Let's talk about growing Physalis - planting and care. This plant, which has many species, but in our country, spread three of them. This is a decorative, vegetable and strawberry Physalis.
Decorative Physalis “Blooms” in the fall with red lanterns and looks great in winter bouquets. A perennial plant.
The plant is cold-resistant, one-year, quickly growing, fruitful, has healing properties, unpretentious. Fruits can be pickled, cooked winter salads, dried, make spicy seasonings based on them. Well springs self seeding. Not afraid of small frosts. Well kept.
More thermophilic than vegetable. Fruits are small, like berries and sweetish, can be eaten fresh. Suitable for cooking jam, jam, marmalade. In dried form, like dried apricots.
Features of the cultivation of vegetable Physalis
Ornamental Physalis ordinary propagated by seeds and rhizomes, it is enough to plant it once and it will grow for many years. But the plant is very aggressive, so you need to constantly weed the extra shoots or bury the restraints. In all other respects, planting and caring for him are similar to vegetable Physalis.
- Seed preparation
- Land preparation
- Sowing in a seedless way
- Growing seedlings, terms
- Planting in open ground, care
- Ripening, harvesting
1. Seed preparation
Physalis has small seeds, so in order to choose the best, you need to pour them into a glass with a 5% salt solution and mix. Those that emerge are removed, and the bottom seeds, which are settled on the bottom, are washed and dried. They are ready to plant.
If you want the seeds to sprout faster, get acquainted with different ways in the article "How to speed seed germination."
It is also good to hold the seeds slightly in pink manganese before sowing.
2. Land preparation
Land for seedlings should be light, fertile. Dig the ground in the garden two weeks before planting seedlings with the addition of humus and ash. It is not necessary to add fresh manure!
Place choose a bright, sunny. Shadow and lowlands Physalis does not like! Like acidic soil.
The best precursors can be cabbage or cucumbers. In second place is any other culture.
You can not plant after eggplant, tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, physalis, as they suffer from the same diseases.
3. Sowing in a seedless way
Physalis vegetable is not afraid of cold and perfectly reproduces by self-sowing. Therefore, it can be sown quietly before winter or in early spring in open ground. At the same time, the seedlings are obtained stronger, healthier, more hardened than homemade, but the beginning of fruiting is postponed for later periods. Therefore, if you want to get an early harvest, then you need to apply the seedling method.
5. Growing Physalis through seedling terms
It grows quickly, the age of the finished seedlings for planting in the ground 30 days. Therefore, we plan to plant on seedlings in early April in order to plant them in the garden in the second half of May. These are temporary recommendations for the Southern Urals and the Middle zone. Naturally, you need to look at your weather. Vegetable Physalis can be planted before tomatoes for two weeks, here's another guide to determine the time for planting in open ground. But strawberry Physalis is better planted with tomatoes, he loves heat.
Growing Physalis seedlings is like sowing seedlings of tomatoes. You can first sow the seeds in a small container and pick it up when two true leaves appear. Or sow the seeds shallowly immediately into separate cups in order to damage the root system less during transplantation. We water plentifully, but infrequently.
Seedlings can be sown in the greenhouse or under the film on the ridge. In any case, the seedlings need to harden, take out into the street, gradually accustoming to the sun. Young plants can get burned if they are dragged out of the room in the sun. At air temperatures above 13 ° C, you can leave the seedlings on the street at night.
Feedings of seedlings and planted plants are carried out every three weeks with a solution of mullein (1 to 10) or bird droppings (1 to 20). Water with fertilizer water under the root, so as not to burn the leaves.
6. Landing in open ground, care
Approximately 30 days after germination, the plants will grow 5-6 leaves, and they will be ready for planting in open ground. Physalis is strongly branched and expands, so you need to plant it in a checkerboard pattern with a distance of 50 cm between rows and plants. If the variety is tall, then you need to tie it to a support.
When disembarking, Physalis is watered abundantly and then watered in dry weather. Tumble landing and many procedures you will do much less often - loosening, weeding, watering. When pouring fruit it is better to stop watering so that they do not crack.
7. Ripening, harvesting
The first fruits ripen lower. They may begin to fall to the ground.
Do not worry, collect them and recycle!
Unripe fruits are well kept and live at home. But for long-term storage (4-5 months) they are cleaned in a cellar with a temperature of + 2 + 3 ° C, laying out in boxes in two or three layers.
Gather for storage until frost in dry weather and always with a cap. Then the fruit remains intact wax coating, thanks to which they are stored for so long. Physalis ripeness depends on the specific characteristics of the variety. Some are colored yellow or lilac, the cap may be larger than the fruit or burst when it grows, but when it becomes dryish and brightens, the physalis has ripened.
I propose to watch a video about growing decorative Physalis - “Chinese lanterns”.
