Determining the most successful time for planting an apple tree is perhaps one of the most popular topics. In many regions of Russia, gardeners and gardeners try to plant several varieties of fruit trees, with different ripening periods, so that apples are present on the table from late spring to late autumn. To increase the yield of apple trees, it is recommended to pay special attention to the selection of the site during planting, land preparation and seedling, do not forget about the constant care.
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The choice of the best period for planting in open ground depends on the climatic and weather conditions, variety and method of cultivation. The best periods and methods of planting will be discussed in the article. A detailed description is presented in the photo and video at the end of the article.
Selection of the season for planting an apple tree
In order for the sapling to settle down faster and better on the site, it is necessary to ensure him peace. In the cold season, in particular in winter, the trees fall asleep. But planting a plant in frozen ground is unacceptable. Therefore, it is best to choose the spring period, when sap flow from the roots to the kidneys does not occur yet, or autumn, when this process has already ended. Additional information is needed to clarify the exact dates.
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Landing time by region
In order to eliminate the possibility of a negative effect of cold soil on the root or drying of the branches and buds during the drought period, it is necessary to plant an apple tree only in heated soil at average air temperature. Recommended periods for transferring plants to open ground in areas with different climatic conditions:
- In the northern regions of Russia: in Siberia, in the Urals, in the Leningrad Region, it is best to transplant the plant in open ground from late April to early second half of May. This spring period is optimal, since the root system during this time will harden and subsequently the apple tree will not suffer from temperature changes. Planting trees in autumn in these climatic zones can lead to the death of apple trees from frost, even with proper care.
- In the regions of the middle zone, including in the Moscow region, it is recommended to plant apple trees in spring and autumn. The spring period is considered the most successful, because planting in the winter can lead to freezing of the root system and the entire plant, since winters in these areas are characterized by frequent temperature changes and strong winds. If there is a “warm” winter ahead with abundant snow, you can transfer the escape to open ground from late September to mid-October. Three weeks after the target date, severe frosts begin, so planting an apple tree later is strictly prohibited.
- In the southern regions, landing can be done both in spring and in autumn. Towards the north it is best to replant shoots in the spring, which lasts from mid-April to mid-May. And in the more southern - in the autumn, not later than the middle of October.
Weather for planting an apple tree
In order to plant a plant in the optimal period, it is necessary to take into account not only climatic conditions, but also weather. Before planting the apple in the spring, you need to check whether it is warm enough.
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Testing can begin from mid-April. It should be carefully observed whether a shovel easily enters the soil. If it is easy and the ground is soft - you can plant an apple tree.
Tip! If the bayonet comes in hard and bends, then you should not carry the plant, because the earth is not yet ready.
In autumn, the ground is still warm, so you should not plant an apple tree ahead of time. Early planting in a well-warmed land can lead to the fact that the roots of the plant will not take root. Planting seedlings in open ground is recommended when leaves begin to fall from the trees. If you still have to transplant the plant at the end of the summer, you should carefully follow all the rules of care regarding watering and feeding. It is necessary to transplant an apple tree in the summer period together with an earthy clod so as not to damage the root system.
Landing work is best done on a calm, overcast day. The heat of the air will dry the seedling, and the wind can break it. In the spring for planting it is best to choose the evening time, because in the morning the ground is cold and in the afternoon it warms up.
When choosing a variety, it is necessary to take into account that its characteristics will affect the period during which the plant should be planted and the rules for care.
- Age. In the spring it is best to transplant young seedlings, not older than 2 years. Older plants are best planted in the fall. Large apple trees are recommended to be replanted at the end of autumn, because at this time the plant has a growing season. This is necessary to protect against death when changing the site.
- Roots. The plant, which is sold with open roots, is best to take root in mild climates. The owner of the land near St. Petersburg, in the Urals and in Siberia, is best to buy an apple tree in any container.
- Sort In the spring, colonized apple trees are planted because they have developed roots. During the period of active growth of the plant, the roots will take root well in the soil, so it will be necessary to warm it in winter. The planting of dwarf apple and semi-dwarf varieties occurs along the same lines, since the root system is as well developed as that of ordinary apple trees, these varieties are very demanding in terms of planting.
Choosing a sapling, do not dwell on tall trees. The root system of large plants is severely injured, because in nurseries where apple trees are grown they are removed from the ground using a special mechanism. Large branches of such plants should be pruned immediately after planting, otherwise they will die.
Tip! It is better to make a choice in favor of small annual or biennial seedlings, since their roots are much more compact.
When buying seedlings from random sellers or on the street, you should remember about the high probability of acquiring an unvaccinated and non-zoned plant. Therefore, it is best to make a purchase in a specialized store or nursery, where various varieties are grown specifically for a particular region, distinguished by their yield, winter hardiness, and drought resistance.
Watch the video! 100% survival rate of seedling
Preparing a landing site
There is a misconception that the apple tree takes root and brings a good harvest in any area. However, this culture needs:
- Well prepared ground
- Lack of swampiness,
- Well ventilated area that is protected from harsh winds.
