The cultivation of the vine is recognized by many summer residents and owners of private houses for a simple reason. Similar the culture is very unpretentioustherefore, it does not need extremely complex care and constant attention. By the way, even wild-growing individuals, which sprout on stony soil without any fertilizers and diligent care, can give good fruit. What to say about the cultivated vine, receiving additional fertilizing and stimulants.
What kind of fertilizer to feed
However, in order to grow a healthy and fertile vine in my area, you need to carefully study such an action as feeding grapes in spring and autumn. Access to valuable substances and micronutrients will be a good stimulus for growth and allow the culture to grow very actively.
It is known that the maximum yield of the vine is seen when grown in fertile soil formulations. However, sooner or later the land is depleted and loses stock such vitamins, which carries a number of negative effects, including a decrease in yield. The plant also loses its former development activity and is exposed to many diseases or the dangerous effects of climate change.
Severe vulnerability to external pathogens is noticed in the early stages of development, therefore, during this period, spring dressing of grapes should be carried out in a particularly intensive and thorough manner.
Experienced winegrowers devoted their whole lives to studying the main features of feeding, searching for the most effective means and procedures. As a result, they created step-by-step instructions for inexperienced beginners, allowing to get an amazing result.
How to feed grapes
For feeding grapes used a variety of fertilizers. Select the most necessary and useful:
- Drugs with a high content of nitrogen, which cause a massive build-up of green mass on the vine. The component must be placed in the ground in early spring and during the active development of shoots and leaves. As for summer fertilizing with nitrogen, they are not mandatory, and at the end of the season before the start of fruiting is completely prohibited, because With intensive growth of branches, lumbering is suspended. When looking for good nitrogen supplements, pay attention to urea and ammonium nitrate,
- Phosphoric agents. Phosphorus will be an indispensable component for flowering vines. This substance has a positive effect on the development of inflorescences and improves the formation of ovaries. Perfect solution will become a highly efficient superphosphate, which contains a large amount of phosphorus,
- To feed the vine in the fall you need with the help of potash preparations. With such dressings, the aging of shoots and bunches is much faster. In addition, potassium chloride improves the resistance of the culture to the upcoming cold season,
- To protect the plant from the negative effects of drought and frost, which occurs in the winter, it is enough to apply to the soil copper-containing dressings. Also, copper contributes to the development of shoots on the bushes,
- To increase the sugar content of the berries and speed up the ripening process, the growers begin to fertilize them with boric acid. The element is considered an excellent stimulator of pollen germination. Zinc also increases the crop well;
- In addition to the above fertilizers for grapes, practiced and other feeding, consisting of sulfur, iron, calcium and magnesium. However, feeding them with a vine in the spring is not necessary, because during this period significant their number concentrated in the soil composition
Organic or mineral complexes
When choosing effective fertilizers for grapes, many newcomers are faced with the question: “What to feed with - organic matter or mineral complexes?”. In fact, fertilizing culture is a very responsible action, so the choice of suitable fertilizing should be treated very carefully. Otherwise, successful bush development and yields may be at risk.
Spring dressing of grapes is best done with one-component formulations, such as:
- potassium salt,
- ammonium nitrate and others
Among the complex means for fertilizing the culture in the fall and spring are used:
The main thing to comply with a comfortable dosage.
Do some mineral dressing will not work. Grapes will not be able to grow normally without highly effective organic matter, which often uses manure. This decision has a positive effect on air circulation and soil permeability, promotes the active development of microflora for better absorption of nutrients from the roots. If you feed the vines with manure in the springtime, it will give her the opportunity to gain access to abundant reserves of potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen and other valuable microelements.
Often, winegrowers replace manure with compost - a more affordable solution. You can use all sorts of waste, including sawdust, chicken litter, mowed grass, wood ash and other debris of organic origin to prepare the top dressing. Due to the composition rich in valuable substances, compost is in no way inferior to manure.
Also for feeding grapes in spring, you can use chicken droppings. This option has a very good performance and gives visible results in a short time. Active ingredients from chicken manure quickly assimilated by the rootstherefore, a special growth productivity begins to manifest itself several weeks after feeding. Concentrated fertilizer based on chicken droppings cannot be used.
Ten days before fertilizer is placed in open soil, it must be diluted with water in proportion to one liter of omelet per four liters of water. Before making the roots, the solution is diluted to a volume of ten liters, pouring 0.5 liters of the working solution under one plant. Using such fertilizers to feed the grapes, you saturate it with invaluable trace elements, including:
Their content in this fertilizer is several times higher than in all the others.
Do not do novice grower and without the use of ash. Experts practice the method of replacing potassium chloride with ash, because Mineral components contain high levels of chlorine, which can harm the culture. In turn, wood ash It remains a universal solution that will enrich the plant with potassium and phosphorus. The most nutritious part of top dressing is ash made from sunflower husk. Feed culture begin in the spring.
When to fertilize grapes
For the development of the vine to be successful, and the maximum yield, you need to properly fertilize it, paying attention to the time.
