Vegetables

Planting and caring for potatoes in the open field

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Potatoes are called second bread. However, not everyone, including experienced gardeners, manages to harvest a rich harvest in the fall. Weather conditions and soil conditions, potato varieties and crop rotation, pest and crop disease control affect crop yields. It is important that the agrotechnical process of planting in the spring and growing the plant, along with care in the open field, be observed.

Preparatory work before planting potatoes

Landing material taken back in the fallwhen putting tuber crops in storage in the cellar or basement. Storage temperature - up to +4, relative humidity-60%. It is recommended to plant tubers of medium size, large roots are cut into two halves, so that each part has several eyes.

Ensure that the variety is good at cutting planting.

A maximum of one month before planting seeds are required to germinate in the light. Planting material is taken out of the cellar and placed in boxes or on a tarpaulin in one layer, giving access to natural light.

We sort and sort potatoes, reject rotten, sick and tubers without sprouts, as well as non-standard size. This procedure is carried out before landing.

When to plant

The golden rule of gardeners: planting potatoes after the leaves appeared on the birch and before the bird cherry blossoms. Potatoes are a heat-loving plant. If the temperature reaches 15 degrees in the root zone, they begin to grow.

The top layer of the soil has not warmed enough, therefore the seeds are planted on half of the spade of the spade on sandy soils and to a depth of 10 cm on heavy soils.

Do not plant the tubers too deep., because in the end you get a trifle and a lot of tops.

If night frosts threaten, and shoots appear, roll up “with the head” so that the tops can be barely noticeable.

The optimum depth of landing is 10-15 cm.

Distance between rows when landing

Width between rows is 70 cm for late varieties, for early varieties - 60 cm, the distance between the tubers in the holes - 30 cm (for seed potatoes - 20 cm). In narrow aisles, it is inconvenient to weed and spud.

When planting small tubers, the distance between them is reduced.

Growing culture under agrofibre

Using agrofibre (spunbond, agrotex, lutrasil) allows you to harvest potatoes 2 - 3 weeks earlier. This material helps to shift landing dates and protects against frost.

The harvest of early potatoes is influenced by the following factors:

  • planting material (with sprouted eyes),
  • autumn processing of the earth with the introduction of organic fertilizers,
  • pest control (wireworm, scoop, Colorado potato beetle) and diseases (phytophthora, fungal diseases).

Early potatoes under agrofibre are grown in the following ways:

  • free shelter with white agrofibre early planted potatoes. Under it, seedlings are protected from sudden changes in temperature. When the potatoes reach a height of 20 cm and favorable weather conditions, the material is removed.
  • Using black covering material that covers the beds. When warming up the soil, they make holes for planting seeds: one hole for one tuber.

Classic landing methods: on the ridges, in the pit, smooth

The classic or traditional methods include planting potatoes on the ridges, in the ditches (trenches), smooth. Each option applies depending on local conditions.

  • If at the site of excess moisture, you can plant on the ridgesto protect plants from drenching. On heavy soils, this type of planting is also advisable. The height of the ridges reaches 20 cm, the tubers planted in them, rise above the soil.
  • For landing in the pit or trenches are suitable sandy soil. Sounds like planting potatoes in the ridges, but it is planted in the trenches between the ridges.
  • Smooth landing - This is the average between landing on the ridges and in the pit. Seed material is laid out on the surface or in the furrow, then falling asleep from the edges of the ground.

Planting depth depends on soil type:

  • up to 12 cm - light soils
  • up to 10 cm - heavy and loamy,
  • up to 5 cm - clay.
Choose a planting depth depending on which soil you plant.

Features care after germination

Therefore, a special care after the sprouting of potatoes is simply obliged to know every lover of planting vegetables. Consider how to properly care for the culture.

To potato seedlings could not freeze, you need to cover the first seedlings with earth. However, it should be remembered that the covered layer of earth should not exceed 5 cm. If this is not done, then of course there will be a harvest, because tubers will give new sprouts, but the yield will be significantly lower than after shelter.

Superficial loosening is carried out by a rake until shoots appear. Further systematically repeated to remove weeds and prevent the formation of a hard crust after rain.

The need for watering - only in case of lack of moisture.

Rolling hilling

In this case, the earth, on the contrary, is not littered from the sides, but turns out to be in the middle of a bush. Stems moving apart on the sides. Access to lighting increases, competition for nutrients and light decreases. Fan hilling guarantees the possibility of increasing the crop by 2 times.

First hilling it is carried out when the appeared shoots reach height of 10 cm.

Second time spud potatoes 2 or 3 weeks after the first. First weed the beds, and then sprinkled with the soil of the plant.

There are foliar and root dressings of culture, the latter are more often used in practice.

When planting potatoes nesting method is used when fertilizer is applied to each well. it the most economical way. Introduced mineral organic mixture consisting of humus and superphosphate, ash and ammonium nitrate.

Recommended 3 dressings for the growing season:

  • after planting, when shoots appear,
  • in the budding stage,
  • when flowering.

First feeding

On the bucket use half a liter mullein and urea (15 g), consumption - half a liter per plant.

An alternative to manure is bird droppings containing potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus (1.5 tablespoons per bucket). Urea can be replaced by nitrate.

With the second feeding, you do not need to deposit nitrogen, as this is a period of active formation and growth of tubers. Phosphorus and potassium is introduced. To 10 liters of water, 15 g of double superphosphate and potassium sulfate, in addition to half a cup of ash. Consumption for 1 bush - half a liter.

Last application 20 days before harvest. Apply mineral and organic fertilizers: a simple superphosphate (30 g) and slurry (1 cup) is added to a bucket of water; half a liter per 1 culture is used.

To protect against viral diseases that adversely affect the crop, carry out prevention. For this purpose, planting only healthy seed. To prevent fungal diseases, spraying is carried out when plants bloom and when buds appear.

