Our Mother Nature has always delighted people with her priceless gifts. Among them are the berries of incredibly useful blueberries, which grow in many regions of Russia and Ukraine.
If you have access to forest fruits, you are really lucky.
Today, the product is offered in many pharmacies and shops with herbs in a dried form, but in order to feel the taste of fresh delicacy, you will have to stroll through the woods or buy a few jars on the market. Blueberries are very popular because of the incredibly rich composition, which contains a variety of nutrients, trace elements and vitamins. They help strengthen the vision, improve the functioning of the internal organs, the immune system and the organism as a whole.
Every collector of this amazing berry knows how the shrub and ripe fruit look. Blueberry is isolated as a compact plant of the Heather family, which grows up to 30 centimeters in height, has tiny leaves of dark green color, as well as medium-sized, but very juicy fruits.
The color of blueberry is mentioned in the title.: The berries are painted in dark purple hues, and as they mature they turn black. As for taste, they are slightly sweet and sour. The size of the seeds is so small that they do not affect the pleasant taste at all.
Thick thickets of shrubs are found in the Northern Hemisphere, while blueberries simply cannot grow in the southern part of the planet. When choosing places to "live", she prefers marshland in mixed and coniferous forests.
The largest plantations are concentrated in the area Russian Federation, namely:
Blueberries are also growing in some regions of the European part of the Russian Federation..
The difference between blueberries and blueberries
Despite external similarities and a number of common properties, such as belonging to the same family and the territory of distribution, blueberries and blueberries differ significantly from each other.
Blueberries resemble blueberries only in shape, but the size of the fruits of the last shrub is much smaller. As for the pulp, it is colored in dark blue in bilberry, and in blueberry in greenish. Other differences include:
- The height of our berry bushes is much lower. They have soft semi-creeping stems, while in another culture the stem is hard and vertically growing,
- To cancel from their close relatives, blueberries grow freely on poor soil compositions, while the second plant requires a more favorable soil with good moisture levels,
- Blueberry has a well-developed immunity that allows it to cope with diseases and pests. Because of these properties, it is the most amazing plant,
- Dirty blueberry juice is very easy, since it is characterized by high concentration and poor laundering. As for the blueberry, the juice of these berries almost does not have a pronounced color.
The composition of the berries
Blueberries have always been considered a source of the most amazing nutrients, trace elements and vitamins. Because of this she - A very important part of the astronauts ration. The composition of the berries contains the following elements:
- Vitamin P,
- Vitamin C,
- Magnesium and phosphorus,
- Potassium and calcium,
- Sodium, iron, nickel,
- Copper, manganese, cobalt,
- Vitamins of the PP, B1, B6,
- Pantothenic acid
- Boron, titanium, chrome,
This composition is practically does not change even after thorough drying of the plant. The main concentration of valuable substances is still preserved. The berry is rich in glycosides that can reduce blood sugar levels and effectively deal with the problem of excess weight, as well as anthocyanins and flavonoids.
In addition, the fruits of the shrub contains such a valuable element as oxicoumarin. Its purpose is to reduce blood clotting, prevent strokes and heart attacks.
100 grams of product contains approximately 86 grams of water, 8.6 grams of carbohydrates, 1.1 grams of proteins, 2.2 grams of dietary fiber, and 1.2 grams of organic acids.
As for the content of calories, then their level is kept at around 44 kcal.
Berry is considered to be a unique means to improve the functionality of the kidneys and the entire excretory system. It can be used in the fight against diseases of the urogenital system, for removing sand, treatment of inflammatory diseases in the kidneys and bladder.
The healing product also contains anti-cancer elements, and substances capable of removing toxins and harmful particles of their body, cleansing the intestines and extracellular fluid.
For centuries, blueberries have been valued for their ability to improve vision. Currently, highly effective vitamins are available in many pharmacies, but fresh or frozen berries are particularly effective.
If you lead too saturated lifestyle and work in the area where you need to strain your eyes, be sure to use this product to improve the functionality of the retina, prevent severe fatigue, and improve visual acuity.
In addition, the fruits of the shrub are a real find for people suffering from diabetes. With its help, metabolism is normalized, the level of unnecessary glucose is reduced, and the work of the cardiovascular system is strengthened.
Berry based products used in the fight against diarrhea, dysentery, colitis, intestinal infections, hepatitis and stomach diseases. They are also useful for:
- Nervous diseases
- Parkinson's disease,
- High cholesterol
For external use, fruit juice is used for sore throat, pharyngitis, stomatitis, chronic cough, catarrhal and viral diseases.
The main contraindications are only pronounced diseases of the gallbladder, intestinal obstruction, atonic constipation and reduced blood clotting.
In many pharmacies you can find blueberry leaves, which are also considered to be a real boon for lovers of traditional medicine. In addition, they are easy to prepare yourself, gathering bushes in May and June. As for this part of the plant, it is characterized by powerful anti-inflammatory properties, which makes it indispensable in the fight against colds, flu and rhinitis.
Due to its excellent healing properties, leaves are used for:
- Chronic pancreatitis
Also, the leaves are indicated for diabetics, because they are able to reduce the concentration of sugar in the blood, suppressing the appetite and the desire to eat sweets. In addition, vegetable raw materials can stimulate the immune system, positively affect vision, reduce anxiety, eliminate depression and insomnia.
For cosmetic purposes, the leaves are used to prepare lotions for acne, seborrhea and oily hair. The number of contraindications scanty and includes only individual intolerance of individual elements, increased physical exertion, severe diseases of the cardiovascular system and the presence of large kidney stones.