- The first feeding is carried out in early spring after the end of the winter period. For successful implementation of the action, it is necessary to dissolve 20 grams of superphosphate, ten grams of ammonium nitrate and five grams of potassium salt in a 10-liter bucket of water. The finished solution can be used for one grape bush,
- Two weeks before the beginning of flowering, a similar solution is poured at the root,
- When the berries begin to ripen, the earth is fed with phosphorus-potassium supplements. Nitrogen formulations are not recommended.
- In order to significantly improve the frost resistance of bushes for the winter, after harvesting the fruit, it is necessary to conduct autumn dressing with the help of potash fertilizers,
During the spring feeding period, instead of mineral fertilizers, gardeners feed the shrub with liquid manure, keeping a proportion of 1 kilogram of substance per square meter of territory.
The first spring feeding culture
Additional dressing of the vine is carried out in early spring, and then in May, when the bush has not yet begun to grow and remains wrapped up after wintering. Wait until the snow finally melts and start feeding culture. It is important to stock up in advance with suitable organic fertilizers, observing a special dosage when applying them. If the opportunity to use high-performance organic is missing, try to get ready-made mineral complexes.
In most cases, growers use special blends with a known ratio of components. At the vine you can prepare a watering mixture at the rate of 10 liters per bush. Per 10 liters of water, you can take 20 grams of superphosphate, 5 grams of potassium and 10 grams of ammonium nitrate. This solution will be used for watering the soil.
Experienced gardeners have learned to fertilize the crop with complex compounds based on nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Such drugs have an excellent effect on the development and overall growth of the bush, but on condition that the correct dosage is observed exactly as prescribed. With excessive use of dressings young shoots can not finally mature, as a result, their yields significantly deteriorate.
Top dressing of grapes in the fall: foliar top dressings
In addition to spring feeding of culture, it must be fertilized in the fall, maintaining the interval 1 time in three years. The process uses dry solutions based on ash, superphosphate, ammonium sulphate and manure. The prepared preparation is scattered on the surface of the soil where the vine grows. After this, the earth is carefully digged. If we are talking about growing a culture in sandy substrate, then fertilizing will be necessary every two years. In the case of poor sandy soils - annually.
An excellent stimulation of good yields is foliar feeding, which is also carried out in the spring. It is known that the leaves of the vine have an excellent ability to absorb all the nutrients and components diluted with water. Such a solution will be a good addition for basic fertilizing. If a spray leaves suitable drugs, it will positively affect the resistance of the culture to all sorts of diseases and pests. Also, the vine will begin to bear fruit more actively, and the fruits will become incredibly tasty.
The first spraying of the leaves will be successful at the stage of the appearance of flower buds, which will protect them from further fall. In addition, this method helps to increase the ovary, which is important.
Fertilizing bushes for the second time you need after they bloom. The last foliar dressing is necessary during the period of active ripening of berries. At application of suitable solutions it is necessary to refuse nitrogen-containing preparations.
Foliar top dressing carried out and using ready-made solution of macro-and micronutrients, which are available in specialized stores.
Today, winegrowers practice the use of fermented herbal infusion, which includes water and ash.
Do not forget that you need to spray the leaves of the vine in the morning or evening, in warm, calm weather. Also can be implemented dressing and daytime, provided that it is overcast. Under such conditions, the risk of burns due to the aggressive effects of ultraviolet rays is minimized. To the substances used are absorbed as well as possible, the prepared solution is diluted with three tablespoons of sugar.
Observing the above recommendations, you can properly feed the grapes and get excellent yields.
Top dressing of grapes in the spring and in the summer
Spring is best to fertilize the grapes with nitrogen. It can be in the form of mineral fertilizer in the form of a mullein infusion, bird droppings. Organic grapes react violent growth.
Around young bushes they bury them in a trench of half a bucket of dung and water it very generously (5-6 buckets per bush).
Shrubs older pour water with organic matter: half a bucket of bird droppings + bucket of mullein + 1 kg of ash + 4 buckets of water. Mixture insist week, and then one liter of infusion is diluted in a bucket of water and watered. Consumption per 1 bush - 2 solution buckets. Next, spend abundant watering.
The best option - pour the fertilizer solution into the pipe, then place a watering hose into it and turn on the pump for several hours. Such nutrition and watering the grapes is enough for a month.
Ash - the ideal fertilizer for grapes
Experienced winegrowers advise for a season to make a bucket of ash under each bush. Not at one time, of course. Sprinkle gradually when there is an opportunity. The ash contains 40% calcium, 20% potassium and 10% phosphorus and magnesium.
Professional growers have noticed that ash helps fight fungal diseases grapes. You just need to periodically scatter the ashes around the bush and after two or three seasons sores disappear.
Need to pour ashes Every yearotherwise it will return to normal. Ashes contain a lot of potassium, and this is the most important element for the health of grapes. Excellent result gives the cultivation in the aisle sideratov with subsequent digging to enrich the soil, the constant flow of mulch and humus around the trunk.
Neighborhood with some plants provokes a wild growth of grapes shoots. Why not use this phenomenon? On our site there is a list of these plants.
