The phlox paniculata is a common winter-hardy, light-moisture-loving garden plant, distinguished by a variety of varieties. Bright inflorescences - the reason for the name of the herbaceous plant of the Sinyukhov family, phlox in translation from Greek - “flame”.
Perennial belongs to the group of tall phloxes, and the flowering time is varied and depends on the variety. We consider in the article the features of planting and caring for this plant.
The plant is also called “Flame Plant”, “Torch”, because at first they cultivated phlox only with a bright scarlet shade of inflorescences resembling flames. After the work of breeders a variety of color combinations appeared: from pure white and blue to cherry red and purple.
There are varieties with inflorescences in two contrasting shades, for example, Phlox Aspic is attractive with bright purple flowers with a snow-white middle.
The phlox paniculata is a cluster type of culture, which is a perennial herb in the form of a bush, with a paniculate inflorescence on the top of the stem, which is formed in the shape of a ball or a loose brush.
It withstands wintering well, if the ground is covered with a thick layer of snow, prefers a moderately humid and warm climate. Many varieties of phlox paniculata are distinguished by flowering dates, height, stem length, color and shape of inflorescences, resistance to diseases.
Crown. Shrubs in height from 60 to 150-180 cm, with tall stems that stand firm, but rather fragile, by the end of the growing season are susceptible at the base. Varieties with a height of more than a meter need support.
Flowers. The flowers are formed on the top of the stem. Flowers are bisexual, tubular, with five petals (see photo). The colors are not only monophonic, but also with speckles, strokes, border along the edge of the petals. Flowering lasts from 3 to 6 weeks, begins depending on the variety in June, July, August and September. Buds bloom gradually, replacing the already faded inflorescences every week.
Fruits and leaves. The leaves are paired, lanceolate, sitting on the stem in pairs, crosswise. The flower gradually dries after withering, forming a fruit in the form of a small three-nesting seed box.
Among the colors of phlox, paniculata does not appear yellow due to the lack of the necessary pigment. Most varieties have a pleasant delicate aroma, intensifying in the evenings or after rain.
The tallest plants grow when planted in a slightly shaded place. It is not recommended to place a flower bed with phlox near lilac, birch, spruce - their surface root system will not allow flowers to fully develop.
The collected and dried flowers of phlox in Russia were consecrated on the holiday of the Savior of Honey along with other medicinal plants. Herbal infusions treated headaches and attracted the health, happiness and well-being of children, pregnant women and women in labor.
The name of phloxes is associated with a beautiful legend, according to which flowers emerged from torches thrown to the ground, illuminating the path of Odyssey to the kingdom of Hades.
Landing place and conditions
Phlox paniculata rather unpretentious, grow on different soils. Optimal for planting plants will be areas with small slopes, wet ground.
It is desirable that during the hours of the active sun, the place of the flower bed should be shaded by rare bushes, trees, protected by fences or buildings from wind blowing. In the northern regions with a cold climate, they choose areas sheltered from the north wind and open from the south, southeast and west.
Plants fit areas of the flower bed next to sparse trees, giving a light translucent shade, light garden paths, alleys. The landing site, which falls under direct sunlight only until 11 and after 15 hours, will allow you to get luxurious flower bushes with lush bright buds.
The right decision is to plant phlox next to small trees, because in winter a lot of snow accumulates near the trunks, a thick layer of which will protect the plants from freezing. In the wild, phloxes are inhabitants of forest glades; therefore, mulch from fallen leaves of trees, covering the root points of growth with a thick layer, promotes reproduction by vegetative means — from the remnants of rhizomes.
Panicled phloxes are unpretentious, withstand the summer heat during the growing season, if there is sufficient watering and there is no drying draft from the hot wind. In spring, short frosts down to -3 ° C will damage the buds, but the stems and leaves will remain intact.
In the winter period, in the absence of snow cover, growth buds freeze out, and the root system dies at -20, -25 ° C. Plants correctly cut and covered with a mixture of peat and earth, straw and spruce branches will winter well at -30 ° C.
Despite the fact that phloxes are considered an undemanding culture, they hardly tolerate dry air. High adaptability allows you to survive in difficult conditions, but this has a negative impact on the decorativeness of the bushes and the quality of flowering.
The highest need for warm moist air in phlox occurs during the formation of buds. But waterlogging also adversely affects and becomes the cause of powdery mildew infection. It is important to maintain a balance, water and spray plants in a timely manner during periods of too dry windy weather.
Panicled phloxes grow well on cultivated, fertile, moistened soils, they do not like acidic areas, such soil is planted before planting before planting. Flowers grow poorly in marshy lowlands and on poor sandy hills.
Heavy loam is enriched with organic matter, add sand, peat. Sandy soil with sufficient humus content will allow you to grow strong and beautiful phlox bushes.
The best time for planting phlox is spring (April-early May). During this period, high soil moisture and relatively low air temperature favor the fast rooting of plants and better survival.
Also phlox can be planted in late August - early September. Timely planting in the fall also provides good rooting and abundant flowering next year.
Compost is added to the soil during preparation, peat is added to sandy soils, and loam is facilitated by sand. Fertilized with a complex of mineral fertilizers during digging. The soil can be made independently by mixing peat, sand and humus in equal quantities or buy a universal one in a specialized store. Step-by-step instructions for landing:
- Spring planting is done in April, autumn - in October.
- The holes are dug not too deep, 25-30 cm, focusing on the size of the root system of the seedling.
- The distance between plants is from 35 to 50 cm, depending on the variety. The higher and larger the bushes, the more space they need.
- The bottom of the hole is covered by a third of the soil in the form of a slide.
- A sapling is placed on a hill of soil, the roots are carefully straightened.
- Sleep well in the hole, trying not to leave the air spaces above the roots.
- The root neck is not buried.
- Warm the seedling with warm water, compacting the soil around the stem.
- Mulch near-stem circle with peat, layer not thinner than 5-7 cm.
Panicled phloxes do not require a special approach; for good growth and a decorative look, it is enough to choose a suitable landing site, water it in time and feed it if necessary.
