The wild blackberry berry grows in the wild. The healing properties are superior to raspberries, but they are not grown on a large scale in Russia.. And in the garden area blackberry is becoming increasingly popular. Let's look at a detailed description and instructions for the proper care, cultivation, reproduction and pruning of blackberry bushes at home, which will be useful for both experienced and novice gardeners.
Blackberries react to spring frosts and low temperatures. Place of landing should be chosen without access to cold winds.. The best option may be the western and southern part of the house.
For breeding upright varieties suitable light loam, and heavy loam for climbing species. Feels good plant in sandy soil. Temporary flooding detrimental effect on young shoots. To breed blackberry bushes in the country, it is undesirable to plant a crop on carbonate soils, as the plants will be deficient in iron and magnesium.
The site is prepared for several years for planting, and left fallow.. Cleared of weeds and pathogens. Six months before planting, in the fall to make in the ground organic and mineral fertilizers. If the earth is saturated with nutrients, then organic matter can be excluded.
Landing in spring
First of all, it is necessary to determine the variety of blackberry, paying attention to the climatic conditions of the place of growth: Moscow region, Siberia, or central Russia. Planting material should be selected with a developed root system, which is better to acquire in nurseries. The seedling should have 2 stems and a developed bud near the roots..
The distance between the blackberry seedlings depends on the emergence of the variety.
The distance between the planting material to withstand 1 meter, rows - 2 meters. This method is called tape and suitable varieties with a high level of education shoots.
With bush landing a 1.8x1.8 (m) scheme is used, 2 seedlings are planted in each well and are acceptable for varieties with low formations.
Planting material is lowered into the groove and gently straighten the roots. Top soil is filled with fertilizer, bud root cover up to 3 cm below the soil. The top layer of the bush is mulched, compacted and watered. Under each bush should pour from 3 to 6 liters of water. The final step is pruning the seedling up to 20 cm and removing the fruit stem.
Special knowledge for the care of blackberries, to grow a healthy bush is not necessary, it is enough to fulfill the following requirements:
- Top dressing.
- Annual pruning.
- The formation of bushes.
- Destroy pests.
- Timely fight disease.
Hybrids and large-fruited blackberries do not give offspring. Therefore, for them, this method of reproduction is unacceptable.
- Early spring or late autumn fruiting shrub digs up by the roots.
- Divided into piecesleaving 60 cm of root system. The handle should be 0.5–1.5 cm thick, 10 cm long.
- Stem is planted in a permanent place., or on a picking bed, and a year later to use as planting material.
- Beds are prepared and with a spacing between cuttings of 20 cm, rows - 80, planting material is planted and watered regularly, until complete rooting.
- Weeding is carried out in the summer from weeds and loosening the soil.
- By autumn, the cuttings will have several shoots and developed root system.
- In winter, cuttings can be stored in a cool place.. The twigs are placed in wet sand. Spring needs transplantation in open ground.
- In July, a twig is cut off from a green shoot on the third part of it from the top.
- The stalk should consist of a stem., buds and one leaf.
- Process twig rooting stimulant, for example, root or zirconium.
- Then, make cups of soil (peat and vermiculite in equal parts, expanded clay) and plant cuttings.
- Cover containers plastic bag.
- Root system formed in one month.
- Plant is planted to a permanent place.
- Reproduction can be combined with pruning.
- The most suitable varieties: Black Satin, Thornless Logan.
You may be interested in these publications:
- Detailed description of the blackberry variety Tornfri
- Blackberry variety Black Satin - a hybrid of Darrow variety with Thornfri
- Description of red currant varieties Sugar
- Proper cultivation of freestanding blackberry
- Winter hardy varieties of pears for growing in Siberia
Why do you need autumn pruning?
Blackberry bushes bear fruit only once. If the first year is spent on its full-grown cultivation to woody stems, then in the second year of life, it blooms and bears fruit. This is where her fruiting cycle ends. Therefore, from the two-year instances, you should get rid of and properly form a bush. Because:
- young shoots not enough to get nutrients from the ground, and wasted on old copies,
- young shoots do not ripen, the berries become smaller,
- thickening of the landing occurs. No access to sunlight in the middle of the bush. From here frost resistance decreases. Complicated harvesting. Berries lose sugar content.
Young specimens should also be cut to stimulate flowering for the next season. Pruning in autumn contributes to the strengthening of the bush, normalizes the load on it, improves aging.
How to trim the blackberry and shape the bush in the fall
Algorithm of actions:
- as soon as the harvest is gathered, the plantation should be inspected and start pruning biennial blackberry bushes, to form a strong bush. Hemp must be removed. This will allow you to avoid purulent processes during hibernation,
- young specimens with thin and short stems are removed, that is, unformed and unripe bushes,
- branches are destroyed, damaged by pests and diseases,
- remaining young stock is shortened to the fourth part. Cut to make higher buds,
- for uniform load on the bush, 6-8 shoots should be left . Given that the plant will winter, perhaps their freezing, we leave two shoots more than 8-10, and in the spring to inspect the plant. To the berries were large and had a good harvest, 5-6 live shoots are needed. Dead branches are deleted..
Features care for blackberries in the spring
Spring is the most important time in growing blackberries. It is at this time that the shrub awakens after winter and the gardener needs to exert maximum efforts to preserve the health and productivity of the crop.
There is a certain set of activities that you definitely need to perform in the spring:
- Shelter removal: if the crop already grows in your plot, you most likely know that for the winter it needs to be provided with shelter of agrofibre or a thick layer of organic mulch. In the spring, as soon as the snow melts and the positive temperature stabilizes, the shelter is removed and other mandatory spring works are started.
- Loosening and mulching: spring contains a lot of moisture in the soil. To preserve it, the soil around the shrub needs to be covered with a layer of fresh mulch. The old shelter, if it was, must be completely removed and burned. In addition, on the site you need to remove all the weeds and gently plow through the ground. If the soil is dry, the shrub is additionally watered (a bucket of water under each bush), and only then mulch.
- Trimming: until the buds on the shrub have begun to swell, a sanitary and formative pruning should be carried out. In the first case, all dry, frostbitten and damaged shoots are removed, and in the second case, branches are cut out, older than two years of age. They need to be cut off completely, leaving no stumps, since such branches will not bring harvest, but will only consume the sap of the plant.
- Prevention of diseases and pests: Despite the fact that the blackberry is resistant to most diseases, and pests inflict damage to it rarely, it is still recommended to spray a Bordeaux mixture for prevention.
In addition, in the spring, you can make fertilizer for each bush, but it should be borne in mind that the blackberry does not respond well to organic fertilizer. To provide the shrub with essential nutrients, nitrogen fertilizers should be given priority.
Those who are just planning to grow blackberries on the site, it is important to know information about the correct planting of the culture. In this case, many nuances should be taken into account: from the selection of a suitable area to the direct landing algorithm (Figure 1).
To plant a blackberry in the spring correctly, follow these guidelines:
- Site selection: it is best to grow the culture in well-lit areas, protected from the cold wind and draft. If the shrub grows in the shade, the berries will be too small, and their ripening period will be much longer.