Top dressing of grapes before flowering: 2 buckets of organic matter + generous watering.
Feeding grapes at the pea stage
Potash phosphate fertilizers or infusion of ash with bird droppings. Also, do not forget about watering. WITH mid july and before harvesting watering of grapes stop. The only exception is a severe drought, in which case moisture must be given. Otherwise strong fruit buds will not form.
Renew watering grapes in autumn before leaf fall. During this period it is important to wet the ground for at least meter deepso that the grapes survive the winter well and form flower buds.
Top dressing of grapes is important to combine with watering and preventive treatment. against diseases and pests.
The synergy of these agricultural practices will give the best results and will greatly facilitate the care of the vineyard.
Source: N.I. Kurdyumov “A smart vineyard for himself”.
Nutrients needed for grape growth
Fertilizer grapes in the spring - the key to a good harvest in the fall, so this case must be taken with all responsibility. The main goal, which is contained in the feeding of grapes - soil saturation necessary for the growth and fruiting of a plant with substances and trace elements. Consider more:
- Phosphorus is most important during the flowering period to get more ovaries,
- Zinc affects the yield of grape plants so-called crop stimulator,
- Nitrogen is necessary for the formation of healthy shoots and leaves,
- Boron is brought in so that the berry is sweet,
- Copper will protect the vine from drought and frost,
- Potassium is added for accelerated fruit ripening.
We have decided on useful substances for grapes, now we will understand what fertilizers all this contains, when and how they are applied to the soil.
Fertilizers for feeding grapes in spring
Novice growers often have a question: “How to fertilize grapes?” Mineral fertilizers and organic are used for this. From the latter are very effective such as:
- Manure is an indispensable tool for grapes that can replace all the fertilizers taken in the world together. It contains absolutely everything necessary for the growth and fruiting of the plant,
- Chicken droppings - a great folk way of feeding, contributing to the development of the vine. The composition is similar to manure, however, it must be diluted with water due to high toxicity
- Compost is a great spring dressing, which is easy to prepare and is very pleasant to the grapes,
- Mulch - improves soil composition, air and water balance, saturates with all nutrients,
- Siderats are equivalent to manure, restore the structure of the soil and feed all the necessary elements
- Ash is a very valuable organic fertilizer that nourishes and heals grapes at the same time.
But for more complete fertilizing of the vine in combination with organic substances, mineral fertilizers are used. With the use of chemistry you need to be extremely careful - failure to comply with the ratios of the components can adversely affect the vineyard or even lead to its death.
When to fertilize in spring
The first dressing is done in April, when the grapes are still sheltered from the winter cold. It is necessary to take into account the region where the vineyard grows - the more south the area, the earlier the fertilizer is applied.
The second falls in May, about two weeks before the flowering of the vine.
The third dressing is when the grapes have reached the size of peas. At this time, the grapes most in need of additional nutrients for ripening fruits.
The fourth dressing is carried out at the beginning of ripening berries.
Fertilizer is applied to special holes - grooves, which are made around bushes with a diameter of 1 m and a depth of 40 cm. The solution is distributed evenly into these wells.
Top dressing with organic
It is good to feed the grapes with slurry, which is prepared as follows: a bucket of manure is dissolved in 3 buckets of water and fermented for several days. Then the resulting solution is again diluted with water (1:10) and watered the plant.
If there is no manure, you can use compost. It is easy to cook in your garden. Для этого выделяют местечко где-нибудь в углу около забора и складывают туда все органические отходы (опилки, траву, листья, картофельные очистки и др.) Сверху всё это присыпается слоем земли, затем — ещё слой растительных и пищевых отходов, и так до тех пор, пока не получится кучка метров двух высотой. Не забывайте поливать её водой.You can mix waste with lime.
Excellent fertilizer not only for the vine - chicken droppings. Before use, it is diluted with water (1: 2) and insist a couple of weeks. Water the bushes, diluted with water a second time, only in the 1: 5 ratio. One bush will take half a liter of fertilizer.
You can use wood ash or ash from the shell of sunflower seeds. To do this, it is mixed with water 1: 2 and stirring from time to time, leave for 2-3 days. After filtering and add three more parts of water. Such a solution is not easy to feed the young grapes, and when spraying it will also protect it from fungal diseases.
Feed up with minerals
In the spring, one-component mineral substances (superphosphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium salt and potassium chloride) and ready-made complex fertilizers (Kemira, Akvarin, Novofert, etc.) are used as fertilizers for the vine.
At the first top-dressing, such a mixture is used - dry potash fertilizers 30 grams, 40 grams of superphosphate and nitrogenous ones are applied to the pits where the grape busses have been hibernating and sprinkled with earth. There are special preparations for feeding, for example, “Mortar”. It is diluted with water according to the instructions and contribute to the wells, after pouring a bucket of water there. After applying the fertilizer pour a bucket of water again.
For the second feeding this composition is suitable - 30 grams of potash fertilizer. 40 - nitrogen and 50 - superphosphate diluted with water. This fertilizer is well combined with organic matter - a solution of cow dung or chicken droppings, and if you use both together, then mineral fertilizers can be added in 2 times less.