Late blight does not develop on soils saturated with copper. Bordeaux mixture - a reliable means by which the seeds are processed before planting in the soil. At the beginning of growth, it is used for spraying plants. If the leaves turn black, the tops must be cut and burned.

To protect the potato field from diseases, sow herbs, calendula, horseradish on the edges of the plot. Sunflower - not the best neighborhood for culture.

Root crops are harvested in late August - mid September. It depends on the potato variety, weather conditions. Should be cleaned when dry in the yard so that the tubers are ventilated and dry.

Before digging, it is required to mow the tops with weeds, leaving the above-ground part 10 cm high. This will allow the transfer of nutrients from the above-ground part to the tuber crops, accelerate the ripening of the peel, and increase the keeping quality of the potato. Favorable effect on the quality storage of seeds.

By harvesting, do not forget to destroy the tops and weeds - The source of many diseases of the potato.

Dried material with a layer of half a meter or in bags is left for several weeks for a healing period, the task of which, after re-bulkheading, is to reject damaged and diseased roots.

Lay in storage in the basement, underground, cellar at a temperature of + 2 to + 5 degrees.

A good neighbor of the potato during storage is beetwhich absorbs excess moisture.

The benefits of beet available - it protects against overflow

Folk remedies

  • Wood ash. On 1 weave consumes about 10 kg. Sifted with ash sprinkled with tops in the early morning when it is wet, 1 time every two weeks before budding. Later monthly.
  • Mustard. Spray the plants with a solution prepared from 1 kg of powder on a bucket of liquid with the addition of 9% vinegar (100 ml).
  • Dusting with cement. Gardeners agree that this method causes the death of the larvae.

Herbal infusions and decoctions

  • Birch tar. On a bucket of water - 100 g of tar, spraying three times a week.
  • Celandine: Chopped fresh or dried, filling the bucket with grass. Boil. For spraying plants use 500 ml of broth per 10 liters of liquid.
  • Onion Husk: 300 g of husks are poured with a bucket of water heated to 80 degrees. Press down with a load. In a day the infusion is ready.
  • Bitter pepper: boil 100 g of dry pepper in a bucket of water. Having added 40 g of soap to warm broth, spray tops.
  • Tobacco: 0.5 kg of tobacco dust is drawn in 10 liters of water for two days. Diluted 1: 2, add 40 g of soap.

Plants - repellent against beetle

It does not tolerate the smell of marigold, calendula, night violet, coriander, borage. Since the Colorado potato beetle quickly adapts to stimuli, means of dealing with it must be alternated regularly.

Know that an important role in collecting a good harvest is correct crop rotation. When growing crops in one area, even innovative agronomic technologies will not bring the desired result.

A good harvest justifies all efforts to care for the crop.

So, following the technology of planting and caring for potatoes, you can get a good harvest.

Ways of planting potatoes

There are several ways of planting potatoes:

Trench. This method is great for a warm climate, provided that the soil is light, sandy, and does not hold moisture. In this case, it will be right to dig trenches under potatoes, 10-15 cm deep, the distance between which is 70 cm. The tubers are laid out according to their size: large ones every 40 cm, small ones - 30-35.

Sometimes for this type of planting, summer residents prepare small ditches in advance, starting in the fall (this method excludes autumn digging of the ground). Having dug trenches to a depth of 5–10 cm, they make a kind of “pillow” of organic matter: straw or other plant residues with rotted manure, and all this is filled with earth. In spring, potatoes can be planted earlier than usual, because decaying organic matter will warm the soil faster.

Smooth For this type of planting, it is only necessary to raise the bed of the earth, put the tuber of potatoes upwards, and sprinkle with soil. This simple method is a great solution for well-lit areas without stagnant water. Peculiar "holes" are made at a distance of 60-70cm to a depth of half a bayonet of a shovel. Landing is made in two rows, in a checkerboard pattern. This will facilitate inter-row processing of potatoes in the future, when sprouts appear.

Ridge. If the soil on the site is “heavy”, wet, this method is suitable. At a distance of 70 cm from each other, ridges 10–15 cm in height are made, and potato tubers are planted in them at a distance of 30 cm. This helps excess moisture weathered faster.

Basic rules for planting potatoes:

  • Traditionally, it is customary to plant potatoes in early May.
  • The site should be sunny, without stagnant water.
  • The direction of the landing ridges is from the north, to the south, this will make it possible to evenly illuminate and warm up the rows with potatoes.

The method and scheme of planting is selected based on the specific conditions under which the plant comfortably grow and bear fruit. Then it is much more convenient to take care of planting, and more significant results are obtained.

Proper care of potatoes after planting

Potatoes sprouted by all the rules produce healthier sprouts. But it is not excluded that the plant needs further care. Caring for potatoes after planting involves several steps:

Watering is one of the important factors affecting the yield of potatoes. If the summer is not dry, then enough to spend 3 watering. But this must be done correctly and on time. There is no need to water immediately after planting, as the earth still contains spring moisture. But when the tops begin to grow actively, and this is half a month after the emergence of shoots, the plant badly needs additional moisture.

The process of flowering potatoes shows that the formation of tubers has begun, which means that it is time to water again. The third watering will depend on how dry the soil is. If it is hard, it does not warm up well in the hand, and at a depth of 6 centimeters or more it is dry, then it needs to be moistened. The next day or every other day, depending on the drying out of the soil, it is necessary to loosen the earth. Or it is possible to decompose mulch on wet ground, which also contributes to the preservation of moisture in the soil.

What to choose? Sprinkling method or drip irrigation? Many gardeners see the advantage of each type of irrigation. For example, if there is an opportunity to install sprinklers for a day or more, it would seem to replace a little rain, when not only the soil is moistened, but also washes away dust from the leaves and stalks. When drip irrigation more water goes under the bush.

