Successful cultivation and longevity of the cherry is possible only with the absolute health of the tree. Throughout life, a variety of diseases or physiological disorders in internal organs threaten the fruit tree.. Often, such phenomena become a real problem, the trees cease to bear fruit, they dry out and then simply die. This happens even with the strongest trees. In this article we will understand why such troubles happen, we will get acquainted with possible cherry diseases, what preventive measures to take and how to treat the affected trees.
Why cherry does not bear fruit, possible diseases and methods of treatment
Cherry is one of the most disease-resistant crops among fruit trees. These figures have declined significantly, and the main reasons for this are the emergence of new types of fungal diseases and natural disasters.
The reason for the spread of the disease may be non-compliance with the prevention and rules of farming. Rotting plant debris, improper crop alternation, mass distribution of pests, lack of fungicide treatment, contributing to the epidemic of the entire site.
Cherry most often affects diseases:
- Perforated spotting
- Root cancer
Frequent causes of the lack of fruiting, even with abundant cherry blossoms, are dangerous diseases: coccomicosis and moniliasis. These diseases can cause other fruit trees in your garden: cherry, apricot, plum and others.
Holey spot (klyasterosporioz)
This is a fungal disease that affects all tree structures.
- Signs of Calesterosis. Education on the leaves of light brown spots with red-brown border. Affected tissue dies and falls. Torn holes are formed on the sheet. Shoots are covered with cracking spots, from which gum flows. The kidneys become black and shiny.
- Treatment. Pruning and burning of all affected areas of the tree. Sprinkle cherries and near-stem circle with 3% Bordeaux liquid. Digging and complete destruction of plant residues in the near-stem circle. With a strong lesion, the procedure is repeated after a week. Treatment of gum wounds.
- Effects. Premature fall of leaves, shoots and branches. Drying fruits, loss of commercial quality.
Coccomycosis: ways to combat the fungus
This fungal disease, mainly formed on the leaves, less often affects the berries. This disease is inherent in trees growing in the Moscow region and in other regions of Russia.
- Signs of. At the beginning of the disease, small red dots appear on the sheet, as the disease progresses, they become larger and gradually merge with each other. With high humidity on the lower side of the sheet a pink bloom forms. Lack of treatment leads to browning and necrosis, dead tissue falls, and lacerated wounds are formed on the leaves.
- What to do. In the fall (after leaf fall) and spring (before bud break), treat with 4% Bordeaux liquid. Trimming and destruction of the affected areas.
- Effects. Premature leaf fall, exhaustion and death of the tree, yield loss.
Monilioz or gray rot
This is a fungal disease that is otherwise called a monilial burn. Cherry becomes infected with moniliosis when the tree begins to blossom, through damage to the bark.
- Signs of. During the wet and warm season, small pustules of white color are formed on the petioles and the lower surface of the leaves, which in appearance resemble branched chains. The spores of the fungus are carried by the wind and insects on the surface of the fruit, forming brown spots on them, which gradually spread over the entire surface. After another 10 days, yellowish pillows (sporodokhii) are formed on the surface of the fetus. The affected fruits fall off or remain on the branches of the cherry tree where the spores of the fungus overwinter and when the air temperature is above + 15 ° they begin to develop.
- Treatment. All plant waste in the vicinity of the tree is collected and burned. The branches of the cherry are cut below the lesion level by 10 cm, the bark is cleaned to healthy tissue. Cherry is treated with fungicides, the main drugs: Azocene, Topsin, Horus (15 g / 10 l).
- Effects. Lack of fruiting, gradual death of the tree, an epidemic on the site.
Anthracnose - disease of berries, how to treat
This fungal disease most often affects the fruit of the cherry and remains unnoticed for a long time.
- Signs of. At the beginning of the lesion, dim points appear on the fruits, gradually expanding in the bulges of a pale pink color. At low humidity, the fruit of the cherry mummified, turn black and fall off.
- Treatment. Spraying cherries with a contact fungicide Poliram. Processing carried out before and after flowering, and the third in 15 days.
- Effects. Drying of shoots, yield loss up to 80%.
Appears after mechanical damage to the bark, frostbite, sunburn or fungal diseases.
- Signs of. Isolation of a thick, colorless or brown resin from gum damage.
- Treatment. Disinfection of wounds with 1% copper sulfate solution, treatment with garden pitch. Affected branches are cut and burned. Lime whitewash spring and autumn.