During the third feeding, complex fertilizers are used - 30 grams of fertilizer per bucket of water.
The fourth time the vine is “fed” exclusively with phosphate and potash fertilizers. Potash "chemistry" can be replaced by ash.
The traditional nutrient solution is done like this: for irrigating one plant, take 5 grams of potassium salt, 10 grams of ammonium nitrate and 20 grams of superphosphate.
You will get the best effect if you alternate organic matter with mineral fertilizers.
Additional feeding vineyard
For additional feeding of grapes in the spring, a special trench half a meter deep, 0.8 meters wide, is dug out. The trench is placed either in front of the rows, or behind. 4 buckets of humus or manure are added to it, which are then mixed with the ground, and from above they throw the humus over again and level the dug ditch with the remaining earth. This recharge lasts for several years.
Addition to root spring dressings of vines are foliar. Useful substances enter the plant not only through the root system, but also through the leaves. Such dressings are carried out by spraying through a sprayer. For spraying, you can use a solution of urea (40 grams), citric acid (20 grams), boric acid (15 grams), iron sulphate (1 gram) in water (10 liters). Spray the plants before flowering and after.
If you are reluctant to prepare such a solution for foliar fertilizing yourself, you can use ready-made preparations like “Kemira” and others. Each preparation is suitable for fertilizing during different periods of plant vegetation. For spraying, a wood ash-based solution, as discussed above, is excellent.
Top dressing with ferrous sulfate is very important for grapes in that it not only nourishes the plants they need for growth, but also protects them from diseases, and the buds of the plant during frosts.
It is desirable to conduct foliar dressings on a cloudy, windless day.
Feeding grapes when planting
Before planting grapes in the spring, a mixture of fertilizers is prepared in a separate container: 10 kg of rotted cow manure are mixed with 200 grams of superphosphate and 250 grams of wood ash. This proportion of components is designed for 1 square. m
Or here's another nutrient option during planting: a hole for the grape bush is filled with peat - 30 kg or 20 kg of compost and rotted manure, 200-300 grams of superphosphate, 40 grams of potassium chloride, 100-150 grams of potash and a couple of kg of wood ash . In poor soil, the amount of manure is recommended to increase to 3 buckets.
When digging holes for planting, they remove the top layer of fertile soil and fold it to the side, then the remaining soil is selected and laid separately from the top layer. All the above-mentioned components of the first or second variant are put into the pit, having previously thoroughly mixed with the specially prepared nutrient soil prepared in advance, adding coarse sand and crushed rubble to the second part of the ground dug from the landing pit. After planting the bush sprinkled with the first part, dug from the landing hole of the earth.
After planting, the ground around the plant can be sprinkled with wood chips, chopped straw and rotted manure. They will play the role of mulch.
Young bushes of the second year of life in May, together with organic matter, make phosphate and potash fertilizer.
Top dressing of grapes when and than:
Before you start listing the necessary fertilizers and fertilizing grapes, you need to find out what kind of substance he needs in the first place. These are: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. This is the basis, but in addition, certain trace elements must be present in the soil without fail, such as: calcium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper and others. Unfortunately, the lack of some of these elements can have a very negative effect on the further development of the vine. Let's consider fertilizers that need to be applied in the form of feeding grapes in more detail:
- Nitrogen is needed in almost all parts of the plant for good and proper growth and development. This component is a part of proteins. How to understand that grapes suffer from its lack? Very simply, the first thing that can fall into your eyes is a slowdown in the growth of shoots. Further, the leaves lose their attractive color, and become dull, and then completely fall off. Clusters also develop poorly. With nitrogen you can overdo it, in this case, the leaves of the plant begin to grow intensively, and rather become abnormally large. Shoots develop very quickly, but at the same time lose their resistance to withstand the cold. The grapes on the vine become watery and not tasty.
- Phosphorus, it is contained in proteins in grape pollen, due to which the grapes begin to bloom. If there is a sufficient amount of phosphorus in the composition of the soil, then it begins to actively grow and develop. If this element is not enough, then spots appear on the leaves, purple, with a reddish tinge.
- Potassium gives grapes the necessary resistance to cold weather and various diseases. In addition, it also affects the rate of ripening of berries and the vine itself, improves the taste characteristics of grapes. If there is not enough potassium in the soil, then rims of dried cloth start to form on the leaves of the vine, the leaf itself becomes pale.
Grape fertilizer step by step instruction:
Feeding grapes when and what? The main feeding of the grapes occurs in the autumn, together with the humus, after you have carried out the procedure of sheltering the grapes for the winter. Experienced winegrowers recommend fertilizing at a depth of about 60 centimeters, so feeding the grapes will be better absorbed by the root system.
Fertilizing grapes in the fall, how much fertilizer to make?
The best results showed exactly such doses of fertilizers for grapes: 9 kilograms of humus, 45 grams of superphosphate, 25 grams of potash fertilizers. All these figures are made with the expectation of entering into the soil per 1 square meter. How to make them? For this, a shallow trench is dug around the bush (up to 60 centimeters, as we said above) and necessary substances are brought into it. If your site has a drainage system, fertilizer in liquid form, use it. In the first year of life of the vine, this procedure is carried out twice a year.