- Soil preparation: When the growing area is selected, you can proceed to the immediate preparation of the soil. To do this, you need to dig up the area and make the desired number of holes. It is important that organic fertilizers are not introduced during spring planting, as they may adversely affect the health of the crop. Fertilizer plot organic spend more in the fall: manure or humus laid out on the surface of the site and carry out deep digging. With this preparation, the organics will have time to fade in the ground and in the spring you will be able to start planting.
- Landing: carefully inspect the seedlings to determine the size of the root system. From this will depend on the length and width of the landing hole. If you plant not one, but several shrubs, be sure to take into account that the blackberry grows quickly enough. Therefore, to facilitate the care of the culture, you should place the holes at a distance of several meters from each other. When the planting pits are prepared, a sapling is vertically installed in each of them, the roots are straightened and powdered with fertile soil. In the process, it is desirable to slightly shake the seedling so that the soil penetrates between the roots.
When planting is complete, the soil around the seedling is compacted, watered abundantly and covered with a layer of organic mulch. Mulching will prevent the growth of weeds and help preserve moisture in the soil.
Pruning refers to the key measures in the care, as the quality of its implementation will depend on the yield of shrubs in the future (Figure 2).
Note: It is recommended to perform pruning in the spring, before the kidneys awaken and sap flow begins. During this period, the plant is still at rest and will not experience severe stress from the procedure.
First of all, after the snow has come down, sanitary pruning should be carried out. In the process remove all damaged by diseases or pests, dry or frostbitten shoots. This cleaning must be carried out necessarily, as the shrub will try to restore the damaged shoot, and will spend too many juices on its recovery, and this, in turn, will lead to a decrease in yield.
In addition, spring is considered the best time for forming a trim. When growing blackberries, it is important to remember that fruiting takes place only on the shoots of the second year. Branches older than this age will not give fruit, but will only consume the sap of the plant, reducing its yield. Based on this, we can conclude that annual and biennial seedlings are practically not subjected to formative pruning. The only thing that can be done is to remove excess shoots, leaving 4 to 6 strongest shoots.
Figure 2. Shrub Trimming Technology
If your shrub is older than two years of age, all branches from three years and older should be removed annually. The procedure is best done in the spring, but if you do not have time to do it and the buds on the plant have awakened, it is better to postpone this procedure until the spring, so as not to injure the shrub.
Feeding blackberries in spring and summer
In the spring fertilizers also play an important role in growing. Despite the fact that in natural conditions the shrub can grow even on poor soils, in the conditions of a cultivated garden regular application of top dressing is mandatory. From this will depend not only the size and taste of the berries, but also the health of the fruitful shoots.
It should be remembered that the blackberry does not tolerate fresh organic fertilizers, therefore, nitrogen-containing preparations should be used to feed it. It will depend on them how strong and strong the young shoots will be. However, it is also not recommended to add too many nitrogen preparations, since an excess of nitrogen can cause too active foliage formation without the formation of ovaries and berries.
For spring feeding, it is best to use ammonium nitrate or urea (20 grams per 1 square meter of planting). In addition, it is recommended to add phosphorus and potash supplements, especially if the soil in your area is not very fertile.
Spring Blackberry Care Tips
Blackberries are represented not only by ordinary shrubs that can be found in the wild, but also by some special varieties that have been bred selectively and adapted to certain growing conditions.
Among the most popular species are Tornfrey Blackberry, a boreless, climbing and remontant culture. Each of them has its own characteristics, which should be taken into account when growing, so we will focus on the care of each of these types in more detail.
The main feature of bearingless varieties is that their branches are smooth and not covered with thorns characteristic of the culture. This greatly facilitates the care of shrubs. At the same time, fruits have excellent taste and high content of vitamins and nutrients.
As in the case of conventional varieties, it is recommended to plant a non-bearing culture in well-lit areas. At the same time the soil should be fertile and moderately wet.
Note: When cultivating driftless varieties, it is important to ensure that water does not stagnate at the roots of the plant. This will reduce the quality and quantity of the crop. Also, it is not recommended to plant shrubs in areas with a high content of limestone in the soil, as this can provoke leaf diseases.
Planting a blackberry bushless and further care of the shrub includes such nuances:
- The root system before planting needs to inspect and shorten the longest roots, as well as remove all dry or damaged parts.
- Planting holes should have a depth of about 50 cm, and a meter gap is left between the pits. The distance between the rows, in turn, should reach two meters. This will make shrub care easier in the future. However, if you grow climbing varieties whose shoots spread along the ground, the distance between plants should be at least 4 meters.
- In each planting hole you need to put a mixture of compost with humus, and sprinkles it with a small amount of wood ash. This will provide the shrub with all the necessary nutrients.
- Prepared seedlings are placed in the hole, sprinkled with nutrient soil, slightly compacted the soil around the seedling and watered. After that, the site is desirable to mulch sawdust to stop the growth of weeds and prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture.
Of care measures, pinless varieties, like ordinary species, require regular pruning and fertilizing, which are carried out mainly in the springtime (Figure 3). After the snow comes down, the bushes inspect and remove all branches with signs of disease or damage. If the bush is older than two years of age, additionally carry out formative pruning, removing all branches older than two years.
Figure 3. Forming a bushless blackberry bush
The soil around the plantings is fertilized every spring with ammonium nitrate and humus, and in the fall, in order to provide the crops with sufficient nutrients for the winter, superphosphate and wood ash are introduced into the soil.
The rest of the care for beshipnaya blackberry is not difficult. In dry summer, it is advisable to water the shrubs regularly, combining this procedure with loosening the soil and removing weeds. Adult shrubs that form a lot of young shoots, you need to regularly thin out and remove the young basal shoots, as well as tie fruit-bearing shoots to the supports so that they do not break under the weight of the berries.
Bearing variety Tornfrey is considered one of the most popular. Since it was bred by the plant breeders, the plants are distinguished not only by high yield, but also by comparative simplicity (Figure 4).
Note: Blackberry Thornfrey is often grown on an industrial scale, but it is valuable for home cultivation, as it is characterized by large, juicy and tasty berries.
Another advantage of the Tornfrey variety is its simplicity. The shrub will successfully grow and bear fruit in almost any climatic conditions and on any soils. Однако это не означает, что ежевике данного вида совсем не требуется внимание садовода: определенный уход культуре все же потребуется.
К основным этапам ухода за ежевикой Торнфри относят:
- Регулярные подкормки: для этой цели лучше использовать азотные удобрения, которые стимулируют образование молодых побегов. This stage of care is especially important in the first three years of cultivation, when the plant forms the main fruit-bearing branches, but in the future such supplements are made annually in spring.
- Trimming: It is considered a key point in the care of Thornfrey blackberry, as the yield will depend on the correctness of the procedure. The culture of this species, like other varieties, is tied to supports and trellis. To preserve the yield, all the shoots that have already yielded a crop are untied from the supports and cut, and young twigs are tied up in their place, which are also shortened by a third of the total length.
- Watering and loosening: For Tornfri variety, optimum soil moisture is very important. It is necessary to ensure that moisture does not stagnate at the roots, so watering should be regular, but moderate. After adding moisture to the soil around the shrub need to gently gurgle to the water flowed directly to the roots.