- Effects. The weakening of the tree, reduced productivity, the death of the branches.
Rust - leaf disease
Fungal disease affecting the leaves of the cherry. The causative agent of the fungus is Gymnosporangium sabinae, the host of which is juniper, and the intermediate is pear.
- Signs of. At the onset of the disease, small greenish-yellow spots are formed on the leaves, which gradually increase and the affected tissues swell. A few days after the first signs appear, a powdery coating forms on the surface of the sheet, which gradually darkens.
- Treatment. Spraying cherries before blooming buds 5% Bordeaux liquid, re-spraying 1% drug before flowering. Destruction of plant residues and affected leaves.
- Effects. Decrease in fruiting and winter hardiness, leaf fall.
Scab, what measures to take?
Fungal disease that damages the leaves and fruits of the cherry.
- Signs of. After the defeat of the cherry spores of the pathogen, brown-olive spots with a velvety surface appear on the leaves. Yellow circles spread around the spot. Gradually, the spores of the fungus are transferred to the fruit, they form cracks. Unripe green fruits cease to develop.
- Treatment. Spraying cherries and near-stem circle with Nitrafen before blooming buds. After that, you need to do three treatments with 1% Bordeaux liquid: during bud break, after flowering, after harvest. If necessary, repeat the procedure.
- Effects. Yield loss.
Root cancer, what to do?
This is a bacterial root disease that appears through contaminated soil.
- Signs of. Appearance on the root neck, main and lateral roots of tumor growths - galls. At the beginning of the disease the growths are small, soft and with a smooth surface. As the disease progresses, they increase in size, acquire a hard and uneven surface. In the autumn growths are destroyed.
- Treatment. Two treatments of cherries with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate: before and after the growing season.
- Effects. Lack of plant nutrition, violation of sap flow, reduced productivity and resistance to disease.
Cherry disease prevention
Despite the fact that some varieties of cherries are resistant to certain diseases - this is a relative concept. The lack of preventive maintenance, violation of agricultural culture, adverse climatic conditions in the aggregate weaken the plantand defeat will happen anyway. Therefore, you need to take care of this in advance.
If the cherries are damaged by protective covers, and this happens when branches break, leaves break, freezers, bark cuts, the risk of damage increases. Rodent damage to rodents contributes to the development of root cancer, which can get into the structure of the tree through vectors or from the affected soil.
Mechanical damage to the bark of the cherry
- timely pruning and removal of old, rotten and overgrown branches,
- gardening wounds,
- protection of cherries in the winter from rodents,
- whitewash with lime from frostblade.
Deficiency of trace elements and moisture
Climate change contributes to mass spread of fungal and bacterial infections. Constant temperature drops between cold and heat create a favorable environment for the development of microorganisms.. In a weak and unprepared tree, the chances of resisting the pressure of fungi and bacteria are very low.
Therefore, autumn dressings are mandatory. How much fertilizer to apply? Based on 1 m 2 in the near-stem circle contribute:
- manure (5 kg) or an aqueous solution of potassium chloride (150 g / 10 l),
- water solution of superphosphate (300 g / 10 l).
Preventive treatment with fungicides should be carried out three times a year.. In the spring before bud break to suppress spores and bacteria that overwinter in tree structures. During flowering to secure the result. In the autumn to minimize the activity of microorganisms during temperature changes.
Spring processing of trees with fungicides
For this cherry is sprayed:
- in the spring a solution of copper sulphate, soap and water (300g / 50g / 10l),
- summer an aqueous solution of ferrous sulfate (30 g / 10 l),
- after harvest 1% Bordeaux liquid.
To minimize the risk of developing diseases, each year you must adhere to the rules, these are:
- full removal of plant residues from the plot
- barrel cleaning trees from loose bark, layers of moss and lichen,
- digging plot weed removal
- thinning thickened crown
- right neighborhood and distance between plants.
The lack of prevention at least in one area of gardening, contributes to the spread of pests that are carriers of bacteria. In addition, the massive defeat of cherries by insects greatly depletes the plant. This can be prevented only with full control over the number of pests.
Fall leaves in July or August, causes of tree disease
Often gardeners ask the question: “Why did the cherry drop leaves in July or in August?” And the reason for this is a fungal disease.