Also read: Grape grafting, doing it right
In the second year, it is best to add humus in a liquid form with the addition of mineral fertilizers (superphosphate). Preparing it by diluting with water, two buckets of water are added to one bucket of the subcortex, then left for 10 days in order for it to infuse. Next to each bucket of the resulting mixture add another 5 buckets of plain water with the addition of 200 grams of superphosphate. This liquid is worth watering the grapes, the calculation will be 1 bucket per square meter.
The following fall, they make the same fertilizer under a grape bush, but by half the dose. Once every three years, compost or humus is brought under the grapes, about 7 kilograms per 1 square meter.
Top dressing of grapes in the spring.
- The third dressing of grapes is carried out in the spring, after the bushes have opened. How much and what kind of fertilizer to make? It is necessary to enter under the bush: nitrogen fertilizers - 20 grams, 10 grams of superphosphate, per one square meter. They make them as in the fall, about a distance of half a meter from the bush they dig a shallow ditch (about 35 centimeters), they introduce humus and other mineral fertilizers into it, after which they fill it with water and fill it with earth.
- Re-feeding the grapes do about 7-10 days before it blooms. In the trench you need to make 20 grams of superphosphate, 15 grams of nitrogen fertilizers. Previously, these additives are dissolved in water.
- The third spring dressing of grapes is performed almost before the ripening of the berries. They make liquid fertilizers, 20 grams of superphosphate, and 45 grams of wood ash, a portion, as before, designed for 1 square meter.
Root and foliar top dressing of grapes:
Feeding grapes when and how, it is carried out? There are three phases of the life of the grapes, when it is most necessary to feed it: before flowering, during the set-up, and just before the ripening of the berries. In order to introduce a suitable dose of fertilizer during this period, it is necessary to take into account the degree of soil fertility, the strength of the plant, and its age.
Top dressing of grapes happens foliar and root.
- Foliar dressing is made in order to enhance the growth of the bushes, and preserve the crop, it will also provide good conditions for the plant to hibernate. This procedure is performed several times during the growing season, occurs as a treatment (spraying) of grape leaves with special preparations.
The first time such feeding of grapes is carried out before flowering, about 1.5 - 2 weeks before. Often, due to their inexperience, the winegrowers burn the leaves in such a seemingly useful manner. Why it happens? It is strictly forbidden to spray the leaves in sunny, hot weather. It is best to choose a cloudy day for this, or to do it late in the evening.
Once again, you can process the grapes in the same way, if there is a need, but you should exclude fertilizers that contain nitrogen.
- Root top dressing of grapes. This type of fertilization is carried out during its growth. With the help of these nutrients, the growth of the bush is enhanced, as well as the yield is increased. You should not think that root dressing replaces the procedure of applying basic fertilizers, no, this is just an auxiliary measure. Conduct this procedure only when necessary.
The first time this procedure is carried out approximately 15-21 days before the start of flowering. The liquid, organic fertilizers showed themselves best in this role: the gum of the humus is 1 kilogram, the bird droppings of 40 grams, all this per 1 square meter of area.
- 2 weeks after the first feeding, they repeat with the help of the same preparations.
- The third time dressing is carried out before the berries have to ripen. Make 20 grams of superphosphate, 15 grams of potash fertilizer, per ten liters of water. Use on 1 square meter.
Fertilizer and grape feeding
Now you know when and what is the dressing of grapes, in spring and autumn, and for what purposes, it remains only to competently put this knowledge into practice. If you do everything correctly, the result will surely please you. At this we say goodbye to you, read other articles from our viticulture section, there is still a lot of interesting and useful.
Need to feed the shrub
Autumnal use of beneficial trace elements is an important procedure for the healthy growth of the vine and the formation of berries. Excess biohumus gives the opposite effect in the development of vines.
Vitamins are important for the plant, but you need to feed properly. The first application must be made when planting grapes. The following fertilizers are used only in the second or third year of the life of the bush. With excessive humus, the clusters may cease to bear fruit, since all forces will go to the formation of the crown. After the introduction of autumn organics, the root system of the shrub acquires stable immunity to winter frosts.
Spring care of grapes
Spring is a time when micronutrient deficiencies are felt most. Plants are no exception. The grapes are very hardy during droughts, unlike other cultivated ivy. Mixed complexes are well suited for spring dressing of grapes:
- During the growing season, top dressing is made of 15 g of urea, 18 g of superphosphate and 7 grams of potassium sulfate. The mixture is poured at the root.
- Ash Perfect for healthy growth of the bush. Poured into the hole when landing. Keeps trace elements for four years.
- 15 days before flowering, 20 g of ammonium nitrate and 20 grams of superphosphate diluted with water in a 10-liter bucket are added. 2 weeks after flowering, the plant should be fed again.
- When the berries ripen, the shrub is fed with a solution of superphosphate, potash salt and ash (20g / 10g / 50g) stirred in 10 liters of water.