In addition, some attention to the Tornfrey variety will be needed in the fall, after the harvest, when the crop is being prepared for winter. To do this, all the branches are untied from the supports, laid on the ground and fixed with wire hooks. Top plants sprinkled with a layer of straw.
The main difference of the Blackberry remontant from other varieties of this crop is in the early onset of fruiting. If other species need to be formed and wait for the harvest for a year, reparative species bring the harvest in the first year after planting. In addition, remontant culture is characterized by high winter hardiness, although it will still be necessary to cover shrubs for the winter, especially if you live in a region with severe winters.
Care for remontant varieties is not particularly difficult. First of all, in spring or autumn, they remove all the shoots that brought the harvest last year, since they will not bear fruit again. In addition, in the spring of mandatory mandatory sanitary pruning, which will prevent disease and the weakening of the shrub. In addition, in the spring you need to make nitrogen supplements, but the dosage of fertilizers can not be exceeded, since excess nitrogen can reduce the hardiness of the blackberry and make it more susceptible to rot.
A climbing blackberry is also called a sundew, but it is the most difficult to care for such varieties of culture. First, you will need a fairly spacious area, since the bushes are planted at a distance of 4 meters from each other. Secondly, difficulties will arise during the care of plants, since their flexible shoots are tightly intertwined and significantly complicate pruning.
At the same time, the advantage of a climbing culture is that with its help you can not only harvest tasty and healthy berries, but also create dense fences around the site.
As for care, climbing varieties require the same type of activity as other species. They include mandatory spring dressing and sanitary pruning. In addition, fruiting shoots should always be tied to supports. This will not only simplify pruning, but also make harvesting easy and enjoyable. It should also be borne in mind that climbing varieties should also be sheltered for the winter, bending the branches to the ground and covering them with agrofiber or a layer of straw.
Features of blackberry care are shown in detail in the video.
Planting and care for blackberries (in short)
- Landing: in late April or early May, when the soil warms up.
- Lighting: bright sun.
- The soil: drained, breathable loamy and sandy soils with a slightly acid reaction.
- Watering: in the period of flowering and ripening berries - moderate, but sufficient. The rest of the time - as needed: the blackberry is drought-resistant.
- Trimming: spring, summer and autumn.
- Top dressing: at the beginning of the growing season - nitrogen fertilizers, in the fall - potash-phosphate fertilizers that do not contain chlorine. When mulching the site with manure, phosphate fertilizers do not need to be applied.
- Reproduction: seeds and vegetatively: creeping - horizontal and apical layers, bush - by dividing the bush, cuttings and basal offsprings. Vegetative reproduction can be done throughout the season.
- Pests: spiderweeds and hairy raspberry mites, kidney moths, raspberry beetles, raspberry-strawberry weevils, walnut crabs, aphids, gall midges and caterpillars of ophthalmic and glass-cases.
- Diseases: glass and columnar rust, anthracnose, powdery mildew, botrytis, purple spot, didimella, septorioz.
Garden blackberry - description
Garden blackberry - shrub or shrub vine with a perennial rhizome and flexible stem shoots, seated with sharp thorns, although at present, thanks to the work of breeders, there is a blackberry without thorns, characterized by stable yield and resistance to pests and diseases. With a support, blackberry shoots can rise to a height of up to two meters. Blackberry leaves are trifoliate or five-semidividual, dentate, light green in color, pubescent on both sides. Flowering blackberries - honey. White flowers of blackberry about three centimeters in diameter are revealed depending on the variety and climatic conditions from June to August. Juicy blackberries, black with a bluish bloom, ripen in August.
When to plant a blackberry.
Growing blackberries is an unusual and difficult task, but the use of blackberries for the human body is a convincing argument for amateur gardeners to master the agricultural technology of this rare berry for our gardens. Unlike other rosaceous crops, blackberries are most often planted in the spring, and not in the fall - in late April or early May, when the soil warms up. Find a place that is well lit by the sun and protected from the wind, as the wind can injure blackberry leaves and berries and prevent the pollination of flowers. It is best to plant blackberries not on flat places, but on the southern or western slopes so that the blackberry bush is not affected by the east or north wind. Blackberry grows well on drained, breathable nutrient loams, feels good on sandy soil. Blackberry carbonate soils will lack magnesium and iron. The optimal pH value for blackberry pH 6. Before planting a blackberry, it is necessary to bring the soil in the area in line with the agrotechnical requirements of the crop. To this end, it is desirable to free the site from weeds, pests, and pathogens since the fall. If you regularly fertilize the soil in the garden, then you do not need to apply fertilizer specifically for blackberry, otherwise it will rapidly grow green to the detriment of fruit bearing. But if the soil is depleted in crops preceding the blackberry, then when digging holes or furrows under the blackberry, mix organic and mineral fertilizers at the rate of 10 kg of organic matter (manure, compost or humus), 15 g of superphosphate, 25 g of potassium sulfate with the top, folded soil. one square meter of land and fill this soil with blackberry seedlings when planting.
Planting blackberries in the spring.
If you do not know how to grow blackberries and how to care for blackberries, then you came to the right place. We will try to highlight this topic in detail, understanding how difficult the issue is to care for and grow blackberries and how important it is for a gardener to have clarity in it.
In order to minimize the risk of failure, planting material is desirable to acquire in well-known nurseries, and it is best to buy annual blackberry saplings with a well-developed root system, two stems more than 0.5 cm thick in diameter and (this is the main thing!) With an already formed bud on the roots. The depth and width of the pit for the seedling is determined by the quality and age of the seedling, but the distance of the blackberry section from the plantings of other crops or structures must be at least one meter, and preferably more. The size of the gap between the bushes depends on the ability of the variety to sprout and the method of cultivation of blackberry, and there are two of them - tape and cluster. When using the bush method, two or three blackberry seedlings with a low level of sprouting are planted in one pit and the pit is placed according to the 1.8 x 1.8 m scheme. The tape method is more suitable for varieties with enhanced shoot formation: the seedlings are planted in a furrow in a continuous chain with the distance between the specimens about a meter, and between the rows the interval of 2-2.5 m is observed.
The seedling is lowered into a hole or furrow, straightening the roots in different directions, and covered with fertilized soil so that the bud located at the base of the stem is two or three centimeters underground. However, the soil does not fall asleep to the level of the surface, but so that the hollow or dredging remains a few centimeters below the level of the site. This is done to save water when watering and to accumulate in the excavation of snow, rain or melt water. Then, the soil around the seedling is compacted and watered with three to six liters of water, and when the water is absorbed, the holes are mulched with peat-rich compost or simply manure. After planting, the shoots of seedlings are cut at a height of 20 cm above the surface, and the fruit branches are removed altogether.
Growing blackberries in the garden.
Garden blackberry care consists of regular watering, loosening of the soil, weeding (if for any reason you have not polluted the site), additional feeding, and also in carrying out preventive or, if necessary, therapeutic measures to combat diseases and pests and, except all of the above, in pruning and the formation of bushes. As you can see, planting a blackberry and caring for it is time consuming and requires special knowledge, so take our advice seriously.