Many girls ask the question: "Is it possible to use blueberries during pregnancy?". Yes, of course, you can! As already mentioned, the product is rich in various vitamins and minerals, and the calorie level is minimal, so any allergic reactions are practically absent. Due to such features, the fruits of the bush are really priceless even for women in the position.
The rich content of pantothenic acid and pectins effectively cleanses the body from all sorts of slag and rotting products. With regular use of the product provides a feeling of saturation, while the likelihood of overeating is completely eliminated.
The berries are excellent in fighting anemia in future moms, and the presence of calcium forms a strong bone system of the embryo. The valuable product also has a positive effect on the functionality of the cardiovascular system of the mother, which is very important in the last stages of gestation.
As for the impact on blood pressure, it is significant in such a fetus. If a pregnant girl is frequentabout facing a problem like hypertensionIt is desirable to make a berry a key element of the daily diet, because the presence of anthocyanins and flavonoids perfectly fights against high pressure. However, hypotonia can eat it in a small amount, which is explained by universality.
If we talk about the benefits and harms to the health of the newborn baby, they can manifest themselves in different ways. Bilberry is considered to be one of the most hypoallergenic berries, so it is not necessary to refuse to use when breastfeeding.
From the third month of the infant’s life, you can begin using the product 10–20 grams each. If there is no negative reaction, blueberries can be used regularly. If the child has diathesis, it is necessary to postpone the use for 1-2 months.
A nursing mother such a product can become very useful. It is known that it is able to enhance the functionality of the immune system, fight manifestations of ARVI, saturate the body with nutrients, and keep the teeth in a normal state.
To notice a good result, you can apply it in dried or frozen form, cooking jelly, teas, compotes and baked goods.
Adherents of traditional medicine consider delicacy an excellent remedy for various diseases of the digestive system. However, at home use should pay attention to a number of special properties and the presence of some elements in the composition. Due to the rich tannin content, berries and leaves can have astringent properties.
For this reason, regular consumption of blueberry jam, jams, berry teas and dried fruits can be fortified. However, the likelihood of constipation scanty and possible only with incredibly large techniques. In moderate quantities, the berry is completely safe.
Fruit harvesting time falls on the summer month (July-August) and the beginning of autumn (September). The flowering of individual shrubs begins in May, while others begin to bloom only in June. Experienced collectors claim that if at the beginning of summer in the forest you can see a lot of bees, then in a few weeks blueberries will ripen and it can be collected.
Among the key rules for a successful gathering are the following:
- The harvesting begins in the period of the waning moon, since these fruits have a longer shelf life,
- You can only shoot ripe berries, leaving others to fully mature,
- If you wish to eat fresh fruit, you should start picking on the growing moon,
- The best time to harvest is morning or evening (in the cool time of the day),
With regard to storage methods, many people prefer harvesting with sugar for the winter without cooking. In this case, you must take in equal quantities of berries and sugar, pour them with cold water for half an hour, and then dry on a towel. After that, the berries are whipped with a blender (can be rubbed through a sieve), covered with sugar and left to dissolve.
In the end, it remains to put the jam in sterile jars, cover it with a layer of sugar and place it under the capron lid in the refrigerator. If done correctly, blueberries will retain their unique taste and nutrient concentration for a long time.
Blueberry growing geography
Bilberry sprout grows on the territory of Eurasia and North America. The main regions of distribution in Russia are the northern regions of the European part of the country, Siberia, the Urals and the high mountains of the Caucasus.
Blueberries can be called mostly forest shrubs. The growing area of blueberries is pine forests, spruce, cedar, mixed and birch forests. Often found in highlands and in the tundra.
Bilberry is a fairly undemanding plant that grows well on wet and dry mineral soils, but also on bare rocks and moderately moist peatlands. It is able to exist in a zone of strong darkening, however, the shrub becomes the most fruitful when there is a sufficient level of sunlight.
Bilberry has a rich chemical composition, which gave the plant numerous medicinal properties. Bilberry (berry) is a good source of organic acids, mono and disaccharides, and dietary fiber.
Shrub fruits contain:
- Potassium 51 mg per 100 g,
- Sodium 6 mg per 100 g,
- Calcium 16 mg per 100 g,
- Magnesium 6 mg per 100 g,
- Phosphorus 13 mg per 100g
- Iron 7 mg per 100 g,
- And also copper, cobalt and nickel,
The pulp of the berries contains vitamins: B1 and B6, PP, C, P, pantothenic acid, sugars, pectin, tannins, carotenoids and P-active substances. And the content of manganese, blueberry is in the first place among all the berries, fruits and vegetables.
The leaves and shoots of shrubs contain about 20% tannins, flavonoids, hydroquinone, glycosides, anthocyanins and ascorbic acid, the amount of which is approximately 250 mg per 100 grams of raw materials.
The use of blueberries
Possessing excellent taste and numerous useful properties of blueberries found wide application. Blueberries are used in traditional European and Russian medicine, in the pharmacology and cosmetics industry. And thanks to the excellent taste is used in cooking when cooking desserts, sauces, jams and marmalade.
The medicinal properties of blueberries for many hundreds of years used in traditional medicine in Europe, Russia and Asia. All parts of the plant have useful substances, but their greatest concentration is observed in berries.
Blueberries are used in ophthalmology as a means to treat diseases that reduce visual acuity, as well as to improve the so-called "twilight vision" and relieve tension from the eyes after sitting for hours at a computer, for a long time behind the wheel, or working at night. It is known that during the years of WWII, blueberry jam was part of the mandatory ration of pilots of the British Air Force, for whom it was important to maintain a clear view for a long period of time.