Comfortable conditions that affect the growth of the plant and its yield can be created on its own. You can rid the soil of excess moisture with the help of drainage, increase its nutritional value with the help of fertilizers, and protect it from the wind with a fence. It is not necessary to plant a tree on the spot where the apple tree was grown before. Since this culture, as it grows and develops, is capable of releasing special substances that may adversely affect the young seedling. The area where plum and cherry trees were previously grown is best suited. It is best to choose a site where nettles are actively growing.
When planting an apple tree that does not belong to the category of self-pollinated, it is necessary to provide options for pollination by insects, bees, or to plant a certain kind of tree next to it. For example, for areas of the middle band, an Antonovka apple tree may become a pollinator.
Features of autumn planting apple
Good weather and climatic conditions allow planting seedlings in the fall. When the leaves cease to fall off, a 1-2 year old tree is planted in the prepared hole and sprinkled with earth. Time after planting - the period of growth of the root system. Features that must be considered when planting an apple:
- Preparatory work before transferring the seedling to open ground should be started 4 weeks, but no later than 11-13 days before planting. A pit is preliminarily formed with a depth of 70 cm, with parameters of 1 m by 1 m. A stake is driven in at the center of the resulting square, at a distance of 0.3-0.4 m above the ground. The top of the soil needs to be laid out separately from the rest of the land,
- The top layer of soil is mixed with the rest of the earth and emit 1/3. 3 buckets of previously prepared manure, which has overheated, 10 tablespoons of ash, 4 tablespoons of potash salt and a glass of superphosphate are added to this mixture, all components are thoroughly mixed. The fertilized, soil mixture is laid on the bottom of the depression, and on top of it is covered with a layer of the remaining earth,
- On the chosen day, the tree is planted in a prepared hole, into which black earth is also added and sprinkled with a layer of earth,
- The roots of the plant are well covered with earth and leave the root neck at a level from the ground up to 5 cm. The sapling is secured with a string to the installed support,
- After this procedure, the plant is plentifully watered with water (about 3-4 buckets) so that the roots can stick to the ground,
- To avoid rapid evaporation of the liquid, it is necessary to add humus or peat chips to the resulting well.
There are a lot of methods how to preserve an apple tree seedling in winter. The thickness of the mulch must be increased with the onset of the cold period. Small trees should be protected from frost by wrapping them with pine, spruce or thick paper. Such measures will help not only to freeze the plant, but also save shoots from sunburn and pests.
Recommendation! If the winter is snowless or is characteristic of a certain region, then the trunk of the apple should be prikopat soil to a height of 22 cm.
Watch the video! Planting apple trees in the fall
Features of spring planting apple
- The recess is prepared in advance, after the soil has warmed up, 6-9 days before the seedling is transferred to the ground. The parameters of the excavated pit are 60 by 80 cm, and the depth from 60 cm is for good quality soil and 70 cm for poor soils,
- In order to protect the plant's root system from drying out, it is necessary before planting it in the soil, put the seedling in a container with water in order to saturate the roots with moisture,
- Planted apple trees in the soil in the same way as in the fall. The technique differs only in the volume of water used for irrigation. Water the plant until the soil ceases to absorb it,
- A hole is prepared for planting colonic species, which is dug to the depth of the bayonet, its parameters are 3 m by 3.5 m. The soil is fertilized with a special mixture, which consists of: a compost bucket, 2 tablespoons of superphosphate, 2 tablespoons of potash salt, which is taken in proportion of 1 m 2. The soil must be bored using a rake and add another layer of ordinary earth, 60-70 cm thick. Saplings after 2-3 weeks are planted, special recesses are added between the rows to drain groundwater.
Errors when planting apple trees
Planting a tree in the ground, you should pay special attention to the deepening of the root collar. It is necessary for it to rise 5 cm above the ground level. If the neck is deeper, then the apple tree will grow poorly. If the roots are located higher, they will simply wither and the plant will die. The line of the beginning of the root collar can be determined independently; it begins where the color of the bark changes from green to brown. The grafting of a plant that also leaves brown marks on the trunk is no higher than 4.5 - 8 cm.
Beginner gardeners when planting apples will help a number of useful tips:
- The amount of mineral fertilizers that are used to feed the soil should not be exceeded, since a large dose can destroy bacteria that help the plant absorb nutrients,
- At the bottom of the prepared deepening it is impossible to lay out fresh manure, since it subsequently, being in an environment where there is no oxygen, emits ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. These compounds have a negative impact on the growth and development of apple trees, complicate survival,
- Sapling roots that have dried out or been damaged need pruning. The tree should be placed in a container with water for 1-2 days. In order for the roots to settle down better in the open ground, they are dipped in a special mixture, for the preparation of which the following scheme is necessary: 3 parts of red clay and 1 part of mullein. In the mixture, add the rotor - "Grandis", "Rival", "Appin"
- When planting roots must be directed strictly down or left in a horizontal position,
- After the plant has been planted, and the hole is covered with earth, it must be grasped manually or with a spade. It is forbidden to tamp with special devices or feet,
- Twine, with the help of which the seedling is fixed next to the plant, is twisted into a figure of eight, which allows the plant to sway less with gusts of wind. Under the twine should be put a piece of roofing material, so as not to damage the delicate bark of the plant.
