- When to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse
- Planting a tomato in a greenhouse: the rules and features
- When to plant seedlings of tomatoes, peppers and cucumbers in the greenhouse
When to plant seedlings in the greenhouse
Tomato seedlings, which are intended for cultivation in a greenhouse or greenhouse, can be planted in greenhouses already in early May, when the threat of frost is over, and the soil warms to at least + 8 ° C. If the temperature of the earth is lower than the specified one, then it is better to postpone planting. In addition, the development of plants also affects the time of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse. To change the "place of residence" are ready tomatoes with a height of at least 25 centimeters and well-developed foliage (9-11 leaves per bush).
How to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse
There are many different planting schemes for tomatoes and their choice depends on factors such as the variety of tomatoes and their height. The planting pattern is also influenced by the size of the greenhouse, its location in the garden, the method of growing tomatoes (with or not), etc. Before planting the seedlings, it is necessary to prepare the beds and cultivate the soil. To do this, you need to make narrow beds in the greenhouse 60-70 centimeters wide and about 40 centimeters high, then make holes in them (the distance between the holes is 40-50 cm) with a depth of 20 centimeters and then pour each hole with a liter of weak potassium permanganate solution (one grams of potassium permanganate per 12 liters of warm water). In this case, instead of potassium permanganate, you can use other drugs that protect plants from many diseases. The most common drugs are Barrier and Barrier.
As soon as the beds are ready, then after a day you can start planting seedlings. The first thing you need to sprinkle the seedlings and tear dry and yellow leaves, while trying not to injure the stem of the plants. Next, carefully remove the seedlings from the cups (you need to strictly make sure that the earthen ball with the roots is not broken), place each plant in a separate hole and sprinkle with a small amount of earth. After that, lay around the stalks of tomato rotted manure (compost), cover it with soil, lightly tamp and water each plant with a liter of clean water.
Preparation of tomato seedlings for planting in the greenhouse
To begin with, many greenhouse owners rely on the lunar calendar when planning planting tomatoes. Its main feature is that nature in each new season has its “favorable” days for planting seedlings.
Tall tomatoes grow well in the greenhouseEarly varieties and hybrids of tomatoes. The optimal time for disembarking is no later than June 1.Pick varieties and hybrids of tomatoes, designed specifically for growing in greenhouses. Indeterminate tomatoes are suitable for this purpose (i.e., varieties with unlimited growth), they most fully utilize the volume of greenhouses and give a very high yield.
Preparation of tomato seeds for planting according to the method tested by grandma:
There is no such strict adherence to the time frame, and therefore it is necessary to act on the situation:
We apply a grid of 20x20 mm on the surface of the substrate. We put one seed into each cell and press it into the soil a little.
Average daily temperature indicators are a very important factor.
Planting tomato seedlings in the greenhouse
First, let's try to be frank and ask ourselves: when do we plant tomatoes in the greenhouse? As a rule, the majority comes simply, namely it is oriented towards its neighbors. In any village there is a gardener who “starts” the movement - and the rest of them pull up to him within a week, fearing to be late.
When planting seedlings must immediately remove the leaves that touch the ground. And it should be done in the morning, so that the wound in place of the removed leaf could dry up in the evening.
Planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse requires preliminary preparation - this is one of the main conditions for the normal development of plants.
But, if you are not guided by such aids, count the harvesting and planting of seeds so that you can take the ready seedlings to the greenhouse at the right time. A seedling period of greenhouse tomatoes - from 45 to 65 days, and in unheated greenhouses, landings are made on March 15-20.
This will require the use of a good early hybrid. In this case, a quick harvest of their own aromatic cucumbers is possible. And in order to maintain high humidity, you can use a plastic curtain to separate the corner with cucumbers from other areas of the greenhouse.
Tomatoes, peppers and eggplants. Heated greenhouse allows you to plant these crops in February and March. Impatience of gardeners may entail the so-called “growing” seedlings. It can carry only celery seedlings and peppers.
From early ripe hybrids of tomatoes intended for cultivation in greenhouses, we can recommend "Hurricane F1", "Typhoon F1" and "Blagovest F1". Tomatoes are round in shape, valued for an early and friendly harvest. Very tasty tomatoes varieties "Krasnobay F1", "Grandma's gift F1", "Funtik F1" and many, many others. Currently, breeders bred a lot of new varieties and hybrids, and each of them is good in its own way.
To plant tomatoes on seedlings at home soak tomato seeds in advance. Wrap the seeds in a cloth or bandage and moisten with warm water. Let lie so day.
Preparation of soil for planting tomatoes should begin at least a week. We loosen the substrate, we add organic fertilizers (about 5 kg of manure per 1m2) and mineral dressing to it.
Tomato planting scheme
In terms of temperature, everything is simpler: the daily average should be at the level of 16-180С. If a heating system is installed in the greenhouse, we plant it even in February, and if we have to settle for natural heating, we will have to endure until the second half of May. At least, in central Russia, this temperature is not set before the May holidays.
Naturally, such a process will be productive only in one case - if the first person who seated knows exactly what he is doing. And then there are a few nuances.
Forms of tomato bushes.
Scheme of planting seedlings of tomatoes in the ground.
Basically, the timing of planting seedlings depend on two main factors:
When planting seedlings in a greenhouse depends on the particular variety or plant hybrid. If the plant is cramped, it means that instead of a crop, diseases and pests are expected.
Sweet pepper and eggplant. They are usually planted in a greenhouse until June 5th.