- The last time a similar mineral mixture is applied after the fruiting of the bush.
Fertilizer plants in winter
Considering how to fertilize the grapes for the winter, you should pay attention to organic matter - the product of the decay of plants or the activity of animals and microbes. This dressing is stored under grapes for several years due to its slow decay. Biohumus helps to improve soil microflora. These include compost, bird droppings, peat and manure:
- Waste cattle in a very rotten state are introduced during planting and sealed on the bayonet in depth.
- Chicken droppings are rarely used as an extra mineral.
- Peat is included in the mulched composition, and is also added to the hole when the seedling is planted.
The table will help you to understand what chemical elements are required for grapes. After examining it, the gardener will be able to independently select the necessary dressing for the plant.
Complex mixture for the crown
Considering how to fertilize grapes in spring, it is necessary to take into account that along with root fertilizers, the shrub also likes spraying. They should be carried out preparations from small pests and parasites:
- A week before flowering, irrigate the entire upper part of the grape mixture: arceride (30g), copper oxychloride (35g), homezin (40g), colloidal sulfur (90g), urea (40g), and potassium magnesium (30g) per 10 liters of water. Processing is done early in the morning and one hour before sunset.
- To prepare the daily exhaust you need to take 100 grams of superphosphate and dissolve in 3 liters of water at a temperature of 90 degrees. Shake from time to time. In a day, select 1 liter of exhaust. Mix it with cobalt sulphate (4g), potassium iodide (1g), zinc sulphate (7g) in 10 liters of water. This solution is sprayed the entire upper part of the vineyard.
- 4-6 days before flowering, you can spray the finished concentrate Vuksal Kombi (in accordance with the dosage). The procedure is repeated after flowering.
Tips for novice gardeners
Not every gardener knows how to properly care for a vineyard. To achieve a high yield, you should listen to following recommendations:
- Do not water the crown with running cold water from a hose every other day or every day. Such irrigation harms the bush.
- Grapes are not planted between trees or near a high fence. Sunny berry does not like shaded places. With a lack of light, the bush weakens, the leaves turn yellow. If you have already planted a vine in the shade, then in the fall (before storage) you need to dig up a bush and plant it in a new place. In the spring the plant is easy to take.
- Do not buy seedlings from unverified vendors. Immediately decide on the choice of varieties and choose cuttings in nurseries, where they are dug in front of buyers.
- Neglect pruning. Overgrown grapes intertwined with unnecessary wood, vine and leaves. The bush becomes wild. Annual haircut and ivy shaping ensures a steady harvest.
- You can not simultaneously remove all stepchildren and the tops of the escape.
- The shallow planting of the seedling threatens to completely freeze the roots in the winter. The hole should be half a meter deep no matter what size the stalk is.
Recently, viticulture has expanded to incredible size. Beginner growers can already independently create gardens with varieties Timur, Elegant, Kishmish, Friendship, etc. Detailed schemes can be found on the Internet. Proper feeding of grapes in spring, summer and autumn provides a good harvest annually.
The need and timing of fertilizing grapes in spring
Каждый год, отдавая урожай, виноград забирает из почвы питательные элементы, без которых нормально развиваться и плодоносить в будущем он не сможет. При недостатке необходимых веществ куст становиться уязвимым для болезней и вредителей, лоза плохо созревает, завязи осыпаются.
Дополнительные подкормки весной вносят по схеме, ориентируясь на стадию развития винограда:
- The first - the bush is at rest (mid-April),
- The second - two weeks before the start of flowering, when the embryos of the hands appeared (mid-May),
- The third - after the fruit ovary (the end of May - the beginning of June).
The main elements needed by grapes are nitrogen for the growth of vines and leaves, phosphorus for flowering and ripening, and potassium for active ovaries and improving plant immunity. Also, grapes are needed: copper, magnesium, zinc, sulfur, boron, iron.
The first and second feeding of grapes contributes to the formation of brushes and the laying of fruits
The lack of one or another element can be determined by the state of the foliage of the grapes and the composition of the nutrient solutions can be adjusted. The following symptoms appear when there is a shortage:
- nitrogen - leaves are light green, the growth of the vine is slow,
- potassium - edging around the edge of a brown leaf,
- phosphorus - dark green leaves with brown spots, late flowering,
- iron - yellowing of the leaf plate, while the veins remain green,
- Sulfur - the points of growth of the vine die.
As feedings for grapes in the spring, you can apply organic matter, single-component and complex fertilizers, as well as use the popular recipes of nutrient solutions.
How to fertilize grapes in spring: organic and chemical means
Fertilizer grapes need to be applied at the level of occurrence of the main roots - this is one of the basic rules for feeding the vine. So the nutrients are fully digested, and will work for the benefit of the bush. Surface dressings stimulate the growth of additional roots, which can lead to slower development of the grapes.
Ways to make dressings
When planting a seedling, experienced growers recommend digging in a pipe through which later you can water and feed the grapes. Use asbestos or plastic pipes with a diameter of 10-12 cm. Place them at a distance of 50-80 cm from the seedling (depending on the growth power of the variety) and deepen them by at least 40 cm.