To improve vision, relieve tension and prevent eye diseases, both fresh berries and freshly squeezed juice, as well as infusions and decoctions of leaves, stems and flowers of blueberries are used.
Infusion of leaves and stems of blueberries for healthy eyes
To prepare the infusion will require dried leaves and stalks of shrubs. Two tablespoons of the crushed vegetable raw materials need to be filled in with two glasses of boiled water and to leave for two hours. For cooking, use enameled cookware with a lid. After two hours, the resulting infusion is filtered. It is recommended to take the drug in the amount of half a glass three times a day 15-30 minutes before a meal. Duration of use is set individually.
Bilberry has regenerating and anti-inflammatory beneficial properties. Application in the treatment of diseases of the digestive tract found all the components. The substances contained in the berry have a beneficial effect on the state of the stomach lining and promotes self-healing of the cells of the walls of the organ. For the treatment of gastritis used blueberry wine and broth.
Blueberry wine against gastritis
Blueberry wine has the ability to increase the level of gastric acidity, therefore it has some contraindications. For making wine you need half a glass of fresh berries and 100 ml of water. All ingredients must be placed in an enamel bowl, bring to a boil and boil over low heat for 15 minutes. In the resulting mixture, you must pour a glass of freshly squeezed grape juice (not packaged!) And hold on the fire for another 10 minutes. The resulting remedy is taken in cold form three times a day in a tablespoon 20-30 minutes before a meal.
Decoction of dried leaves
For the preparation of decoction using dry leaves of the plant. Before preparation of means leaves need to be crushed previously. Per liter of blueberry broth will need 60 grams of leaflets and a liter of water. All components must be boiled in an enamel pot for 20 minutes over low heat, then cooled. Take a drink for half a glass three times a day for 20-30 minutes before meals.
Bilberry ordinary since ancient times used to treat skin diseases. In particular, blueberry compresses are effective for eliminating eczema and dermatitis. It is noteworthy that the therapeutic properties of blueberries are not lost when applied externally.
Fresh Blueberry Compress
It is no less effective to use fresh berries instead of decoction. For its preparation of berries must stretch and put on a gauze bandage. Such a compress is recommended to be used several times a day until the problem is completely solved.
Bilberry based products are an excellent alternative to medicines in cases where the use of chemistry is contraindicated for health reasons or because of pregnancy.
Bilberry has antioxidant, tonic, anti-inflammatory and other beneficial properties. Применение в косметологи нашли в основном плоды кустарника. На их основе изготавливают лосьоны, тоники, гели, шампуни, маски, кремы и мази.
При регулярном использовании средств на основе черники кожа лица и тела заметно омолаживается, подтягивается и очищается. Ягоды черники – это настоящее спасение для всех обладательниц жирной и проблемной кожи. Bilberry extracts effectively constrict pores and give the skin a smooth tone, as well as relieve acne and inflammation, and also serve to prevent their appearance.
Due to the rich vitamin complex, blueberries have the following beneficial effects:
- Moisturizes deep skin layers
- Tones the skin and smoothes even visible wrinkles,
- Eliminates excess fat on the skin and acne,
- Lightens dark circles under the eyes,
- It protects the skin from drying out and photo-aging.
Some products based on berries can be prepared at home. It does not require special knowledge or complex equipment - everything is easy to prepare in the kitchen.
Blueberry face mask
To prepare one portion of the mask you will need a fourth of a glass of berries, a tablespoon of honey and a tablespoon of olive oil. All components are mixed by hand or in a blender. The resulting bright blue mixture is applied to the skin with a thick layer and removed with a damp towel or napkin after 10-15 minutes. The use of the mask allows you to achieve a lifting effect, reduce the appearance of pores and give the skin a radiant look.
Perhaps the greatest use of blueberries found in cooking. The fruits of the bush are rich in plant sugars, organic acids and various vitamins, and are considered to be a product with valuable nutritional properties.
Blueberry fruits are used not only fresh, but also as juices, jelly, jams and sauces. Due to the presence of red-blue pigment berries are used in winemaking for tinting wines and the production of many alcoholic beverages.
Blueberries are an indispensable ingredient for healthy lifestyle meals that have many beneficial properties. The use of berries found not only in various baking, but also in the composition of nutritious milk and berry smoothies, fruit drinks, sorbets and cocktails.
Held over many decades of scientific research plants revealed its many useful properties. The use of blueberries restores many functions of the body.
Thus, a study organized in Israel by the two largest scientific institutions in the country - the Tel Aviv University and the Weizmann Institute of Science - found a polymer compound in blueberry berries that can prevent urinary tract infections.
The results of an in vitro experiment conducted in 1996, initiated by researchers at the University of Illinois in the United States, have shown that blueberries can potentially be a means for stopping the growth of cancer cells and stopping cancer.
A joint research study of Tufts University, Connecticut University and the University of Colorado, published in 1999, contains information on the ability of blueberry extract to counteract the increase in capillary permeability.
Also, according to Dr. Robert Krikorian, voiced by him during the 251st meeting of the American chemical community, eating blueberries helps to avoid Alzheimer's disease. According to the study, blueberries are useful for all people whose work is related to mental work.
Growing at home
Blueberry shrubs can be grown at home from seed. For the cultivation of the plant should be used only selected and very ripe berries. Seeds are sown immediately after harvest.