Care for blackberries in the spring
first of all it requires the establishment of a trellis, to which later you will be tying up the fruiting shoots of a plant with a string. Sturdy pillars up to two meters high are driven in at the beginning and at the end of a row on both sides of the bushes, and also between the first and the last every 10 meters, and three rows of galvanized wire are tied between the posts: the first row is 50-75 cm from the ground, the second - at a height of 125 cm, the third - at a height of 180 cm. The highest wire is tied up with stalks of the second year, which will bear fruit this year, young shoots are not needed to be tied to the wire, you just have to send them, and they will grab the wire. To direct the shoots need to constantly, they should not grow chaotically.
If you grow upright blackberry, know that it will not yield in the first year, and in order to get a crop next year, you need to pinch the main young shoots that have reached a height of 100-120 cm - their tops are shortened by 10 cm, and when they start to grow lateral branches, they are slightly shortened as soon as they reach 50 cm in height. As a result, the blackberry bush looks compact, but it does not affect the yield.
Planted in the current year, blackberry saplings are watered regularly during the first month and a half, as well as in a dry season. Fruiting bushes need watering during the period of intensive growth and ripening of berries. To moisten the soil you can not use well or cold water, it is best to draw rain or tap water in a barrel or other large container and let it stand for a day or two in the sun.
For a good harvest of blackberry is very important soil condition on the site. If in the first two years you can grow row crops of vegetable or green manure (going for fertilizer) crops between the bramble blades, in subsequent years the passages contain black steam. As weeds appear, they are removed, and the soil between the rows is loosened 5-6 times per season to a depth of 10-12 cm, around the bushes they hoe the soil or loosen with a fork to a depth of 5-8 cm 2-3 times during the growing season. If you grind a plot with straw, sawdust, pine needles or fallen leaves in the forest, loosen the soil and fight weeds on a plot with blackberry you will have much less. In addition, the mulching of a 5 cm thick layer of rotted manure or peat compost will not only protect against weeds and prevent the formation of a peel on the soil surface, but also become a source of balanced nutrition for blackberries.
Another feature of the cultivation of blackberries is the need to shade the area from the sun during the ripening of the fruit, because the sun's rays can “burn” black blackberries, deprive them of their presentation and reduce their quality. To minimize the harmful effect of the sun's rays, you need to stretch the grid along the rows.
Dates of fertilizer for blackberry are the same as for raspberries, gooseberries and other berry bushes. Nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate or urea at the rate of 20 g per m²) and organic with a high nitrogen content (4 kg per m²) should be applied only at the beginning of the growing season. Potash fertilizers, for example, potassium sulfate at the rate of 40 g per m², are needed for blackberries every year, but not for those that contain chlorine. If you use manure as mulch, you do not need to apply phosphate fertilizers, but if you do not use manure or any other organic matter, phosphates should be applied to the soil at the rate of 50 g per square meter every three years.
Blackberry breeds in summer, winter and spring. A creeping blackberry is propagated by apical and horizontal layering, and a bush blackberry is propagated by dividing a bush, by basal suckers or grafting.
Reproduction by apical layers - The easiest way is that in spring any climbing shoots can be bent to the ground and prikopat its top soil - the top quickly gives the roots, and then new shoots from the kidneys, caught underground. After that you can separate the escape from the parent plant.
With the way reproduction by horizontal layouts It bends down to the ground and is filled with soil, not the tip, but the shoot along its entire length. As a result of this, several bushes are formed and, after cutting a prikopanny escape between newly formed bushes, young plants are divided and planted in a permanent place. This method gives the best results in the spring.
Blackberry bush is better breed root suckersthat appear annually around the bush. Only those that have reached 10 cm in height are suitable for separation and disembarkation to a permanent place. It is best to drop offspring in May or June - they will have enough time to settle down in a new place before the cold weather.
There are blackberry varieties that do not give offspring, and for the propagation of these varieties is used bush dividing. The main thing in this way is to divide a dug bush in such a way that each case will be sufficiently developed and can successfully take root in a new place. Part of the bush with the old rhizome is recyclable.
Propagation by cuttings is used when they want to get offspring from valuable varieties of blackberry. In June-July, blackberry cuttings consisting of a bud, leaf and part of the stem are cut from the upper third of the shoot. Process the lower section of the cuttings with a root-forming agent, plant in small cups with a mixture of peat and perlite (or vermiculite, or sand, or crushed expanded clay) and place the cups under the film, maintaining a 96% moisture level in the greenhouse. In about a month, roots will form at the cuttings, and they can be planted in a permanent place.
If you are wondering how to propagate a blackberry by any other means, then it is much less likely that blackberry seeds are propagated by seed, aerial layering, lignified cuttings, root segments, but all these methods are more difficult to implement and do not always lead to success.
Blackberries in the fall.
Care for blackberries in the fall is to prepare the bushes for the winter. The first thing you need to do is trimming blackberries, but you will read a detailed and detailed description of how to do this in a special section (below). After pruning, ground the ground around the roots with dry sawdust or peat. Spend prophylactic spraying of blackberry bushes and the soil beneath them from diseases of copper sulfate, and from pests - aktellik. If in your climate frost reaches -10 ºC in winter, the blackberry will have to be covered. True, frost-resistant varieties tolerate such temperature normally; frost is dangerous below 20 ºC. There are several ways to hide a blackberry. For example, after pruning, you can remove branches from a trellis, lay them on the ground, cover them with corn leaves, and lay a covering material on top of them - plastic wrap. It is not easy to lay shoots of erect blackberry varieties on the ground and it is not easy to break them, so we recommend to fix a load on the top of the shoots from the last month of summer, which will gradually bring the branches to the ground. Blackberries are not prone to vyplevaniyu under the shelter, therefore, as a heater you can use humus, hay, straw or sawdust. The use of foliage that has fallen from fruit trees is not recommended, since it may contain dangerous microorganisms for the blackberry. Blackberry foliage falling in the fall is also desirable to rake up and burn.
When to cut the blackberry.
Blackberry pruning is a troublesome event, but it should be done regularly. Blackberry bushes are treated with pruning shears in spring, summer and autumn. Blackberries are divided into straight, which is called cumanika, and creeping - rosyanik. Побеги куманики достигают в высоту трех метров и даже более, она образует много побегов замещения, как и малина, плодоносит ежевика пряморослая на двухлетних побегах. Большая часть сортов росяники корневой поросли не дает, побеги у нее похожи на плети с большим количеством плодовых веточек.
Как обрезать ежевику.
Весной у ежевики еще до пробуждения почек обрезают сухие и сломанные после зимовки стебли, а также подмороженные верхушки побегов до первой здоровой почки. The shrubs of the first year of growth are double pruned: to stimulate the growth of lateral shoots, the tops of the branches are shortened by 5-7 cm in May, and in July, the tops of those lateral shoots that have reached half-meter length are cut by 7-10 cm, and only 6-8 of the strongest, and the rest to be removed. In mature bushes, in addition to frozen and broken branches, in the spring all weak shoots are removed, leaving only 4-10 strong branches on the bush, the side branches are shortened to 20-40 cm so that they have 8-12 buds left. During the growing season, remove the root shoots that appear in the summer, leaving only those that have grown since spring - it is they who will bear fruit next year.