After a wet spring, which is replaced by rainy summer, a completely atypical picture can be observed in the orchard: the leaves have fallen, and on the bare branches ripening fruits of cherry. This occurs in the second decade of July. The leaves turn yellow and fall off, and the fruits on such trees become shallow and mummified, which leads to complete or partial loss of harvest.
The culprit of the pathological phenomenon - coccomycosis, which tree was struck in the previous season.. Further, the development of spores of the fungus was promoted by the absence of severe frosts, therefore the infection survived well and, after warming to + 15 °, began to actively propagate spores.
Cherry leaves fall in July
With the defeat of coccomycosis cherries do not die, but it is greatly weakened before winter. Each phase of the tree's life cycle has its own meaning.. At the beginning of the growing season, the roots of the tree provide food for the fruit ovary and leaf growth. And after fruiting and leaves, the leaves provide the roots and structures of the tree with nutrients for the winter season.
Therefore, when the leaves from the tree are shed in July, the cherry cannot properly prepare for the rest period. Having survived several such winters, the tree gradually dies.
Therapeutic measures should be started immediately after the discovery of a lesion. It may be necessary to remove most of the skeletal branches, carry out several treatments according to the recommended scheme, but it is impossible to get rid of coccomycosis without these measures.
The fight against cherry diseases will be successful if you are well aware of all the weaknesses of infections.. These are dryness, sunlight, cleanliness and fungicide treatment. Maintaining such conditions is not difficult and does not take much time. And you can lay a healthy foundation when planting cherries, avoiding low-lying areas with stagnant moisture and fog.
The main causes of tree disease
Tree health depends on proper care. The implementation of absolutely all the rules of agricultural engineering (watering, feeding, pruning) significantly increases the immunity of cherries and minimizes the possibility of their being affected by diseases. There are other conditions that have a great influence on the extent of cherry disease damage:
- climatic conditions of the area,
- weather conditions (temperature drop, drought or high humidity, cold and frosty winters),
- injuries of the branches or surface of the bark,
- pests that infect bacteria
- diseases of other trees growing nearby.
Having established the causes of the disease of cherries and cherries and eliminating them, if it is in the power of gardeners, it will be much easier to fight the disease.
Coccomycosis: a description of the disease of the cherry with photos
The greatest damage to the crop is caused by fungal diseases of cherries. One of the most dangerous and insidious is coccomycosis. Prolonged wet periods, when the air is heated to 20–24 ° C, contribute to the spread of the disease. Such conditions contribute to the fact that the causative agent of infection, the fungus Coccomyces hiemalis, develops freely, multiplies and infects the plants.
The disease manifests itself in summer, and its characteristic features are primarily visible on the foliage:
- On the front side of the leaf plates are formed rounded brownish or reddish spots.
- Gradually, they grow, the tissues in the middle dry up, and on the back of the sheet appear areas with a pinkish tinge.
- The foliage affected by coccomycosis dies off and falls off in the second half of summer, leaving the branches almost naked.
Judging only by external signs, coccomycosis could be considered a disease of cherry leaves. But this opinion is wrong! Due to the early loss of the green part of the crown, the cherry trees are weakened and unprepared for wintering. As a result, part of the shoots by the spring dies, damage is found on the trunk and skeletal branches.
Already in the first year after infection, cherries reduce yields, the quality of pilaf drops. If you do not urgently do the fight against the disease, the cherry, as in the photo, dies in the next few years.
Premature leaf fall in the middle of summer should seriously alert the gardener. All fallen leaves must be collected and destroyed, and the plants are treated with Bordeaux mixture, ferrous sulfate or systemic fungicides. Re-processing is carried out according to the instructions in 7–14 days field first.
The main measures to combat the fungal disease of cherries are aimed at the destruction of the pathogen and the prevention of its spread to healthy trees.
As a preventive measure in the risk zone, as well as in wet weather, contributing to the spread of coccomycosis, spraying of cherries is carried out in the spring, even before the flower buds open, and at the end of the mass flowering of plants.
It should be remembered about the possible toxicity of sprayed funds. The remaining fruits on the branches are removed, hands, respiratory organs are protected by gloves and a respirator. To the effect of drugs was the most effective, they must fall on the dry foliage and act freely for 2-3 hours. Therefore, for processing it is better to choose a windless, fine morning or evening, when there is no danger of sunburn.