For planting seeds use deep pots and well-fertilized and moist soil. Judging by the reviews of gardeners, the seeds give the best germination in the spring period of the year.
Growing blueberries from seeds is a lengthy and troublesome process. That is why most gardeners prefer to plant adult bushes brought from the forest.
How to care for a plant
Bilberry is a fairly unpretentious plant that tolerates short frosts and a low level of natural light. Shrub care is quite simple and includes three components - regular watering, fertilization and pruning.
Blueberries do not need abundant moisture. Watering should be regular, but the ground in the place of planting shrubs should not be too wet.
Organic and mineral mixtures are used to fertilize the blueberry bush. Fertilizers of natural origin are made every three years. From mineral fertilizers for blueberries, superphosphate and potassium magnesia are optimally suited.
Pruning blueberries is carried out regularly. For the first time, the branches of the shrub are pruned, starting from 3-4 years of age. Removed dead and badly damaged branches, as well as side shoots. For the rejuvenation of old bushes pruning is carried out at a height of about 20 cm from the surface of the earth. The optimal time to remove branches - the beginning of spring.
Blueberries are rich in biologically active substances, some of which can cause allergic reactions. The use of blueberries is not recommended in the following cases:
- When treating diseases of the liver and pancreas,
- When using blood thinners,
- With intolerance to some components of the plant.
To abandon the use of fresh berries and preparations from blueberries should be during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Interesting facts about the plant
The beneficial properties of blueberries are known to people for many centuries. The plant has found application in all spheres of life, so it is not surprising that many surprising facts are associated with this plant.
- The Latin name for blueberry - Vaccínium myrtíllus - originates from the word vacca, meaning cow.
- Blueberries were considered miraculous berries in Russia and were actively used by shamans and folk healers,
- In the distant past, blueberries were used to produce a natural dye of purple color.
Bilberry is a truly unique plant with many beneficial properties. The medical potential of blueberries is not fully disclosed, which means that in the near future we are waiting for new discoveries and amazing facts about this shrub.
Blueberry is a perennial, small, strongly branched, deciduous shrub, 15-40 (60) cm high, with erect, cylindrical, gray at the base, with a light brownish peel stems, in the upper, younger, parts with numerous, ostrorebristiye (chetyrehbristymi), almost winged, bare, green twigs, crown shrub - spherical. The root system is represented by a long horizontal, creeping rhizome with adventitious roots, the main root lives only in the first years of the seedling's life.
Bilberry leaves are alternate, short-petiolate (1-1.5 mm long), falling over the winter (1-3 cm long, 0.6-1.8 cm wide), with a sharp network of veins, especially from the bottom, light on both sides -green, reddening in autumn, leaf blades thin, shiny, ovate, rounded ovoid or elliptical, obtuse or slightly pointed at the apex, always with a soft spike on the top, with rounded or slightly heart-shaped bases, finely serrate along the edge, serrated dark glandular villi, weakly hairy on both sides (absent-hairy).
Blueberry flowers are small, axillary, drooping on short (2.5-3.5 mm long) pedicels, one each, rarely 2 each, at the base of young twigs, calyx very low, green, in the form of entire or indistinctly five-toothed rim (annular roller) ) above the inferior ovary, remaining on the fetus, a crown spike-like, jug-spherical (bell), 3-4.5 mm in diameter, with 5, less often 4 or 6, triangular, unfolded teeth, greenish-white with a pink tinge - slightly reddish, stamens 8-10 with widened filaments bare to the base, anthers 2 long appendages, the disc at the base of the pistil - wide, ovary lower, 4-5 alopecia.
The bilberry fruit is a juicy, black-and-blue with a bluish bloom, a multi-seeded berry, spherical, less often flattened or somewhat elongated, 6-10 mm in diameter, with a saucer-shaped (flattened) wide open indentation at the top - a disk with a small annular rim of the remaining cup (edged calyx), in the center of which is the rest of the column or a small depression at the place of its attachment, the flesh is reddish-purple, dark purple, with a red-blue juice and very small, numerous, up to 30-35, ovoid, brown-brown, unclearly large-mesh seeds, up to 1.5 mm long, 0.5-0.8 mm wide, 0.4-0.6 mm thick, squeezed laterally and protruding along the back, weight 1000 seeds 0.248 g The berries are edible, the taste is pleasant, sour-sweet, slightly astringent, with a peculiar aroma. Fruit juice has a coloring power and paints the mouth in a dark blue color, like a bird cherry.
It blooms in May and June, often damaged by late spring frosts.
Bilberry fruits ripen in June and early August - 40-50 days after the start of flowering.
The color of the blueberry fruit depends on the forest in which the blueberry grows. So, in the pine forests, its berries range from bright to dark blue with a bluish bloom, and in the spruce forests - this black color and in appearance very much resemble the fruit of the buckthorn laxative.
Vegetative reproduction of blueberries usually prevails over seed. The seizure of new territory is carried out using horizontal underground rhizomes. They often form up to several dozen bushes, during the separation of which a new plant is formed and a clone appears. The plant can live to 30 years. It usually begins to bear fruit from 5-6 years old, the highest yield is in the 8-10th year. It is subdivided into young, mature, aging and old coenopopulations. The chromosome number 2n = 24.
Bilberry fruits - fructus Myrtilli (baccae Myrtilli), leaves - folium Myrtilli.