These are the features of growing vegetable Physalis and its other types, as well as planting and caring for them.
Types of Physalis
The plant has about one hundred varieties, but not all varieties are safe to eat. Most often, gardeners grow three types of crops:
Vegetable view is more resistant to frost.than strawberry. Due to this, it can be planted in the soil for two weeks earlier than other species. It is more resistant to diseases of nightshade, including late blight. This type refers to the cross-pollinated type. Among vegetable Physalis, there are both stunted varieties and tall ones. The first reach a height of 40 cm, and tall - up to 100 cm. In this species, the small covers in autumn are painted in a bright orange color, like in the decorative one. This is the most common species that grow growers.
Decorative Physalis is grown mainly for beauty and later for use of the plant in winter bouquets. Eating it is not recommended, as the fruits are considered poisonous. They contain the dangerous substance corned beef. The decorative look requires the least care, it grows almost by itself.
The most common varieties include:
- Moscow early,
- Gribovsky soil,
In Moscow variety early plants srednivye The leaves are smooth, light green in color. The flowers are large, yellow with brown spots in the middle. Fruits reach a mass of 40 to 80 g. The color of ripe fruits is yellow. The taste of the fruit have a sweet taste, without sour. The variety is early and quite fruitful. From one square meter you can collect from two to four kilograms.
Plants varieties Soil Gribovsky tall, reach a height of 80 cm and above. The leaves are dark green, have an ovoid shape. The flowers are greenish-yellow, with a brown center. Fruit mass 50–60 g. The taste of this variety is sweet and sour.
Have a variety of Pastry the leaves are dark green, smooth, have an ovoid shape. The plant is branchy, sprawling. The greenish-yellow flowers have a brown center with purple stamens. Fruits differ in sour taste, reach a mass of a maximum of 60 g. The variety is fruitful, differs in an excellent longevity.
Planting and care for Physalis
Before planting any plant, it is required to select and prepare a plot for it. For Physalis, it is important to choose a place where thawed and rainwater do not stagnate. He prefers a slightly alkaline, loamy or neutral soil. Too acidic soils need to be diluted with lime, otherwise on such a soil the plant will quickly become sick and die.
The culture grows well in both sunny and shaded areas. An ideal place for its cultivation is partial shade. Do not plant this plant after crops such as tomato, eggplant, pepper and potatoes. In the soil after these plants can remain bacteria and pests that can destroy the planting of Physalis. It can be planted in areas after cabbage, legumes and cucumbers.
Landing can be done in two ways:
- using seedlings
- seeds in open ground.
Before planting, regardless of its method, you need to properly select the seeds. They are selected only from healthy plants. Among all the seeds choose the largest and intact. They are poured into a container with a 5% solution of table salt and mix well. After about eight to ten minutes, the surfaced seeds must be removed, and the remaining at the bottom are washed well with water and dried. In order to prevent future plants from viral diseases, seeds can be held in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes. After this, it is important to rinse the seeds well in warm water.
With the help of seedlings
Planting is made most often by seedlings., sowing seeds in open ground may not succeed. For planting physalis seeds need to be planted in prepared containers. Land for these purposes is best bought in specialized stores. Sow seeds need in late February - early March. The first picking is carried out when three to five leaves appear at the seedlings.
It is very important to ensure that seedlings are not too stretched up. In order to avoid this, the room should not be above twenty degrees, but there should be a lot of light. Since March is a short day, it is necessary to additionally highlight the seedlings. It is necessary to water the seedlings as the soil dries, it is not necessary to fill in too much water.
Starting from April, after the temperature outside will be above + 10-15 degrees, the seedlings can be taken out during the day outside for hardening, and brought home at night. From the middle of May they can be planted in the ground, just under the film cover. During the day, you can clean it up, and be sure to close it for the night. In June, the film cover can be completely removed.
Seed in the open ground
Physalis can be sown with seeds only in the southern regions. For cultivation in the Urals, this method may be unsuccessful. Physalis can be planted in open ground only after the threat of spring frosts has passed. It is not possible to sow all species, but only perennial ones. These include physalis decorative.
Before sowing the seeds, it is necessary to prepare a place: loosen the ground, shed it with water and make small depressions in the ground. Carefully pour the seeds into the grooves, to a depth of no more than 0.5-1 cm. Sprinkle them with dry earth and water as the soil dries. As the first shoots appear, they must be protected from possible pests and ensure that the shoots do not stand in the water. Physalis does not tolerate stagnant water. The first fruits will appear only in the second year. It should be noted that the decorative Physalis grows well and can become a real weed in your area.
Grown up saplings of a plant need feeding. As it can choose complex fertilizers for vegetable plants. To increase the number of fruits, at the end of June each plant needs to pinch the “growth point”. Unlike tomatoes, Physalis does not need to pick off the lower leaves, it does not affect the number of fruits. If the plant has a lot of fruit, then it must be tied up.