Do not allow the soil to dry out during drought during the growing season. The most crucial moment is spring growth of shoots, the formation of inflorescences, buds. At this time, watering is done at least once a week. On 1 square. m takes about 20 liters of water. In order to avoid stagnation of moisture, plants are planted on small slopes or in well-drained soil.
After the beginning of flowering, watering is carried out less frequently, so that the moisture less evaporates, remove the inflorescences, which wilted. In the hot season resorted to spraying the leaves.
In a long and dry autumn, watering phloxes is prolonged until October, so as not to weaken the plant before hibernation, in the regular season they stop moistening a few weeks before frost. The best time of day for the procedure is morning or evening.
The roots of phlox paniculata are located shallowly, about 15 cm underground. Therefore, we should not allow the drying of the upper layer of the earth, as well as excessive moisture. If the plant leaves look sluggish and sagging, watering is necessary.
Water for irrigation is preliminarily defended in tanks for heating in the sun. Watering with cold well water, especially during the period of intensive growth, leads to cracking of the shoots.
Mineral fertilizer complexes are chosen taking into account the life cycle of phloxes. In the spring plants need nitrogen, during flowering potassium and phosphorus. During the period of seed ripening and accumulation of nutrients, phosphorus is needed before winter.
- The first spring dressing is carried out in early May, 25-30 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate and ash - 50 g are introduced under the bushes.
- At the end of May, a mullein infusion is fed: the present slush is diluted 1:10.
- During the formation of buds repeat the first feeding.
- After flowering, the plants are fed with a universal complex, for example, Kemira is introduced - 50 g.
- During the period of growth and flowering, foliar top dressings have a good effect - spraying the leaves Uniflor micro (5 ml per 20 l of water) or a solution of ash.
Panicled phloxes do not require either pinching or pinching, as this will damage the decorative effect and will negatively affect the quality of flowering. Pruning is necessary for plants in the vegetative period - leaving no more than 7 shoots in a bush, they achieve the most lush flowering and large bright flowers.
The soil is loosened during the growing season and flowering after watering regularly, preventing the formation of a hard crust on the surface. At the same time, we carry out weeding, hilling in the second half of the vegetative period, cleaning the debris around the bush. Mandatory mulching in spring will help retain moisture in the ground, protects the roots from overheating in hot weather.
Phloxes lose frost resistance over time, so every 4-6 years, plants need to divide old bushes and transplant them to a new place. This procedure rejuvenates the plants and has a positive effect on the ornamental and flowering intensity. Fundamental rules:
- The optimal time for transplantation is from mid-August to mid-September, but if necessary, phloxes withstand the procedure and in summer, the main condition for success is to prevent the roots from drying out and do everything quickly,
- for planting choose the side delenki plants, the old central part is thrown away,
- The best time for the procedure is early morning or evening on a cloudy day.
- good rooting requires regular watering for the first two weeks,
- roots of plants are quite thin, so they dig it as carefully as possible, trying not to damage the earthen room.
The easiest way to get a few plants at once is by dividing an old bush. In addition, they are used for cutting and growing from seeds.
It is best to carry out the procedure after the bush has faded, in late summer - early autumn. All the inflorescences are cut from the bush, leaving only leaves on the stem 30-40 cm high. Carefully digging up the plant, determine the youngest parts of the rhizomes and chop off a 5-10 shoots with a spade or ax. They are immediately seated in new places.
This type of breeding begins in spring, in May. They choose strong shoots and cut them off at the very base, leaving an untouched “heel” - an attachment point to the maternal rhizome, which has the beginnings of roots. The length of the cutting is about 10 cm, it is better to remove the leaves.
The cuttings are seated on a shaded bed with loose, fertile soil. To create a microclimate, cover with plastic wrap, regularly watered, sprayed and aired. By autumn, rooted cuttings are planted in a permanent place.
Phlox seeds are planted in the winter, in October-November, shortly before frost. Fresh planting material is chosen, since germination is lost very quickly.
Close up into fertile, fertilized soil is shallow, many salovody simply scatter on the surface, with the melt water the seeds go to the ground themselves to the desired depth. Germinate in the spring, two weeks after the emergence of shoots, they swoop and determine to a permanent place.
The most common disease of phlox paniculata is considered powdery mildew. For prevention, they do not allow overmoistening of the soil, thickening of the bushes, growth of weeds near the plant.
In the fight against the disease, the affected parts must be cut off and burned, after treating all the bushes with one of the following preparations: Topaz, Rilomil Gold, Bordeaux mixture. For prevention, spraying is carried out in the spring, before flowering.
Of viral diseases, phloxs are susceptible to contamination variegation - a discoloration of the petals. Pathogens and carriers - nematodes and insects. Affected plants completely break out and destroy.
Weakened plants are infected with necrotic blotch, leaf curl, rust, fomoz. Caterpillars, snails, slugs are mechanically fought, collected by hand, set traps.
On poor soils without regular dressings grow low bushes with small flowers. The lack of moisture affects the development is also not the best way - flowering in such cases is weak. Phloxes do not tolerate overheating of the roots - therefore, after planting the plant under the direct rays of the sun, weak shrubs with pale flowers are obtained.
In order for phloxes to survive the winter period well, in the autumn they wait for the first frosts, which will confirm that the movement of the juices has stopped. After the plant has dropped the leaves, the ground part is completely cut off. Growth buds are carefully buried with mulch, a thick layer of soil is poured on top. In areas with severe winters, the plant is additionally covered with spruce leaves, straw, covered with snow.
Panicled phloxes are loved by gardeners for their wonderful aroma and variety of colors. According to reviews, the plant looks great both in single plantings, decorating lawns, and in complex multistouch mixborders, creating a bright background for the first rows of low-growing plants.
The plant is unusually popular with lovers of bouquets and flower arrangements, because the cut flowers adorn and fill the room with a pleasant smell. The simplicity of the plants and the variety of varieties attract lovers of beautiful gardens, allowing you to create a decorative view of the site from early spring to late autumn.
To avoid contamination with diseases, the choice of planting material should pay attention to the quality of seedlings - they should not be traces of parasites, damage and dry areas. A “quarantine” bed, located far from other plantings, will allow to calculate diseased and weak plants.