Monilioz Chery: photos of the disease and the fight against it
Monilioz or monilial burn is already well known to the gardeners of central Russia, the Kuban, the Black Soil Region, the southern regions of Siberia and the Urals. In some territories, almost all cherry plantings are infected with a harmful fungus, but, in addition, the fungal cherry disease caused by Monilia cinerea is just as dangerous for other fruit crops.
The primary infection of the tree occurs during flowering, when the spores of the fungus penetrate and germinate through the pistil and pedicel deep into the tissues of the wood. However, noticing cherry disease in spring, gardeners often take its symptoms for the consequences of freezing or unsuccessful chemical treatment.
Indeed, the branches drying under the influence of the spreading fungus, flowers and young leaves seem to have been burned. A lesion moniliozom side look like large solid spots in the crowns of recently completely healthy trees.
Secondary infection occurs through the fruits in which the spores of the fungus ripen. Outside the berries look dry, mummified, often covered with a grayish bloom. They hold tight to the branches and, if they are not removed, they remain until spring, becoming a new source of infection.
Contamination is promoted by wet spring-summer weather, irregular pruning of the crown and violation of agricultural technology. If proper attention is not paid to the prevention of cherry disease and its treatment, the trees wither and die for several years.
To minimize the number of foci of infection, be sure to:
- remove the fallen leaves, and the soil under the trees carefully loosened,
- they cut, seizing a part of healthy wood, and destroy the branches affected by moniliosis,
- remove and burn the remaining fruits.
In the spring, before the budding of the kidneys, cherry plants are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid or other contact fungicide. Re-processing is carried out in the second half of flowering. Особое внимание уделяется растениям, уже подвергавшимся атаке вредоносного грибка в прошлом.If cherry disease is seen in spring on previously healthy trees, you will have to resort to using systemic fungicides, for example, Scor, Topaz or Fundazole.
Clusterosporiosis cherries and disease treatment
Holey spotting is in the third most disastrous place. Klyasterosporioz also refers to the fungal diseases of cherries and affects not only the foliage and shoots, but also flowers. First, the disease manifests itself by the appearance of brownish-brown spots. As they grow, the tissues inside dry and crumble, leaving large round holes. Diseased foliage dries and falls, the affected berries are also not poured and dry.
Spores of a harmful fungus overwinter:
- in the soil
- on the remaining mummified fruit,
- inside the cracks on the bark,
- on plant residues.
In addition to regular cleaning and destruction of fallen leaves and crown trimming, for the prevention and treatment of the disease, cherries and the soil around the spring are sprayed with copper sulphate or Horus.
Developing as described, as in the photo, cherry disease requires urgent action. In this case, fungicides of complex action or Bordeaux liquid are used. Full-scale processing is carried out in several stages, starting with the green cone stage, ending with the summer days, when there is just over 20 days left until harvest.
Similar measures are being taken in identifying signs of brown spot and rust on fruit trees. In either case, the gardener is faced with the appearance of brown, reddish-brown or red spots on the leaves and ovaries, which are manifestations of the activity of harmful fungi. All of these diseases adversely affect the yield and consumer properties of the fruit, weaken the plants. Therefore, the slightest delay in the garden will require not only the fight against cherry diseases, but also with pests, for which the affected plants become a desirable and easy prey.
Scab cherry: a description of the disease and its treatment
Most often, scab, also caused by fungi, is found on apples and pears, but on backyard plots it can also affect stone fruit. When a cherry disease is detected, as in the photo, the fight against it should be carried out as seriously as with moniliose or brown spot.
Dark spots with cracking mid-spots of scab grow not only on foliage. They seize pouring berries and dramatically reduce the quality of the crop, making the fruit almost unsuitable for food and processing.
A good measure for the prevention and control of the fungal cherry disease is:
- collection and destruction of fallen leaves,
- timely formation and sanitary pruning of the crown,
- digging the soil under the trees,
- spraying of plants and tree trunks with a solution of a fungicide, copper oxychloride or Bordeaux mixture.
As in other cases, the processing is carried out in several stages in accordance with the instructions to the means chosen by the gardener.
Gommoz: a description of the disease of the cherry with photos
Gum drops appearing on the trunk and branches of the cherry are also a disease. Gommoz or gum ache can be caused by several reasons:
- exposure to frost,
- improper use of dressings,
- neglected mechanical damage to the cortex.
