first thinning is carried out in the phase of unfolding of the first two true leaves. The distance between the sprouts is 4 cm. The sprouts that are pulled out can be planted in a new, free space.
- After 2.5 weeks, repeated thinning is carried out, leaving a distance between the sprouts of 7 cm. By this time, small root crops are formed, which can be used for cooking.
Knowing the rules of how to sip beets in the garden, you can get juicy, healthy roots. In addition, it is important to comply with the scheme of planting beetroot in his area.
If the beets were planted in the spring, the crop should be removed before the onset of frost. To start cleaning in late September or early October. By this time, most of the leaves turn yellow and fade. If the roots are frozen up, they will not be stored for a long time and will lose their taste.
After harvesting, the roots are sorted, cut tops, leaving hemp up to 1–2 cm. Healthy roots are dried and transferred to storage at a temperature of +3 degrees. The beet harvest can be stored in boxes of sand, peat, sawdust.
The correct time for planting beets in open ground
Beets are planted in different ways. It can be planted with seeds or seedlings. Do it in the spring or autumn, it is important to comply with the correct dates. Spring planting of seeds in open ground is carried out in 1-2 decade of May, after full warming up of the soil.
You can plant beet seeds in autumn, late October or NovemberIt depends on your region. Landing is done when the air temperature drops to -4 degrees. Do not rush to planting, if the seeds planted wake up under the influence of heat, they will die.
When planting seeds for seedlings, boxes are stored at home or in a greenhouse.
Sometimes beets are planted with seedlings. With this method, the seeds are planted at home in special boxes. You can plant seeds at the cottage in a greenhouse or greenhouse.
Seeds for seedlings need to be sown in early April, a month before they can be placed in open ground. Planting beet seedlings allows you to get an early harvest and save seeds, because you can plant on the beds and sprouts that remained after thinning.
The most popular varieties for growing in the country or garden
Beets can be sugar, feed or dining. Varieties of sugar and fodder are usually grown on an industrial scale and are not sown in summer cottages. On garden beds it is more usual to see red beets.
There are a lot of popular varieties, they differ in growth rate and storage time. All table varieties are distinguished by high taste and brightness of color. Here are some:
- Detroit. Early variety, specimens are not very large with excellent taste. Root crops of bright claret color without rings on a cut, weighing about 200 g. The grade provides high yields.
- Cylinder. Mid-season fruit root. Fully justifies its name. Beet red, cylindrical form up to 16 cm in length. Resistant to disease, long stored.
- Darling. Mid-season variety with excellent yield. Delicious, does not lose color when cooked. Weight 300-350g. It has good keeping quality.
Some varieties are excellent for the middle band, others for the Urals and Siberia. When choosing seeds for planting, be sure to consider the weather features of your region.
Varieties to plant in Siberia and the Urals
In the Leningrad and other cold areas especially popular Merchant, Cold-Resistant 19, Ordinary Miracle. These varieties are distinguished by excellent resistance to disease and cold, high yields. The cylinder is also well accustomed in these regions.
Cold resistant 19
To plant in the suburbs
In the suburbs and western regions grow many varieties. Some gardeners prefer juicy early varieties that can not lie until spring, but very tasty and provide vitamins in the fall and winter. Others are planted later varieties, less juicy, but stored for a very long time.
Early varieties include Red Ball, Detroit, Mulatto. All of them give high yields, are distinguished by the intensity of color and good taste.
Bordeaux, Cylinder and Mona, also liked the Muscovites. These are later varieties, with high yields and remarkable taste, they are stored for almost a year.
Planting seeds in the spring
Seeds are sorted and they need to be kept for 24 hours in solution. growth promoter or wood ash. For the preparation of which 2 tbsp. l ash poured liter of warm water, mix well.
After 2 days, the solution is drained; not only beets can be soaked in it, but also the seed material of other vegetables. Ash provides seeds with a complex of essential minerals. After a day, they are washed and placed in a damp cloth before planting.
On the bed spend smooth grooves with a depth of 2-3 cm. These grooves shed water, some gardeners prefer warm water. When water is absorbed, large beet seeds are placed one by one at a distance of 10 cm from each other and sprinkled with earth.
Beet seeds are multi-growth, one beet seed gives from 2 to 6 shoots. Ascended seeds, thinned after the appearance of 2 leaves. The second time the procedure is carried out when 4 sheets appear.
Often beet seeds are sown in the open ground in autumn when the air temperature drops. to -4 degrees. In this case, the soil is prepared in the same way, but the bed is made high, 20-25 cm, so as not to be washed away by melt water. The grooves in the autumn planting deeper 4 cm.
Seed material during autumn planting is not necessary to soak and the bed is not watered.
Advantages of autumn planting:
- seed material perfectly tempered over the winter
- early amicable shoots are provided,
- time is released for other garden affairs,
- the harvest has ripened much earlier.
This method has only one drawback, but it must be taken into account. Harvest beets planted before winter not stored for long.
To protect the seeds from frost, the bed is covered with straw on top, you can throw it with snow. In the spring, when the air warms up to + 7-10 degrees, straw is removed. This method allows you to get an early harvest, even when the spring heat lags.
Planting for seedlings at home
Seeds are planted in special boxes or under the film in the country, one month before landing in open ground. The distance between rows of 5-8 cm, between seed 3-5 cm. When 2 leaves appear, the seedlings are thinned, leaving the strongest sprouts, after the appearance of 4 leaves, it is watered abundantly, carefully, together with a clod of earth transferred to open beds.
Before planting in the soil, seedlings begin to harden, daily removing the film and airing the shoots at home. To sprouts are accustomed to them need 7-10 days.
Planted on one sprout, after 10 cm. At a tender age sprouts perfectly take root in a new place. Such a good way allows you to get a high, early harvest and save on seeds, because all the sprouts can be planted.
Seedlings of beets are planted in the ground one sprout after 10 cm
At what distance and according to what scheme to land in the ground
On narrow and long beds, the vegetable is often sown across, with the distance between the seeds 10 cm, and between rows 20-25. This method facilitates the care of crops. This is a single line method.
With the two-line landing method, two straight grooves are made at a distance 25 cm from each other, then leave a free tape 50 cm wide. So alternate landing. They also use a three line diagram when the vegetable is planted in 3 rows, through 20-25 cm. This is done to facilitate watering, weeding and loosening the soil.
Beet unpretentious vegetable, which gives excellent yields, if you follow the described tips and secrets. Gardeners grow it in the southern regions, Belarus, the Chelyabinsk region, the middle belt and the northern regions. It is good, in the familiar to us first dishes, various salads, from it make blanks for the winter.
It is wonderfully stored, providing us with the necessary minerals and vitamins before the new harvest. It is able to clean the blood, and normalize digestion. All these qualities have made beetroot popular with various nations, and the history of its cultivation has been calculated for many centuries.