These spring shoots in the fall should be cut at a height of 1.7-2 m. In addition, remove all weak branches and, most importantly, cut down all the shoots of the second year at the root immediately after they no longer bear fruit - they will not give the berries, so nothing the plant does not need to spend food and strength on them.
Diseases of the blackberry.
Both blackberry and raspberry diseases and pests are common. As well as raspberries, blackberries in our gardens suffer from rust, powdery mildew, anthracnose, septoria or white spot, didimella or purple spot, botrytis or gray rot, as well as lack of or excess trace elements in the soil and violation of agricultural rules of the species . Rust, affecting blackberries, may be toe-shaped or columnar. The first appears in the garden, if sedge grows somewhere near the pond, the second is brought in by the wind from nearby cedars or pines. And in fact, and in another case, only weakened specimens of plants fall ill. The disease manifests itself in early summer by the formation of orange-brown spots on the leaves of the blackberry, which later turn into pads on the underside of the leaf. If the development of the disease does not stop, it can deprive you of 60% of the crop. As a preventive measure, plants are treated with just-opened leaves with a one-percent Bordeaux liquid; after harvesting, another treatment session is carried out - it will help you to protect the bramble plant not only from rust, but also from many other diseases. As a cure for rust, diseased bushes on a warm day (the temperature should not be lower than 16 ºC) are treated with sulfur preparations - a solution of colloidal sulfur, for example, which is used against other fungal diseases, as well as against aphids and ticks.
Anthracnose can hit the blackberry in late May or early June, if rainy wet weather lasts a long time: oval purple spots appear on newly emerged shoots, which, gradually increasing and reaching the bark tissues, form gray ulcers with purple edges on it. On the leaves also appear spots with a reddish border. In winter, affected shoots die. As a preventive measure, carefully inspect planting stock when purchasing. Fertilize the blackberry peat compost, remove weeds in the area. Prevention and treatment of anthracnosis is carried out by the same means as the fight against rust.
Septoria, or white spot common everywhere. It affects the leaves and shoots of blackberry and looks like pale brown spots, later lightening, with a darker border.
Purple spot, or didimella ruins blackberry buds, leaves dry and fall, and the stem can dry out. The disease begins with the appearance of small brownish-purple spots on the lower and middle parts of the plant. As the disease progresses, the buds turn black, the leaves become brittle, they form necrotic dark spots with a yellow border.
Botrytis or gray rot also actively developing on blackberries in wet weather, hitting the berries rot. In order to avoid botrytis damage, try not to grow blackberries in crowded areas - bushes should be well ventilated.
And finally, the main enemy of raspberry and blackberry - powdery mildew, or sphere library covering fruits, leaves and shoots loose white bloom. The fight against all these diseases is carried out in the same ways and by the same means as the fight against rust or anthracnose. And most importantly, try not to violate the agrotechnical rules for growing blackberries, so that any ailment does not become attached to the weakened by improper care.
Sometimes it happens that blackberry turns yellow. This is most likely a sign of a shortage or excess of trace elements. Analyze the quantity and quality of fertilizer you make and find out what your mistake is.
Insects that can harm a blackberry: mites (spiderwebs and hairy raspberries), raspberry bud moth, raspberry and strawberry weevil, raspberry beetle, walnutworm, as well as aphids, gall midges and caterpillars of butterflies - ophthalmic, raspberry glass. In the fight against these pests, spraying blackberry bushes with aktellik or karbofos gives good results; fitoverm and akarin do a good job with them. If you make it a rule to carry out preventive treatment of blackberries with these preparations in the spring, before bud break, and in the fall, after harvesting, you can protect the blackberry and yourself from unpleasant surprises — insect attacks that destroy your hopes for a good harvest.
We have already introduced you to the differences between upright growing and creeping blackberries. The description of blackberry varieties does not allow to adhere to a strict classification, because modern hybrids and varieties of this gaining berry sometimes combine both signs of an upright species conventionally called humanika and features of a blackberry, called for convenience rosanyanik. So, the best varieties of blackberry:
- – Agave - one of the oldest American varieties, mid-season and characterized by incredible winter hardiness: its fruit buds are damaged only at -27 ºC, and the roots and stems withstand cold to -40 ºC. Blackberry sprouts of this variety are powerful, faceted and heavily studded, the berries weigh about three grams. And the yield reaches four kilograms from a bush. Agave is resistant to rust, stem cancer and anthracnose,
- – Tornfree - hybrid besshipnaya blackberry, bred many years ago, but still popular among summer residents. This variety ripens early, is distinguished by high yields, unpretentiousness to growing conditions, it is winter-hardy enough and combines the properties of cumaník and rosyaniki,
- – Karaka Black - A new variety, ultra early ripening, but at the same time bears fruit to the very cold. The berries of this variety are elongated and weigh from 20 to 30 (!) Grams, they have excellent taste, characterized by high sugar content and juiciness. Karaka Black is one of the most drought-tolerant varieties of blackberry, it is immune to all blackberry diseases, there are quite a few thorns on its stems, and they bend well. The only drawback of the variety is its low frost resistance,
- – Natchez - the early ripening berries of this variety are truly huge, their cherry taste is amazing, there are no thorns on the stems. This is one of the latest products of American breeders from Arkansas,
- – Polar - Polish winter-hardy variety that does not need a winter shelter. Compact bushes give a good harvest, the berries are large, the taste is pleasant sweet-sour,
- – Valdo - the product of English breeders - miniature, compact bushes, which take up little space and almost do not require forming. It gives high yields from the middle of July, winter hardy,
- – Loch tey - also English variety, unassuming to the conditions of cultivation. Small berries, but very tasty. From one bush you can collect a couple of buckets of fruit.
Blackberry Repair Grades bred by breeders not so long ago, so it is not very studied. They bear fruit until the frost, before winter you can cut off all the shoots from them, and nevertheless, next summer they will still produce a crop: the berries will begin to ripen on the shoots grown from the beginning of spring. The first harvest can be harvested in June, and in August the berries of the second harvest will begin to ripen. Sometimes the blackberry remontant fruits almost without interruption. The problem of remontant varieties is their sharp thorns, but the permanent flowering of the bushes is extremely decorative - the flowers sometimes reach 7-8 cm in diameter. Of the varieties of blackberry remontant, American hybrids of the Primemoss series have well recommended themselves:
- – Prime Arch 45 launched in 2009. Bushes reach two meters in height. Straight strong shoots are studded with thorns, elongated berries, dense, very sweet. The first fruits appear in June, the second time fructification begins in August and lasts until the frost,
- – Prime Yan - upright prickly shoots, medium-sized dense elongated sweet berries with the aroma of apples. The earliest of remontant varieties,
- – Prime Jim - variety bred in 2004. Shoots straight, strong, prickly. The berries are large, elongated, sweet-sour taste. Amazingly looks flowering bush in large white flowers and pale pink buds.
Useful properties of blackberry.