Blueberry bushes in a pine forest are squat, low (25 cm), the berries on them are not very large (from 0.19 to 0.27 g), not watery, as if dried, sweet, have a specific aroma, pleasantly collected, hands do not stain , bushes in spruce forests are twice as high as in the forest, grow on small bumps, abundantly dotted with large berries (from 0.27 to 0.40 g), watery fruits, sour-sweet, smelling of forest damp, sitting poorly on the petioles, they burst in the hands and soil them; they spoil faster; the harvest in the pine forests is less than in the spruce forests.
Only ripe, undamaged, non-rotten, blueberry-free berries are harvested in dry, clear weather, close to noon, after the dew comes down, or at the end of the day, plucking them from the bush or combing them with comb shovels. In the latter case, productivity increases, but it turns out to be a large debris from immature fruits, leaves, small sprigs, moss, needles, other impurities, as a result, subsequent sorting and cleaning of berries from them is required, and blueberry bushes are damaged, after which they often dry out. It is impossible to hesitate with the collection - the berries quickly overripe and fall off.
Over-ripened blueberries should not be harvested, as they crumple easily and stick together when dried. Berries do not wash.
It is best to dry blueberries in conveyor dryers (after drying for 2-3 hours at a temperature of 35-40 ° C, and then drying at 40-50 ° C, at a higher temperature, the berries are sintered or burnt, at a lower temperature - sour and grow moldy), until the shell of the berries shrivel, it usually happens on the second or third day, then the temperature in the dryer is raised to 60-70 ° C, dried after drying also in Russian stoves, in sunny weather - in the open air, scattering them on the fabric with a layer thickness of 1-2 cm, in cloudy weather - for h Yerdakah, under the eaves, racks.
Well-dried blueberries do not stain hands when pouring and do not stick together in clumps, seemingly shapeless (deformed), strongly shriveled, 3-6 mm in diameter, spherical in dehydrated form, the rest of the calyx is visible at the top in the form of an even small annular rim (roller), a disc that is swollen (flattened up to 0.5 cm in diameter) with a remnant of a column in the center or with a slight indentation after falling away; sometimes there is a short stem at the base of the berries, the surface of the berries is opaque or slightly shiny, black with reddish urym (reddish) color. Blueberry flesh is red-violet, with numerous small, light brown, red brown, cellular, ovoid seeds.
The smell of blueberries peculiar, weak.
The taste of bilberry is sour-sweet, slightly tart (astringent), when chewed, the saliva turns dark red, and the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and teeth are blue-violet.
Numerical indicators. Humidity is not higher than 17%, total ash is not more than 3%, ash insoluble in 10% hydrochloric acid, 0.8%, leaves and parts of stems are not more than 0.25%, immature (solid) and burnt fruits are not more than 1 %, mineral impurities (earth, sand, pebbles) not more than 0.5%, organic impurities not more than 2%, including blueberries not more than 1.5%, other edible fruits not more than 0.5%, should not be in raw materials be poisonous and inedible berries.
Raw materials are packed in bags of 35-50 kg.
Possible impurities of other plants:
- Blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.). The berries are similar to blueberries, but they are larger (up to 7 mm in diameter) and, after soaking, acquire an oval shape, the color outside is blue-black or gray, the pulp is brownish (greenish), and the mucous membrane of the mouth does not stain.
- Currant (Ribes nigrum L.). The berries are matte, black with a dark purple hue, the flesh is reddish-gray, peculiar aromatic smell, sour taste, after soaking - spherical berries, about 8-10 mm in diameter, on the surface of the fruit under a tenfold magnifying glass visible oil glands appear as golden yellow dots.
Inadmissible admixtures of poisonous and inedible berries:
- B. black (Sambucus nigra L.) and B. grassy (S. ebulus L.). Fruits are small, up to 6 mm in diameter, spherical, black-purple, shiny, with an annular rim at the top of the drupe, in dark red flesh from 2 to 4 oblong, transversely wrinkled, brown seeds (bones).
- Joster laxative (Rhamnus cathartica L.) - fruits are spherical, solid, black, shiny, drupes with 3, less often 4, stones.
- Alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus Moll.) - fruits are spherical, hard, black pitted, containing 2 lenticular bones with a coracoid process.
Bilberry leaves are harvested during flowering - shoots are cut with leaves with scissors, dried in the shade, in a place protected from the sun, under sheds, in attics, in a warm, well-ventilated room, spreading out a thin layer, stalks are removed by threshing.
The yield of dry raw materials - up to 20%.
Raw materials consist of light green leaves, moisture content not more than 13%, dark brown leaves not more than 3%, other plant parts not more than 2%, crushed parts not more than 3%, organic impurities not more than 0.5%, mineral impurities not more than 0.5%.
Action and application of blueberries
The therapeutic effect of bilberry fruits is associated with tannins of the condensed nature of the pyrocatechin group, pectic substances promote the release of the intestine from putrefactive decomposition products, the presence of mucous substances makes it useful for heartburn.
Fresh blueberries are more likely to be used for gastritis, and dried ones for inflammatory bowel disease and diarrhea.
Blueberries, normalizing the work of the intestines with diarrhea, at the same time treat chronic constipation.
Fresh fruits and decoction of blueberries are used as a dietary product for anemia, gout, rheumatism, other inflammatory diseases, and impaired metabolism.
Fresh and dried fruits of bilberry are used as a gentle astringent, anti-inflammatory agent for diarrhea in children, as an eye sight and vitaminizing agent.
Bilberry fruits in the form of a liquid extract, infusion or decoction (in the form of jelly, compotes), syrup are used in acute and chronic gastrointestinal disorders (enterocolitis, putrefactive fermentation in the intestine, diarrhea), in mild forms of diabetes.