Water the plants preferably with warm water. After each watering or precipitation in the form of rain, the soil should be loosened. From time to time the bushes of this plant need hilling, so they will give more fruit.
Gather the fruits as they ripenIt usually happens before the first cold weather. If some fruits have crumbled, they can also be eaten. Fruits that do not have time to ripen, it is necessary to collect before the first frost. If the immature fruits bring home, they, just like tomatoes, ripen.
Before eating Physalis, the berry must be freed from the cap and washed in warm water. On the berry there is a sticky substance that gives it bitterness, it needs to be washed off with warm water. The fruits of strawberry Physalis can even be dried in an oven at a temperature of +50 degrees. Dried fruits like this are similar to dried apricots.
Pests and Physalis Diseases
Physalis, in comparison with its relative tomato, is very resistant to diseases. Sick mostly only neglected and weak plants, they are most often struck by a mosaic. When this disease leaves change color. Sick bushes need to dig and burn, and the soil where they grew, process fungicide.
From frequent rains and high humidity bushes can get late blight. In this disease, brown spots appear on the leaves. For prevention, spray the bushes with a solution of Bordeaux mixture. This is required before the appearance of fruit ovaries.
Of pests Physalis slugs are the most annoying. To deal with them you need to constantly. Periodically you need to collect them manually and take them away from the site.
Physalis: plant description
Even if you are not fully aware of what physalis is, when you see it in the picture, you probably recognized this beautiful plant. Physalis has about 100 species, among which only two are domesticated - Mexican vegetable and strawberry sweet. There is also an ornamental Physalis, which, however, brings poisonous fruits, although it is distinguished by its visual appeal.
Although even in the territory of Ukraine one can very often meet wild Physalis, it is not recommended to transfer it to your summer cottage. First of allIt is not as attractive as a varietal, but Secondly, its fruits are very toxic. Therefore, for your suburban area is better to buy the seeds of strawberry Physalis, which are imported to us from South America. The fruits of such a plant can be consumed raw and dried, and even prepare various preserves and sweets from it. Often Physalis fruits are added to salads or used to decorate cakes.
If you choose Mexican Physalis, its fruits can be used in the same way as tomatoes. In their raw form, they can be added to salads or hot dishes, pickled or cooked sauces and jams.
Choosing a place for planting Physalis
But in order to get the tasty fruits of Physalis, the plant needs to ensure proper cultivation and care. The most important thing for him is the choice of a landing site, the main requirements for which are in the following points:
- The flower bed under Physalis should be well cultivated, that is, if for many years other crops or flowers were grown on it, this is very good,
- Physalis loves well-lit areas that are covered with sunshine all day long,
- In no case should melt and rainwater accumulate in this area,
- on the plot it is necessary to regularly remove all weeds,
- Physalis practically does not get accustomed to acidic soils, and also often suffers, therefore, if you do not have another place for planting, take care of the liming of the soil in advance.
In the same case, if you have no ideal place for physalis planting at the site, then it can be artificially created. For example, in overly moistened or constantly flooded areas for planting plants, it is worth preparing combs from soil up to 40 cm high.
Features of growing Physalis from seeds
Before you buy Physalis, it is important to learn how to plant and grow this shrub. The only way of its reproduction is sowing seeds and getting seedlings from them.which can then be planted in a prepared place.
Physalis involves growing from seeds, but they can be sown as cups and plant seedlings in home or greenhouse conditions, or planted directly in open ground. In order to grow Physalis for seedlings, it is necessary to prepare a heated greenhouse film, a well-covered greenhouse, or an opaque film under which seeds can be sown. The soil before sowing is necessarily loosened, weeds are removed and fertilized, if there is an urgent need.
When sowing, the seeds need to be buried 1-1.5 cm into the soil. You do not need to try to sow as many plants as possible on a small area, since excessive density will necessarily lead to the stretching and weakening of seedlings. The optimum temperature for the first shoots is from 15 to 17 ° C, so during the day you can remove the film from them.
Если посев семян под рассаду осуществляется в конце марта – начале апреля, то в открытый грунт ее высаживают не раньше последних недель мая, а то и в начале июня.Сеять семена физалиса в открытый грунт можно только тогда, когда почва уже начинает прогреваться до 4-6˚С на глубине в 10 см. В этом случае почву для семян также важно тщательно разрыхлить, очистить от сорняков и удобрить. Во время высевания на 1 м.кв следует расходовать всего 0,1 г семян. Между рядами физалиса следует делать отступ 50-60 см.
Usually, seedlings still have to be thinned out, leaving a distance of 50 cm between bushes. Thus, by the time of flowering, no more than 5 plants should remain per 1 square meter.