Blackberries, like berries related to raspberries, are a whole vitamin complex - carotene (provitamin A), vitamins C, E, P and K. They contain blackberry fruits and such minerals as sodium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, chromium, molybdenum, barium, vanadium and nickel. They are rich in fiber, glucose and fructose, pectins, as well as malic, tartaric, salicylic and citric organic acids. Blackberry berries improve metabolism and strengthen the immune system, they have antipyretic and antioxidant effects and are a natural substitute for aspirin, but unlike it blackberry is not only completely safe, but also has a healing effect on absolutely all the internal organs of a person. Blackberry has a beneficial effect on the work of the digestive system, so it is often included in the diet of patients suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The beneficial properties of blackberries are successfully used in the treatment and prevention of urolithiasis and diabetes. Juice of berries and young leaves of blackberry is effective for tracheitis, bronchitis, pharyngitis, sore throat, fever, gynecological diseases, dysentery and colitis. External use of juice treats wounds, dermatosis, trophic ulcers, eczema, gum disease.
Not only berries, but also other parts of the plant are used for medical purposes. Amazing properties of blackberry leaves are rich in tannins, vitamin C, amino acids and have wound healing, astringent, diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory, blood-purifying and diuretic action. Blackberry leaf infusion is recommended for heart diseases and nervous disorders, a decoction and tea from them are indicated for anemia and as a sedative and tonic for menopausal neurosis. A decoction of blackberry leaves is useful for gastritis, and fresh leaves treat old leg ulcers and lichen.
Blackberry root is made diuretic with dropsy, and tincture of it is recommended to use with poor digestion and bleeding.
Blackberry - contraindications.
As for contraindications, the blackberry does not have them as such, but some people may be intolerant of the blackberry, causing an allergic reaction. Symptoms of such intolerance are manifested by nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and swelling of the mucous membranes, sometimes within a few minutes, and sometimes a few days after taking blackberries.
Methods of breeding blackberries in the Moscow region, Siberia and central Russia
In the garden, blackberries are propagated in a vegetative way (layering, offspring, grafting). This culture can be propagated by the seed method.. It is used to preserve the varietal characteristics of the culture.
Blackberry breeding scheme horizontal layouts
- Prepare the groove, in the first decade of August, with a depth of 15 cm. Lay in it a healthy one-year runaway and sprinkle with earth. In this case, the twig is not cut from the uterine bush and leave the crown on the surface.
- Trim the upper part of the shoot to 10 cm to halt growth.
- Place prikopki press down with a heavy objectFor example, stone, brick or pin the wire.
- Grind the soil and regularly water the place of the digging. Mulch (fallen leaves, sawdust) retains moisture and prevents the growth of weeds.
- Rooting will occur in 2 months. Shoots cut off from uterine bush, gently dug forks, and landed on a permanent place with the earth lump.
- This kind of breeding can be transferred to September or the first decade of October.
Reproduction of garden blackberry apical shoots
- Tip the tip of the escape and stick it to the ground.. The tip is clipped.
- For quick rooting in the stalk that will be in the ground, cut the bark.
- Sapling to separate from the bush and it is necessary to transplant in the spring.
Forming upright bush
The formation scheme of erect blackberry bush
- A trellis is being prepared, 1.8 m long. with a wire in several rows. The step between them is 30-50 cm.
- Young shoots are attached to the bottom row and evenly distributed from the center of the plant, parallel to the ground.
- Fruiting branches are located in the center.
- In the autumn, after harvesting, the central part is cut to the root, and the young are trimmed and covered for the winter.
The formation of the bush creeping varieties
The formation scheme of the blackberry bush creeping varieties
- Creeping varieties have long shoots. The use of trellis allows you to increase the yield, since the branches remain with the maximum length. On the trellis they are fan-shaped in different directions from the fruit-bearing stems on the three lower wires.
- In the spring, the stems are pruned to 1.5 meters.
- During the growing season new shoots appear.They are also tied to the wire horizontally in both directions in the form of a fan. Only next year they will bear fruit. This method facilitates periodic pruning and harvesting.
- It is possible to have branches on a wire in both directions without central fastening. Fruiting stems in one direction, young shoots in another. Each year, picking berries will alternate left and right.
Chosen place and proper blackberry care: feeding, watering, pruning, processing will allow to get high yields and delight the family with medicinal berries.
Why is it so rare to find a culture like blackberries in our gardens? Growing it is not so difficult. In any case, not harder than raspberries or currants with gooseberries. And the yield is even higher than them. It is time to get to know her better.
Blackberry Growing Technology
Her agrotechnology is in many ways similar to the recommendations for growing raspberries, especially with regard to shaping, cutting, planting. But there are some features inherent exclusively black berry. First of all, it should be said that there are two large varieties of garden blackberry. Namely:
Rossyanika is a creeping form, the lash of which grows to ten meters. Very flexible, easy to hide in the winter. Do not give root offspring, propagated by cutting or rooting cuttings. The rosary is more fruitful, the berries are larger than the other form.
Blackberry Cultivation Video
Cumanica grows like a bush with branches of two meters. Less bend, less fruitful, but more compact. Requires less attention to shaping. Well reproduced by root suckers. The agrotechnics of the cumaník are more similar to the agrotechnics of raspberries, rather than the rosyanika.
Now it is worth more to dwell on the preparation of the landing site, the substrate. Talk about the planting itself, summer care, watering, fertilizers, consider shaping, winter shelter, protection from pests.
The best time for planting is mid-end spring. Blackberry is a moisture-loving and heat-loving culture. Choose under its landing a sunny place on the site, protected from the preferential winds in your area. Blackberries are shrubs long-livers. The life of one plant can reach thirty years. With good care, the yield will not only not fall, but also grow for a long time. So the question of the location of the future plantation must be approached as seriously as possible.
It is best to plant bushes in rows in the north-south direction. Then they will be illuminated by the sun evenly from all sides. Take care of creating trellis along blackberry rows. Seedlings will feel good in small depths, so it is reasonable to dig under the landing of the trench.
Pictured blackberry planting
Based on what size we will lay a blackberry plantation, set the length of the trench. The distance between the bushes should be about two meters for cumaník and at least three meters for dews. If you plant in more than one row, then respect the width between them two meters. The trench width is 40-50 centimeters, the depth is the same half meter. The excavated earth is laid with a shaft from the side of the trellis arrangement. Strengthen walls from shedding by digging in boards or pieces of slate. The bottom can be closed with a layer of fine gravel or sand. This improves the permeability of the soil. From above pour a layer of sheet or meadow humus mixed with manure.
It is best to use rotted horse manure - this is the most favorable environment for the growth of berry bushes.
Чтобы впоследствии облегчить себе будущий полив, перед засыпанием землёй по центру траншеи укладывайте перфорированный шланг или капельную поливную систему — как поливные ленты, так и поливные трубки. На месте будущей посадки насыпаем земляные валики. Выдерживаем молодую ежевичку в растворе стимулятора корнеобразования: гетероауксине, эпине, корневине. Ставим саженцы, расправляя по конусу вала корни. Наклоняем их по направлению шпалеры. Now we fall asleep their remaining soil.
For better rooting, you can cover the soil with a transparent film. Under it, the temperature of the soil will be above atmospheric - good conditions for the growth of roots. However, if the weather is hot, you just need to hide the landing material from the sun. In general, the best time to land is cloudy, moderately cool weather.
Blackberry Landing Photo
Watering and fertilizer
Blackberries are demanding of moisture, but excessive waterlogging, like the same raspberry, does not tolerate. If you initially installed a irrigation system in a trench, then watering becomes easier to get. Just connect it to the garden plumbing and that's it.