Tea or a decoction of blueberries is used as a diuretic, for anemia, bedwetting, sand in the kidneys.
A decoction of blueberry fruits treat catarrhal and follicular tonsillitis, burns, aphthous stomatitis.
Blueberry syrup is added to medicines to improve their taste.
Blueberry juice and fruit decoction is a good rinse for inflammation of the mucous membranes of the gums and mouth, the larynx.
The lotions from the bilberry fruit decoction and ointment prepared from crushed fresh berries are used for eczema, psoriasis, pustular skin diseases and burns, and the skin is then washed with whey.
Bilberry fruits are part of the gastric fees used in acute and chronic digestive disorders.
Anthocyanin glycosides in the form of tablets and capsules are used to improve visual acuity, including at night.
For the treatment of diabetes use decoctions, infusions, extracts from the leaves.
Blueberry leaves are also used as a hemostatic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, tea from them - for inflammation and weak contractility of the bladder.
- For gastritis and colitis, fresh bilberry fruits are consumed at 50-100 g per day or as an infusion of them: 10 g of dry fruits are drawn in 200 ml of cold water for 8 hours (daily dose).
- Настой черники: 5 г мелко нарезанных плодов заваривают 200 мл кипятка (дневная доза), применяют при воспалении желудочно-кишечного тракта и диабете.
- Сушеные плоды черники заваривают кипятком (50 г на 0,5 л), настаивают 8 часов.
- 3-4 чайные ложки плодов черники на два стакана кипятка, настаивают 4-5 часов, принимают по ¼ стакана 5-6 раз и более в день при расстройстве желудка, перед употреблением настой можно подсластить.
- 1 tablespoon of blueberry fruit in two glasses of water, boil until 1 cup of liquid remains, then filter, drink in the form of cup 4 times a day before meals.
- In eczema, densely cooked fresh blueberries are thickly applied to the affected areas, they are put on gauze and wrapped, such compresses are changed daily, used for rashes, acne, necrotic ulcers, frostbite and scalded places.
- Collection 2 parts of blueberries, 3 parts of cherry fruits and 1 part of the rhizome of the Potentilla: 2 tablespoons of the mixture brew 2 cups boiling water, boil for 20 minutes, strain through cheesecloth, cool, take ¼ cup 3-4 times a day before meals.
- 1-2 teaspoons of blueberry leaves brew in a glass of boiling water, drink several times during the day.
- Broth or infusion (1 teaspoon of leaves for 1 glass of water), drink 1-2 glasses per day to increase the acidity of gastric juice.
- For the treatment of diabetes, the daily portion of the infusion (3 tablespoons of crushed leaves for 3 cups of boiling water), drink chilled 1 cup 3 times a day.
- 3-4 g of dried leaves pour 250 ml of boiling water (daily dose of 250-400 ml).
- 60 g of leaves per 1 liter of boiling water, insist, take 2 tablespoons 3 times a day for diabetes, and the decoction is used for enemas for hemorrhoidal bleeding.
Dried berries tint red grape wines, liqueurs, other drinks, fruit juice - food coloring in the production of fruit and berry wines, soft drinks, from berries prepare wine, jam, jam, syrup, fruit drink, juice, juice, extract, jelly, jelly, stuffing. Blueberry wine has therapeutic and dietary properties, it is recommended as an effective remedy for indigestion.
Two ways to make juice. At 1st, the peeled, washed fruits are boiled without water, carefully crushed and drain the juice, then mixed with sugar dissolved in water, allowed to boil, bottled and corked. At the 2nd, the same weight amount of granulated sugar is added to clean, thoroughly ground fruits, the mass is mixed and put in a cold place for two days, then the juice is drained, boiled for 30 minutes and poured into bottles.
Mors Blueberries sorted, washed, mashed, squeezed juice. The resulting juice is poured into a glass jar, cover with a lid, put in a cool place. The marc is poured with hot water, boiled for 10-12 minutes, filtered. To the broth, mixed with the previously obtained juice, add sugar syrup. Serve chilled. For 1 cup of blueberry fruit ½ cup granulated sugar, 1 liter of water.
Compote. Selected, ripe, but not overripe, washed berries are poured into glass jars, filled with medium-density sugar syrup (650 g of sugar per 1 l of water), sterilized (0.5 l cans - 10 minutes, 1 l - 15 minutes) and roll up
Blueberry drink. Pure fruits are ground, mixed with milk and sugar, a little salt is added, whipped until a homogeneous mass is formed, cooled (for 1 cup of fruit cup of milk and 1 tablespoon of granulated sugar).
Blueberries mixed with sugar (for 1 kg of fruits 1.2 kg of sugar) are stored in glass jars with ground glass in a cool place until spring, it is useful to eat it in early spring, 30-50 g 2 times a day.
Jam. Blueberries are picked, washed in cold water, poured into a hot syrup and boiled over low heat until ready: 1 kg of fruit, 1.2 kg of sugar, cup of water.
Marmalade. Wash the blueberries, rub the blueberries through a sieve, and boil with sugar (for 1 kg of fruit, 0.5 kg of sugar and ½ cup of water) to the required thickness.
Other Blueberry Properties
A good honey plant, giving a pleasant taste, aromatic honey, slightly reddish or very light in color, a strong family of bees can gather up to 2 kg of honey per day.
Blueberry juice was given a violet dye, which was used in the leather industry, purple and violet paints were made for artists: in the 1st case boron bilberries were taken, in the 2nd case blended dyes, mixed with other substances, dyes were obtained for fabrics, paper products.