Disinfection of garden tools and soil with special preparations will protect against accidental infections with viruses and parasites.
For the area blown by the wind, phloxes are selected with a compact, low bush, for example, the Aspic variety grows up to 75 cm and does not require the installation of a support. On sunny places, varieties resistant to fading look good, but the lack of light will not allow phlox to reach its full potential.
Botanical description of the species
Phlox paniculata (Phlox paniculata) is a perennial herb 35-150 cm tall. Most varieties form bushes with a height of 60-70 or 80-100 cm. It must be remembered that this parameter varies, depending on the intensity of illumination. In the bright sun the plants are lower, but even a two-hour midday shading increases their height. Stems are very strong, straight, by the end of the growing season woody.
The color of the phlox paniculate is not yellow. This pigment is absent in the group of the so-called red varieties. The color of them is dominated by crimson color of different saturation of both warm and cold tones. Therefore, in the descriptions there are such definitions as red-pink, red-purple, light orange-red, purple-red, etc. The situation is similar in the group of orange, or salmon. These tones are very peculiar and complex, they also come in various intensities with the addition of pink and carmine.
Choosing a landing site
Choosing a place for planting phlox, you should remember about the growing conditions of their wild relatives. They are found in areas with a moderately warm and very humid climate, where in winter there is often no snow and the average temperature is around + 4 ° С. As a rule, these are meadows, floodplains of rivers or forest edges, with friable, sun overheated, moist soils with sufficient organic content.
One of the main requirements of planting phlox in the garden is the possibility of abundant watering of plants. Even in places with close groundwater deposition during the long drought period, phloxes suffer greatly from drying out. The second most important condition for their successful culture is sufficient soil fertility. You can have a landing in open areas, and in partial shade. Наилучшими все же будут места под защитой кустарников или редких деревьев с легкой тенью в жаркие полуденные часы, особенно для темноокрашенных сортов. В таких местах лучше накапливается снег, и флоксы меньше страдают от резких колебаний температуры в зимнее время.
Желательно, чтобы участок имел небольшой уклон, тогда в период таяния снега и продолжительных дождей растения не затапливает водой. Неблагоприятны для посадки склоны, где почва быстро перегревается и пересыхает. In addition, phlox here suffer from wind, and in winter, when snow blows off the slope, they can freeze. The places under the crowns of trees with a shallow root system (birch, willow, poplar, spruce, old lilac bushes) are also not suitable.
Flower garden with phlox can be arranged from the east, southeast, southwest and west side of the house. Worst of all plants will feel near the northern wall and in the shade of coniferous trees. They can live in such conditions, but it will be impossible to achieve full bloom.
This cold-resistant culture is stable in the harsh areas of northern Russia with a short summer. Here, phloxes are placed in areas protected from cold winds and open from the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides, on raised heated beds, with reliable winter shelter. Preference should be given to varieties with a shorter growing season, that is, early and early-medium, abandoning the middle and late ones.
Phlox paniculata. © Gertrud K.
In the conditions of a sharply continental climate of Siberia, the Altai Territory, the Urals with cold, often snowless winters, phlox are planted in well-lit, sheltered from the wind places with the greatest accumulation of snow. For the winter, shelter with peat, sheet or nonwoven fabric in several layers is necessary. In such areas, it is also necessary to select varieties with earlier flowering periods.
In the southern regions, for planting phloxes, it is necessary to divert the most moist, protected from desiccating winds areas in light penumbra, near trees, backstage of tall shrubs, buildings, and also near water bodies. Here preference should be given to later varieties.
It is better to plant phloxes in open places, but in the midday hours the plants are shaded by rare trees and shrubs, which also serve as protection against the drying action of the winds. The surface of the site should be flat, without cavities, with a slight slope for the flow of excess melt and rainwater.
Phlox reach the best decorative effect on loose, well-seasoned organic fertilizers, and sufficiently moist soils. With a lack of moisture, the concentration of salts in the soil increases, which has a detrimental effect on the development of plants: the lower leaves turn brown, shrink and fall prematurely, the plants have a depressed appearance. Heavy clay soils are also unsuitable for phlox.
The soil should be prepared in advance: when spring planting plants - in the autumn, in the autumn - in the summer. First you need to dig the ground to a depth of 20-25 cm, carefully select the weeds (especially perennial). Then add organic fertilizers (manure, compost, peat compost - 1-2 buckets per 1 sq. M or 1/4 buckets of chicken droppings), wood ash 100-200 g and mineral fertilizers. Fertilizers are buried to a depth of 10-15 cm, since the bulk of the roots of phloxes is located at a depth of 15 cm.
The best time for planting phlox is early spring (April-early May), since the high soil moisture and relatively low air temperature favor the fast rooting of plants and a better survival rate. You can plant phlox in late August - early September. Timely and proper autumn planting also provides good rooting and abundant bloom in the next year.
In autumn, phlox should be planted with stems, cutting off only their upper third, since without leaves, from which nutrients to the roots come, plants will not be able to root well and plant growth buds of the next year on rhizomes. Stems can be cut only after the ground freezes, and the leaves will be killed by frost. As an exception, phlox can be transplanted in summer, but during this planting period plant growth is strongly delayed. Before digging the bushes need to be watered, and when transplanting to keep the land on the roots. It is better to divide a bush into large parts.
The food area for low-growing varieties of phlox is 35x35 cm, for tall ones - 50x50 cm. With such planting they grow in one place 4-6 years. It is necessary to plant in the holes dug before planting and spilled with water. The root system should be placed freely. When planting roots need to straighten so that they were directed in different directions and a little down. Having established a bush, fill the hole with earth, pressing the soil to the roots. It is necessary to dig in so that the top of the rhizome at the planted bush is 3-5 cm below the soil surface.
Phlox paniculata. © Richard Fulcher
Phlox are frost resistant. Poor tolerance of moisture deficiency, while flowering weakens, and the lower stem leaves turn yellow, dry out and disappear. Very responsive to mineral and organic fertilizers, quite light-requiring. They grow best on fertile, well-fertilized and drained soils.
How to fertilize phlox?