If you prefer to water the blackberry by hand, then it is better to do this regularly, pouring several buckets of water into the bushes trench every week. Hot summer weather requires an increase in the frequency of irrigation. To avoid moisture loss from the ground, mulch with a large layer of straw, last year's grass (it is better to use meadow or lawn) or sawdust of hardwood. Mulching generally improves the microclimate of your blackberry bushes. The soil due to frequent watering is not compacted, air is given the opportunity to penetrate to the roots. Nutrient digestibility improves. As a result - an increase in yield.
From spring to mid-summer, it is important to stimulate the growth of green shoots. For these purposes, we increase the proportion of nitrogen fertilizers among feedings. We fertilize with phosphate a little less than with nitrogen. Potash fertilizers are now ineffective. You can not use them, or take the minimum concentration.
June-July - the time of active flowering, tying berries. Now it is very important to help blackberry lashes with a crop. Phosphates work very well for this purpose. Nitrogen supplements are important now too, but not to the same extent as in spring. Potassium fertilizers are used in the same way as nitrogen fertilizers, that is, in moderate quantities.
In the photo the soil with potash fertilizers
Starting from the end of the summer and right up to the frosts, the primary task, in addition to ripening the crop, is to prepare the bush for wintering. Must ripen summer shoots, which are now woody. Roots are also stocked with nutrients for winter. Potash supplements are now the most important. Phosphorus now requires much less blackberry. Nitrogen is generally excluded. Excessive growth of greenery is now useless.
In addition to basic fertilizing, black berries need trace elements such as selenium, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, iron, copper, etc. The benefits of having them are difficult to notice, they have little effect on the strength of growth, yield, maturation. But the deficiency of one or several of them is expressed by this or that disease. Immunity of a plant directly depends on microelements. Proper fertilizer with microelements answers the question of how to grow a blackberry in the country, protect it from diseases, without resorting to various toxic chemicals.
Actively use organic fertilizers, the berry will immediately respond to a significant increase in yield. It is recommended to use effective microorganisms, as well as a complex of humic acids. These supplements contribute to the colonization of irrigated areas by important bacteria that assimilate mineral compounds in a form that is digestible for the roots. The most high-quality drugs in this category are Japanese and Siberian.
Organic fertilizer photography
Correctly form bushes
Scourge blackberries can reach 5-6 meters. Naturally, the formation of such a green head of hair is necessary. Otherwise, all the strength of the bush will go to the tops, leaving no attention to fruiting. To lash not dragged on the ground are needed tapestries. Along the landing trenches we dig in support columns. Choose a length so that being dug in well kept the future load of green mass and yield, but at the same time were not less than two meters. Between the pillars stretch the wire every half meter, starting from the ground.
The basic principle of forming a blackberry is that we always grow two types of shoots on the same bush. The first one is the fruitful biennial shoots that ripened last summer and overwintered. They carry flower buds. Now they bloom, bear fruit. The second type is green shoots substitutes. This summer they ripen, and the next fall will bring harvest. Thus, all shoots older than two years old are cut. In the autumn, those whips from which we picked berries are removed to avoid thickening the bush.
How many shoots should be left to one blackberry bush? Saplings of the first year of growth leave 3-4 branches. Next summer they will bring the first harvest. In the biennial and then we leave 5-6 alternate shoots. That is, at the same time on the bush should be about 10-12 lashes. Half of them are runaways of the first year, the other half are of the second.
On a photo blackberry trimming
Now how to grow bushy blackberry on a trellis. The first summer after planting the cumaníks we distribute 3-4 selected strong-growing shoots close to the soil, tying them over the bottom wire, that is, just half a meter above the ground. The upper part of the trellis is still empty. This is explained by the fact that lumpy lashes of cumaníks do not bend as well as those of dews. When laying for winter storage, they may break off, which of course is undesirable. The following spring, they gently rise from the ground, tied to the upper wires of the trellis. Growing green shoots tied to the lower tier on both sides of the bush. Thus we get a fan. In the fall, we prune vertically grown ones, bringing a whip crop. Matured shoots deputies grown squat will not be difficult to put in winter storage.
Rosyanik's first year of growth allows long growths to grow on opposite sides of the root. For example, two to the right, two to the left. When they reach the top of the tapestry, wrap them down from the opposite side. Upon reaching the lower tier of the trellis turn up. That is, we wind long rosters on the trellis. In the autumn there will be more messing about unwinding, but since it is very flexible, it will not be difficult. After hibernation we reach the branches, wind them on one side of the root, for example, to the right. Then to the left let grow green shoots-substitutes.
Now everything is simple. On one side we have fruit-bearing branches, on the other - summer ripening greens. In the fall, pruned clean everything that gave the harvest. That is the whole right side. Left uncoiled, put in storage. Next year, for example, you can grow young lashes to the right, and old ones to the left, alternating the productive trellis from the growth side. Here, in fact, the whole shaping. Follow it and your bushes will be constantly updated, for many years bringing consistently high yields. After all, due to the thickening of the fruit, the plants become smaller, the lash gets less sun, the wood does not ripen, the plant immunity is weakened.
On the photo is a blackberry bush
How to grow garden blackberries in our climate, because it is more thermophilic compared to wild? We need to take care of the winter shelter. After removal from the trellis we put the whip along the trenches, previously on the bottom of which you can lay boards or pegs. In this way, the lashes will be stored on an elevation from the soil. So you will avoid wetting or rotting bushes. In addition, put poison for mice under the lash. These rodents are very fond of winter to feast on blackberries, even those of its forms that have thorns.
Kumaniku will have to press to the ground in several places, pinning it with wire arcs. The rosanyan is simply rolled up and folded along the trench. Cover with non-woven covering material. Pour a layer of sawdust or straw on it.
Blackberry Care Video
It is important to cover when cold daily temperatures have already been established. In the spring, we also uncover bushes when severe cold is passed. Above the trenches, temporary shelter can be installed on the arcs with a non-wrap. After the spring frosts pass, we raise the whip to the trellis.
What you need to know to increase the yield of blackberry
- growing is better in trenches, more fertilizer arrives, the soil always remains more moist,
- do not regret organic fertilizers, the more dung humus under the roots, the larger the berries,
- cut the bushes, properly loading them. Copies with a thickened crown give thin lashes, small berries, they ripen little, get sick more, often freeze out in winter,
- Cover the blackberry for the winter competently, avoiding vyprevaniya, burnout, freezing bushes.
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Blackberry is famous for its taste and benefit, so many gardeners want to grow it on their own plots. This is a bit troublesome (after all, a blackberry is originally a forest plant), but in reality there is nothing very complicated in it. The main thing is to follow the advice and recommendations. Today we talk about the types of blackberry, care for her and growing.
Select a site and prepare the soil
For the cultivation of blackberries, it is desirable to use flat areas, protected from dry winds or cold winds, but sufficiently ventilated. The soil should be fertile, moist and deeply drained.
- Good sandy soil or light loam. The optimal soil acidity for blackberries is 6-6.2 pH.
- Carbonate soils are not suitable for this crop. Blackberries will lack the magnesium and iron needed for growth and fruiting.