What should be the soil
Physalis, though it easily takes root on soils of different types, but the soil for it should always be loose. Therefore, before planting the seedlings, it is imperative to dig the site well to a depth of 20 cm in order to fill the soil with air. This should be done in early spring, not forgetting to also fertilize the land with well-rotted manure or compost. At 1 sq. M of land area will need about 30 kg of fertilizer.
How to plant seedlings
In late May - early June, seedlings grown in a greenhouse or under a wrap should be seated. On the day of transplantation from the very morning, seedlings should be watered abundantly, which will make it easier to detach it from other plants, without causing damage to the roots. When physalis is planted per 1 square meter, no more than 4 plants should fall (if it is a strawberry physalis, 6 plants can be planted in the same area). The space between the bushes can be freely sown with radishes or lettuce, the harvest of which will be removed even before the beginning of the ripening of Physalis.
To make it easier for the plant to take root, transplantation is recommended in the second half of the day, when the sun is not so hot. Watering the plant after transplanting is not worth it so that a hard crust that does not allow air to form on the surface of the soil.
Care for Physalis seedlings
Physalis during planting and care in the open field manifests itself as an undemanding plant that needs only periodic watering. Unlike relatives of Physalis tomatoes, this plant does not require staking at all, as well as tying. After all, the more new branches are formed on it, the more beautiful it will be during flowering, and the more attractive fruits on it will be formed.
However, during growth, carefully study each plant to determine in time the presence of the disease. In this case, all diseased plants are immediately removed from the bed and burned, thus preventing the further spread of the disease.
How to care for adult Physalis
Adult Physalis needs to pay even less attention. The only thing that should be regularly taken care of is his preparation for the winter. Before the onset of cold weather, the plant is completely cut off to the very base, and leaves are removed from its branches, while the fruits are left and suspended for drying. Very often they are used for decorating bouquets. If the plant is an annual plant, its roots are also removed from the soil, which is digged and mulched with peat.
Despite the simplicity, physalis will be very grateful to you for making additional mineral fertilizers during the growing season, especially if it has to grow on depleted soil. In this case, 10 square meters will need to apply:
- 35 g of nitrogen substance
- 13 g of phosphorus,
- 45 grams of potassium,
- 43 grams of calcium
- 9 g of magnesium.
Physalis: harvesting and storage of the crop
For many summer residents, the cultivation and care of Physalis is directed only at obtaining its tasty fruits, which ripen very unevenly. The first become suitable for use fruits that are located below the ground. The fact that the fruits are ready to collect, you will tell their appearance: plant covers will become dry and faded. Also from fruits very pleasant aroma will extend, their coloring will change. If the fruits do not tear in time, they will begin to fall to the ground.
It is worth considering that even the fallen fruits in dry weather do not threaten. However, at high humidity, they can begin to rot, or the caterpillars can hit them. Therefore, in inclement weather it is not worthwhile to collect the fruits, and if it is not possible to do otherwise, then after collecting them it is important to free them from the covers and give time to dry perfectly. Otherwise, the fruit will not be stored.
If you want Physalis to be stored as long as possible in a fresh state, they need to be plucked a little underripe. At the same time, they can be removed from the beds along with the bushes, thanks to which they will get nutrients from the bushes and become especially juicy.
Physalis is a wonderful flower. Due to the absolute simplicity, attractive appearance of the plant, its flowers and fruits, Physalis should decorate every flower garden and every bed. Moreover, having admired them in the summer, the whole winter can be savored by delicious jams or pickles from the fruits of this amazing plant. The main thing is to plant only varietal physalis in order not to fall on the poisonous plant.
Features varieties of Physalis
Physalis decorative - perennial. Differs in unpretentious care, resistant to low temperatures, so there are no problems with growing this type of plant. Shoots with fruits in the form of lanterns of the original form are used to decorate the premises. If they are located in flowerpots and do not disturb (a dry plant is very fragile), then they can please the eye with its beauty for more than one year.
Physalis vegetable - is resistant to low temperatures and high yield. This type of plant belongs to annuals, with large (up to 50 g) fruits. They are easy to store for a long time. Used to make salads, seasonings, marinated. Varieties "Moscow Early" and "King" have a sweetish taste, therefore, are the most cultivated in garden plots.
Physalis berry (strawberry) - the culture is more thermophilic, giving small fruits (up to 8 - 10 g). They are used either fresh, or go to the preparation of marmalade, jams, preserves. The difficulty of breeding is that the process of ripening takes longer than that of other species of this plant. But this is fully compensated by the high taste of the fruit, for which they are valued by gourmets.
Preparing Physalis for planting seeds
This method of physalis breeding is practiced in areas with a mild climate, in conditions where the soil does not freeze deeply, and positive temperatures are set by mid-March. The peculiarity of this method of cultivation is that the plant reproduces itself perfectly by self-sowing, so the seeds are placed in the ground only once (if it is decorative physalis). Then you only have to follow the development of the culture and in a timely manner to remove unnecessary shoots (thin out the plot).