To sow tomato seeds for seedlings for further cultivation in greenhouses is needed in the first decade of March. Some manufacturers claim that their seeds have undergone preplant treatment, but experienced gardeners still recommend treating the seeds before planting. This will subsequently avoid many diseases. Make a pink solution of potassium permanganate and dip tomato seeds in it for 30 minutes. Then remove them and dry.
Stock up on fertile land, you can buy, and you can dig in the garden in the fall. Pour the ground into a fairly large container - for example, a cake lid.
The day before disembarkation, we moisten the beds abundantly and make holes in them up to 20 cm deep.
Sprinkle the seeds on top with a dry earth layer about a centimeter and set aside for germination.
In fact, there is no and cannot be a definite answer to the question “When to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse?”.
The scheme for planting tomatoes in the greenhouse depends mainly on the varieties and methods of plant formation. The best option is to plant short-growing early ripening varieties that form 2-3 stalks in 2 rows using chess order. The distance between the rows is at least 50-55 cm. The distance between the tomatoes is at least 40 cm.
Factors affecting landing time
Cucumber. In the presence of technical heating in the greenhouse planting is made after May 25.
Prepare the soil for growing seedlings. A good substrate is one of the components of an excellent harvest. The soil for growing tomatoes should be light, loose, well permeable to moisture and air. To prepare 1 bucket of soil mixture, take 1/3 of a bucket of humus, add 2 parts of peat and about 1/10 of a bucket of clean sand. Put 1 cup of ash, 30 g of superphosphate, 15 g of urea and potassium sulfate each. Mix all ingredients thoroughly.
Sprinkle a little over the cooked soil so that it becomes wet. Lightly palm the ground.
Immediately before planting, pour 200 ml of potassium permanganate solution into each well. We take out the seedlings from the pot, knead the clod on the roots and put them in the hole.
- The time to germination may be different: at a temperature of 20-220С and proper preparation, the first shoots may appear in 3-4 days, and at 15-170С the period may be delayed for 10 days or more.
- We are talking about the average daily temperature.
- The date of commencement of work depends on many factors:
- Determinant and standard varieties, which are formed in 1 stalk, are also planted in 2 rows using chess order. The distance between rows should be no less than 50 cm, and the distance between plants should be no more than 25 cm. With this arrangement, it is possible to plant about 10 plants per 1 m². But in this case it is necessary to carefully care for the plants in order to prevent excessive density of tomatoes.
The whole complex of measures is connected with cultivation: timely watering, garter and formation of tomato bushes, top dressing, pest and disease control, soil loosening and other important works.
Determine the optimum
Factor №2. The microclimate of the greenhouse, namely the features of its design and the presence of heating or the device "warm beds").
A long growing season causes the cultivation of only early white cabbage. Sowing of seeds in the greenhouse occurs in early February, and the seedlings are planted in early April. Disembarkation is carried out immediately after the hardening of seedlings and the appearance of 3-4 leaves. Green leaves signal that it will be hard to take root. For the fruitful cultivation of cabbage, the soil must be dense, loamy, well retain moisture and well fertilized. The soil should be loosened and fed with manure.
- Spring and summer weather is characterized by instability, so the early harvest of vegetable crops is simply impossible. Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cauliflower and white cabbage especially suffer from this. By the way, each cabbage variety has its own characteristics for planting seedlings.
- Fill the seedling containers with the nutrient substrate and sow the seeds. Shoots appear on the 4-5 day. After the appearance of 2-3 of these sheets of seedlings need to pick out in separate pots. This technique is used to increase the area of nutrition and, accordingly, a better development of the root system of tomatoes.
At a distance of 3 cm from each other, place the seeds on the ground, sprinkle the ground on top very slightly. And again clap the palm rest.
- Sprinkle the roots with earth, compact it and leave it for at least 3-4 days.
The first shoots appear on the third or fourth day
- It is important that at night it does not get colder than 8-100С, and during the day the thermometer can reach at least 30.
- Features of the climatic zone.
When grown in 1 stalk, tall varieties are planted at a distance of about 60 cm from each other, and the distance between rows should be at least 75-80 cm, if growing takes place in 2 stalks, then the distance between plants should be 65-75 cm.
- Consider these steps from preparing the seedlings to caring for them.
For example, in the north of the country, where the spring weather until the summer solstice is capable of “pleasing” with night frosts, it is not worth planting tomato seedlings in the greenhouse too early. And even in the presence of well-arranged warm beds - only in April. But it’s really possible to bring the dates closer in any case and under any conditions: build another greenhouse inside the greenhouse. Simply place the arcs over the selected bed and cover them with a double film.
Each type of cabbage requires certain growing conditions
Any vegetable can be grown in a greenhouse. It will not differ from crops grown on open ground.
The seedling is ready for planting in greenhouses in 60-65 days after the appearance of the first shoots. You can start planting it in greenhouses already in the tenth of May. But before that, 1-2 weeks before planting, it is necessary to prepare the soil in the greenhouse.
Now water well. And on top, cover the seedling box with glass or just a bag to create a greenhouse effect.
Seed preparation time
The first watering of the greenhouse is carried out only after the planted plants take root - it just takes from three to four days. If water is poured earlier, there is a risk of rotting of the roots, which inevitably become damaged during planting.
- As you can see, there are no particular difficulties in determining the landing period. However, in order to have the seedlings ready by the right time, it must be grown on our own. Otherwise, the variety that we like may not be on the market, or the quality of the material will be low.
- Temperature conditions in the current year.
- It is possible in the greenhouse to combine the cultivation of early ripening varieties with tall and determinant varieties using the following scheme. Seedlings have 2 rows. A row is made near the wall and determinant early ripening varieties are planted there with a distance of about 40 cm between the tomatoes. They are formed into 1 stem. Upper stepson is transferred to the stem.