Hilling

Inter-row processing of potatoes is very important. It can protect young plants from possible frosts, remove weeds, ensure accumulation of moisture and air flow to the roots, and stimulate the growth of green mass and roots. It turns out that hilling is an important part of caring for a plant, as yield directly depends on it. The first loosening between the rows can be carried out immediately, as young shoots of potatoes appear. In the future, you need to produce hilling every time after rain or watering, and before flowering.

There are several methods of hilling - mechanized: with a walk-behind tractor, and manual: with a chopper, hiller, and flat-cutter.

The potato responds well to a mixed feed, both organic and mineral fertilizers. You can even plant potatoes by adding ash or nitrophoska (1 tbsp. L per well).

Potatoes are recommended for the season to feed three times. In this case, the first time this is done when the tops are still young and developing. To do this, in a bucket of water (10l) divorce 1st tablespoon. urea. Or make a semi-liquid mullein. On the bush at least 0.5 liters of any of the solutions. Fertilize only after rain or watering.

The second mandatory dressing in time of budding is designed to accelerate the flowering process. To do this, a bucket of water needs 3 tbsp. spoons of ash and 1 tbsp. spoons of potassium sulfate.

For feeding potatoes during flowering is perfect superphosphate granules. Thanks to this fertilizer, a good root system develops, the formation of tubers is accelerated (a glass of semi-liquid mullein and 2 tbsp of superphosphate are needed for 10 liters of water).

Ash not only fertilizes, but also perfectly protects potato bushes from rotting in wet weather. Therefore, it is not only possible to water the plants with a solution with ashes, but also to publish the tops with it. The same method helps to fight the main enemy of the potato - the Colorado potato beetle.

Natural onions are widely used and onion peel. It can be added to the wells when planting potatoes, and mumulching plantings with it, sprinkling around the plants. Planting potatoes in or around legumes, calendula or mustard will help protect the roots from the wireworm.

From late blight help garlic infusion. 200 g of garlic crushed to mush, add a little water and let it brew for 2 days. Then mix this infusion with 10 liters of water and you can process the plants. This should be done 2-3 times with an interval of 10 days.

There are other means of protecting potatoes from diseases and pests. For example, the mechanical collection of the Colorado potato beetle and its larvae, or chemicals.

Tips for growing potatoes in the open field

  1. Only healthy tubers are chosen for planting.
  2. At least 10 days before disembarking, planting material is transferred to a warm place.
  3. It is necessary to plant potatoes in the soil heated to 8˚ or more.
  4. Watering should be done only in the evening, so that the moisture on the leaves can dry out in the morning.
  5. Loosening the soil after watering should be done as early as possible.
  6. Breaking the stem from the ground at a distance of 15 cm is a method that allows the leaves to not develop after flowering. Then the potato bush focuses all its strength on the roots.
  7. Watering stops 3-4 weeks before harvest.

On how to plant potatoes, see the video.

History of origin

The homeland of a tasty vegetable is South America, by the way, there a vegetable grows in the wild and now. The widespread use of the tuber began many thousands of years ago by the indigenous people of America - the Indians, who deified the plant and worshiped it. Many stories, legends and fairy tales are associated with vegetables, for example, the people of the Incas used potatoes to measure time, where one hour meant the time of cooking of tubers.

Scientific name - Solanum tuberosum (tuberiferous nightshade) - was assigned in 1596 by the Swiss botanist Caspar Baugin, but the Russian name "potato" of Italian origin from the word tartufolo, which means truffleBecause some varieties really resemble truffles in shape and color.

The vegetable was brought to Russia under the government of Peter I, and it was then that a massive poisoning of the peasants occurred, who simply misused it and grew it. After this incident, the so-called “instruction manual” for potatoes was distributed to all farms and estates, and over time people adapted to growing and cooking it. Since then, potatoes are considered the second bread and the most popular product in Russia.

External description

Potatoes are an herbaceous, perennial plant belonging to the family of the Solanaceae of the Nightshade family. With proper care, plant height can reach more than 80 cm.

Trunk plants smooth, branched, juicy. Leaves dark green, sinewy, feathery, oval-shaped, tender and soft. Flowers purple, white or pink, with a convex cone-shaped yellow-orange center, grow scycoid inflorescences, collected in 7-10 flowers. Fruit dark green, round multi-seedlings, outwardly similar to the fruits of nightshade or ovary of tomatoes, whose diameter does not exceed 2 cm. Apply to foodfruits are prohibited for the poisonous alkaloid concentration of solanine contained in the peel, leaves and stem of the plant. In addition, you can not use green tubers or green areas.

Tubers oval, round or flattened in shape, the color of the tubers can be white, beige, yellow, pink or purple. In a section tubers white or yellow, the shade is characteristic to grades and types of a potato. Tuber pulp is rich in vitamins and trace elements necessary for the proper functioning of our body, namely:

  • Vitamins of group B (B1, B2, B5, B6, B9), A, C, E, H, PP,
  • Beta carotene
  • Calcium, magnesium, cobalt, potassium, sodium, iodine, fluorine, zinc, iron, phosphorus, copper.

The plant is propagated by tubers, its parts and seeds, the latter method is very laborious and does not always bring positive results.

Popular varieties

Potato varieties have more than 50 thousand copies and are divided into several groups:

  • Super storage, cultivation period up to 40 days (Ariel, Riviera, Minevra, Bellaroza),
  • Early ripening in 50-60 days (Red Scarlett, Impala, Rosalind, Dnepryanka, etc.),
  • Medium early varieties take up to 80 days of cultivation (Nevsky, Zabava, Sineglazka, Mriya, etc.),
  • Mid-term varieties growth period up to 95 days (Mystery of Peter, Santa, Picasso),
  • Middle-Late ripen all summer and take up to 110 days (Zdabytak, Desiree, Kuroda),
  • Late varieties can ripen for more than 110 days (Orbit, Cardinal, Zarnitsa).