The leaves and stems of blueberries used for tanning leather and dyeing them in brown and yellow.
Blueberry fruits and leaves feed on wood-grouse, black grouse, hazel grouse, bear, elk, badger, raccoon dog.
Bilberry ordinary - a plant with a holarctic range. Distributed in the northern and temperate latitudes of the European part of Russia and in Siberia. In the Far East comes to the Khabarovsk Territory.
Oval bilberry has an intermittent Far-North American range. In the Russian Far East it grows in Primorsky Krai, on Sakhalin, on the Kuril and Commander Islands.
Bilberry is found almost throughout the forest zone and in the forest tundra. Abundant in the forest zone with moderate moisture, especially in dark coniferous and coniferous-deciduous forests, where it can dominate in the undergrowth. It grows in pine forests, spruce forests, on the slopes on moderately fertile soils, on high bogs. Shade-tolerant In the forest tundra and highlands growing in open places.
Oval bilberry grows in the undergrowth of mountain spruce-fir forests, sometimes forming independent thickets.
Description of the plant blueberry ordinary
Blueberry grows in cold and temperate regions of Eurasia and North America, in coniferous, mixed and marshy forests, as well as in the tundra and high mountains.
In our country, it is distributed throughout the tundra and taiga zone, as well as in the non-black-earth strip, usually in coniferous forests and birch forests.
The main morphological features:
- Low shrub (height 20-40 cm) with small oblong leaves.
- Flowers white and pink. It blooms in May and June.
- Leaves alternate, short branch, ovate.
- Fruits - black with a gray bloom berries, sour-sweet, astringent to taste.
Blueberry berry - the chemical composition of the plant
100 g of blueberries contain 86.5 g of water, 1.1 g of proteins, 8.6 g of carbohydrates, 2.2 g of fiber, 1.2 g of free organic acids.
It is especially rich in copper, calcium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, cobalt, nickel.
Berries include in their unique composition the following substances:
- Tannins from the pyrocatechol class.
- Organic acids.
- Vitamins of group B.
Also in the composition are mineral substances:
Iron, which is part of blueberries, is absorbed by the body much better than from drugs.
The berries also contain polyphenolic compounds, which are represented by anthocyanites, leucoanthocyanates and catechins.
The amount of polyphenolic compounds increases if the plant receives more sunlight.
In mature chernichina many anthocyanins (up to 985 mg%), in semi-ripe berries - more catechins and leucoanthocyanins.
The fruits contain more than 14 anthocyanins and their derivatives:
Other flavonoids are also present:
- Kempferol and others
Blueberries owe their taste to sugars, malic, citric and other organic acids.
The composition is really unique, so the berries are useful for both children and adults.
Blueberry berry - the medicinal properties of the plant
The main pharmacological quality of a blueberry product is due to the presence in the composition of tannins and anthocyanins.
Bilberry based medicines:
- Tone the heart muscle.
- Strengthen blood vessels and capillaries.
- Do not allow blood clots to form.
- Urine and bile are expelled from the body.
- Possess astringent action.
- Relieve inflammation.
- Interfere with putrefactive decomposition of protein substances.
- Reduce pain in the intestine.
- Regulate indigestion and stop diarrhea
- Helps with hemorrhoidal bleeding in the form of an enema.
- Improve the condition of cystitis and kidney stones
Bilberry ordinary - methods of application in medicine
Berries and leaves, as well as decoctions and infusions based on blueberries stabilize the activity of the gastrointestinal tract, have astringent, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-spasm and hemostatic effect.
They are recommended for diseases of the stomach and intestines, diarrhea, constipation, kidney stones, diseases of the bladder, rheumatism, diabetes.
Infusion of leaves is also used for colds, vomiting.
Freshly harvested crickets will benefit from gout, rheumatism, problems with “stool”, anemia, metabolic disorders and other pathologies.
Berry is useful for weight loss, blueberries are often included in various diets.
- In diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
Tannins provide astringent effects, they protect against bacteria, relieve inflammation, so blueberry preparations (fresh berries, tinctures or decoctions) are used in the pathologies of the digestive system, which occur with diarrhea, weight loss, loss of appetite.
Bilberry is prescribed for such diseases as dyspepsia, colitis and enterocolitis.
- Blueberry to improve vision
Anthocyanins from the group of biological flavonoids are excellent natural antioxidants, which makes it possible to use berry preparations for improving the quality of vision, eliminating general eye fatigue during serious, difficult work in conditions of artificial light and at night.
The demand for dietary supplements used for vision is associated with anthocyanins of blueberries.
- Bilberry to lower blood sugar
It has been proven that the hypoglycemic (sugar-lowering) effect of the fruit is associated with six-atom cyclic alcohol inositol, which is the aglycon of neomirtilline.
Due to its insulin-like effect, berries are prescribed for diabetes. Benefit fruits will bring during pregnancy.
- Antiseptic action
Outwardly, blueberry medications are prescribed for rinsing with inflammation of the mouth and throat, with stomatitis, gingivitis as an astringent and as an antiseptic as compresses for burns and skin diseases.
Blueberry berry in traditional medicine
The healing qualities of blueberries are applied in alternative medicine for the following pathological conditions:
- With anemia, gout, rheumatism, skin diseases.
- To improve vision, therefore, it should be included in your diet by people whose work is associated with eye strain.