At first glance, the phenomenon that is not dangerous for the life of the plant is in fact a precursor of the most unpleasant consequences. On the site where the cambium is disturbed, the correct development of wood is hampered or stopped, but access is completely open to harmful fungi, other causative agents of cherry diseases and pests.
In this case, it is equally important to prevent the emergence of new cracks, as well as to heal the existing ones as quickly and efficiently as possible. In order to prevent gum cure after sanitary pruning and crown formation, it is necessary to carry out the treatment with garden pitch. The resulting damage is pre-irrigated with a 1% solution of copper sulphate.
General measures to protect cherries from pests and diseases
Unfortunately, fungal infections and their attendant infections are so common today that it is no longer possible to achieve a good harvest, relying only on varietal characteristics and ordinary care. Preventive and therapeutic use of fungicides in home gardens is the norm. But even the most effective means have their weak points. The fungus is able to adapt to a previously effective drug in the second or third year. Therefore, the chemicals have to be regularly changed, not forgetting the observance of agricultural technology and elementary attention to plantings.
In addition to spraying fungicides, cherry trees need:
- carried out in the spring of sanitary pruning crown,
- in regular rejuvenation of fruit-bearing trees to the level of wood for 3-4 years,
- in harvesting fallen leaves and removing even inedible, dry fruits left on the branches,
- in competent fertilizer and compulsory watering the garden.
If diseases dangerous to the stone fruit crops are common in the region, the gardener is already at the stage of laying the garden better to take care of the selection of zoned resistant varieties and hybrids. See photos of diseases of apple trees!
Kokkomikoz - a disease of cherry, fungal kind, manifested on the leaves, berries, branches, petioles. The disease is very stable in front of the frost, and in the cold season, the spores of the fungus are located in the fallen leaves at the base of the stem. At the onset of spring, fungal microorganisms spread through the tree by windy spraying. In a relatively short time, the disease covers the lower leaves and over time affects the whole tree, its fruits.
Kokkomikoz cherries manifested in the form of red and brown spots on the foliage. Places where dark red spots are seen, after a short time, turn into dead. Later, the leaves almost completely dry out, which often leads to leaf fall as early as June. From the back of the leaf, the fungus is manifested by a blob of gray-brown color.
Methods of dealing with coccomycosis:
- Spraying a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid in early spring before the buds swell, repeat the treatment until flowering again. Then spraying is carried out after harvest and in autumn, before the onset of leaf fall,
- Treatment with drugs Skor, Topsin-M, Horus, Oxy and Ordan (the procedure is preferably carried out before flowering),
- From folk remedies it is recommended to use the ash-soap solution during flowering and fruiting, when emergency measures are needed. But the greatest effect is achieved when using copper-containing drugs. Interestingly, but the felted cherry is practically not affected by this disease.
Coccomycosis Disease Video
Moniliasis (monilial burn)
Continuing the theme of cherry diseases, monilioz is a fungal disease that passes through the pistils of flowers right down to the trunk and bark of the tree. This virus very quickly sweeps through the tree, affecting the most important areas for health.
The sooner you start to fight the disease of the cherry, the higher the chances of preserving the crop and trees. There are frequent cases of complete drying of the tree, when the fruits, branches, and leaves become exhausted. The leaves are falling, the berries are rotting, the branches seem to wither from the very crowns.
In the early stages, the disease can be identified by fading leaves, which are markedly different from healthy foliage. They seemed to be scorched under the sun, wilted, wilted. In the affected leaves and branches turgor is absent. The fight against moniliasis should be carried out immediately, at the first signs of detection:
- Removal of affected shoots, branches, foliage with a pruner,
- Cut off branches carried away, burn,
- In the fight against moniliosis, such drugs as Skor, Olekuprit, Kaptan, Kuprozan and others are used. When using, be sure to follow the instructions.
Anthracnose is the main enemy of cherry and sweet cherry berries. Fruits infected with anthracnose, lose their taste, turning into rot, shaky hanging on the leg. The manifestation of anthracnose can be detected by dark spots, which turn into tubercles. A pinkish patina forms in the affected areas. The disease loves dampness and warmth, because in rainy summer absolute rotting of a large number of cherry fruits is often noticed.