Planted plants do not require special care, in the first years of life it is enough to water it and remove growing weeds. Pristvolnye circles are recommended to either keep under a black steam and loosen, or lay out a layer of straw or dried grass on top. Between rows of apple trees it is recommended to plant siderats, which in autumn serve as fertilizer for wood.
Planted in autumn, the plant needs to be watered only once, because in the cold season the water evaporates badly. The plant, which was transferred to the open ground in the spring, is best watered 2-3 times in 7 days. It is recommended to pour out 2-3 buckets of warm water under the root. Then the number of waterings is reduced, on clay soil to 1 time in 4 weeks, during the dry period on soils, mainly sandy, once a week.
Close the tree for the winter is recommended for the next 5 years. In the second year, a crown is formed with the help of branches. To increase the growth of side branches, you need to cut and shorten the bushes in the area of branches. The first couple of years on the trees completely remove the flowers, then increase the load.
Advantages and disadvantages of spring planting
Most apple varieties are resistant to adverse weather factors and take root even in climatically difficult areas. But different varieties have their own characteristics, so choose the one that is right for your region. Also on this factor depends on the timing of landing. The apple tree will grow and yield even in extreme weather conditions, the main thing is to root it in time.
For example, in Siberia, seedlings are planted only at the end of April, or even later, if the winter has dragged on. Visual factor tip: when the earth warmed to the depth of a shovel. In the south, it is effective to plant a tree in the fall. During a mild winter, it will have time to harden and survive the summer moisture deficit.
In the middle lane, planting of an apple occurs in autumn and in spring. An ideal time: the end of September is the first half of October, but no later than 3 weeks before the first frost. Another favorable period is in spring, when the earth will thaw out so much that it will allow to dig a hole of the right size. Spring landing is more popular:
- Winter weather is not necessary for a year and can hit with a disastrous long frost on a fully rooted tree.
- Apple tree will begin to bear fruit earlier in the year.
- In summer, it is easier for a gardener to control probable survival problems.
- Even an overdue planting is not terrible, if then watering the seedling correctly.
Among the minuses of spring planting: a relatively small selection of seedlings. However, they can be prepared in the fall. In the first months of life for the tree should be carefully looked after and control its watering. The risk of death of a young apple tree during this period is very high.
Planting an apple tree: choosing a sapling and a place for it
First of all, decide where the apple tree will grow, because it doesn’t survive well on the open area, on the slopes near the forest. Culture likes a well-lit warm place, closed from the wind. It is better if the fruit trees did not grow on it before, otherwise you need to sow the place with meadow grasses or legumes for at least a couple of years. Another option is to completely change the ground. If you plant more than one apple tree, then there should be at least 4 m between the seedlings, otherwise later grown trees will begin to grow together. In addition, apple trees are planted no closer than 3 m to the border of the site.
Council Groundwater should not be closer to the surface than 1-1.5 m, so as not to flood the tree. If there is no possibility to transfer the landing to another place, make an embankment with a diameter of 2 m and a height in the range of 0.6-1.2 m.
Whichever variety you choose, choose a seedling by the following criteria:
- One-year (at least 1 m in height) or two-year (about 1.5 m). They take root faster, are more resistant to disease and temperature changes, less whimsical in care.
- The presence of kidneys.
- Whole and properly trimmed root for planting. It should not be additional formations or growths.
- The bark is whole.
- Sapling is not dry.
How to prepare a hole and trim the tree correctly
Когда бы вы ни укореняли яблоню, ее обрезку нужно проводить исключительно весной. Однолетние деревца, которые не имеют кроны, укорачивают до высоты 0,6-0,9 м от уровня земли. Это необходимо, чтобы сформировалась крона. У кронированных экземпляров следует обрезать веточки на 1/3 или 2/3.
The hole for seedlings need to prepare days for 7 before disembarking. The soil should be soft. Pit size: 50-60 cm in diameter and in depth. If the ground is not good enough, the diameter of the pit is increased even to 1 m, and the depth is 10 cm. In the process, separate the top layer of soil from the bottom - it is more fertile and still useful.
Soak the roots in water for several hours before planting to saturate them with moisture. Cut off torn or damaged tips to a healthy part. Mix a little fertile soil with mineral additives: 200-300 g of superphosphate, 40-60 g of potassium chloride (or 300-400 g of wood ash), 1-2 buckets of humus or peat. Pour the mixture into the pit so as to fill it by about 2/3.
Attention! Do not add bird droppings as fertilizer - it will burn the roots. Also, fresh manure is not suitable. It will secrete hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, which are destructive for a young tree.
Apple seedling roots with a peg:
- when planting, the root neck should be 5 cm above the ground,
- the roots in the pit should not be a bundle - distribute them in different directions,
- cover the pit with the rest of the upper layer of the earth, carefully tamping down with your feet,
- tie a tree to a peg,
- make a hole for watering and fill the sapling with water: you will need 4 buckets,
- Zamulchirovat tree straw, compost, can be leaves or peat in a layer of 3-6 cm.