There are a lot of names and properties of varieties, but we brought the most common ones.

Outdoor cultivation

Potatoes in our latitudes are growing well, but you need to know the secrets of growing a tasty and large tuber. Yield is greatly influenced by several factors: weather conditions, soil composition, plant variety, care, dressing, watering, pest and disease control. The planting process includes a variety of agrotechnical activities.

Seed preparation before planting

The best seed is selected immediately after harvest in the autumn. For planting selected healthy tubers of medium size with the presence of several large eyes, to be free from damage and manifestations of the disease. Wintering the seeds takes place in the basement or cellar at a temperature not higher than 4 degrees Celsius and 60% air humidity.

In the spring, 3-4 weeks before planting, the tubers are placed in a warm room for germination. Potatoes are distributed in one layer on the floor or in separate boxes for free light penetration to the seeds. Hardening seed tubers can be in the fall, spreading them in open territory in partial shade. Then the tubers begin to acquire a greenish color, on the one hand, they are poisonous and absolutely unsuitable in cooking, but on the other, they are more resistant to diseases and pests.

After the buds swell, the seeds are sorted out and taken away by sluggish, spoiled and rotten potatoes, weak and thin sprouts are removed, and the tubers are discarded. The sorting process is repeated before the planting itself and are treated with a solution of Zircon or Appin to stimulate growth and rooting. If the seeds purchased they can be protected from disease by placing in a 1-% solution of boric acid for 20-30 minutes or hold it in hot water at a temperature of 40 degrees.

Landing time

After selecting the most suitable for the cultivation of tubers, prepare the soil and begin planting. For proper and full harvest, it is necessary to choose the time of planting in the middle of spring, so that the sprouts have time to be saturated with moisture and germinate before the onset of summer heat and drought. Planting begins in April - early May, when the ground is warm enough, but it is important not to delay the deadlines, otherwise the yield will decrease, the same outcome awaits if you plant potatoes in early spring. The main indicator of soil readiness is birch smoke, i.e. the emergence of blooming leaves.

Soil preparation and site selection

For potatoes, they emit a sunny, open area with fertilized, light soil, in general, it can grow in any soil, but great results have been noted on sandy, sandy and black earth lands. Sour and slightly acidic soils are neutralized with hydrated lime, scattering it over the area and digging it. Potatoes grow very well in place after cabbage, beets, spinach, cucumbers and lettuce. A good harvest gives fertile virgin, even without the introduction of organic and mineral components.

It is undesirable to plant potatoes in the place where the solanaceous cousins ​​grew: tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants - They have a number of diseases that reduce yields. If the site is observed fungal or other diseases of the potato, the subsequent planting is undesirable in this place.

In the autumn, the site is dug up in large layers to a depth of 20-25 cm. Before plowing or digging, it is recommended to fertilize the soil with wood ash, compost, humus or mullein, spreading the fertilizer around the garden. In the spring, digging can be repeated, fertilizing the soil not only with humus, but also with sand, for this purpose half a bucket of sand is put into each well.

Varieties of landing

Planting potatoes is carried out in moist soil, heated to 10 degrees to a depth of 5-15 cm. In dense clay soils, the depth of the hole is 5-7 cm, and in loose sandy and sandy loams up to 15 cm. The distance between the rows is at least 70 cm, and holes - 35 cm

A handful of ashes can increase the yield of potatoes; they are added to the hole along with the tuber when they are planted. Potash phosphate fertilizer is the best growth promoter.

There are these types of landing:

  • Smooth type - potatoes are planted in the furrows or holes and sprinkled with earth,
  • On the ridges - planted tubers are at a height of 20 cm from the surface level. This method is used if the ground is too wet or close to the groundwater,
  • In the pit, it is similar to the previous one, only disembarking does not take place on the ridges, but between them in the trenches.

After planting, the ground is leveled using a rake.

Potato care

Before the emergence of seedlings and the first leaves, the ground should be loosened with strong drying - this can be done with a rake. When the shoots appear, the ground is loosened, pile up and remove weeds. After a heavy rain or watering, an earth crust is formed, it is removed for good breathability of the soil. In addition to basic care, it is obligatory to treat herbs from diseases and pests that love to feast on potato leaves.

Watering. After winter, the soil is saturated with water from snow and rain, so watering is not necessary before flowering only in arid climates, but when buds form, the soil should always be wet. The next watering is carried out after the soil dries to a depth of 6 cm. On hot days, watering is carried out in the evening, pouring about 2-3 liters of water under each bush. After abundant watering, loosen the soil.

In addition to watering, caring for potatoes after planting includes hilling bushes. The procedure is carried out at least 2 times during the flowering season. When hilling under a bush, plants scoop up the earth, creating a mound that protects the roots from the sun's rays, the bush from breaking up and contributes to the formation of stolons, thereby increasing the crop.

Top dressing carried out as necessary, trying not to overpower the soil. Potatoes are poured with chicken or cow droppings, which are prepared in advance and give him the opportunity to ferment. The solution is diluted in water in proportions of 1:15 (mullein) and 1:25 (chicken droppings). You can feed mineral liquid solutions, diluted according to the instructions, but before you do this, estimate the amount of humus introduced in the fall and spring.

Diseases and pests

The main pest of potatoes is the striped pest - Colorado beetle. Their number can be reduced using popular advice:

  • To plant beans or legumes around the perimeter of the plot,
  • Sow Calendula in rows or between rows of potatoes
  • Sprinkle green bushes with sifted wood ash, by the way, it is an excellent fertilizer, which with the first rain will fall to the roots of the plant.

If these methods do not help, it is worth purchasing a special preparation that is diluted in water and sprayed on the leaves of the plant.

Rhizoctoniosis is determined by the reddened stems and leaves, as well as the formation of tubers in the plant axils. The disease damages the vascular system of the stem and leads to a weakening of the bush and yield.