The application of top dressing during the growing season of plants should be carried out taking into account the phases of their development. As soon as the snow melts and the soil dries out, for 2-3-year-old bushes, 20-30 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate and 40-50 g of wood ash should be introduced dry, followed by embedding them into the soil with a hoe to a depth of 3-5 cm In the 2nd half of May, fertilizing with fermented 1:15 mullein infusion (1:25 chicken manure) or 15-20 g ammonium nitrate solution in 10 liters of water per 1 square meter should be done. In the period of plant budding, add the same fertilizer with the addition of 20-30 g of ash. At the beginning of flowering to give top dressing full mineral fertilizer: 20-30 g in a dry form.
Fertilizers should be applied under the base of the bush, before and after applying the liquid fertilizer, the soil should be watered. Dry fertilizer to avoid burns can not be strewed on the leaves. Greater benefits come from watering the bushes (once a summer) with microelements: 2-3 g of boric acid and 0.1–0.2 g of potassium permanganate (10 liters per 1 sq. M).
Proper watering is important
Proper planting and regular feeding will not be successful if phloxes do not have enough water. Shrubs should be watered so that the soil was always wet. Phlox has a powerful root system consisting of thin branching roots, the main mass of which is located at a depth of 15 cm. Therefore, they are especially sensitive to water deficiency.
In addition, in the process of growth, phloxes develop such a mass of leaves, stems and flowers that consume a large amount of moisture. Without watering, the stems of phlox grow low, the inflorescence forms less and the flowers shrink, flowering occurs earlier and ends quickly. Lower leaves turn yellow and dry out.
In hot, dry weather, watering should be done so that the water soaks the entire root layer. Irrigation rate - 15-20 liters of water per square meter. m. It is better to spend it in the evening, and after each watering or rain the soil under the bushes must necessarily be gnawed and mulched.
Do not forget that the weeds not only give an untidy look to your flower garden, but also serve as a haven for pests and diseases, therefore you cannot do without weeding.
Pay attention to the tall varieties of phlox: some of them have unstable stems, so they must be tied to supports. In the autumn, with the onset of frosts, phlox stems are cut off from the very surface of the earth. Cut stalks desirable to burn or remove from the site. If phlox is sheltered for the winter, before that, for the prevention of diseases, it is desirable to throw several crystals of blue vitriol in the middle of a bush.
It is useful to mulch the phlox for the winter. In central Russia, with a height of snow cover of 50-60 cm, phlox tolerate frosts well to -20 ... -25 ° C. However, in very severe and little snowy winters, plants can freeze, especially varieties of foreign selection.
In addition, every year the bush grows more and more. Together with him his root system grows, and this happens in a rather peculiar way. A stem sprouts from the peephole and first stretches horizontally under the ground, then bends steeply and goes to the surface. Under the ground knee formed, which later turns to wood. Young roots begin to grow from it, and in the fall on the same knee new growth buds are laid above the roots.
Thus, each year the rhizome grows in length by 1-3 cm and simultaneously grows higher and higher. Finally, it begins to bulge out of the ground. Plants with protruding rhizomes in winter can die, and shoots from buds, laid too close to the surface or on the old parts of the rhizome, develop weak ones. The shrub of the plant matures, grows husband, then begins to age.
Lignified parts of rhizomes in the center of the bush die off, at the same time causing rotting and death of the roots. In the end, the bush breaks up into separate parts, and the soil is depleted, which, in turn, leads to plant thickening, reduction of flowering. To delay the aging process and protect the bushes from freezing in winter, it is advisable to mulch phloxes annually.
Phlox paniculata. © Brian Pettinger
Light spots develop on the leaves, they spread on the leaf blade, later fade and necrotic. Sometimes there is only growth retardation: some varieties are latent (hidden) virus carriers.
The disease is caused by a rattling or curly tobacco striation virus. In addition to phlox, it affects aster, gerbera, hyacinth, gladiolus, crocus, lily, narcissus, peony, primula, tulip, cineraria. The size of virus particles is 190X22 and 45-110X22 nm. It is transferred by nematodes of the genus Trichodorus. Rattle is common in Central Europe.
Leaves become lumpy, curly, necrotic spots of irregular shape appear on them, glossy or covered with scabs. Veins turn brown, then die. In other cases, a blackish edging of them or a yellow-green mosaic pattern develops. The growth of the stems is delayed, they are slightly bent and covered with single necrotic strips or scabs. The internodes are shortened, the plant is compact and bushy in habit. Flowering is not observed or it is scarce. Often, affected phloxes dry out and die. The disease is caused by the tobacco necrosis virus, whose virions are spherical in shape, their diameter is 26 nm. Distributed soil fungus (Olpidium brassicae).
Phlox paniculata. © Achim
The disease manifests itself at the beginning of the growing season of plants, the symptoms are most clearly visible in May and June. On phlox leaves chlorotic light spots and characteristic ring pattern are formed. On the leaf plates of individual shoots visible areas of yellow color, of different size and shape. With a strong defeat, the mosaic covers the whole plant, it looks short and does not bloom. The leaves are twisted and deformed.
The causative agent of ring blotch is the tomato black-ringed virus. Spherical virus particles, 28-30 nm in diameter. It is transferred by nematodes of the genus Longidorus.
On the petals are visible light strokes, with a strong defeat of the inflorescences the color becomes lighter than this one is typical for this variety. It has been established that the disease is caused by a rezu mosaic virus. This pathogen has a wide range of host plants and from flower crops affects carnation, cactus, delphinium, and tulip. The form of virions is spherical, diameter is 30 mm. It is tolerated by nematodes of the Xiphinema genus (Xiphinema).
Why is it called that?
This flowering plant is called phlox, which means “flame” in Greek, a Swedish physician and naturalist Karl Linnaeus. The fact is that most wild species of a flower have a fiery red color, reminiscent of flashes of flame. Less common is the German version of the name. Translated from the language of Goethe flocken - flakes (snow). You can easily believe this by presenting the thickets of this plant with a lot of white miniature star-flowers.
The homeland of phlox is considered to be North America, where most of the original species grow. In Europe and Asia, you can find a single wild-growing species - Siberian phlox. This is a small plant with creeping shoots and rare flowers.