If the soil is heavy clay, you need to ensure the movement of air and moisture. To do this, fill the pit with fertile soil - a mixture of sand, humus and humus. In this case, it is advised to lay the drainage out of broken clay or brick. Whatever the soil, remember: for the normal development of the apple tree requires abundant and regular watering.
Criteria for selection of apple seedlings for spring planting
First of all, you need to remember that planting apple trees in spring with seedlings should begin with the choice of a nursery, where they can offer quality material. After all, if you buy a sapling from an unscrupulous seller, after a few years, the summer resident may find that he managed to grow something different from what he wanted. In addition, a random purchase can turn into the fact that the tree will be without a graft, sick or with over-dried roots.
In a specialized nursery gardener not only sell the desired variety, you can also be sure that the seedling is properly grafted and passed the control of sanitary service. During the season, nurseries take out planting material for sale to the markets, in this case the seller must have a corresponding certificate, which he is ready to provide on request.
Selection of apple seedlings
When the gardener decided on the apple variety and chose a nursery for its purchase, it was the turn for the selection according to other criteria.
If the garden is located on a site with a low groundwater table (below 3 m), the stock can be of any type - vigorous, semi-dwarf, and dwarf. When the groundwater is high, do not purchase seedlings on seed (strong-growth) rootstock. Such a tree will grow too high, with a strong root system that will reach the water. As a result, the apple tree will become weakened and begin to ache, and in winter it can freeze out. Crohn of such a tree, as a rule, is prone to wilting, and you can not count on a big crop.
If ground water is close to the ground (above 1.5 m), only seedlings on dwarf rootstock or columnar apple trees with shallow root system will be suitable for the site. Of course, the columnar apple trees are less frost-resistant and produce not so abundant yields, but rather dense planting is acceptable for them. Saving space on the site will be substantial.
Note! Celled varieties of apple trees are more demanding to care than others. If the gardener does not have the opportunity to regularly feed and fertilize apple trees, it makes no sense to start them in your garden.
Terms of fruiting
Choosing an apple tree for the term of fruiting, you need to take into account the weather of the region where it will be planted. If you plant an autumn variety in the northern region, the fruits simply do not have time to ripen before the onset of cold weather. There is nothing in Siberia and the resistance of the apple to diseases that develop in a hot climate. In a warm area, the tree does not need increased frost resistance. All apple trees in terms of ripening are divided into three types:
- Summer The harvest from these apple trees is harvested in August and it is stored for no more than a month. Excellent flavors are inherent in these varieties. These varieties are usually grown in the north. Medunitsa, Pear and White filling will be suitable for planting in the middle lane.
- Autumn. These apples have fruiting in September and for another month the fruits can be kept fresh. Typical representatives are Cinnamon striped, Borovinka and Melba.
- Winter These apples continue to bear fruit until October and have the longest shelf life (up to 6 months). Varieties belonging to this group are suitable for planting in the southern regions, where there is a hot summer and a warm autumn. Bogatyr, Antonovka, Aport, Welsey, Ranetka are very popular. Winter apples have dense pulp and excellent taste.
Important! The variety in any case should be zoned, adapted to specific growing conditions.
In addition, when buying you need to pay attention to the condition of the seedling. Its roots should not be lethargic and dry. Their deplorable state suggests improper storage, which further leads to poor survival. On the cut, the roots should be white, it will say that they are alive. The root system should be branched and have a length of about 30 cm.
Shtambe is supposed to be strong and level, without damage. Recognize an unvaccinated tree can be perpendicular to the location of the branches relative to the trunk and spikes on them. Seeing this, it is safe to say that it is wild. To get such a sapling is not worth it.
Planting apple trees in spring with closed root seedlings
When choosing a sapling, amateur tree farming and gardening should prefer a tree with a closed root system. The advantage of such apple trees is that their roots are better preserved during storage and do not suffer during transplantation. Such a seedling will take root equally well in spring, summer and autumn. The landing procedure will be as follows:
- For the most popular medium growing apple trees, a planting pit 50 cm deep and 1 m in diameter is prepared. If several trees are to be planted, an interval of 3-4 m is required between them. The distance between the rows should be at least 5 m.
- The poor soil layer is removed and the bottom of the pit is filled with a mixture of soil and compost and ash. Additionally, you can make 1-2 handfuls of mineral fertilizers.
- In the nutrient mixture make a depression equal to the diameter of the pot and shed the ground with water. Before planting, they also water the apple tree in the pot.
- The planting container is turned upside down and, holding the trunk of a tree with one hand, the other is carefully removed the pot with twisting movements, taking care not to disturb the integrity of the earthen clod.
- After that, the seedling is set so that the level of the ground in which the apple tree grew is flush with the upper edge of the planting hole or slightly higher. Only with such a fit, the root neck will be located correctly.
- Next to the earthy clod, they install a garter peg for saplings, observing that it does not damage the roots.
- Then fill the space left in the pit on either side of the seedling with earth, occasionally moistening the earth in the process so that it becomes denser.
- After planting, the soil around the circumference should be tamped a little, without pressing the earthen room in which the seedling was sitting. As a result, a small depression should form around the apple tree.