Begin hardening of tomato seedlings 2 weeks before planting. Where it is grown, it is necessary to open the vents and keep them open around the clock. If the days are sunny and warm, then the seedlings can be transferred to the open air. Hardening of seedlings should begin with 2-3 hours in the first 3-4 days, and then it will be possible to endure the plants for the whole day. And if the weather permits, you can leave them for the night. When hardening seedlings in the greenhouse, you must remove the frame, if the weather is good. The greenhouse must be well ventilated. When the plant is well tempered, it becomes slightly purple.
- Another option is to apply modern covering material:
- Beijing cabbage
The timing of planting seedlings
If the greenhouse is not heated, in glass, in cellular polycarbonate or in a bubble film, it means that you can start planting cold-resistant vegetables in it. Such conditions are ideal for radishes, parsley, dill, salads, Chinese cabbage, lettuce and turnips.
Make beds 60-90 cm wide along the structure. For each, add 1-2 buckets of humus, sawdust and some coarse-grained clean sand. Spread 2 tablespoons of superphosphate and 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate over the bed surface. Dig up the ground and level with a rake. Leave the soil to warm up.
- Put the box in a warm dark place.
- Garter hold on 7-10 day. If the variety is tall enough, then the period can be reduced - the main thing is that the stem does not begin to creep along the ground.
If the seedlings do not appear within 10 days, it is worth laying a new portion of seedlings, as there is a risk that nothing will come up at all.
- How to prepare tomato seedlings just in time - we will tell below.
- Plant varieties, or rather, its resistance to low temperatures.
Tomato seedlings before planting must be treated Bordeaux mixture to protect tomatoes from diseases. If you cut a couple of lower leaves of the plant 2 days before planting, the seedlings will take root better, and the first flower brush will develop faster. In order to preserve flower buds on the first brush, it is necessary to spray the boric solution 5 days before planting. Prepare such a solution by mixing 1 g of boric acid with 1 l of water.
After seedlings appear, transfer the seedlings to a bright and cool place. At night, maintain a temperature of 14-16 ° C, and a week later increase it to 20 ° C. In addition, open the window at night to lower the temperature to 15 ° C - this is a slight tempering.
Beijing cabbage contains large amounts of calcium, iron and vitamins. Grow cabbage at a temperature of 16-17 ° C. The plant loves moisture. If there is not enough liquid, it immediately fades. Between transplanting and harvesting takes about 20 days. Cabbage is considered to be finished when a dense head has been formed.
The use of non-woven material to cover young plants will be mandatory in case of severe frost.
After 1-2 weeks, spill the prepared beds with a pink solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per bucket of water). Make holes at a distance of 60 cm from each other in a staggered manner, moisten them and disembark the seedlings of tomatoes.
After a couple of days, when tomato sprouts appear, remove the film and place the box in a bright place.
As for the timing of staving (removing excess color), then everything is very individual. You should focus on the indicator 5-7 flower brushes - and remove the rest as the crop ripens.
Next, we need from 40 to 45 days to grow the seedlings to the desired state. Как правило, на 7-10 день после всходов провидится пикировка – т.е. пересаживание ростков в большой рассадный ящик или в отдельные горшочки. При этом нужно следить, чтобы у пикируемого растения было не меньше двух настоящих листьев.
Чтобы обеспечить теплицу качественным посадочным материалом, семена нужно высевать в грунт теплицы по определенным правилам.
Высадка и уход
Особенностей теплицы (качество теплоизоляции, наличие систем аварийного обогрева и т.д.).
Near the aisle in the 2nd row, tall tomatoes are placed at a distance of 60 cm from each other. They are formed in 1 stalk. Determinant stem varieties are planted between them, in 25 cm increments, and they are also formed into 1 stem. On these plants, you need to do after the 2nd brush, nip so that there are 3 leaves above it. Thus, while tall tomatoes are growing, the early ripening crops are already giving away the entire harvest, and they can be completely removed from the greenhouse.
Ready for "moving" into a greenhouse, tomato seedlings should be with a thick stem, a well-developed root system, buds on the first hand and have a height that is characteristic of its variety.
Additionally, for the growing seedlings, you can make a special highlighting. At first, until the first shoots appear, incandescent lamps can be dispensed with - 12-16 hours a day. But for the whole day the light will need to be turned on within four days.
- Any drop in temperature affects the seedlings. So that she was comfortable, she undergoes tempering, gradual training to lower temperatures. She is taught to carry bright light, outside air and sunlight. A week before disembarking, the room temperature is reduced to 16 - 19 °, opening the vents and opening the windows. Hardening seedlings taken 2 or 3 days. When the leaves become dark green, then transplanting into a greenhouse is possible.
- Carefully remove the seedlings from the cup. Tear off the lower leaves, place in the wells and bury, leaving 3-4 leaves on the soil surface. Leave the tomatoes in this form for 10-12 days. Then pour and tie to the support.
- Many gardeners follow the same method and sow tomato seeds exactly 4 to 4 in a box of humus soil. After planting the seeds, cover the container with film or glass and place in a warm place. With the advent of sprouts, after 3-4 days the film is removed and put the seedlings on the bright window sill. If the window on which stands the box with the seedlings is not southern, then they put a fluorescent lamp so that the tomato seedlings receive enough light for development.
- Plantation with fruit
- Day 10 - the perfect time to pick
- There is no single instruction here, of course, but the general scheme that most experienced gardeners adhere to is this:
If we take into account all these facts, then the best time for planting seedlings can be both the end of February and the end of May.