In total, perennial phlox about 70 species, and they are divided into ground cover and spray. One year is only one representative of this family - phlox drummond.
Phlox paniculata, or Phlox paniculata, better known as the garden, blooms from July to autumn frosts. The height of this plant, belonging to the Sinyukhov family, can vary from 40 to 150 cm. The root system is perennial, but all its aboveground parts, flowers, leaves and stems, after the seeds ripen, die off in late summer - early autumn.
The powerful root system of the fibrous type, which paniculate phlox has, is characterized by a superficial arrangement of thin and branched roots, most of which are located in the surface layers of the soil, at a depth of 4 to 20 cm. Because of this structure, phloxes are quite demanding on soil moisture and nutrition as well as its friability.
Phlox paniculata forms buds of growth on the rhizome, at the very base of the stem, just above the point from which the main branch of the roots extends. Next season, a new shoot will be made from such a bud. In the place where it departs from the old root, young roots form. A little higher - new growth buds. Due to such processes, the rhizome annually rises and expands in breadth, as if getting out of the ground. For normal growth and beautiful flowering of the bush, it is necessary to pour the earth to it annually, thus closing new young roots.
Phlox varieties of paniculata
Presented in modern gardens, various plants of this species bloom at different times. Depending on the period in which phlox paniculata blooms, the following groups are distinguished:
- early (June-July) varieties such as Muscovite, Arctic, Thunderstorm, Scarlet Flower,
- medium (July-August), for example, phlox Panama, Aurora, New, Africa,
- later (from August to the first frost), for example, varieties Winter Merkhen, Viking, Kirmmeslender.
Popular varieties of panicled phlox of various colors
The timing of flowering is important, but most gardeners, choosing varieties of phlox paniculate, oriented to the color. The table below shows the popular plant varieties:
The flower is white with a barely noticeable smoky-pink shade, the corolla tube is pinkish
Krasnova N. S., 1952
The flower is pure white, wheel-shaped
White, wheel-shaped, with a clearly defined carmine-colored eye
The flower is white, with a barely noticeable bluish tint, petals with a wavy edge
Konstantinov, E. A., 1988
Pink flowers with a light carmine shade, in the center there is a large blur of rich carmine color.
P. Gaganov, 1945
Dark pink, spectacular flowers with a smoky silvery shade, with a white asterisk in the center
V. V. Korchagin, V. G. Borisova, 2012
A light pink flower with a bright crimson ring.
Salmon pink flower with carmine ring and dim whitish center
K. Foerster, 1949
Bright flowers of a beautiful salmon-pink shade, less intense color in the center and with a small raspberry eye
Waller-Franklin Seed, 1939
Salmon-scarlet flower with carmine ring
The flowers are dark cinnabar-red, velvety, at the base of the wavy petals a stripe of dark red color
Red-crimson with rich carmine eye
K. Foerster, 1940
V. V. Korchagin, V. G. Borisova, 2011
Orange-crimson petals do not fade and do not lose their color saturation
The star-shaped flower is painted in a light orange-red shade, with an inner cherry ring
P. Gaganov, 1958
Flowers are orange-red, with a ring of carmine color
Red with a crimson shade, the brightest closer to the edges of the petals
P. Gaganov, 1953
Slightly curved petals painted a rich raspberry-lilac, very bright color, their inner side is purple
Crimson flowers, very bright, resistant to rain and fading
Kudryavtseva O. K., 2006
Flowers velvet, dark purple color
Petals purple-purple hue, in the center of the flower white stamens
Khvatov V.N., 2000
The color is saturated purple-crimson, lighter towards the center.
Sharonov M.F., 1965
Blue, Lilac Violet, Lilac-Blue
The color is pale, purple-blue, with a purple eye
Gaganov P.G. 1957
The round petals are colored pale blue with violet stains, and in the center are lilac.
Wavy petals - deep purple, slightly fade out
Konstantinova E. A., 1985
The color of the petals is deep-violet-blue, lighter towards the center, with a dark-purple eye, in the evening it becomes dark blue
P. Gaganov, 1956
Frau Paulina Sholtgammer
The flowers are light lilac-bluish, with faded whitish strokes closer to the center, in the evening - bluish
A. Schollhammer, 1924
Wheel-shaped flowers are painted in a light lilac color, with a raspberry-purple ring
The flowers are purple-lilac-purple, at twilight bright blue
The color of the petals is pink, tinted with an ash haze, the peephole is purple, and the stamens are golden.
Reprev Yu. A., 2006
Slightly convex flower of purple color, on the edge of the petals there is a smoke in the form of a thick silver shading
Konstantinova E. A., 2000
In the center of the flower is a purple-violet asterisk, from which a silvery haze spreads over all the petals.
Morozova G. A., 2003
Preparing a landing site
Выбирая и подготавливая место для метельчатых флоксов, следует помнить о том, что этот цветок предпочитает хорошо удобренные, плодородные почвы и обильный полив, но при этом не переносит застоя влаги. При работе с таким растением, как флокс метельчатый, посадка не представляет сложностей. It is only important to remember that they develop poorly and bloom on the northern side, in areas blown by the prevailing winds, on the slopes, and under the crowns of various conifers and having a shallow root system of trees such as birch, lilac, various varieties of willow and poplar.
It is possible to plant a flower phlox paniculata in poor soil, in partial shade and in the sun. It should only be remembered that many dark-colored varieties can fade, and plants growing on uncultivated soils are unlikely to be pleased with beautiful and rich flowering.
How does panicled phlox breed?
Most varieties of this flower annually form and ripen seeds. However, there are, although very rarely, varietal lines that do not set seed at all. You can propagate this plant in a variety of ways: root and leaf cuttings, root shoots, dividing the bush and planting seeds. Let's take a closer look at all these methods.
Rules for selecting planting material when buying
The choice of high quality planting material is one of the most important tasks. Experienced growers are advised to give preference to domestic varieties that endure a sharp change of climatic conditions, resistant to diseases and pests.