- In the resulting groove gently in several stages pour up to 2 buckets of water.
Now you need to soil the soil with a layer of fertile land and tie up the seedling to the peg. It will be possible to remove the support after 2 years, when the apple tree is well strengthened.
How to plant apple seedling in spring with an open root system
Planting apple seedlings with an open root system can be made in the fall or spring. In spring, it must be done before the buds swell. Step by step planting the seedling will look like this:
- It is necessary to prepare a landing pit with a size corresponding to the volume of the roots. The older the seedling, the wider and deeper the pit will be.
- The lower layer of the earth should be removed, and the upper fertile soil mixed with humus and phosphate-potassium fertilizers. This mixture will fill the hole.
- At the bottom of a pit of fertilized soil, a mound is made, after which a support for an apple-tree of suitable size is driven in.
- The seedlings cut the skeletal roots and dip them into a clay mash with the addition of a root. The branches are shortened by half or 1/3 of the length before planting.
- Sapling set on a mound and straighten the roots so that they are distributed evenly.
- In the process of planting, earth is added in layers, lightly tamping each of them and pouring a bucket of water over it. So do, until the pit is full.
- It is important not to let the seedling go deep into the soil. The root neck after planting should remain at the level of the edge of the pit.
- After planting, the ground is tamped so that there are no voids inside, and a small groove is dug around.
- After planting, the tree is watered through a dug indentation and tied to a peg.
Apple tree planting is more convenient to make together. One person will hold the tree in the desired position, and the second - to work with a shovel.
Important! Watering an apple tree during planting should add 3-5 ml of prestige preparation to a bucket of water. This will help destroy the pests and their larvae in the soil.
Tips from experienced gardeners for further care
A young apple must be provided with comprehensive care if the gardener wants to have good harvests in the future.
Apple trees planted in the current season are watered for the first time 2 weeks after disembarkation. The second watering is carried out in a month, and the third - in the period of leaf fall. The amount of moisture depends on weather conditions. Usually it is 4-6 buckets on one tree. It should take into account the presence or absence of rain, the composition of the soil.
In subsequent seasons, the apple trees are watered a little according to a different schedule:
- the first watering is carried out on the eve of flowering,
- the second time the earth is moistened when excess ovaries are showered,
- the third time watering is carried out during the period of fruit loading,
- the fourth watering is carried out after leaf fall.
On medium-density soils, 50-60 liters of water are poured at a time at a time, in clay soil, the volume of moisture is reduced by 15-20%, and on sandy or peaty earth, on the contrary, it is increased by 20%. In the period of drought, the apple tree is additionally moistened by watering twice a month.
In order for the young tree to quickly grow the vegetative mass, the first 2 years it is fertilized in early spring. The first time to feed the apple tree can be infusion of mullein. Compost or humus can also be used as a source of nitrogen (1 bucket).
In May and June, foliar feeding with mineral fertilizers for fruit trees is recommended. It is also recommended to grow apple trees with autumn fertilizing with salts of phosphorus and potassium. Fertilizer scatter in pristvolnom circle and dig.
Important! Mature trees should not be over-fed with nitrogen, as this will negatively affect the keeping quality of fruits and the ability of the apple tree to tolerate frosts.
If we are talking about just beginning to bear fruit apple, it will be useful for her to feed from urea. The same fertilizer can be applied in those years when there is a weak flowering. 35 g of fertilizer is dissolved in 10 l of water and sprayed with foliage. It is recommended to carry out the treatment twice: immediately after the petals fall and a month later.
Mulching of the tree near-stem circle reduces the temperature jumps of the soil near the suction roots, supplies the soil with humus, reduces evaporation of water, increases the useful soil bacteria, and does not allow a dense crust to form on the ground after moisture.
Low-lying peat, compost, rotted manure, and husk from sunflower seeds are excellent as mulch. The use of pine needles, spruce and pine sawdust, peat, straw and chaff is unacceptable, since these materials contribute to the increase of soil acidity.
Protection against diseases and pests
Chemicals are used only for control, but not for prevention. This is due to their harmful effects on beneficial insects. As a preventive measure for diseases and pests, it is necessary to clean and burn dead leaves, dry apples. From spores of fungi and bark beetle will help the treatment of branches with a solution of soda ash.
As soon as young leaves appear, the apple tree can be treated with Bordeaux liquid. The appeared mite is destroyed by an aktellik, the tsvetkoeda by an aktar, gnawing and sucking parasites by entobacterin or dendrobatsillin. After flowering, in order not to apply "chemistry", it is recommended to install trap belts on the tree. In wet weather, fungal diseases are prevented by phytosporin treatment.
Important! The trunk of young apple trees must also be whitened in early spring, this measure will protect the bark from sunburn.
In the first year after planting, pruning sets the young apple to the correct shape of the crown. Weak and broken shoots cut out completely. Thickening the crown branches shortened by 2/3. Remove tops and unnecessary growths, intersecting branches. The procedure should be carried out before flowering.
Proper spring planting of apple seedlings needs to be given the closest attention. She is the key to active growth of the tree and the subsequent rich harvests.