They are small in Physalis, so it makes no sense to sort them one by one. To select suitable for landing, prepare a 5% saline solution. When seeds are loaded into a container and mixed, those that float to the surface are rejected. Those settled on the bottom are considered suitable for planting.
They are disinfected (they are immersed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour), washed, dried slightly and set aside before sowing. In principle, this procedure can be carried out directly at the dacha, before placing the seeds in open ground.
This technique allows you to get harvested Physalis earlier, therefore, practiced when breeding its vegetable or berry species. Seeds are planted in prepared containers at the rate of 1 sprout of at least 0.5 l, about 6 weeks before planting on the site. Gardeners who do not want (or do not have time) to pick a plant, use half-liter jars. When disembarking in the container approximate scheme - 6 x 8.
It is necessary to adhere to a certain temperature regime, otherwise the first shoots will have to wait quite a long time, which will upset the plans (change the terms) for transplanting seedlings into open ground. Optimal for seed germination of Physalis - 22 ± 2 ºС.
- Humidity in the room should be normal. Dampness will lead to the fact that young Physalis will be hit by the "black leg".
- Draft plants are dangerous, although it needs regular airing.
- The lighting is bright, but not direct, but diffused.
- At the stage of growing seedlings physalis must be fed. For example, diluted bird droppings or wood ash (1 to 20). After fertilization, the soil (in order to avoid burns of sprouts) is shed with clean water.
- In order not to damage the seedlings when splitting sprouts before planting, it is necessary to make a pick in the process of growing. It is carried out when two full leaves appear on the trunk. This shoot is moved to a separate container. For example, in a jar or plastic cup. Quite convenient, so experienced gardeners immediately buy them, given the "penny" cost, in the amount of several dozen.
Before directly placing the seeds in the ground, they are aged in a manganese (concentrated, strong) solution for at least ½ hour.
In principle, Physalis is undemanding in its composition, and it develops well in almost any soil. Restriction only on its acidity. This indicator (pH) should not exceed 4.5. It should be slightly fertilized with organic matter. But not fresh manure!
When breeding at home (for seedlings), it is recommended to prepare the soil according to the following recipe (in parts): peat - 2, compost and garden soil - 1 each, coarse sand - 0.5.
The scheme of growing crops at each cottage has its own. In addition, most gardeners follow the rules of crop rotation. When planting Physalis in open ground, you need to focus on what previously grew in this plot. The "relatives" of this plant are potatoes, peppers, eggplants, and tomatoes. After them, physalis can be diluted in such a segment only 3–4 years later, no less. The reason is that the listed cultures draw practically the same substances from the soil, which impoverishes it and disrupts the natural balance. In addition, they have common pests that can be inherited by physalis.
Planting on the site
The exact time is determined based on local conditions. Physalis can be planted both in the spring (the last decade of April - the first of May), and in the fall (at the end of September - October). Should focus on the temperature of the soil. Although the plant is frost resistant, it should be already well warmed up. It is easy to determine. In practice, gardeners check the readiness of the soil by touch. It is enough to immerse a finger in it early in the morning, and it will become clear if the earth is warm on a plot or still cold.
What to consider when landing:
- The segment of the territory where it is planned to plant Physalis should be protected from the wind (the plant does not like drafts), and most of the day is lit. Although direct rays should be avoided. There are many ways - planting near bushes or trees, installing pergolas, and so on.
- Work is carried out or before sunrise, or after sunset. The only exception is cloudy days, when physalis can be planted at any time.
- The plant grows vigorously and branches abundantly. Therefore, it is planted in the so-called "chess order". The optimal distance between shoots is 40 - 45 cm.
- The depth of the wells is selected based on the characteristics of the stems. They are immersed in the ground before the first leaf.
In all other respects, the technology is the same as for tomatoes. A pair of water cups is poured into the hole, the seedlings are set, the roots are straightened, covered with earth, which is pressed down slightly, and the contour is circled. At the end of the soil is abundantly irrigated. To simplify the further process of growing Physalis, it is recommended, as for most horticultural crops, to mulch it.
Features care for physalis
Although Physalis and unpretentious, but certain rules should be followed.
- Regular soil treatment, especially after watering. Physalis roots need an intensive supply of oxygen, so the soil should be loosened systematically.
- Irrigation is done by necessity. Land should not be excessively wet, but it can not be overdry.
- Since the plant is developing intensively, it is necessary to monitor the site where it is planted. Weeding should be done in a timely manner, not to start the plot. All weeds, excess shoots are removed immediately.