Stem rot appears when the soil is wetted. As well as the potato is affected by fomosis, scab, spotting, cancer and other diseases. In the fight against them will help special drugs.

Harvesting

The main factor speaking about the readiness of the harvest is the yellowing and drying of the tops of the plant, as well as the terms of the variety from 40 to 110 days. A readiness check can be carried out by digging a couple of bushes and verifying the volume of tubers.

When harvesting, potatoes are dug, dried, sorted, removing spoiled and diseased potatoes. Sorted, taking seed samples, and stored until spring in the basement at a temperature not higher than +4 0 C.

Potatoes: preparation for planting, planting and care

Planting and caring for potatoes in the open field requires adherence to a certain technology. The landing is carried out on a light area, with rows from north to south. It is very good if the soil is sufficiently wet (the recommended moisture level is up to 5.5 units), but the vegetable can also grow in acidic soil. Growth of tubers occurs well on such soils: loamy, sandy, sandy and black soil. When planted on heavy soils, the tubers will develop poorly, because they will lack air due to the high density of the soil. The presence of high humidity in heavy soil can trigger rot.

Figure 2. Preparation of beds for potatoes

It is recommended to prepare the soil for planting in the fall in the following way: digging up the soil to a depth of 30 cm, cleaning the weeds, adding humus and wood ash.

Note: Potatoes are well planted in the soil after cucumbers, cabbage, beets, sideratov and greens. However, it is not recommended to carry out planting work in the soil where such crops were previously grown: eggplants, tomatoes, sweet peppers and potatoes.

As a rule, planting material is placed in a wet ground. However, the depth of the grooves depends on the composition of the soil. With heavy and dense ground, the hole should be much smaller. For example, in clay soil the depth is up to 5 cm, and sandy loam up to 12 cm. The method of planting depends on the characteristics of the soil and is best done in this way:

  • In light soils (sand, sandy loam, loam and black soil) it is recommended to plant planting material in the grooves or holes.
  • In dense soils and not sufficiently heated, it is best to use the ridge method of planting.

With a smooth planting, the tubers are placed in the holes or grooves in which woody ash has already been laid (the best fertilizer for potatoes). It is recommended to maintain a distance between tubers of 35 cm and a width of 70 cm between the rows, such parameters will allow you to easily find the ground when hilling (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Planting potatoes in open ground

Planting on heavy soil is much easier with a cultivator, and it is necessary to cut ridges with a height of no more than 12 cm and a width of no more than 65 cm. On sandy soils, the tubers are planted to a depth of 10 cm and 8 cm from the top of the loamy loam.

The author of the video tells how to prepare the garden for planting potatoes.

Loosening potatoes

Planting and caring for potatoes in the required order includes loosening. It begins to hold even before the first shoots. Germinating tubers in the soil need air. To do this, the surface is harrowed or superficially loosened by a rake. After raising the plants, the aisles are loosened after watering (rain), since the formation of a crust on the ground surface is not desirable.

What it is

Loosening the surface layer of the soil should be carried out to a depth of 3 cm, since this can increase the flow of air to the plants. Also, with the help of this manipulation, small weeds are destroyed (Figure 4).

The first loosening should be carried out a week after landing. Further loosening is done as needed and after irrigation (rain), which will prevent the formation of a crust on the surface and help saturate the soil with oxygen. When loosening it is necessary to be very careful not to damage the plants and not to pull them to the surface.

What you need to do

Today, many gardeners in the household have motorblocks with which hilling of potatoes occurs much faster and without much physical labor. The agricultural machinery market is filled with a large assortment of such equipment, but there are craftsmen who manufacture such devices on their own.

During the use of the tiller, baking powder is installed on its front part, and a pile of hillocks is placed on the back (bushes are poured when it passes). From 1 to 3 okuchnik can be established on one motor-block. Also do not forget about the shutter speed between the rows.

Figure 5. Hilling manually and using the technique

However, gardeners who do not have the opportunity to buy a walk-behind tractor use a plow or tillage in hilling. Using the plow (plowing) in the open field is very similar to the work of the tiller, but it is very heavy exercise for a person.

Hilling rules

Absolutely all manipulations with this agricultural work must be carried out in wet soil and under such conditions:

  • In cloudy weather,
  • Morning or evening after the rain has ended,
  • After watering or morning dew.

Hilling in hot weather can cause burns of young shoots. However, hilling in very wet and heavy soil can cut off the oxygen supply and stop air exchange of the upper soil layers.

Why hilling increases the yield of potatoes

When tucking in tubers, it is necessary to make a furrow in the aisle, from which it will be possible to rake up the soil on plants on both sides. If this is not done in a timely manner, the bushes will not be able to grow in full force and grow.

Tubers are very fond of having a large amount of land, because then they can fully receive more nutrients from the soil and breathe oxygen. Only when the soil is loose, complete transmission of oxygen is possible, and this will yield significantly more.

Hilling is also carried out due to the fact that the plant grows up and you need to pour its stem. When the next layer of soil is not enough, the top tubers can crawl out and become green, which makes them unsuitable for human consumption. However, when breeding potatoes as seed material, this will be a justified action.

High hilling of potatoes

Many gardeners know that high hilling of potatoes favorably affects the development of new side shoots with feet. After a little time, they turn into full-grown tubers. The use of such processing of potatoes allows in the autumn period to obtain good yields only from late varieties, since they need a large amount of land for the full formation of tubers (Figure 6).

Figure 6. High hilling

High hilling is not used with early ripening varieties, as this can spoil a large amount of planting material. It is recommended to pile up early varieties only once.

Watering potatoes

They begin to water the potatoes only after the budding period is over, but the soil must be kept moist during this period of time.