Drainage pipes for watering and feeding grapes
There is another way to properly feed the grapes. At a distance of 50-80 cm from the bush along the entire diameter, it is necessary to dig a trench 40-50 cm deep. Nutritious solutions are poured into this ditch, then it is covered with earth.
It is important to remember that before each dressing the grapes must be plentifully watered.
Chemical solutions for spring dressing
The base for spring feeding of grapes is a solution of two tablespoons of superphosphate, one tablespoon of ammonium nitrate and a teaspoon of potassium sulfate. All components are dissolved in 10 liters of not cold (20-25 degrees Celsius) water. This amount of solution is spent on one bush of grapes, pouring it into a pipe or a groove.
Feeding grapes with superphosphate
The first and second feeding of grapes in the spring is carried out as described above. Ammonium nitrate must be excluded from the third supplemental feed - nitrogen at this stage of development may cause enhanced growth of green mass to the detriment of the formation of bunches.
For feeding the bushes of grapes in the spring, you can use complex fertilizers containing all the elements in the right proportions, such as - Aquarin, Mortar, Novofert. The preparations are dissolved in water according to the instructions and applied to the soil in the manner described above.
The use of organic matter for spring dressing
Grapes respond well to the introduction of organic fertilizers into the soil. Organics can be used as the main dressing, and in combination with mineral fertilizers. It must be remembered that organic fertilizer can be made only before flowering.
The rotted manure is brought under the bush in early spring, and buried in the ground to a depth of 25-30 cm. It improves the soil structure, promotes the development of microflora, nourishes the plant with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Manure can be replaced with compost made from mowed grass, ash, sawdust, and plant waste.
Application of organic fertilizers for grapes
For liquid dressings in spring you can use slurry. One part of the manure is poured with two parts of water in a barrel, and insist 10 days. Fermented solution is diluted with water one to six and poured into the recess around the trunk at the rate of 10 liters per bush.
As a feeding effective chicken manure. Use it in the form of a liquid infusion. To prepare a liter of dry litter is poured with water (4 liters) and left to ferment for two weeks. Immediately before making the slurry diluted with water, bringing the volume to 10 liters. Each bush consumes 0.5-1 liter of solution.
Fully offset the need for grapes in potassium by using ash from the husks of sunflower. For root dressings, an extract of ash is prepared - two liters of the substance are poured with 8 liters of water and left for 24 hours, stirring occasionally. A liter of the finished extract is diluted with a bucket of water and applied to each bush.
What you need to power grapes
Before proceeding to the selection of top dressing for these amber berries, you need to know what nutrients are needed for them. But grapes are not satisfied with 2-3 dressings per season. During various periods of vine development, different nutrients are required. And this is not all wisdom. It will be useful to understand when and how to feed the plant. To make food in a special way to it is fully digested.
Spring feeding grapes
What kind of nutrients should be fed grapes:
- Spring feeding of grapes provides, above all, the introduction of nitrogen. This element is responsible for increasing the green mass, which is why nitrogen is needed in the spring, by the middle of the season its amount is significantly reduced, and by the end of the summer it is not needed at all. Gets the plant nitrogen from ammonium nitrate or urea.
- When the flowering phase comes, grapes need phosphorus (superphosphate), which is responsible for tying berries and their ripening.
- Feeding grapes in the fall is to saturate it with potassium. It reduces the time of ripening and helps prepare the vine for the cold season.
- Feeding with copper increases resistance to drought and frosty weather, gives impetus to the development of the vine.
- With the help of zinc increase the yield of grapes.
- By adding boron to plant nutrition, good pollen is obtained, the sugar content is improved, with this trace element the crop matures faster.
- The taste of berries forms magnesium, it also performs a specific function in the formation of proteins and the passage of photosynthesis.
This is a list of the main substances, without which the grapes will not die, but development will be slow, and yields will become scarce. It is important not to forget about the incompatibility of vineyards with chlorine, you should choose fertilizers, where there is no this element.
What is the best fertilizer for grapes?
Fertilizers for grapes are different in composition:
- single component,
- with several components (2-3 components),
- complex, with many components.
The first includes ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, potassium salt, potassium chloride, the second group includes "Nitrophoska", "Ammophos". The complex includes fertilizers having the name “Novofert”, “Akvarin”, “Mortar”, “Florovit”.
But these fertilizers alone are not enough for normal growth and fruiting. After all, it is a feed for the plant itself, fertilizers do not improve the soil. Therefore, we need other elements. They can be manure or compost. Manure stimulates the development of beneficial microbes in the soil, which help the grape roots to fully absorb the nourishment, they also make the composition of the earth layer more friable and air permeable.
Compost has the same properties as manure. Compost can be made by yourself and replace it with manure.
Birds litter is another important component for feeding grapes when organic supplement is required. It contains trace elements that are easily absorbed by the roots of the vineyard. Use the litter should be with extreme caution, as it is very concentrated. To prepare the solution, take 1 part of bird droppings and 4 parts of water, mix and insist up to 10 days. After this period, the liquid content is diluted tenfold, and only after that they add 0.5 liters to the bushes.