- After watering, during the growing season, it is necessary to feed the plant. Physalis needs organics, so it is advisable to use as a fertilizer solutions of chicken manure or ash (1 to 15), or mullein (1 to 10).
- Events such as pruning and pasynkovanie, are not carried out. This is one of the features of the care of Physalis. Its fruits develop predominantly in ramifications, therefore removing the extra ones, the grower artificially reduces the crop yield. And on the contrary, it rises, if the bush strongly branches.
Growing decorative Physalis has its own characteristics. This type of plant is aggressive, and therefore requires increased attention. It is necessary to carry out regular weeding of the segment of land on which it is planted, in order to remove excess seedlings.
Harvest, as a rule, can be 2 months after the planting Physalis on the site. By this time they are already ripe. Doing this is necessary only in dry weather. Suitable for use in food or processing, and those that have fallen on the ground. It is only necessary to examine and reject the fruits that are clearly rotten.
Description and biological features of Physalis
The plant belongs to the most numerous family of the Solanaceae family, growing in Asia, Europe and America. The name of the culture is translated from Greek as “bubble”; it is associated with the unusual shape of the calyx of the plant, which has a bright, reddish-orange color.
At gardeners there is more than one name for Physalis - ground cranberry or tomato, “emerald berry”, “bubble”, “pezya cherry”, “marunka”. Due to the fact that vegetable varieties of crops belong to the Tomato family, they are often compared with this vegetable.
There is annual and perennial Physalis, this herb may be branched, erect or curved, articulated stems, bare or covered with a sparse edge at the top. Their height varies from 20 to 120 cm, and over time, the stems at the base of the trees.
The plant has opposite leaves, single, axillary flowers, which are located throughout the stem. The calyx of the bell-shaped flower, as if bloated, contains orange or red berries that look like small balls. The fruits have a very pleasant aroma, and although Physalis is a decorative culture, in some of its varieties they are edible and even very tasty. The term of maturation depends on the variety and the conditions in which Physalis grows.
Popular species and varieties of Physalis
There are a large number of varieties of this solanaceous plant, but not all of them are the most popular among gardeners. And besides, you should take into account before choosing whether the bubble is required to decorate the garden and at home, or if you want to taste its tasty fruits.
Physalis of this species is edible, it is highly resistant to low temperatures and gives a bountiful harvest of large (up to 50 g) fruits. They are used in cooking and can be stored for a long time.
Strawberry and Berry
These berry crops can be attributed to heat-loving plants, they produce small fruits - weighing no more than 10 g. Physalis berries of this variety can be eaten fresh, and various desserts are prepared from them - marmalades, jellies, jams, preserves.
Gardeners in breeding Physalis berry may face difficulties - it matures longer than representatives of other varieties. But this disadvantage is fully compensated by high yield and incredibly pleasant taste and aroma of the fruit.
Physalis of this variety has very tasty fruits - sweet, with a little sourness, they resemble pineapple in taste and smell. Juice of raisin physalis is similar to tangerine.
The culture of this variety grows better from seedlings, the fruits are stored for up to 4 months, gradually gradually drying up a little, which makes them look like raisins.
More often, an ornamental plant is cultivated as an annual, the height of the stem reaches 90 cm. Up to one and a half dozen “lanterns” - fruits dressed in a bright cup can appear on one shoot.
The early ripe grade of Physalis, the height of the bushes does not exceed 30-35 cm. The berries are golden, weighing 5-7 g, as a rule, one bush gives a bountiful harvest.
Refers to the early ripening varieties, its berries are used to prepare desserts and canned vegetable dishes.
Physalis from Peru loves light and warmth, so it is not often found in home gardens. And if gardeners decide on its landing, it is only if they provide a protected ground.
The yield of the variety is low, the berries weigh 3-9 g, they have high nutritional value and are a storehouse of useful microelements and pectin. The flesh is juicy, bright or brownish-orange, with strawberry and pineapple flavor.
In addition to seed propagation, cherry can be grown from side shoots and cuttings. In ornamental species, many shoots from rhizome are formed, so in spring or autumn a part of the root system with shoots can be dug out from the main root and transplanted.
Другой способ — черенкование, для него следует в июле срезать верхушки стеблей, имеющих несколько узлов и междоузлий, и посадить в рыхлый грунт, заглубив их наполовину и покрыв пленкой с перфорацией. Когда на листьях черенков восстановится тургор, пленку можно убрать.
Ухаживать за черенками во время укоренения просто, их необходимо своевременно поливать и защищать от прямых солнечных лучей.
When sowing seeds, you can calculate using simple calculations. It is advisable to plant the plant on a permanent plot at the age of 45-50 days. It is necessary to choose the best day, based on the weather conditions of the region, and count the period of readiness of sprouts - 4-4.5 weeks. In the middle lane and in the Urals, this period falls on the beginning of April, a more accurate date can be checked by the lunar calendar of solanaceous crops.