How to save seedlings before planting in the ground?
If you have already purchased seedlings, but the time has not yet come to plant them, then you should treat the conservation of seedlings responsibly. The roots of the culture can quickly absorb water and evaporate it.
After some time, the root system dries in the open air, because of this it is required wrap with wet cloth or sprinkle with water and then wrap layers of polyethylene on it.
Store young apple trees in a cool room. Before planting the roots can be placed for several hours in a bucket of water. But it’s impossible to keep apple trees with roots in the water for a long time, otherwise they will rot.
Walkthrough how to plant an apple tree in spring
If you have groundwater below 3 m from the surface, you can plant any variety.
If you have these waters are 2.5 m from the surface of the soil, then purchase varieties that have a semi-dwarf stock.
If the subterranean waters are even higher, and they are at a depth of 1.5 m, then only varieties on dwarf rootstocks are suitable, since the roots of dwarf trees grow only 1 m deep.
See how to plant an apple tree in spring - video from experienced gardeners:
First of all, you need to choose a location for planting seedlings. Future problems can be avoided by considering all aspects of the landing site, such as:
- sun and good soil
- features of the surroundings
- place for future plantings.
Cross-pollination of the same tree species is the key to the success of fruiting the apple tree. In most cases, the lack of a compatible diversity of pollinators leads to the fact that apple trees produce poorly or do not bear fruit at all. Therefore, apple trees and their partners pollen should be planted nearby - within 10−15 meters from each other for adequate cross-pollination.
There are several varieties of apple trees that are self-pollinating. If you want to plant only one tree, consider planting a self-pollinating apple tree.
Sun and good soil
Apple trees thrive when they grow in a place that gets enough sun and has a good fertile soil.
Light is vital for the production and quality of fruits, and also helps prevent the development of fungal problems, so you cannot plant an apple tree where there is a constant shadow. To do this, the tree needs 6−8 hours of everyday sun.
Good soil drainage is necessary to keep apple roots healthy, and healthy roots are the basis of a healthy tree. If you find that the soil consists of heavy clay, which retains water after rainy weather, you need to choose another area. Similarly, if the plot has a fast draining sandy soil, your apple tree may be exposed to water-related stress (similar to drought), and may require more frequent watering. And not recommended to grow apples in rocky or heavy, purely clay soils.
Apple seedlings respond well to soil additives, such as compost or fertilizer, so they can grow well even where the soil is poor in nutrients.
Soil preparation before planting will promote healthy, new growth.
The purpose of soil preparation is to give an apple tree seedling a solid foundation. This includes the replenishment of vital minerals and nutrients with fertilizers or organic substances, as well as the destruction and loosening of compacted soils.
General characteristics of soil types
Clay and silt soils consist of very small particles. They are wet and sticky. Clay and silt retain moisture well, but resist water penetration, especially when they are dry. Лужи часто образуются на глинистых или иловых почвах, которые легко уплотняются.
Суглинистые почвы обычно поглощают воду и хорошо хранят влагу. Они могут быть песчаными или глинистыми, но представляют собой смесь песка, ила или глины и органического вещества.
Песчаные почвы содержат крупные частицы, которые видны невооружённым глазом, и обычно светлые. Песчаник позволяют влаге легко проникать, но не удерживает воду для длительного использования.
Soil preparation can be carried out at any time of the year when the earth is not overly saturated or frozen.
Common soil amendments for apple trees:
- garden lime (if the soil's natural pH is too low / acidic)
- sphagnum / peat moss (if the natural pH of the soil is too high / alkaline).
Adding organic materials such as compost will improve the composition of most soil types. Organic materials bind sandy soil particles to better retain moisture and nutrients. They also destroy clay and sludge particles, so that water can be absorbed and the roots can grow freely.
If the pH of the soil where you plan to plant your tree is 6.0–7.0 - this is the ideal range for an apple tree. Take a look at the trees and plants around the site. Make sure they look healthy and grow well. This will help give you an idea. about the success of new plantings in the area.
Apple trees can be planted in spring, even if the temperature is rather cool. If severe frost is expected, it is recommended to postpone the landing for a while until the temperature becomes more moderate. Do not expose roots to low temperatures.
Before planting, you need to imagine a new apple tree in the form of an adult tree and pay attention to what might hinder it:
- cables, pipes or other lines and utilities,
- pavement or foundation within the mature spread of your apple tree,
- neighboring trees that will block sunlight.
Before landing it is necessary place the apple roots in a bucket or large bath with water for one to two hours. This will help protect the roots from drying out. Avoid soaking roots for more than six hours.
Dig a planting hole deep and rather wide so that the root system has enough space for development and growth. Do not dig holes long before planting, as it will inevitably fill with water. Fruit trees do not like to stagnate in stagnant water.
Keep a more nutritious topsoil in a separate heap so that you can place it in the bottom of the hole.
To weaken the soil, mix it with manure, garden compost. Place the apple seedling vertically in the center of the mounting hole with its roots down. Then fill the hole, first laying the top layer of soil. You can avoid creating air pockets by carefully treating the soil around the roots.