Experienced gardeners recommend that, before starting irrigation, it is recommended to check the depth of soil dryness and only at 6-8 cm can you begin to moisten the soil. Each bush should be poured up to three buckets of water in the evening. With the onset of a dry summer, watering should be done up to 5 times during the growing season. Upon completion of the irrigation work make loosening.

How to water the potatoes so that there is a good harvest

There are many different opinions on the issue of watering potatoes, but we will try to give you general recommendations on how to moisturize plants.

The best time for irrigation work is the evening hours with the minimum water consumption of 3 liters per bush. На практике норма полива зависит от вида почвы, степени ее просыхания, сорта и возраста растения (рисунок 7).

Сейчас существует несколько отличительных мнений, как поливать растения и самыми приемлемыми считаются: полив под корень и полив под борозды. При засушливой погоде эффективным будет и орошение посадок, особенно для ранних сортов. After watering the next day, it is recommended to loosen the soil.

Figure 7. Watering potatoes in open ground

For several days after planting, watering is not carried out, because the root system is formed during this period of time. Moderate soil moisture contributes to the good development of the root system and its further penetration deep into the earth. However, with excessive watering of the soil, the root system will not be located deep enough, which negatively affects the further development of the bush.

Watering begins with the appearance of the first shoots. Also during the period of butanization and flowering, the plants have the strongest need for watering, since an insufficient amount of moisture can negatively affect the yield and the fruits will be small. It is recommended to apply pre-heated water in the sun.

Potato drip irrigation system

Scientists have long studied the effectiveness of irrigation of potatoes in relation to yield, and they proved the fact that without moisturizing plants, it will not be possible to achieve good plant productivity.

Figure 8. Potato drip irrigation system

The most effective is the system of drip irrigation of potatoes (Figure 8). Its essence is based on the flow of water to the potato in equal dosages and for a long time. The use of drip irrigation allows to increase the yield up to 3.5 times, while economically using water resources.

From the video you will learn useful tips on the organization of drip irrigation on potatoes.

Loosening - fighting the main enemy of the planted potato

Caring for potatoes after planting should begin with loosening trampled during the initial process of the beds. This procedure will also allow the destruction of the first enemy of a potato that has not yet risen - the weed, which always and everywhere, in any weather conditions, rises first. Not yet rooted weeds are easily removed during this period, while the root part, if it remains in the ground, dies. An important role is played in this procedure and timing. After all, if we tighten and wait for friendly weed shoots and then proceed to harrowing, then, most likely, the weed will not die, and soon will again turn green.

It is advisable to first - pre-emergence - harrowing is carried out a week after planting tubers in the soil. Loosening can be done with a harrow or a heavy rake. Keep the tool and work the soil diagonally to the beds to avoid accidental release of potato tubers to the surface.

Such care for potatoes after planting, but before the appearance of the first shoots, not only helps to fight weeds, but also improves soil aeration and helps to preserve moisture in it.

We protect the first shoots from repeated frosts

In many regions of the country, the return of frosts in early May and even in the middle of it is quite a common thing. By this time, the tubers are usually planted, and caring for the potatoes after planting in the ground in this case will include procedures that can protect the plant from such a scourge.

In order for frosts not to damage crops, it is necessary to cover the first seedlings with loose earth. The layer should be from 3 to 5 centimeters. If this is not done, the crops, of course, will not die, the tubers will subsequently be able to grow new ones, but the yield will drop markedly.

Potato flowering period and care

The first buds should be a sign that it’s worth finishing off with soil hilling. During this period, it is already undesirable, since the hardened stem loses its ability to form stolons. To protect themselves from weeds, plants are now capable of their own, because by this time the bushes are already closed in the aisle and in rows.

So care for potatoes after planting during flowering will be a good mulching. For these purposes, you can use the humus, rotted sawdust or needles. Mulch protect the soil from overheating and excessive evaporation of moisture.

From the bad seed do not expect a good tribe

The most common mistake - the use of seed tubers of unknown origin, "from a neighbor." Remember the saying: “Do not feed a poodle, it will not grow up with a sheepdog”. It is much better to buy a proven variety from experienced gardeners or in specialized stores.

What grades to prefer? I propose not to take risks and plant something that is time-tested on the main square. Plant early varieties in northern areas: Timo, Borodino Pink, Pushkin, Duckling, Sineglazka, Rosara, Red Scarlet, Zhukovsky Early, Luck (if the last two are satisfied by taste) or medium-early varieties - Isle of Jura, Sante, the Wizard. They manage to mature in any year according to climatic conditions. Of the mid-season varieties would recommend a grade Aspia.

Description and characteristics of these and other popular varieties of potatoes, read the article "The best varieties of potatoes."

How and when to plant

Planting dates are determined by the condition of the soil. They should be as early as possible. If the soil is already treatable and at a depth of 10 cm, it has warmed to + 8 ° С - plant it. It is difficult to determine - focus on the leaves of birch: the leaf has reached the size of a penny - it's time to plant potatoes! This usually happens after April 25th. However, if you have a large plot or are far from your place of residence, then I do not recommend planting it before May 5 (due to the return of cold weather and night frosts). Frost-beaten shoots, of course, will be restored, but the damage to the crop will be inflicted, moreover - this is not a sight for the faint of heart.

Under the correct planting scheme refers to the number of plants per weaving and the direction of the rows.

With a row spacing of 70 cm per running meter, it is necessary to plant from 3 to 5 planting tubers, depending on the size and characteristics of the variety. In one hole (for one seat) it is necessary to put one tuber. The best planting material is about the size of a chicken egg, although small elite tubers (they are planted a little more often) produce a high yield. On average, the consumption of planting material is 25-30 kg per hundred.

Rows of potatoes should be directed from north to south. With this arrangement, the sun warms the ridges better in the morning and evening, does not dry them at noon. As a result, shoots appear earlier, the ground keeps moisture better in summer.