Excessive density should not be allowed, because tomatoes are light-loving plants. Ideal conditions are created in the greenhouse for growing tomatoes, when each leaf of the plant is illuminated. All lower leaves and stepchildren should be removed in time. In this way, it is possible to positively influence air exchange and illumination, reduce the risk of disease, and accelerate the fruiting phase. But how many brushes to leave in tall plants depends only on the varietal characteristics and on how many fruits will be in one brush.
In order to get an early harvest, the determinant varieties of tomatoes are formed into 1 stem and 2 to 4 inflorescences are left on it.
Soil preparation in the greenhouse under the tomatoes in the spring is a very important event, because with improperly prepared soil, the plants will not give a good harvest and will constantly hurt. It would be best if you remove the top layer of soil (about 10 cm), and the renewed soil for tomatoes in the greenhouse will be covered with blue vitriol (1 tablespoon per bucket of water). After this, it is necessary to ventilate the room.
Then you should dig up the last year's beds with humus and close the greenhouse before planting the tomatoes. Such processing before planting tomatoes is simply vital.
Due to poor frost resistance, tomatoes need to be planted on high ground. Rows, the height of which should be about 40 cm, need to be formed about 1.5 weeks before planting on them seedlings.
Below in the photo: planting in a greenhouse tomato.
General landing rules
So, how do you plant tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse correctly? The main thing is to follow a few simple rules.
A good day for landing is considered an overcast day. If the day is chosen sunny, it is better to plant in the late afternoon to reduce the stress from the hot sun. The soil when planting plants should be well warmed up.
The root should be completely in the ground, but the growth point should not be closed - it is about 15 cm deep, humus or other fertilizer will be well put in the grooves.
Before planting, remove yellow and cotyledon leaves at ground level. Need to consolidate the soil around the plant and sprinkle with primer. For the prevention of diseases such as phytophthora, each plant can be sprayed with chlorine dioxide (40 g of copper per bucket of water).
After transplanting need plenty of water tomatoes under each bush. Further, it is better not to water the plants for a week, because otherwise the whole development will be spent on the growth of the stem. In the future, it is necessary to water the tomatoes rarely, but plentifully, best in the morning.
It is very important to choose a specific planting procedure tomatoes, depending on the varieties. And also decide which tomatoes to plant, when to plant and at what distance.
Tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse: planting pattern
- two-row, then the width of the bed should be about 1.5 meters, and the length - as much as you like, given that the distance between the plants should be about 30-60 cm.
- chess - planting bushes in 2 rows, with an interval of about 50 cm, at a distance of 30-40 cm from each other with the formation of 2-3 stems. This scheme is suitable for short-growing short-ripening varieties.
- chess order, but for tall species, every 60 cm with a distance of 75 cm between the rows.
Pictured below: tomatoes in the greenhouse planting scheme
How to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse: the distance
Planting tomatoes has its own, specific algorithm. In order not to be mistaken in distance between plants, examine the packaging of seeds, planting in the ground will be described most accurately there. In any case, do not plant more often than 30 cm apart and no further than 80 cm. If the distance is too short, the tomatoes will wither away from nutrient deficiencies, and if the distance is far away, there will be a small crop and the fruits will grow and ripen more slowly .
Landing in the greenhouse
For a better harvest, it is necessary to take into account not only the placement of tomatoes, but also the correct date for planting tomatoes. First of all, you need to wait for the most constant warm weather.
- plants can be planted in a heated greenhouse from April 29,
- in an unheated greenhouse, but with a double film layer - from May 5,
- in an unheated and unheated greenhouse - from May 20,
- in an open ground, but with a film covering - since May 25.
Air temperature, on average, when planting in a greenhouse should be around 25 ° C.
Which greenhouse to choose?
Not an unimportant factor in improving the yield is the material from which your greenhouse is made.
Now the more popular coating materials are plastic film and polycarbonate.
Polycarbonate - The material is not cheap, but durable and does not immediately wear out, unlike the film. Although it perfectly protects plants from ultraviolet radiation, it is more suitable for heated winter greenhouses because of its thermal insulation properties, but for summer greenhouses polycarbonate is not really needed and will not pay off.
And the temperature in such facilities will be simply unbearable for plants on hot days, and even the vents will not help. You will also have to warm the soil in the greenhouse for the winter, otherwise it will freeze.
Have film coating There are significant advantages over polycarbonate.
- it is easier to cover the greenhouse with a film, and in case of a breakthrough it is easy to replace,
- in winter, since the film is removed, you should not think about covering the soil, snow drifts will cope well with insulation,
- film is a cheap material, although it quickly deteriorates.
Principled difference between these two materials- harvest fees, in a polycarbonate greenhouse it is possible to plant tomatoes earlier and several times earlier, and therefore it is possible to harvest more often.
- We sow the seed for a day in warm water or on a cloth.
- The condition of the seedlings.
- Tie up the plants on the 11-12 day after planting. To this end, you can take the twine, which is fixed on the wire trellis.
- Planting of seedlings of tomatoes in the greenhouse should be made when the soil warms up to 14-15 ° C at a depth of 13-15 cm. Checking the temperature of the soil can be done with an ordinary household thermometer. To do this, it is necessary for 10-15 minutes to immerse in the ground and check the performance. If the temperature of the soil matches, then you can start planting tomatoes. When this condition is observed, tomato seedlings take root much faster, and there is a good strengthening of the root system.
- Plastic film, in which the seedlings are wrapped and a little bit of soil. Over time, we gradually add land, carefully unwrapping and “wrapping” such diapers.