- To reduce blood sugar in diabetes
- Pectins in blueberries accelerate the process of release of intestines from rotting products. Regular consumption of raw blueberries regulates intestinal motility and helps to get rid of constipation, and also improves metabolism and promotes weight loss.
- Juice and tea from the fruits of this plant is recommended for fluid retention and kidney stones.
- Rinse mouth and throat
- Bilberry phytoncides fight dysenteric bacilli, staphylococcus, typhoid fever and diphtheria.
- The fruits do not lose their beneficial properties after drying. Kissels from raw and dried blueberries improve the condition of the gastrointestinal tract. They reduce inflammation, and also interfere with the processes of fermentation and rotting.
- Blueberries are a dietary product, as they contain few calories and a lot of fiber.
How to apply blueberries - healing recipes
- Infusion of blueberries in chronic constipation
Knead 30 g of blueberries, pour 300 ml of boiling water and infuse for 3 hours. Take 100 ml.
- Infusion of blueberry fruits for gout and rheumatism
Pour 40 g of blueberry fruit with 250 ml of boiling water and infuse for 4 hours. Take 80 ml 5 times a day.
- Infusion of blueberry leaves for wounds
Pour 20 g of dried bilberry leaves with 250 ml of boiling water and leave for 30 minutes, then strain. The resulting infusion to treat wounds 3-4 times a day.
- Bilberry Leaf Decoction Mouthwash
Pour 30 g of dried blueberry leaves with 300 ml of water and infuse for 40 minutes, then strain. Rinse your mouth with warm broth 2-3 times a day for stomatitis and bad breath.
- Bilberry gruel with moist eczema and burns
Boil 100–150 g of blueberry fruits, rub them, put them on gauze evenly and apply to the affected skin for 1-2 hours.
- Enema with a decoction of blueberry leaves for constipation
Pour 20 g of blueberry leaves with 250 ml of hot water and keep on fire for 15 minutes, then strain. Bring broth to the original volume of warm boiled water and make an enema.
Blueberries are widely used in food as a treat, for making jam, compotes and jelly.
Outwardly fresh broths of blueberries are used in the treatment of ulcers and burns.
How to harvest and harvest blueberries
For medicinal purposes, blueberries are harvested only by hand, when the berries are fully ripe, in dry weather.
It is impossible to wash chernichiny.
The collected fruits are sorted, eliminate all possible impurities and dried in a dryer at a temperature of 35-40 degrees (120-180 minutes), and then dried in a temperature of 55-60 degrees.
Learn more about how useful dried blueberries are and how this article will tell you how to use it correctly.
The foliage of bilberry is harvested by hands when the plant blooms (the end of spring is the first month of summer), cutting off the average leaves or cutting leafy shoots with scissors.
To dry the foliage and shoots should be in areas with good ventilation. Blueberries can not only be dried.
Blueberry is widely used as a complete dish, for making jam, stewed fruit and jelly.
Blueberry berry - contraindications
Berries, blueberry juice and anything that can contain it, in any case can not be used for urolithiasis, an allergic reaction or idiosyncrasy.
In any case, before being treated with blueberry preparations or to include a fresh product in the menu, it will be correct to consult with your doctor.
Preparations of bilberry leaves have a cardiotonic, diuretic, choleretic, astringent, hemostatic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rotten effect. Preparations of bilberry leaves and mirtillin isolated from them lower the sugar content in the blood.
Bilberry berries have astringent, anti-rot, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antispasmodic, tonic properties. Blueberries also reduce blood sugar. They increase the acidity of gastric juice, improve digestion, have a beneficial effect on salt and carbohydrate metabolism, improve blood supply to the retina. Anthocyanins from the fruits of blueberries reduce blood clots. Capo tinoidy blueberries improve night vision.
Preparation of raw materials
Berries are harvested in July in full ripening in the morning or in the evening. When harvesting should not take green and spoiled fruits, branches, leaves. Hand-picked fruits are placed in baskets or buckets. Berries can not be washed and shifted from one container to another.
The berries are laid out for drying in a thin layer in the sun for 2-3 days, and then dried in ovens or dryers, stirring occasionally. Dried until the berries do not stop getting dirty hands and stick together in lumps.
Dried raw materials are stored in bags on pallets in a constant draft, as the berries are easily affected by berry moths.
Shelf life 2 years.
Blueberry leaves are harvested in May and June. Dried in the shade under a canopy or in the attic. In the flowering phase, blueberry shoots are harvested, trying not to damage the flowers, fruits.
It is recommended to alternate areas of harvesting.
At the places where blueberries grow, you cannot graze cattle, cut down shrubs, or disturb litter.
You can pick blueberries only with your hands. Damage to leafy and fruiting buds with homemade tools (buckets with teeth) leads to a sharp reduction in yield.
The biological stock of blueberries in 2005 was estimated at 1,930 thousand tons, of which 954 thousand tons accounted for Siberian, 503 thousand tons for Ural and 386 thousand tons for the North-West Federal District. The total raw stock, taking into account the availability of blanks, was estimated at 710 thousand tons. The overwhelming share of stocks (over 99%) is blueberries.
The highest stock density of bilberry raw materials was recorded in the Novosibirsk Region, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area, the Republics of Karelia and the Komi Region, and the Vologda Region. The main areas of blueberry harvesting are Karelia and the Arkhangelsk Region.
Blueberry yields are fairly stable. The average yield is about 100 kg / ha. The maximum yield in the blueberry forests of the European part of Russia reaches 530-860 kg / ha, in the blueberries of the Kuznetsk Alatau - over 1000 kg / ha.