As you can see, for the nutrition of grapes should be used as mineral fertilizers and organic.
Top dressing of grapes root method
The most appropriate feeding is fertilization in the zone of growth of the root system. The most complete fertilizer grapes held once every two years. To do this, a narrow groove is laid along the grape row at a distance of 70–80 cm from the plant; its depth is not more than 0.5 m. Fertilizers are laid out in a ditch prepared in this way, then they are sprinkled with soil. Carry out such dressing of grapes in the spring, when the buds have not yet opened, or at the end of autumn, before covering the vine for the winter.
Fertilizer Florovit for grapes 1 kg
But in addition to such global feeds, you should not neglect the application of fertilizers throughout the growing season of the vineyard:
- The first feeding is carried out in the spring after the opening of the bushes. In the grooves around the roots make the following components:
- nitrogen - 50 g,
- phosphorus - 40 g,
- potassium - 30 g
Top fertilizers cover with a layer of earth. This set of fertilizers can be replaced with ready-made complex Florovit, Mortar and others. They must be dissolved in water according to the instructions. Watering and feeding grapes such soluble fertilizers are performed simultaneously.
2. The second fertilizer of grapes in spring is carried out at the end of May, one and a half to two weeks before the beginning of its flowering. The most suitable for this period of plant development is organic:
- chicken litter that is bred according to the scheme described above,
- cow dung (1 bucket), it is mixed with water (2 buckets) and allowed to ferment for 10 days.
Both superphosphate (20 g) and potassium salt (15 g) are added to the litter and manure in a bucket of a liquid solution. On one plant for watering spend from one to two buckets of prepared feeding. If there is no organic matter, then use mineral fertilizers dissolved in a bucket of water - nitrogen (40 g), phosphorus (50 g), potassium (30 g) per bush. Mandatory watering simultaneously with fertilization.
Chicken droppings for grape fertilizer
3. The third top dressing falls on the end of June and beginning of July, when the grapes become the size of a pea. Apply the same fertilizer to the grapes as in the spring in the second case, but they are diluted with more water. This stage is especially important because it gives an opportunity to increase the amount of the harvest, as well as to lay the foundation for the formation of future grapes for the coming year.
4. The fourth nutrient intake occurs around the beginning of August, when the berries begin to ripen. For this period, it is important to feed the vineyard with potash and phosphate fertilizers, which are taken at 50 g per 1 plant. Wood ash can successfully replace potassium-containing trace elements, but the rate of application should be five times higher.
If during the transplanting of a young vine to its permanent place of growth a sufficient amount of fertilizers was laid, then it is not necessary to feed the plant for 2 years.
How to feed grapes outside the root system
Fertilize the vineyard can not only root method. A good supplement for a complete fertilizer of a plant can be foliar nutrition, that is, nutrition through the green mass of the plant. The leaves absorb fertilizer well. This method will help to strengthen the grapes, increase the yield and prepare the plant for a rest period. It is best to combine foliar feeding with spraying plants to prevent diseases, such as powdery mildew, for example. Combine both solutions and process the surface of plants.
Complex fertilizer Plantafol
Conduct foliar nutrition in certain periods:
- feeding grapes in spring before flowering,
- in the period as soon as the fruits started
- the initial phase of ripening clusters
- one and a half to two weeks after the grapes soften.
Feeding is carried out with the use of complex fertilizers, while supplementing them with zinc, cobalt, manganese, copper, etc. You can use ready-made mixtures - Novofert, Plantafol, Akvarin and others.
Spraying is carried out only in windless dry weather on a cloudy day so that the leaves do not burn the skin, as the sprayed liquid is trapped on the surface of the leaves.
Features feeding grapes in autumn, spring and summer
In order for the plants to feed properly, remember the basic rules:
- Nourishment of grapes with nitrogen fertilizers, feeding with cow dung and poultry manure is made exclusively in spring and summer (1st half). Later, these fertilizers should not be included in the composition of the vineyard fertilizer, because this will lead to late ripening, slow vine growth.
- If the root dressing is not at the required depth, and the plants are often watered, but not enough, this can cause the appearance of roots that are close to the ground. If the winter is frosty, the roots may die; in summer, in hot weather, the plant will not receive enough water.
- It is not recommended to apply nitrogen fertilizers to the surface in a dry form, since a significant part of the substance will quickly evaporate. But this is not the only nutritional deficiency in dry form. Still potash and nitrogen fertilizers are inactive, so their intake to the root system is difficult.
The plan of fertilizing is planned taking into account the state of the plant, its age, the parameters, how many grapes on the stems, the soil on which the vineyard grows and other factors.
But the two main stages of fertilization are obligatory - fertilizing the grapes in the spring before the flowers appear and feeding the grapes in the autumn after all the grapes are cut and the vine is prepared for shelter.
The use of mineral and organic fertilizers will help the plant to develop well, to withstand adverse environmental conditions and to enjoy abundant crops.