As for the color characteristics, it all depends on the taste. It is worth carefully planning the landscape design, combining plant varieties according to their color, flowering time and height of the bushes, so that later you don’t have to redo and replant anything.
It is worth carefully inspecting the seedlings to make sure that they are healthy and not affected by pests.
Choosing the right landing site
Despite its unpretentiousness, phlox paniculata requires to observe certain rules of fit and care. The first thing you need to pay attention to is the choice of a seat.
The plant prefers shaded places, overheating of the root system is extremely harmful to it. In the sun-drenched places, the flowers quickly burn out, lose their attractiveness, and become depressed.
Flok beds advise to plan on soils with a high composition of humus and a well-established drainage system. If soils with a high level of acidity prevail on your site, then they will have to be “fertilized” with lime, since the plant does not take root on oxidized lands.
The optimal soil type for the plant is sandy soil. With proper watering in such a bed, the plant will feel great.
Phlox seedlings should be planted in pre-prepared shallow pits in spring or autumn. The bottom of the fossa should be covered with compost or biohumus. If the soil is loamy, add sand and organic fertilizer to the hole. Placing the plant in the recess, you should horizontally straighten its roots.
It is important to keep a distance between seedlings of about 50 cm. This is necessary for the proper development and functioning of the root system.
Care tips for lush flowering
When planting phloxes, you should be aware that from time to time you will have to help your wards in the process of their growth: water, loosen the ground, fertilize. Proper care is the key to lush flowering.
On dry days, phlox should be watered once a day (in the morning or in the evening) at the root. One square meter needs to spend one and a half to two buckets of water (one bush consumes about two liters). Watering plantations with cold water in hot weather can adversely affect their livelihoods: fragile stems in this case burst.
Weeding and soil care
Periodic loosening of the soil under the phloxes is a guarantee of their proper growth and development. The plot should be kept in order and cleaned of weeds that can damage the plant’s root system or become a source of its diseases.
To help the root system of phlox paniculata form properly, it is advised to feed the plant with organic and mineral supplements.
The optimal fertilizer is liquid manure with potassium salt or phosphorus. Fertilizing bushes need five times: in May, June, at the beginning and end of July. The last fertilizer should be carried out during the period of seed formation.
Faded and dried tops of phlox need to be cut, then cover the rhizome with soil, peat or wooden bran to prepare for winter and protect from frost.
Flok bushes are quite cold-resistant, but still worth safe play. In the case of a winters with little snow, frost can damage the plantings, so it is worthwhile to additionally wrap them with straw, coniferous branches or leaves of trees. The snowy winter promotes excellent "rest" of plants.
Growing from seed
After the wilting of the pollinated flower on the stem of the plant, the seeds are tied in a separate fruit box. It is worth noting that only an insect with a long proboscis is able to pollinate a flower.
In one box fit 2–3 seeds. Mature seeds, if not harvested in time, fall into the ground, and self-seeding occurs.
The cultivation of phlox paniculata from seeds begins in early spring. Seeds are placed in pots or specially equipped boxes. Seedlings need to dive several times, as they rapidly grow upwards. The next stage is transplanting seedlings into a greenhouse, and only in May they are advised to be planted in open ground.
This technique requires a minimum amount of effort. In early spring, after the snow melts, healthy bushes need to be dug out of the ground and their rhizomes should be cleared from the ground. Then you need to carefully separate the root cervix with your hands, and also separate the plexus of the roots.
As a result, several separate parts are obtained from the bush, each of which should have 3-4 growth buds and thick stems. The divided parts are ready for planting in the places prepared for them.
It is recommended to carry out before the plant has flowered. The optimal time is June. Cut the cuttings from healthy stems with special garden shears.
The lower incision should be done below the kidney, then shorten the middle leaves, and cut the top ones. Ready cuttings placed in the ground and daily watered five times with warm water. After 3-4 weeks, the cuttings will take root and sprout.
Diseases and pests: prevention and treatment
Phlox are fairly resistant to pests and diseases. But often improper care causes the plant a lot of problems. The wrong choice of landing site and the lack of nutrients - the main cause of phlox diseases.
The most common diseases and pests of phlox:
- nematode - a microscopic worm that loves acidic soils. Parasites infect all parts of the plant. A bush afflicted with the disease will have to be removed from the site and burned,
- powdery mildew - fungal infectious disease, which dulls the growth and development of bushes, deprives them of attractiveness and decoration. The plant is covered in gray. Affected leaves and shoots must be eliminated so that the infection does not spread. The remaining bushes to handle a 0.1% solution of colloidal sulfur for 7 days,
- spotty leaves. First, brown spots appear on the foliage, and soon the leaves fold and dry. This disease is a consequence of excessive illumination. Phlox will have to be transplanted to shaded areas,
- alternarioz - the appearance of brown spots on the leaves and stripes. Your flower needs fertilizing with mineral fertilizers,
- severe frost or prolonged drought can harm the flowers. Often these factors lead to their death. But at the same time, phloxes are quite viable: one small root is enough to reanimate the plant.
Properly diagnosed disease and timely action will help you protect your flower beds and keep them attractive.
Application in landscape design
Bright flox floret flossa help to create a cheerful landscape design, ennoble flower beds, front gardens, alpine slides, rose gardens.
Flok plantings can be easily transformed into elegant color compositions, for this you just need to choose and experiment with the varieties of phlox paniculata, of which there are many (description and photos of some of them you have already seen above).
Phloxes look spectacular and in combination with other garden flowers. For example, bright inflorescences of phloxes harmonize with white flowers of chamomile. In summer, phloxes prefer to coexist with carnations, alpine asters, geraniums, veronians, and small-scale artists. These plants have approximately the same conditions of care, which is important when making flower beds.
Autumn floksovye beds should diversify barberry or autumn crocus. The phlox paniculata is not just a favorite of flower growers and florists, but also the main tool of work of landscape designers, the leading figure in flower exhibitions.
The motley color palette of the flower, its lush inflorescences, the fragrant aroma will not leave indifferent any esthete. But for such an effect will have to make rational efforts.