In Siberia, the climate is tougher, here you can expect spring frosts even in early summer, and in autumn - in August. Therefore, in the absence of a greenhouse, it is better to give preference to Physalis, which quickly matures, - early Moscow variety 2045, Confectioner, strawberry.
Seedlings are recommended to be sown in April and then planted not in open ground, but under agrofibre or film. Transplantation is carried out from mid to late May, depending on weather conditions.
After the first decade of June, the shelter is removed and returns to the end of the summer period.
Secrets of growing Physalis in the open field
Not all varieties of plants can be grown in such conditions, in addition, the success of planting depends on climatic conditions. It is enough to sow some kinds of “bubble worm” by seeds into open ground, while others are grown by seedlings.
To grow Physalis in the country, garden or garden, it is worth considering some of the needs of this unusual culture:
- A heat-loving “bubble” needs an abundance of sunlight, so you need to choose areas with good lighting for it.
- In a place where it grows, moisture should not accumulate and stagnate after rain.
- Sprouts feel better in the previously cultivated soil in which other cultures grew before them. This will contribute to a more active growth of planting and increase yields.
- Physalis does not grow well next to weeds, so it will require regular weeding.
- Emerald berry does not suit acidified soil, if the plant is placed in such conditions, it will not take root or will constantly get sick.
It is possible to make the soil more suitable for this culture with the help of liming - additional components are added to it: quicklime, wood ash, “Fluff” or dolomite. When using additives, it is necessary to follow the recommendations indicated in the instructions.
Physalis is not a plant, costly in terms of the amount of effort required, but has some mandatory care points. These may also include:
- Watering. All that is needed is freshly planted seedlings or an adult plant during a period of persistent drought.
- Pinching the tops of the plants. Such a measure contributes to more abundant branching and flowering.
- Masking - optional. Tomatoes such a measure helps to get the maximum number of fruits, but for Physalis it does not matter in principle.
- Garter and cleaning for high growing species. Physalis usually gives a large number of boxes, because of which the stems bend or even break. The garter to a stable support and cleaning of extra leaves will allow fruit versions to ripen faster, and decorative ones to look in a flowerbed more advantageously.
- Autumn cleaning. Annual plants are uprooted completely, burned. Perennials clean only the aboveground part, and leave the roots, slightly mulching.
- Collecting fruits. Ornamental Physalis hides its fruits in boxes. To get the seeds next year, the berries are soaked in water, then passed through a sieve. Seeds are dried. Edible physalis immediately after harvesting is processed - dried, used in conservation. If weather conditions did not contribute to ripening, the boxes together with the stems can be hung in a dry place so that they “reach”.
Diseases and pests
The parasites that lead to a decrease in the activity of the development of Physalis or its complete destruction include a number of fungi: mosaic, black leg, and phytosporosis. The plant can also be affected by a bear, wireworm.
Fight against diseases begin at the landing stage:
- deep-tilling the ground since autumn kills some of the harmful larvae,
- the soil before planting seedlings (2−4 days) abundantly watered with a solution of potassium permanganate,
- seeds before planting are also soaked in a strong solution of potassium permanganate,
- if fungal diseases have shown great developmental activity, then the affected physalis is removed from the flower bed and burned so as not to infect other plants,
- with minor manifestations of lesions apply treatment Bordeaux mixture.
To prevent damage to the roots of Physalis by Medvedka, transplanting in a ring made of plastic will help (cut plastic bottle, with a total height of 15 cm, and the aerial part - 5-6 cm.
In the case of a wireworm, setting traps made of rotten hay, boards that are placed along the perimeter of the site in the morning, will help, and on the second or third day they will be burned along with the larvae that went there.
Nutritional and healing properties
Edible varieties - Raisin, Florida, Peruvian, Pineapple, Strawberry, Columbus, Sorcerer - are rich in pectin, fructose, sucrose, vitamins. These fruits are eaten fresh, dried, pickled, in jams and tinctures.
It is believed that all types of Physalis (but in varying degrees) have stone-removing properties, so they are recommended to be used with caution by those who have problems of this nature with kidneys or bile. At the same time, Physalis will be a good prevention of these diseases.
The amount of nutrients in the composition of Physalis can be considered a valuable culture (per 100 g of product):
- fructose - 2.1−3.7 g,
- Acid - 0.7 - 1.3 g,
- vitamin C - 17−28 mg.
Decorative species can not be eaten, but in small quantities due to the substance of solanine act as anesthetic, hemostatic agent. Broth from physalis contribute to the rapid recovery in inflammatory processes in the digestive, respiratory, urogenital system. It is important to observe the dosage norms when taking it, because an overdose can cause a number of neurological problems and even stop breathing.