Diseases represent a great danger to the crop and the tree as a whole, so the anthracnose must be fought with:
- Prevention in the form of whitewashing the trunk and branches with whitening mixtures, as well as timely harvesting of fallen fruits and digging the soil around the trunk,
- Treatment of gardening injured shoots,
- The use of the drug Poliram for spraying (20g / 10l of water), before flowering, after and after 10-15 days since the last spraying,
- In addition, the use of Bordeaux liquids (1%) will also be effective both in spring and autumn.
Rust and scab
Rust - a disease of fungal origin, which is a threat to foliage in the form of orange spots and bumps. Fortunately, to a greater extent, cherry diseases and methods of their treatment, gardeners are known, and the problem with rust on a piece of paper is not so terrible. The main thing - the right care, prevention and timely intervention.
For rust treatment, the following guidelines should be followed:
- Remove all affected leaves and dispose away from the tree. In order not to injure the plant heavily with pruning, many gardeners use fungicides,
- When all else fails, growers with experience recommend the use of Falcon, Strobe or Alto Super fungicides, which will do an excellent job with rust on cherry,
- If you do not have the right drugs on hand, spray with colloidal sulfur.
Cherry scab is very similar to rust in habitat and is a danger to both the foliage and the fruit. At temperatures above 20 degrees, the scab develops the peak of its impact and can hit the whole tree in a matter of days. Bright yellow spots, burning on the leaves from the center to the edges - a cry for help, without recognizing which and not taking appropriate measures, the crop can suffer greatly, and the tree itself too. Treat scab as follows:
- Whitewashing the barrel whitening means
- Disposal of debris after removal of the affected foliage,
- After the snow melts in the spring, spraying Bordeaux liquid (3%) before the bud starts blooming, otherwise you may get burned by the tips of the leaves. Further on green foliage apply Horus. And if there are also enough pests on the trees, then it is possible to use drugs such as Confidor, Aktara, Spark, Zircon.
Catching cherries (Gommoz)
Excessive gum secretion is fraught with the loss of essential nutrients. Gommoz cherries refers to fungal diseases, most often together manifests itself with coccomycosis, kleasterosporosis, moniliasis, therefore the causes of complex. Manifestations of this disease of the cherry tree are often associated with branch fractures, wounds, overmoistening and excessive amount of fertilizer used, etc.
In order to prevent and avoid gums on cherries, it is recommended to comply with agricultural practices and to prevent the occurrence of the above-listed diseases of the cherry. Experienced gardeners advise in the spring, and in the fall, in the near-stem circle to make completely rotted manure or a mixture of compost with ash. In the spring, before flowering, supplement with additional nitrogen, using organic fertilizers (herbal infusions) together with compost.
Treat gum can be as follows:
- Well clean the wound from which the gum stands out,
- then take the usual sorrel growing on your beds and rub the wound well in several steps with drying (you can use oxalic acid or citric),
- Your task is to change the Ph level to kill the fungus. Continue to rub the wound for 2-3 days to create an acidic environment (if using natural sorrel),
- after a dose of acid, change the level of acidity and gloss over the wound using clay with ash (1: 1). For a more serious treatment of gum cherries, mix the blues with manure or compost (if there is no manure, mix in the ashes). For the winter, be sure to replace the mud hut and make a fresh one.
No matter how gardeners take care of the garden, cherry diseases can manifest themselves at any time and here the most important thing is not to miss the moment and help the trees in time. Preventive measures only help to strengthen the immune system and prevent the occurrence of unwanted infections, viruses, fungi. Do not forget to observe the agrotechnical cultivation and timely inspect your cherry orchard!
Felt Cherry Rust
Investigating unsafe diseases of cherries and their treatment, attention should be paid to rust, the causative agent of which is mushroom Thekopsora padiwintering in the leaves of trees. The main carriers of the disease are coniferous plants. When infected, cherry disease is expressed in the form of purple spots with orange edges and hillocks on the leaves, similar in appearance to metal corrosion.
To eliminate the appearance of rust on felt cherries, they should not be planted near conifers. You also need to make outside the site and burn all the fallen leaves and carry out preventive spraying of trees with copper sulphate in the autumn. The treatment of the disease is carried out with whole copper-containing preparations: "HOM", "Scor", "Topsin-M". Treating trees twice with a period of 14 days, previously removing the affected leaves.