Make sure that the tree is planted to the same depth, as in the nursery, with a graft connection above the soil line. One person must hold a tree hanging in a hole. The second person should start filling the hole with soil.
Carefully water the newly planted apple tree. You can water it with a water-soluble solution. If planting occurs in the fall, do not fertilize until spring. After watering, if the soil settles just add more soil - enough to refill the hole to the ground level.
Apply a layer of organic material, such as wood mulch, about 5–6 centimeters thick, around the root zone of your apple tree. Mulching helps prevent weeds, and also allows you to quickly remove water from the root zone. In the autumn double a layer of mulch or add a layer of straw for winter protection.
Mulching is almost always beneficial for new fruit trees, but in very hot, dry climates, a layer of mulch can act as a home for various unwanted bugs and pests. This is perhaps one of the situations where mulching becomes counterproductive, and bare soil and good irrigation is preferred.
When landing, pay attention to the following points:
- Most seedlings need support before they have a root system. The right tree pillbox (wood or metal) is best, but a heavy bamboo cane will be sufficient for small trees.
- Do not add compost or fertilizer to the planting hole.
- Never keep fruit seedlings indoors. If the weather is too cold for planting seedlings, keep them in an unheated garage.
The next day after planting, you must again irrigate the ground next to the seedling with water. Watering should be done once a week (more often if the weather is hot and dry), but try to avoid excessive watering, as the roots of most fruit trees rot in flooded soil.
Selection of seedlings and selection of apple varieties
An important factor for obtaining a large crop is the choice of seedlings. Buying apple trees "with hands" is obviously a bad idea. No one will guarantee a variety, and nothing about vaccinations is out of the question. Choose the varieties most adapted to your regional climatic conditions. Purchase seedlings in specialized nurseries and stores, carefully review the reviews and specifications - so you will be confident in the fitness of the culture.
Apple varieties are divided into groups: summer, autumn and winter.
- Summer sorts of trees begin to bear fruit in August; fruits can be stored for up to two weeks, but they are usually eaten with pleasure immediately after removal.
- Autumn apple varieties bear fruit in September, and the fruits retain their properties for a month.
- Winter varieties begin fruiting at the end of September and these apples can be stored for six months.
Terms of spring planting of apple trees
For planting apple trees in the spring, you need a positive temperature. Young plants need to be planted before the buds unfold. As soon as the air warms up, you can start landing. For each region, the timing of planting an apple is different, for example:
- In the southern districts, apple trees are planted in mid-April.
- In the middle lane, planting apple seedlings is done in late April.
- In Siberia, you can start planting apples no earlier than mid-May.
The exact date range for rooting apple saplings in the spring depends on the climatic features of the region.
Useful articles about apple trees:
Site selection and soil preparation
Depending on the variety, you need to decide in which side of the plot to plant apple seedlings. If you choose tall varieties, then place the seedlings on the north side of the garden; if the variety is short, then the south side is suitable for it. For an apple tree, it is preferable to choose an open, spacious, sunny place on which the trees did not grow before. Of great importance is such a factor as groundwater. The close occurrence of groundwater, may soon erode the soil and the tree will die. Favorable will be the neighborhood with a pear, plum, rowan.
For good development and growth of apple trees need fertile soil. If the conditions of the soil do not match, you can prepare a nutrient substrate for laying in the planting pit.
Planting pit need to prepare for two weeks before planting seedlings. If there are several seedlings, then dig out planting pits at a distance of 3-4.5 meters. Depending on the variety, the average size of the planting hole is 80-90 cm in diameter, and a depth of 60-65 cm.
- Dig up the soil and divide it into layers. Top fertile layer set aside separately.
- At the bottom of the pit, fill the drainage of broken brick and hammer in the center of the support.
- Mix half of the topsoil with humus and compost and lower it into the pit above the drainage, carefully water and leave for 10-14 days.
Soil features can be corrected as follows:
- the soil with a predominance of clay is diluted with sand 2/1,
- mix sandy soil with humus and peat in a ratio of 2/1/1.
Proper planting of apple trees
- Seedlings before planting, place in water for a day.
- When the planting pits rested, settled, you can start planting apple seedlings.
- Pour the fertile soil into the prepared pit so that a mound is formed, about 20 cm.
- Place the seedling near the support and flatten the roots. Gradually falling asleep fertile soil, gently tamp so that there are no voids left.
- In no case do not bury the vaccine, it should be 3-5 cm above ground level!
- Tie an apple tree to the support, a strong wind and precipitation can break the branches to tilt the seedling.
- Carefully water the plants, one seedling will take about 3-4 buckets of water.
- Place around the planting gurgle with straw or humus, this will allow for a long time to retain moisture.
The next watering, after planting seedlings, spend a week.
Pruning apple seedlings in the spring
The spring pruning of a young apple forms the crown of a future tree.
- Use a sharp pruner and a garden knife to cut the top off, leaving several buds (shoots) on the plant to form strong, side branches.
- Shoots growing up will compete with the trunk, so they need to be removed.
- On the plant you need to keep 5-6 buds evenly placed on the trunk and growing horizontally.