Tillage

Proper soil preparation is one of the components of high yield. I came to the conclusion that, regardless of the characteristics of the soil, it is heavy or light, too moist or dry, it is better not to dig it up at all. It is easier, and the fertility of the land and yield increase.

My technology is as follows. In the middle of April, when weeds begin to sprout on the site, I scatter organic fertilizers superficially and carry out the first treatment. Using the Fokin flat cutter, I loosen the soil to a depth of 5–7 cm. After 7–10 days I spend the second loosening, already by 8–10 cm. In the last days of April - early May I plant potatoes.

Ploskorezom draw shallow grooves. The distance between the furrows is 80–85 cm. It is this aisle that allows you to successfully fight weeds, the Colorado potato beetle, late blight.

In the grooves I scatter the prepared fertilizers, lay out the potatoes. The distance between tubers in a row is 25–30 cm (depending on the size of the tuber). This scheme provides planting density of 400-500 plants per weave. With a flat cutter or plastic rake I sprinkle potatoes with earth. I pour in so that on the surface there are low ridges, inside of which there are planting tubers. As a result of this planting potatoes are close to the surface of the soil and quickly sprout.

Even before germination, due to the fact that the rows of potatoes are clearly visible, I spend inter-row treatments at intervals of 8–10 days.

Such a system of soil preparation and planting is not required. Each owner makes his own way: some plow and plant under a plow, others plow a plot, cut crests and plant them, and still others dig the ground with a shovel, put them in holes or rows.

Ultimately, the smart owner seeks to do qualitatively, without large financial costs and with a minimum of manual labor.

How to feed potatoes

The dose of fertilizer is individual and depends on the fertility of the soil. On average, to obtain 300-400 kg of potatoes from a hundred we need 500 kg of manure and 3 kg of ammofoski. If there is no such amount of organic matter, then every 100 kg of manure must be replaced with 600 g of Kemira-wagon or Kemira Potatoes. When applying these fertilizers, summer feeding of potatoes is required only in dry years.

In the backyard, mineral fertilizers must be applied directly to the row or hole, otherwise we will feed the weeds between the rows.

On sandy, over moistened or peaty, highly acidic soils, potatoes may lack calcium and magnesium, especially in the absence of straw manure. In this case, before planting potatoes in the area, it is necessary to scatter dolomite or limestone flour in the amount of 10–30 kg per hundred square meters.

Summer care for plantings It consists in timely hilling, weeding, protection from diseases and pests.

Loosening and at the same time carrying out low (by 3–6 cm) hilling is necessary every 10–14 days. After the shoots appear (in my area it usually happens on May 20-25), it is necessary to closely monitor the weather forecasts. If there is a danger of frost, an extra hilling should be carried out. All work is done with a flat cutter.

Along with the presence of nutrients in the soil, proper care should not be forgotten about watering landings. Potatoes require moisture in the soil from July 1 to August 1. In agronomy, this is called a critical period. It is clear that the tubers are poured after August 1 (if the stems are still green) and water is also needed there, but in August fogs and dews usually occur, and the sun is not as active as in July. The rate of watering depends on the characteristics of the soil. On average, 800–1200 liters of water should be poured per hundred for one irrigation. In dry summer, 2 such irrigations are sufficient. Watering often, in small doses is not worth it, this is the way to the development of fungal and bacterial diseases.

A very good agricultural application is the mulching of the landings after the last loosening-hilling (there is still the possibility to pass between the rows). Of course, it is very hard physically, and it seems to many that it is wrong to trample the soil between the rows. However, after mulching with a layer of 1–2 cm, the earth (and most importantly, the earth itself in the ridges) loses moisture less and does not overheat in the sun. Yes, and from the emergence of weeds there is additional protection for 10-12 days. With such treatments, by the end of June there are almost no weeds at the site, the potato plants close and already bloom. All rest now!

Protection from the Colorado potato beetle

The main thing is not to miss the moment of the beginning of the laying of the eggs of the Colorado potato beetle. As soon as you see the first pest on the site, collect them for 5 days or the nearest weekend. Repeat fees as often as possible.

If you visit the site rarely, then spend chemical processing. A drug Aktara or Confidor for the first treatment should be diluted twice as strong (not by 30 liters as in the instructions, but by 15 liters). It is not enough for a weave of 4–5 liters (as for adult plants), but only 2–2.5 liters.

After processing against the beetle in mid-June, we save ourselves from treatments in July. This has a beneficial effect on product safety, because by the time of harvesting (60–80 days after processing) there will most likely not be residues of chemicals in potatoes. With the usual treatment schedule, only 40–45 days remain before harvest.

In all cases of treatment against the Colorado potato beetle, it is necessary to combine with foliar top dressing: add 20 g of Kemira Lux to 10 liters of the preparation solution. In the event that potatoes in your area are affected by scab, instead of Kemira, it is better to add 10 g of boric acid.

In cool years in the fight against the beetle can be limited to bioprotection - drugs Bitoxibacillin, Fitosporin and others.

Preparation of potatoes for planting

  1. Material for planting must be chosen from the dug potatoes in the fall. Gardeners prefer to choose medium-sized potatoes from fertile bushes. Such potatoes are collected in buckets or boxes and stored for storage in the basement or underground. Where it will lie until the spring at a temperature of up to + 3 degrees and a humidity of about 50 percent.
  2. About a month before planting, potatoes are taken out of the cellar and begin to germinate it in the light. This can be done at room conditions by placing the potatoes next to the window. After some time, it becomes clear that the potatoes began to turn green - growth processes began to appear in it, very soon sprouts will appear on the tubers.
  3. Before planting, it is necessary to sort out the planting material and remove the tubers that did not germinate and rot. If among the potatoes for planting were tubers of large size, they can be cut into 2 - 3 parts, so that each part has sprouts.