- The second feeding is carried out with 1 teaspoon of potassium sulfate or ½ teaspoon of superphosphate diluted in 5 liters of water.
- Growing compaction crops for tomato, pepper and eggplant should be at the beginning of June. The second half of August, after the removal of tomato stepsons, is suitable for sowing radish, turnip greens and other early and green vegetables.
Greenhouse layout ↑
When to plant seedlings in the greenhouse? The calculation of the landing time should be based on the following factors.
- the right time to purchase soil and prepare boxes for seedlings of pepper, tomato and eggplant. All future harvest is laid in the seedling period. By the way, it will be said that plant transplantation is a compulsory measure, to which summer residents are forced to resort to earlier plant development and accelerate fruit ripening.
Planting time ↑
Two or three days before disembarking, we temper the seedlings - twice for 12 hours we remove from the room and leave at a temperature of up to 100 ° C.
- Soak the seed for at least a day
- Temperature mode.
- When will be 20 days after the planting of tomatoes, it is necessary to carry out the first feeding. 30 g of potassium sulfate, 50 g of superphosphate and 15 g of ammonium nitrate are diluted with a bucket of water. 1 l of solution is used for each plant. The next feeding should be done in 2-3 weeks, and the last - 25 days before the end of the growing season. When the fruiting period comes, the amount of potassium sulfate is brought to 60 g, ammonium nitrate to 40 g, and the amount of superphosphate is reduced to 30 g per 10 l of water.
- A week before you plan to plant tomatoes, you need to prepare the wells. Thus, the ground warms up at a depth faster. The width and depth of the holes depend on the tomato variety. For tall varieties, the depth and width should be 30 cm, for undersized 20 cm is enough. Fertilizers are applied to each well: 2 liter jars of a mixture consisting of humus with peat, and 1 cup of ash. All this needs to be filled in with 1 l of potassium permanganate solution.
In a jar of water. All sprouts cut off at the root and put in plastic cups of water. There appear new thin roots with which we plant in greenhouse beds. In some cases, with proper care, this method even allows you to increase the yield.
Seedlings in the greenhouses watered and fed. The desired temperature and humidity level is maintained in the greenhouse.
- The date of the estimated transplanting to a permanent place. When seedlings are planted in protected ground, it should be ready by May 20.
- The appearance of black fruit fly-thrush, feeding on plant rot.
- Tall tomatoes, as well as peppers and eggplant are sown on seedlings at the end of February from the 20th to the 10th of March.
After this treatment, it is possible to disembark even at an average daily temperature of 14-15 degrees - a short-term decrease will not lead to negative consequences.
Swollen seeds are placed in a solution of potassium permanganate (10-12 hours), and then washed.
Let's look at these factors.
Seating rules ↑
In a greenhouse there must be a place with dim lighting where there will be a barrel or a tank for infusing manure or mowed grass. The release of carbon dioxide during fermentation has a beneficial effect on plants - they grow well, the fruits are tied.
Temperature: in sunny weather 27-29 ° С, on an overcast day 23-24 ° С, and during the night 20-21 ° С. Relative humidity should be about 87-88%. To this end, when cucumbers are in bloom, in the greenhouses they irrigate between the rows and sprinkle the plants themselves.
The time of emergence of seedlings after sowing (it can be from 2 to 15 days depending on the culture).
- It is necessary to transplant the seedlings to a more spacious place after 20 days, so that for each plant there is a place measuring 12 x 12 cm. This place will be enough for another 20 days. In the ground under the film or in the greenhouse of polycarbonate 45 day seedlings are planted. When transplanting seedlings of tomatoes, take the plant along with the cubes of the soil, so as not to damage the roots.
Tomatoes that are planning to transplant in the greenhouse as early as April are planted on seedlings in February on planting days. These are 13, 14, 15 and 18 February 2016.
As you can see, in the preparation of planting material to the desired date is not difficult. Taking into account the time for stimulation and germination, the whole process takes about 55-60 days, so you can start messing around with seeds for planting in an unheated greenhouse in the first decade of March.
- If there are doubts about the origin or quality of the material, we perform additional feeding: for a day we place it in a container with a nutrient solution. To prepare a nutrient solution, add a tablespoon of ash, a spoon of nitrophoska and half a teaspoon of potassium chloride to a liter of water.
With regard to tomato seedlings, the situation is quite simple: regardless of the size of the plant (and in different varieties, the height can be from 30 to 70-80 cm), planting should be carried out after the formation of buds on the first flower brush.
These simple rules allow you to form strong plants and get a great harvest of tomatoes.
Immediately before planting, the wells are poured with warm water to form liquid mud. The planting of tomato seedlings is made in this liquid mud. Well-formed seedlings are planted vertically, it should be bury no more than 3 cm. Overgrown seedlings need to be deepened more. The hole is made to a depth of 25 cm. In the prepared hole another one is made, according to the size of the planting pot. The second hole is well spilled with hot water, and an overgrown tomato is planted in it.
A typical situation: you are preparing a greenhouse for a certain period, when, without additional heating (which is a luxury in itself), it will be possible to plant tomato seedlings and start caring efforts to grow. But something went wrong according to the plan: the ground in the greenhouse is cold, weather forecasters promise night frosts for another two weeks, and your seedlings are ready now! And the conditions that you have created are not enough for her. Of course, it is possible to plant and overgrown tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse, which we will discuss below, but this will not lead to a rich harvest. What to do then?
Plant soil should be mulched. For mulch, mowed grass is more appropriate. It does not allow overheating of the earth. And after pereprevaniya turns into additional fertilizer.