Even late sorts of phloxes will bloom this month, and all pruning can be done all at once. When trimming the stems, leave the stumps 5 cm high, and burn the cut pieces. For work, use a sharp pruner, do not tear off and do not break off the stems with your hands, so as not to damage the formed vegetative eyes.
Spend the last feeding paniculate phlox no later than mid-September. To do this, dissolve 20 g of potassium monophosphate in a bucket of water and spill bushes at the rate of 10 l per 2-3 adult plants.
For the purpose of fertilizer and disinfection, powder the ground around the bushes with a thin layer of wood ash. It is also possible to close the ashes into the soil, but not deeply, so as not to damage the roots of phlox.
When all the shoots of phlox will be cut, you can begin to shelter bushes. Moreover, for this purpose you can use not only rotten compost and peat, but even immature compost. In autumn and winter, it will "come" right on the garden, warm the bushes during the cold season, and in the spring will be an excellent fertilizer.
Before the onset of frost, cover the bushes with a 10-12 cm layer of any of the materials described above.
It is necessary to cover phloxes in several layers, depending on the age of the bush and the sophistication of the variety, so that the first frost does not destroy the buds laid down for the next year.
Old bushes are covered with compost or low-moor peat, while young ones additionally throw with spruce leaves, leaves or dry stalks of annual and perennial plants. This will help not only to avoid the freezing of phloxes, but also to hold the snow on the flowerbeds during strong winds.
During this period, phloxes are safely covered with a layer of snow. Ideally, if the thickness of the snow cover at this time is 30-40 cm. If there is still no snow in December, add a layer (or even two) of geotextiles to the shelter.
While phloxes are quietly “sleeping” in the garden under the snow, new saplings are already on the market. You can not buy them in any case - keep the phlox until spring in a pot or refrigerator will not work. Bushes that fall into the winter sale, as a rule, already have sprouts, therefore they are not subject to cold storage, and simply dry at room temperature.
In winter, it is better to plan a flower garden, decide where to plant the phlox paniculate during dividing and how to place the plants of new varieties so that they are combined with the neighbors in the flower bed.
We have collected for you all the most important works of the year for the care of paniculate phlox in one table. You can save or print it so that all information is at hand.
How to care for phloxes
Phlox loves moisture, its lack of soil significantly affects the well-being of plants. This is due to the structure of the root system, consisting of thin branching processes located at a depth of only 15 cm. The soil under the plants should be moist all the time. With a lack of water phlox does not grow to varietal marks, the flowers become small, and the inflorescences are not so lush.
The rate of irrigation is 15-20 l / sq. m. Make water better in the evening and always at the root. It is also important after each watering to gnaw and grind the soil. In addition to moisture, tall varieties of phlox need to install supports.
With the onset of frosts, perennial phlox are pruned almost to the root. In the winter they are wrapped or transferred to unheated greenhouses. If phlox remains to winter in the street, then several crystals of blue vitriol are thrown into the middle of the bush. Annual varieties are removed from the site completely. Obsolete plants should be burned.
The soil is suitable weakly acid or neutral, sandy. Phloxes are responsive to fertile soils, so when planting you can make humus, ash or mineral fertilizers with a nitrogen content. When planting, deepen the divide by 3-4 cm.
Phlox are moisture-loving, but do not like stagnant water. Often it is the waterlogging of these plants that leads to powdery mildew disease. When planting, make sure that there is no stagnant water in this place in the spring after the snow melts. In the summer, watering at the root should be regular and abundant.
Lush flowering phloxes is not so difficult to achieve, using top dressing. It is recommended to feed three times per season in strictly allotted time. The first time we feed phloxes in the spring during the growth of shoots with nitrogen-containing or complex fertilizers. The second feeding occurs at the beginning of summer during the period of budding with complex or phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. And the final dressing of phosphorus-potassium minerals already without nitrogen is produced after flowering, which prepares the plant for wintering. Organic matter in the form of rotted compost, manure is used only in the spring or during planting.
Preparing for the winter
The preparation of phlox paniculata for winter begins in the fall; this is one of the important stages, since the winter period is a serious test for many plants. After the plants have bloomed, potash - phosphate fertilizers are applied, this strengthens the root system and frost resistance. Also remove dried leaves and stems, sprinkle the bush with humus or peat, and then cover it with spruce leaves. Such a shelter protects the plant from frost, and it calmly endures the winter, and in the summer it pleases with bright, beautiful flowering and green foliage.
Reproduction of phlox of paniculata is possible in several ways: The simplest and most accessible method is dividing a bush. Spring and early autumn are best for this, the bushes are divided into several parts, which consist of 2 - 3 thick stems. Reproduction by cuttings is advised to be carried out in June, when cuttings are still young and the flowering period has not come, after a month the cuttings root well and can be planted in a permanent place. During reproduction by layering, the stem of a plant is attached to the ground and spud well with a mixture of peat and humus. Closer to fall, an independent plant grows from the stem. To grow phlox from seeds, stratified seeds are sown in boxes or pots. Then several times they dive, not allowing them to strongly stretch, and transplanted into a greenhouse. In open ground planted in early May.
What should I know about phlox multiplication?
Speaking about the methods contributing to the multiplication of these colors, you can select a few. The simplest and most convenient method is reproduction by dividing the bush. It should be applied in the spring and early autumn. It lies in the fact that the bush must be divided into parts, consisting of several thick and strong stems.
Propagate the plant with cuttings, preferably in the first half of summer. The most suitable for this purpose is June. At this time of the year there is still no flowering period. Young cuttings will be easy to root. After a month they can be transplanted to a permanent place.
Another popular method is reproduction by layering. When it is, the stems are attached to the soil and are well tucked using a mixture of humus and peat. By the onset of autumn, it will be possible to detect independent plants grown from such stems.
You can engage in the cultivation of phlox, paniculata, using for these purposes purchased seeds. Preference should be given to stratified seeds. It is desirable to put them in a box or pot. Over time, it will be necessary to carry out a picking several times so that the plants do not become too stretched. After that, phlox can be transplanted into a greenhouse. Transplantation of plants in open ground conditions is possible in the first weeks of May.
What does a plant love and what does it fear?