Vegetable varieties are used even in fresh salads, in the preparation of pickles, marinades. The most popular types are Gribovsky, Korolek, Confectionary. To taste, some resemble sourish tomatoes, while others - strawberries, pineapple, or even gooseberries.
Store in dried form can be more than a year. The drying itself is carried out either in special fruit dryers or in a conventional oven at a temperature of 40-50 ° C. The drying time depends on the variety, but on average takes at least 6 hours.
Physalis is a rare type of vegetable with the properties of gelatin, so it is used in the manufacture of various kinds of confectionery products, sauces.
As an example of delicious and proven recipes with Physalis, jam and canapés are offered..
- Jam is prepared for several days, because for ideal taste and consistency Physalis is boiled, not boiling, and completely cooled before the next heating. For ½ kg of Physalis berry take 1 lemon, 1 stick of cinnamon, 400 g of sugar and 1.5 tbsp. water. In a saucepan over low heat, sugar is dissolved in water, cinnamon sticks and 4–5 slices of pitted lemon are added. All boil. Carefully washed Physalis is thrown into a sweet liquid, kept on the fire, without boiling, for 20-25 minutes. Stir gently to preserve the integrity of the berries. After turning off, take out the cinnamon, cool completely. Heat for 20 minutes. another 5−6 times (obtained within 2−3 days), until the jam thickens enough. It is possible to use jam and berries from it as decoration for baking, desserts or as an independent delicacy.
- Canape This is not about the usual bread cakes with a bright decoration, but about a dish of celery, cheese and physalis. Celery celery is cut into squares, rhombuses or another convenient form. Cream cheese is ground with papaya and lemon juice, salt, black pepper, ground in a blender. Culinary syringe or teaspoon gently spread the mixture on celery. Put pickled physalis or a fresh berry on top of the cheese.
It is recommended to water the saplings regularly until August 15-17, later it is better to reduce the frequency of watering - this will speed up the ripening process. Physalis is not afraid of heat and drought, it is highly resistant to such conditions.
In the heat it is possible to water the bushes a couple of times a week, and when the air temperature is moderate, one watering at 7-8 days is enough.
It is necessary to hold this event, but it is enough to do this once every 3-4 weeks, not more often.
After half a month after transplanting seedlings into the ground, you can begin to feed them. Fertilize experienced gardeners recommend after watering. You can use both organic and mineral compounds, but the best result can be achieved if you alternate them every one and a half to two weeks.
For physalis is allowed to use the following fertilizers:
- Ammonium nitrate - a solution is prepared at the rate of 10 g of substance per 5 l of water. Apply better after picking when the leaves become a pale greenish color.
- Organic (bird droppings, cattle manure) - mullein bred at the rate of 1:10, litter - 1:15, injected about 5 liters of the composition for every 1.5 square meters. m. Such top dressing is very useful for weakened vegetation, effective after picking, during flowering and fruit formation.
- Superphosphate - complex fertilizer for vegetable crops. The composition is prepared from 15 g of substance to 5 liters of water.
- Wood ash - it is recommended to bring in during the growing season, dilute at the rate of 15 g of the substance in 5 liters of water.
During the introduction of fertilizers should be careful and make sure that the compounds do not fall on the leaves and stalks of Physalis, as they can cause a burn.
There are several particularly “stubborn” and dangerous pests that are not indifferent to earthen tomatoes and can ruin them and deprive the crop owner:
- Medvedka is a large orthoptera insect harms the root system of Physalis, nibbling the roots. It is possible to protect the culture from it by spring and autumn digging the soil - this event will lead to the destruction of pest nests. In the summer, it is recommended to loosen the soil by not less than 20 cm. You can scare the bear by watering the plant with a solution of bird droppings, as well as dropping marigolds near the bladder.
- Aphid - this dangerous parasite is a carrier of late blight. Protection against it are insecticides, which should be used to process bushes 3-4 times per season.
- Wireworm - the larvae of all click beetles are a thunderstorm of roots and tubers that cause serious damage to the underground part of the plant. It is recommended during the digging of the soil to add ash to it - the larvae of beetles "do not like" alkaline soil.
In general, Physalis is a healthy, disease-resistant culture. However, under negative conditions, the risk of developing the disease is present.
Seedlings growing in conditions of high humidity can affect fungal pathology, which is called the "black leg". It is easy to notice the disease - the base of the stem turns black and the sprout dies.
As a rule, with proper care of seedlings and seedlings - loosening, watering, thinning, it is possible to avoid the disease.
Another disease that does not spare all nightshade, late blight, poses the greatest threat to crops during fruit ripening. The fungus infects the berries, and they are covered with brown subcutaneous spots, such fruits are inedible.
In the fight against late blight the most effective spraying of the ground part of the plant is Bordeaux liquid, from which the solution is prepared. The event is held in advance, before the bushes are covered with ovaries.