Features of growing different varieties of cabbage ↑
- Cucumbers in the greenhouse will be pleased with the harvest
The maximum age of seedlings.
When growing seedlings in a winter greenhouse, install LED lights for greenhouses.
- Early and mid-ripening varieties of tomato are sown on seedlings in March, on favorable planting days. In 2016, tomato seedlings are planted on -13 and 16 March. Possible planting of tomatoes in the period of the growing moon, which in 2016 lasts from the 10th to the 22nd of March.
Plants aged 35-40 days
- The whole preparation procedure takes us about two days.
Photos of the bush with the first buds
When planning agricultural work for the next year, the question will always arise - when to plant tomatoes for the greenhouse? Much depends on the right choice of time, and therefore it is worthwhile to study the requirements for landing time and temperature conditions in more detail.
Care seedlings ↑
The scheme of the formation of tomatoes in the greenhouse.
If you realized it in time, then we urgently stop the growth of seedlings. For example, by reducing the amount of watering and removing the top dressing, or more radically: we cut off a crown about 20 cm long from the seedlings, remove all the lower leaves and return to the pot in this form. As an option in a jar of water .. So the seedlings once again put down new roots, to which it will take time and effort. Additionally, you can help your tomatoes by keeping these tops in the Kornevina solution for about a day.
Greenhouses are designed to grow not only vegetables, but also flowers. They can be prepared for cutting or for pot culture. In our time, a system of special flower growing is spread with the aim of earlier obtaining the buds and increasing the duration of their flowering. Through special manipulations, plants are forced to bloom in a certain period. Bulbs are best suited for growing in the greenhouse. On the quality or appearance does not affect the way of growing flowers - in the open field or in the greenhouse. Рассада цветов в теплице широко востребована, и потому выгодна с коммерческой точки зрения.
Выращивание рассады цветов в теплице ↑
При этом не забывайте, что рассада - это уже растение. И обращаться с ним нужно как взрослым растением, если ему дать мало света или пространства, то рассада помидор вырастет плохой. Из плохой рассады не получится хорошее растение. He will not catch up and not make up, he will only pretend, but in fact he will not give half of the harvest.
In April, there are several favorable days when you can plant tomatoes on seedlings, if you have not already done so. In this case, choose sowing on seedlings of superdeterminate low-growing varieties and hybrids for open ground, ultra-early varieties or cherry tomatoes. The best days for planting tomatoes in April are 8, 9 and 14 number.
Everything is much simpler for a heated greenhouse: two months to prepare young plants - and you can plant it!
What is the lunar calendar?
On the third day, you can start sowing:
If the planting is done earlier, the fruiting will be delayed, and we will not see the early tomatoes.
However, the matter is not limited to planting, and therefore it is necessary to understand both the technology of preparing seed material and the process of “forcing” seedlings. But if all the time frames are met, then the tomato crop will turn out great.
- The pot is buried by 3 cm. As a result, the plant sits as if in a large hole. Next in this hole every 3 days add a mixture of humus with peat, but not more than 3 cm in one filling. Thus, there is a gradual deepening, as a result of which a new additional root system is formed in the plant. The seedling develops normally and forms the first brush.
- Moreover, such operations can be repeated, and not once - until your polycarbonate greenhouse is fully ready for planting tomato seedlings. You'd be surprised, but by the summer you will have quite strong bushes to grow, although you, frankly speaking, mocked at the planting materials. But as they say, what does not kill - makes you stronger.
Flowers grown in the greenhouse are in great demand in the commercial business.
Daytime temperature should be 24-21 ° С, and nighttime 19-20 ° С. And for relative humidity there is a limit. For this vegetable, it should be no more than 68%. For tomatoes, not only moist soil is important, but also dry air.
Grow a scatter in time
Plantings for each plant provide an individual approach to crops.
A good tomato seedling is when the plant grows without interference, in an open, sunny place, with plenty of heat, nutrition, and moisture. The main rule of seedlings: each plant has space and light! Good seedlings grow more in breadth than height. A month later, the trunk of the seedling tomato should be as thick as a pencil. LED lighting comes to the rescue.
Large, very tall varieties of tomatoes, such as Russian Size, Pink Giant, Bull Heart, as a rule are late-ripening, therefore they should be planted in the third decade of February.
The planting itself and the subsequent care also have a fairly strong influence on the formation of flowers and fruits.
- We take a small container with low sides. Pour water on the bottom and pour about 2.5 cm of soil.
- We will plant later, when the buds have already opened - with a high probability we will lose the first ovary, and the result will also not be the one we need.
- To guess the optimal landing date is akin to art. But you can learn this!
Do not water the tomatoes immediately after planting in the greenhouse. The soil should be compacted around the plant and immediately mulched with dry soil. The layer should be about 5 cm. It should not be watered so that a crust does not form on the surface. Rows gently loosened to reduce evaporation from the ground. During the planting of seedlings in the greenhouse, the specified procedure allows it to quickly take root. It is not necessary to water every day.
What if seedlings grow too fast?