This type of phlox prefers sunlight, with a slight shade, especially in the hottest time. It can grow in partial shade, but then the bush grows too high, and does not bloom so much and much later. He loves moderate moisture, hard to tolerate a dry period. Prefers rich fertilized soil, poorly grown on acidic. Phlox can suffer from powdery mildew, variegation virus. Particularly dangerous for the bush stem nematodes, which almost completely destroy the plant. To avoid this trouble, you should carefully monitor the quality of the soil and planting material. Without a doubt, phlox paniculata is one of the most attractive and cheerful flowers of any garden. Impresses with its unusual beauty and fragrant aroma. А при правильной посадке и должном уходе будет радовать своим пышным цветением и яркими красками весь сезон.
Опасности для флоксов
Наибольшую опасность для этих великолепных растений представляют болезни и вредители. Среди первых следует особо выделить мучнистую росу, возникающую в августовские дни. Она поражает нижние, а со временем и верхние, листочки растения, проявляясь в виде белесых пятнышек. Spots grow over time, they are becoming more and more. To avoid this scourge, timely prevention is necessary. Such is the processing of the bush using Bordeaux mixture.
Another disease that is susceptible to phlox is the one called “ring spot”. The disease may appear at the end of May and in June. On the leaves of the plant with it, the appearance of light spots with a characteristic ring pattern is possible. In cases of severe infection, the leaves can be deformed, curled. At the same time the plant refuses to bloom. Nematodes are carriers of this disease.
Among the pests that threaten the plant can be identified microscopic worms, called nematodes. They live in tissues and feed on plant sap. With a strong defeat of this pest phlox paniculate may die. From the affected bushes should get rid of, burning them. The soil needs treatment with nematocides. Perform this procedure at least three times, adhering to a three-week interval.
Phlox in landscape design
Today, this ornamental plant is actively used by masters of landscape design. Bushes perfectly fit into front gardens and flower beds. Speaking about the use of the landscape, flowers are often found in alpine hills and rockeries. Phloxes look wonderful in a single landing. Designers achieve excellent color effect by combining different varieties of this plant.
Phlox - a real decoration used in garden design. A very fashionable solution is monosad - phlox. More often these flowers are combined with others, using them as a background. They are wonderfully combined with daylilies, garden geraniums, and astilbe.
Divide the bush
Paniculate phlox can be propagated by dividing either in spring, when the first shoots appear, or at the end of summer or at the beginning of autumn. To do this, gently dig in the bush from all sides, carefully removed from the ground, inspected for damage and disease, then cut with a garden knife into several parts. Phloxes, divided in spring, bloom in the year of transplantation, and processed in the fall - only next year.
Planting in open ground
Phlox planted throughout the season, but the optimal time - spring, late summer or early autumn. Planting pits for them are 25–30 cm deep. They must be wide in width so that the roots can easily fit. At the bottom of the pit pour 2–3 tbsp. ash spoons, mineral fertilizers at the rate specified in the instructions and humus or compost. The amount of organic matter in the composition of the soil mixture is 30-50%. All components are thoroughly mixed with the ground and fill the landing pits by 2/3. In the center a small hillock is formed, on which a sapling is placed. The roots of plants straighten and covered with earth. When planting, the root collar should be 5-6 cm deep, and the renewal buds on it should also be in the ground for at least 3 cm. The soil around the seedling is well tamped. Phlox is watered abundantly immediately after planting and for the next 3-4 days, if the weather is dry.
The article “Phloxes of perennial species and popular varieties” will help you choose the seeds of phloxes paniculate, you will also find many other species and varieties of phloxes in it.
About the classification and selection of phloxes paniculate you will find here.
The choice of location and soil for planting
Suitable areas for phlox are well lit or slightly shaded. Plants are planted in the sun if regular watering is ensured. Variegated, brightly colored varieties prefer penumbra. They contain less chlorophyll and fade in the sun.
Phlox paniculata grows on any well-cultivated and drained garden soil. The acidity level should be neutral or slightly acidic. Heavy clay and sandy soils before planting improve.
Phlox paniculata Olympiad
Phlox paniculata hygrophilous. The amount of water depends on the degree of dryness of the soil. In the heat, the plants are watered frequently and abundantly in order to completely soak the root area. The soil around the bushes should be wet, but without stagnation and water accumulation.
On 1 square. m (for one irrigation) in dry weather requires 1.5–2 buckets of water. Water phlox in the evening so that the water does not evaporate quickly. If the autumn is dry and warm, watering is not stopped until October, so that the plants accumulate a supply of moisture for a successful wintering season.
Feed phlox start from the 2nd year after planting. Each gardener empirically chooses their own feeding scheme. It all depends on the growth rate and development of the plant. The standard number of feedings per season is 3-4.
Nitrogen is used only in the spring. In the spring, as soon as the shoots grow to 10 cm, the bushes are sprayed with a solution of urea - 1 tbsp. spoon dissolved in 10 liters of water.
Before budding, the bushes mulch with humus mixed with ash and floral mineral fertilizer. After flowering, you can feed phlox phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. After the autumn pruning - the last feeding - mulching with organic matter with the addition of ash.
Trimming and Garter
One of the important procedures is trimming the bushes before hibernation. It is better to shorten shoots as short as possible, leaving a stump of 2–3 cm. Short pruning prevents accumulation between pests and fungal spores, facilitates mulching and prophylactic treatment with fungicides.
Tall phlox tie up, otherwise with heavy rain and wind shoots lodge and break off.
In early spring or early autumn, a 3–4-year-old shrub is excavated. Sharp knife divide it into several parts and plant delenki. It is undesirable to grow plants in the same place where phloxes recently grew. Planted in spring, delenki bloom in summer, with the autumn division - the next year.
First of all, careful and timely culling of affected plants is necessary. It is unacceptable to take cuttings from diseased bushes. It is necessary to remove the weeds, both in the plantings of phlox and in the neighborhood with them. This prevents the transfer of infection from weeds to phlox.
Before planting phlox at new sites, it is necessary to analyze the soil for infection by nematodes — vectors of phytopathogenic viruses (xyphaema, longidorus, trichodorus). If nematodes are found, the plot is treated with a 0.2% solution of metaphos.