Scab is not dangerous for wood, however detrimental to his harvest. The causative agent is the fungus Karaculiniacerasi, wintering in foliage and waking up with the onset of heat. With an increase in air temperature to +20 degrees Celsius, the fungus begins to multiply dynamically. The leaves appear bright yellow spots, over time they darken and crack. Fungal diseases of the cherry and the fight against them are inevitable when growing trees:
- whitewashing wood with special means
- the elimination of absolutely all plant residues after leaf fall,
- introduction of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers.
When treating scab, excellent results are obtained by repeatedly treating trees with Kuprozan (40-50 g / 10 l of water) with an interval of 20 days.
The reason for the intensive flow of gum can be as different diseases and pests of felt cherries, and incorrect agricultural technology:
- excess fertilizer
- frost and break branches.
Wounds arising from gum, need to be treated with brew or copper sulphate (1% solution). With folk remedies for healing, a manure-clay mixture (1 to 1) can help a lot, which can fill up cracks in the bark of a tree.
Pests of sweet cherries and felted cherries can cause enormous damage in the garden if they are not recognized in time and miss valuable time to fight them.
Mucous sawflies - unsafe pests of cherry. Sawflies are more active in June and July. During this period, they can eliminate a considerable part of the leaves, sucking the juice from them, as a result of which the leaf blades dry out and die. To destroy these pests use substances such as "Piriton", "Aktellik".
With proper care and compliance with prevention, cherry grows well and has low system of care. By describing the main signs of tree damage, you can identify the disease and the pest in order to take action in time to prevent the spread of infection.
Adding an article to a new collection
Many gardeners mistakenly believe that as soon as they plant a sapling of cherries on their land, then all the problems they have will end - go only, but harvest annual and abundant crops, as the creators of the variety promise. However, this is not the case.
In addition to the mandatory care associated with pruning, loosening the soil and watering, there is a need to protect trees from various diseases. Diseases can appear even in a model garden, because there are a lot of factors for their occurrence. These include negative weather conditions, soil conditions, injuries inflicted on trees during harvesting or sanitary pruning, and the influence of other trees in the garden, and other unpredictable phenomena.
If you let everything go of itself and simply do not treat the trees, depending on the severity of the disease, they can die in just a few months or 2-3 years later, and even become a serious threat to other fruit trees.
let's consider the most dangerous diseases of cherry and see how to deal with them.
Preventing hormone disease
In order to eliminate the occurrence of this disease, it is necessary to regularly carry out preventive measures, remove dry and broken shoots, gloss over wounds with garden pitch. The treatment of wounds with a 1% solution of copper sulfate (100 g of the drug per 10 liters of water) also helps. In early spring, before bud break, a solution of copper sulfate can be used to treat the entire tree.
If the disease is still developed, then you can fight it with Bordeaux fluid. To do this, prepare a 1% solution (100 g per 10 l of water) and treat the plants with them at the beginning of bud breaks or at the stage of bud formation. Re-processing can be carried out immediately after flowering, and the third - two weeks after the second. Final processing is carried out about a month before harvesting, and if the disease is very common, then you need to carry out one more treatment immediately after the end of the leaf fall, using an already more concentrated, 3% bordeaux liquid.
Первые признаки того, что болезнь потихоньку поражает растение, проявляются на листьях вишни. С верхней их стороны можно увидеть небольшие вздутия в форме подушечек буро-красного либо красно-оранжевого цвета. Похожи они на пятна ржавчины на металлических деталях, отсюда и название.
The disease causes fungus, which often overwinter on the leaves. If left untreated, rust will cause the plant to drop most of the leaves ahead of time, and also to a sharp decrease in yield, both new and subsequent.
Cherry Rust Prevention
As a preventive measure, it is necessary to annually collect and burn all fallen leaves outside the site, and if the disease has appeared, then it is necessary to start treatment. To combat rust, you can use copper oxychloride or Bordeaux liquid. Chloride of copper plants are treated before flowering and immediately after its completion. The mixture is made on the basis of 80 g of powder per 10 liters of water. The consumption of the resulting solution is about 4 liters per tree over five years old and 2 liters per young plant. Re-processing is carried out after harvesting the fruit, using Bordeaux liquid (1% solution).
And a little about the secrets.