For growing tomatoes in greenhouses, tall varieties and hybrids are most widely used. In central Russia, tomato seedlings are usually planted in the first half of May, and in more southern regions in April. Her age should not exceed 60 days. By this time, the plants should have large buds on the first hand. For a high yield, the soil is carefully prepared. For heavy soils, sanding is desirable, as well as the introduction of organic fertilizers in the form of humus, half-dead manure or peat. For tomato, soil aeration — free air access to the roots — is especially important. In a greenhouse, tomatoes are planted in rows at the rate of 3 bushes per m2. Plants are planted in wells 12-15 cm deep. First, warm water is poured into them (30-40 ° C) at the rate of 1.5-2 liters, depending on soil moisture. When water is absorbed, the plant is immersed in the formed gruel up to the first true leaf, so that the roots touch the ground. Then they pour the soil to the stem, compact it, and from above they mulch with dry earth or peat so that a crust does not form, which prevents air exchange. If the weather is sunny, it is advisable to pritenite plants for better rooting. Within a week after planting along a row at a height of 2 m, trellis is used to tie the plants. Twine is tied up under the first-second sheet. As the stem grows, the twine is twisted around it. One turn should be at 1.5-2 internodes. Simultaneously with twisting the plants stepchild. In cloudy weather, watering should be avoided, it is better to once again plow the earth. After each watering, the next day, the soil must be loosened so that carbon dioxide emitted by the root system does not accumulate and does not interfere with the growth of plants. And for 7-10 days after planting, tomatoes are not watered. Then it is necessary to water regularly and abundantly: in May - once or twice a week, in June 2-3 times, in hot weather during fruit filling daily. Water the soil should be carefully, trying not to splash water on the leaves. During watering and after the greenhouse is thoroughly aired. With the onset of warm weather all the vents and doors should be kept open. The air humidity in the greenhouse should not exceed 70%. With increased humidity, pollination and fruit set is worsening, favorable conditions are created for the development of diseases. The optimum air temperature in the greenhouse is necessary in sunny weather - 24-26 ° C, in cloudy weather - 18-20, at night 15-16.To improve air exchange and accelerate fruit ripening 30-40 days after transplanting, lower leaves are removed. By the time of fruit ripening on the first inflorescence of the leaves below it should not be.
By investing your soul in such an exciting business as growing vegetables and flowers in a greenhouse, you can get not only a wonderful harvest, but also a great pleasure from the process itself.
Such different "requests" exclude the possibility of planting tomatoes and cucumbers in the same greenhouse. Therefore, the best option would be to have two greenhouses. One would be capital, for growing tomatoes, eggplants and peppers, as well as early green vegetables and seedlings. And the second - film - would be suitable for growing cucumbers and melons. But the capital greenhouse can accommodate 3-5 cucumber plants.
When to plant, and how to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse
Each crop has its own planting time in the greenhouse.
When grown in a greenhouse, the yield of juicy and sweet tomatoes can be increased at least twice, if you follow simple rules: grow strong and healthy seedlings, plant them in suitable terms and periodically water and feed.
The following parameters influence the landing time:
- weather, especially if the greenhouse or greenhouse is not heated,
- landing site (greenhouse built for the summer months or polycarbonate greenhouse, which is year-round),
- demanding of vegetables to the degree of heating of the soil and air,
- the maximum age of the seedlings,
- lunar calendar (stay of the moon in the signs of the zodiac, which favorably affect the growth of culture),
- omens known in the people.
One of the most important conditions is keeping the temperature. This is a pledge of a bountiful harvest.
If the substrate or the soil in an unheated greenhouse does not meet the standard value, and the planting of the tomato is still carried out, then the plant will experience stress. This will be due to adverse conditions. The cold can slow down the development process. The adaptation process will be much longer compared to normal growing conditions. Fruiting will start late. Usually the fruit from such plants can be collected a little, their size is small.
Tomato seedlings can be planted at 15 ° C (soil temperature). How to determine the age of the plant, which is subject to landing? When the gardener independently sowed seeds into a container and grew a sapling, then there will be no problems with such manipulation. What to do with the purchase of seedlings? In the process of determining the age should focus on the following indicators:
- stalk thickness
- the number of well-formed leaves.
Sowing tomato seeds should be done at a suitable time. Need to focus on the climatic conditions of a particular region. In temperate climates, you can sow seeds in early or mid-April. Seedlings should stay in pots for no more than 50 days. If all the conditions are met, the seedlings grow to 35-40 cm. So, she will not suffer from an insufficient amount of space in the pot, she will have enough light, she will not be able to overheat.
With proper care and timely sowing of seeds will be able to get the stems of a dense structure. The root system will be filled with a sufficient number of forces and will be moderately developed.
Before planting tomatoes in the greenhouse it is necessary to prepare the beds. Raise the beds should be in order to quickly warm the soil. Their height can be 25 cm. Before performing the procedure itself, you need to loosen the soil. During the first month from the date of transplanting, it should not be watered too often, since waterlogging should not be allowed. Tomatoes need good drainage.
Planting tomatoes in a greenhouse can be made in early June. With earlier manipulations, the soil temperature is measured. The depth of measurement should be 20 cm.
If the soil is not warm enough (less than 13 ° C), the root system of the plant will not be able to absorb enough moisture. The plant will not be in the right amount of nutrients, which adversely affects the process of further growth and fruiting.
Torn out seedlings should be kept with wet roots so that they do not dry out, otherwise the plant will not apply. The use of diapers for this purpose is very common. They are moistened with water, the seedlings are wrapped in cloth. So, it stays fresh for a long time. However, this is an extreme measure; if possible, seedlings should be pulled out immediately before transplanting.
After planting, small dimples are made in the upper layers of the soil. In them further fertilizer is applied (complex organic fertilizer diluted with water with the addition of potassium permanganate). Planted seedlings in the greenhouse should look inflorescences to the aisle. So it will be possible to achieve an earlier fruiting, even if the vegetable was planted at a later date. This is due to the fact that the fruit will always be in the sunlight, not shaded by leaves.
If the seedlings have outgrown, it is laid in an inclined position. The top is located in the south. Pre-tear the bottom 3-4 leaves, the stem slightly sprinkled with soil below.