- Clean the area under the blackberry weeds, carry out measures to eliminate pathogens and pests.
- Before plowing the soil before planting, apply rotted manure (1 bucket per 1 sq. M.), Superphosphate (150 g / sq. M.), Potassium sulfate (80 g / sq. M). If the soil contains a large amount of humus, it is not necessary to add manure. On such a site, the blackberry will grow well, but will bear little fruit.
- The depth of plowing for planting should be 40-50 cm; align plowing before planting.
Blackberry can be planted:
- in the spring, before the buds start to bloom,
- in autumn, before the onset of frosts.
Make sure that your seedlings have developed a root system and 1-2 stems with a bud on the roots.
To further care for blackberry bushes was easier, make the interval between the furrows at least 2 meters. The depth and width of the furrow - 30 cm.
Before planting, make sure that the seedlings are strong enough
If you plant a blackberry in the fall, preliminarily introduce into the soil contaminated manure or compost. In the spring, it is enough to mulch the hole and the area around. This should be done after the first watering, a week after the landing.
Young. Just planted plants, cut to a height of 22-24 cm.
Between blackberry bushes must be maintained distance:
- 0.75-1.5 m for upright grades,
- 2.5-2.9 m for creeping varieties,
- on support structures, the distance is halved
- when grown in the bush way planting scheme 1.8 X 1.8 m.
You can adjust this data depending on the varieties, location and type of soil.
Further growing and processing plantings
In the first year of growth, blackberries should be watered regularly. In subsequent years, watering will be required in dry time, as well as during the fruiting period. It is not recommended to water the planting with cold water.
Try to keep the soil between the rows "under the steam". To do this, perform cultivation at different depths, but not more than 12 cm. In one season, up to 6 cultivations can be carried out.
During the first 2 years after disembarkation, before the blackberry grows, vegetable crops can be grown between the rows, except for tomatoes and other solanas, the neighborhood with which is not desirable.
In October and November, plow the land between rows to a depth of 17 centimeters. Every 3-4 years, apply humus, phosphate and potash fertilizers.
In the rows where the bulk of the roots are located, weed the weeds and remove the excess root shoots. Loosen the soil to a depth of 8 centimeters, while using forks, in order not to damage the rhizomes.
Before the offspring begins to appear, use organic materials to mulch the areas where the majority of the roots are spread.
Proper care will ensure a good blackberry harvest.
Use herbicides to suppress the development of weeds. Simazine works well, use it according to the manufacturer's instructions.
To ensure that the crop is consistently high, fertilize annually. In the fall, for digging up the soil at the bushes for every square meter, add 4-5 kg of manure mixed with 30 grams of superphosphate and 40 grams of potassium sulfate, and in spring - 30 grams of urea or ammonium nitrate. After harvesting blackberry fertilizer is not necessary.
A few words on how to shape the bushes
Proper formation of bushes is a very important stage in the care of blackberries. This plant, especially in the creeping form, is very laborious in processing and harvesting. Therefore, you can place blackberry bushes on a vertical trellis, this will greatly facilitate care.
To install a trellis, install the pillars 1.8 meters high at a distance of 6-10 meters from each other. Tension the wire: the first row at a height of 1 meter, the second - 1.2 m, the third - 1.5 m, the fourth - 1.8 m. Can be limited to two or three rows.
Thanks to the trellis, blackberry care will be simple and easy.
There are 3 ways to form a bush on the trellis.
- Twist the shoots between 1-3 rows of wire. Spread the sprouts that appeared after shaping, distribute to the left and right of the main bush, output the top branch to the 4-row wire.
- Dissolve the shoots of blackberry in the form of a fan, fasten on a wire. The most healthy and young shoots bring to the top of the wire. The bush will be better illuminated, which contributes to the free growth of branches.
- Dissolve the fruit shoots in different directions from the young shoots, tie up to the wire at a height of one and a half meters.
For the garter, use a twine, braid or tape of soft fabric. Together with the garter, prune shoots about 10 cm to improve the yield.
Trimming is done several times during the year. In the fall, completely remove the diseased, sprouting shoots and excess young shoots. In the spring you need to cut out frozen shoots. You will notice them immediately after the appearance of buds on the branches.
Video about growing blackberries at their summer cottage
We hope our tips and recommendations will help you grow good, strong blackberry bushes that will decorate your site and give a rich harvest of healthy and tasty berries! If you have any questions, ask them in the comments, as well as share your experience in growing this culture. Good luck!
How to grow a garden blackberry
Hello, dear friends!
Speaking of blackberries, we imagine a wild thorny shrub with small berries, growing only in the forest. But it is not so, today, thanks to the breeders, you can plant a blackberry right in your garden and enjoy this tasty and healthy berry. About, how to grow blackberries in the garden, how to choose the best place for planting, how to multiply this berry cutarnik and care for it, we will talk in this article.
Choosing a place for blackberry
Before landing, first of all, you need to choose the right place. A smooth, well-lit area is best suited (blackberry bushes can grow in partial shade, but berries grown in the sun will be much larger and sweeter than those that lacked sunshine).
To the note: in order for the berries to ripen faster, and it was easier for you to collect them later, install supports and tie up the bushes (ordinary iron pipes are suitable for this).
Also, when choosing a place for breeding blackberries should take into account its low winter hardiness. Therefore, try to choose a place that is reliably protected from drafts and cold winds.
Blackberries grow best in moist but well-drained soil.
If a week has passed at least one heavy rain, and the air temperature has not exceeded the mark of +25 degrees, then do not water the bushes.
The situation is different on hot days, when the temperature of the air in the sun can reach +40 degrees. Then it is best to water the blackberry three times a week - in the morning and in the evening.
Shrub formation and trimming garden blackberry
For blackberries to grow well, shrubs need to be thinned.
The first time should be trimmed shrub 2 years after planting. Next, the blackberry should be pruned twice a year: in the spring, when the bush is formed, very long dried shoots are cut, and in the fall, old shoots are removed after fruiting.
As already mentioned, the blackberry does not tolerate the winter, so in the frosty season it is necessary to shelter the blackberry bushes from the cold and winds.
To the note: it is possible to cover the blackberry with the leaves of corn, for this it is necessary to warm the branches of the shrub with them, and then cover the blackberry with plastic wrap.
There are many varieties of blackberry garden and each variety tolerates winter differently. Here are some of the varieties:
Blackberry (Koumanika) - this species tolerates very cold weather, therefore it is necessary to cover Comaník in the winter period.
The blackberry is half-populated - just like the blackberry, this species does not withstand frost, which means that it also needs to be warmed.
Blackberry creeping (rosyanika) - refers to the hardiest types of blackberry. Even without insulation deserts endure up to 20 degrees of frost.
In order for the blackberry to grow well and delight you with tasty fruits, it must be fertilized. Следует прикармливать ежевику четыре раза в год:
1) Весной, как только сойдет снег, необходимо удобрить ежевику азотом.
2) Калийные удобрения и суперфосфат нужно использовать, когда ежевика цветет.
3) В период плодоношения следует подкармливать ежевику минералами и микроэлементами.
4) Последний раз необходимо удобрить ежевику осенью.