The story of one of our readers Irina Volodina:
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The main diseases of cherries and methods of dealing with them
Most often, a gardener (even an experienced one) discovers unpleasant changes in the state of the cherry tree after the symptoms of the disease appear. Be that as it may, any changes in the appearance of the tree should be thoroughly investigated and root causes identified. And for this it is important to have an idea of how diseases are susceptible to cherries. Consider the most common ones.
Coccomycosis: Symptoms and Treatment
The source of the disease is a marsupial fungus. It affects the foliage of the tree - it is covered with reddish spots. At high humidity on the leaves appears pinkish bloom. Over time, the foliage of the affected tree dries out and falls, and the tree itself becomes weakened and may die at the first frost.
Methods of control and prevention:
- spring tillage and harvesting of fallen leaves,
- triple spraying of the plant with copper oxide (35 g of the drug per 10-12 liters of water) - during budding, during flowering and after harvesting.
Scab: Symptoms and Treatment
One of the most common diseases. On sick leaves and fruits characteristic brown spots are formed. The leaves over time completely folded, and the fruits do not ripen and just crumble.
Methods of control and prevention:
- timely digging of the soil,
- destruction of infected leaves and fruits,
- triple treatment of wood Bordeaux liquid (1%).
Klesterosporiosis (perforation): symptoms and treatment
The causative agent of this disease is also a fungus. One of the earliest symptoms of the disease is the appearance of characteristic brownish spots on the leaves with a pinkish border. Literally after a week after the appearance of the first symptom, holes appear on the leaves, and later the leaves dry out and fall off. The berries are also affected by the disease: fungus-infected cherries begin to become covered in purple spots and rot down to the bone.
Attention! One of the probable primary signs of perforation can be considered the death of young buds and flowers.
Methods of control and prevention:
- removal of diseased parts of the tree,
- Cherry treatment Bordeaux liquid (1%) after flowering.
Moniliasis (gray mold): symptoms and treatment
The rotten shoots and branches of the tree become brown and wither. On the bark there are characteristic "burns", and the fruits gradually rot.
Methods of control and prevention:
- timely and competent tree care,
- destruction of fruits and leaves affected by the disease,
- spraying tree Bordeaux liquid (1%) immediately after flowering.
Gommoz (gum treatment): symptoms and treatment
One of the first symptoms of the disease is the leakage of gum from the trunk and shoots. Over time, it freezes in the form of transparent nodules. Most often it affects trees that are slightly frozen or have fungal diseases.
Methods of control and prevention:
- timely care of a growing tree and increase its immunity,
- processing of damages to wood with garden barb,
- immediate destruction of infected shoots and branches.
Rust: Symptoms and Treatment
The source of the disease is a fungus that infects cherry leaves. Looks like an orange bloom on the back of the leaves.
Methods of control and prevention:
- destruction of diseased leaves,
- wood treatment with copper oxychloride solution before the onset of flowering.
Signs of an unhealthy tree
To prevent death or damage to the cherry tree, you should periodically inspect it for signs of illness or wilt due to improper care.
So, consider the most obvious signs of unhealthy fruit tree:
- Shrinking wood. This may be due to the fact that the root collar is excessively buried in the ground, and therefore begins to sweep, or the tree is struck by a bark beetle or a disease such as moniliosis.
- Yellowing tree. This happens for several reasons: fungal damage, lack of boron / nitrogen in the soil, freezing of the tree during the cold period, improper watering, ant "activity" near the tree.
- Falling green berries. Still unripe berries can crumble more often for the following reasons: fungal infection, lack of nutrients in the soil, damage to the root of the tree, lack of moisture.
- Lack of harvest. If your cherry does not bear fruit, it may mean that it is not sufficiently pollinated by insects, the soil on which it is planted is too acidic, the cherry variety selected for planting turned out to be unsuccessful, or the tree is affected by fungus.
- Scattering of leaves. One of the main causes of leaf fall is the lack of nutrients in the soil. It is enough to bring a full feeding and the plant will return to normal.
- Lack of flowering. This symptom indicates an excess of nitrates deposited in the soil, or an insufficiently deep (too deep) root collar.
Attention! If the tree has no flowering, then sometimes this may indicate that the buds are frozen over. This is possible if an insufficiently cold-resistant cherries variety was chosen for planting.
That came to an end our article. In it, you learned about the most dangerous diseases of the cherry tree, as well as how to deal with them. We wish you good luck and a rich harvest!