The landing time can be calculated correctly, but sometimes weather conditions fail. Quite often they interfere with the implementation of the planned process. To plant seedlings of tomatoes in the greenhouse is possible only when temperature conditions and other climatic factors allow it. In 2017 it was one date, and in 2018 it was completely different, and the difference in terms could be big.
If the planting time has not yet come, and the seedlings begin to outgrow, it is necessary to slow down the development of culture. Moreover, it is not recommended to delay with similar events, as the necessary moment can be lost. This will cause the seedlings to become unsuitable for further use. In former conditions without disembarkation in the greenhouse it cannot develop properly.
Before planting tomatoes, you can resort to the following activities:
- reduce watering
- reduce the temperature in the seedling room
- apply a special drug.
All these methods are quite simple, but they are tested. Planting dates can be significantly postponed if properly irrigated. It needs to be reduced to a minimum. It is not necessary to overdo it, because the non-humidified root system will not be able to provide the plant with food, which will lead to its death. Therefore, you need to constantly monitor the condition of the soil, it should not completely dry out.
Preparation of soil for seedlings (video)
Reducing the temperature - the right way to slow down plant growth. It will deceive the calendar and move the date to a later period. Heat contributes to the development of tomatoes, while a good temperature is considered to be 20 ° C. Slow growth can be at 16-17 ° C. The room can be ventilated, but not often, so that there is no draft in the room. This will negatively affect the tomatoes, and they will not be suitable for planting.
Modern manufacturers pay attention to special regulators that control the growth of plants.
The most popular tool in this category is the athlete. Its use really allows you to delay the planting of tomatoes in the greenhouse.
To slow the growth of tomatoes, they must be completely deprived of light. This method is controversial. Most experts remain his opponents, as it negatively affects the plants. Therefore, it is better not to contact him.
Preparing for planting
Before planting tomatoes, they must be prepared. Begin the procedure should be a few weeks before you have to plant seedlings in a permanent place. A common procedure is to reduce the amount of watering. In addition, you need to often ventilate the room. Before planting, such measures are useful, as they allow the seedlings to get stronger.
To produce a hardening culture, you need to reduce the temperature in the room where the seedlings. To do this, you can resort to open a window or window in the room for a couple of hours, move the seedlings to the balcony (15-20 min.).
The temperature in the room should not fall much. The value can be reduced to a maximum of 5 degrees Celsius. Before planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, their time on the balcony can be gradually increased. However, it is necessary to focus on weather conditions and the state of plants.
Before planting tomatoes in a greenhouse, you can feed them. Ash is most often used for this purpose. This is a good tool, as it gives good results.
For feeding you need to prepare a special solution. To do this, take: ash (100 g) and water (10 l). The components are mixed. When you have to plant seedlings in a greenhouse, you need to completely stop watering this week. This will protect the plant from excessive root development.
However, for the favorable development of tomatoes in the greenhouse, it is necessary to periodically spray the leaves. To do this, use a special sprayer. But this kind of watering should not be abundant. It is produced only for the maintenance of tomatoes, to prevent the appearance of sluggish leaves.
Before planting plants in the greenhouse, on the very last day, seedlings should be subject to abundant watering. This allows the root system to be saturated with moisture, which leads to its more successful adoption in a new place.
For the successful planting of tomatoes it is necessary at the preparatory stage to follow all the recommendations. All activities will need to be held every year. They contribute to the hardening of plants, which makes them fearless about the relatively small frosts that can occur in late May or early June, depending on the growing region.
For planting tomatoes in the greenhouse the most optimal time in 2018 - from the beginning of May until the 10th of this month. Often, tomatoes are planted under the film, then you need to focus on the middle of May until May 25, 2018.
If the plants are high enough, then during planting they must be tied up. For this, a special metal peg is installed on the side. Usually, 5-6 days before planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, their flowers should be processed if they have already formed. For this, a special solution is usually used. Its components: boric acid (1 tsp.) And hot water (1 l.). The elements are mixed, and the solution is sent to a special device for spraying.
To make sure that tomatoes are ready for transplanting, you need to check the presence of at least 6 normally formed leaves.
- Planting tomatoes in a greenhouse or greenhouse is necessary in the evening. This will reduce the level of stress that the plant will experience. In the evening and at night, the air temperature drops, the sun does not immediately shine on the seedlings, it calmly resists until the morning, it can get used a little. If you plant tomatoes in a greenhouse during the day, they may wither and not reap.
- Высадка рассады, которая ранее не росла в отдельных горшках, должна выполняться в короткие сроки. Соблюдение такого условия позволит им акклиматизироваться и начать быстрее расти на новом месте. В солнечных теплицах, в которые поступает много яркого света, только что высаженные томаты нуждаются в небольшом затенении. Такая процедура крайне важна при ясной солнечной погоде. Тень нужна в течение 2-3 суток. Потом потребуется много света. If the street is partly cloudy, the procedure is optional.
- Sometimes it’s not only the growing moon that helps determine the timing (in 2018, you need to keep track of favorable dates, since they differ from the previous year), but also some nature tips. According to signs, the onset of warm spring days is being judged, but one must be careful, since the sign may not always work. If the frogs did not start croaking, but sit quietly in the water, then you should not hurry with the landing activities, since the frost will still hit. Even if the calendar announces the beginning of the season, you should listen to the signs.
The calendar is a good assistant in determining a specific date for planting tomatoes in the greenhouse. However, there are a large number of other factors that need to be guided in order for the timing to be correct. All this together will lead to a good and high-quality result.