Suitable time for landing

Folk signs recommend planting potatoes at the beginning of the flowering of the bird cherry and after the appearance of the first leaves on the birch trees.

Depending on the warming of the soil, potatoes are planted in early - mid-May. In atypically cold weather for May, the landing will have to be postponed to the very beginning of June.

Some gardeners, to determine the number for planting, resort to the lunar calendar.

How to prepare the soil for planting potatoes

The beds for potatoes begin to cook in the fall. Earth plowed by adding organic fertilizer.

If the soil is acidified, it is worth adding chalk and lime when digging.

If the soil for a future potato bed is heavy, then peat and sand can be added to it, this will contribute to loosening and lightening the soil.

In the spring, before planting potatoes, the earth must be re-dug and a mineral fertilizer complex must be applied to the soil. You can also add wood ash.

What distance to observe when planting potatoes

As a rule, the distance between rows is 65 - 75 centimeters. But the distance between the tubers is preferably done 25 - 30 centimeters.

If you plant the potato tubers too close, they will interfere with each other and take nutrients. As a result, small potatoes will grow.

The distance between rows of 65 - 75 centimeters will allow you to conveniently spud and weed potatoes.

What are the methods of planting potatoes

The manual method (classic) is traditionally carried out with a shovel or chopper. It requires a lot of time and effort, however, it allows planting potatoes more carefully than the mechanical method.

The mechanical method is carried out using a tractor or motoblock - this method saves gardeners a fair amount of time, it is 3 - 4 times faster than the manual method.

Different techniques of the classic method of landing

There are several ways of planting potatoes, which are used depending on the conditions of planting and the future garden beds for potatoes.

  1. When the bed suffers from an overabundance of moisture or the soil of the future bed is heavy, it is recommended to plant potatoes on the ridges. This method serves as a kind of protection of potatoes from excess moisture, does not allow it to rot. Combs are obtained with a height of about 15 - 25 centimeters.
  2. Planting in the pit is carried out in light soils. Potatoes are buried in trenches, it is convenient for him to be in loose sandy soil.
  3. Smooth planting allows the potatoes to grow well in fertile soil. Small holes are made in the ground for each tuber, then they are covered with earth. The depth of the hole depends on the type of soil, the lighter the soil, the deeper the wells can be made. When planting potatoes in heavy soil, the well should not be made more than 10 centimeters.

Potato Basics

  • Superficial loosening is carried out before the first shoots appear. The procedure is carried out using a rake and helps to get rid of weeds and slightly loosen the soil, this is especially necessary after the last rain, since a dense crust forms on the surface of the earth.
  • Watering potatoes is carried out during a long period without rain. Potatoes easily tolerate drought, but when the soil begins to crack excessively, it is necessary to resort to watering.
  • Hilling is done about once a month during the summer season. It helps to rid the bed of weeds, and also helps root crops to be saturated with oxygen. The first hilling is carried out with the appearance of potato tops, which reaches a height of 10 - 15 centimeters.
  • Feed potatoes are carried out periodically. The most convenient and economical method of fertilization is considered to be the breeding method. In the nesting method, fertilizer in the form of humus, ash and superphosphate is placed in each well just before planting potatoes.
  1. Top dressing during the emergence of the first shoots is made using a mixture of mullein (or bird droppings) and urea (or saltpeter).
  2. Top dressing during budding is carried out using fertilizers based on potassium and phosphorus, with the addition of ash.
  3. Top dressing at flowering is carried out about a month before harvesting. Organic and mineral fertilizers are introduced into the soil. If possible, you can add to the fertilizer sludge.
  • Опрыскивание картофеля бордосской смесью служит профилактическим целям, оно производится в период цветения и бутонизации, защищает от фитофтороза. От главного вредителя картофеля – колорадского жука производят опрыскивание смесью из воды, уксуса и горчицы.

Способ посадки картофеля для получения высокого урожая От А до Я:

«Химичим» с умом

Of course, it will not be possible to completely protect a plant from chemical treatment, but it is possible to reduce the amount of chemical “pressing” if it is correct and skillful to combine fungicides, insecticides and growth regulators in solution. Together with pesticides in one container, you can dilute mineral fertilizers for foliar feeding.

Foliar application is carried out twice a month. Approximately 30 days before harvesting, such care for potatoes after planting (after flowering) should be completed by spraying with superphosphate extract, which will contribute to the maturation of tubers, improve their quality, starchiness and keeping quality.

Carefully and selectively treat the growth regulators advertised today. It is necessary to initially select a single drug and use it only during the difficult periods for potatoes, or rather, before planting in the ground, during the period of germination and immediately before flowering. We should not forget that the use of stimulants will require additional and enhanced nutrition.

Feeding good harvest

Caring for potatoes after planting in the open field implies basal dressing of bushes. During the growing season the procedure is performed three times. Better to do it on wet ground. The first top dressing is made in the period of growth of tops, if the bushes are not well developed or the leaves have a pale color. The second basal dressing falls on the period of bud formation. This will accelerate flowering. The third basal dressing will speed up the process of tuber formation.

It is advisable to use fertilizer solutions if the potato plantation is not very large. How to care for potatoes after planting and how to fertilize them if the plantation is more than 100 m²? If the dimensions have passed for a hundred, it is better to use dry fertilizers, placing them under each bush.

Be careful with watering

How to take care of potatoes after planting and how to water properly should not be told to all gardeners. These simple rules for people seeking a good harvest are well known. However, one unwritten rule is still worth reminding: wetting the leaves of a plant will only lead to the development of late blight green mass. This means that the stream of water must be directed from the bottom and so that it does not erode the ridges resulting from hilling, and in the aisle.

Do not forget that you should water before the next hilling procedure.

On this you can finish the article on how to properly care for potatoes after planting. The tips above will help you understand the timing, sequence, and nuances of all processes. And this, in turn, will be embodied in a bountiful harvest.

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