Spring feeding of apple trees for a good start
Spring dressing for fresh planting of apple trees, helps the tree to settle down and form a supply of nutrients for future harvest. Make it a rule to apply fertilizers in the near-trunk ditches. Make it not difficult, for this at a distance of 0.5 meters around the seedling, dig a shallow trench.
The first dressing spend a month after planting.
- Mixed with water humus will be suitable for the first feeding. Mix up to the state of sour cream and pour into the bark ditch.
- An excellent substitute is urea solution. At 30 liters, take 300 grams of urea. Pour 2-3 buckets of mortar into a trench.
- For feeding you can use potassium sulfate and superphosphate. Use according to the instructions for use.
- Fertilize right near the trunk, the tree can get burned.
- Use fresh manure to feed the apple tree, it is detrimental to the root system of the tree.
To grow a beautiful apple orchard, you need to surround the apple trees with care and attention, and also follow the rules of spring planting and care. After all, the correct planting of an apple tree is a guarantee of a high yield!
How to prepare a pit for planting and what depth?
It is required to make a pit depending on the structure of the soil and on its preparation, as well as on the size of the tree:
- If a fertile land, black earth and the earth was dug deep, then the landing hole can be dug up small, so long as the roots are located in it. Make a pit depth of 35 cm and a width of 45 cm.
- If a heavy soil, then make a larger pit, it should have a depth of 0.7 m and a width of 1 m.
- If in the garden the subsoil is rocky and the land is not refinedthen dig a hole 0.9 m deep and 1.2 m wide.
Recommend for planting seedlings in the spring digging holes in the fall.
How to fertilize?
The bottom layer of the earth is placed near the landing pit. Then it is mixed with: 100 g of potassium sulfate, 20 kg of humus, 500 g of superphosphate. In the hole poured mound.
Planting apple trees in the ground.
Planting an apple tree with a closed root system
- Buy healthy apple trees, they should hold tight in the coma of the earth.
- On the hill in the pit make a groove, which in size should coincide with the volume of the pot. Carefully water pit and seedling.
- Turn the pot upside down, hold the tree so that the earth does not wake down, carefully remove the pot, putting your fingers in the holes at the bottom.
- Put the apple tree in the recess so that the level of the clod of earth is 2-3 cm higher or flush with the surface of the earth, so that the root collar is located correctly.
- If you have a root collar too deep in the soil, then the apple tree will grow badly, but if the planting is very shallow, the roots will dry. Place a wooden stick across the fossa, the root neck should be 4-5 cm above the stick.
- Insert a stake into the ground so as not to damage the roots.
- Pour free space with soil, watering the ground a little. Pack some earth.
- Tie the apple tree to the cola.
Features of landing in frosts
Try not to freeze the apple tree.
But after landing at any time in the spring frost may occur, it should be expected.
there is 2 frost protection methods:
- water protection. If the weather center reported that there will be freezing at night, it is advised to spray the trees with water from a hose, and even better if the spray from the hose lasts all night. Thus, trees should not be protected in the wind, as this will have the opposite effect,
- smoke protection. First, put a stake in the soil, lay down sawdust, peat, fallen leaves. Take out the count before the frosts and set the pile on fire. Then the smoke will go through the hole left from the stake.
Features of planting in soil with close groundwater
You can understand that your site is close to groundwater, if you grow up: horse sorrel, cattail, coltsfoot, sedge.
Ordinary apple trees location of groundwater is required at a level not higher than 2 m from the surface.
If your groundwater is higher, then you can plant dwarf apple trees.
If you still have acquired the usual apple trees, make the hills, which are planted with apple trees.
In the garden, select a place with an area of 2 m on a hill or artificially pour it, dig for a spade on the bayonet.
From the boards beat down the box, having a height of 0.8 m and a width of 1 m. Scatter the fertilizers required for planting the apple tree over the plot and inside the box, sprinkle fertile soil on top. Land a seedling in a box, tamp the ground, pour water on it.
The tree growing in the box is watered more often than usual, and the root system is covered for the winter.
Landing on earthen mounds.
Dig a hole that has a depth and diameter of 70 cm. Concrete the bottom with cement. On cement, pour fertile soil mixed with fertilizer.
Plant a sapling, water it. Support iron reinforcement.
When the roots of the apple tree reach the concrete, they will grow to the sides and grow lateral shoots, that is, the root system will not come into contact with the waters and will not rot.
In clay soils
With preparing the ground for the year of planting seedlings in it scatter over the area of 1 m² - 15 kg of sawdust, 15 kg of humus, 0.5 kg of quicklime. Add 50 kg of sand, as well as 150 g of complex fertilizer. Next, deepen the fertilizer, digging the ground at 0.5 m in depth.
To improve soil structure sow the siderats, do not let them form buds, mow them until that time, then when digging, close them up in the ground.
When you dig a hole, then at its bottom drainage from twigs or stones.
If you have peat, then earth acidity increased and you need to pour lime into the ground: dolomite flour, chalk.
To enrich the soil for 1 m² of soil, fill 2 kg of the finished compost, 150 g of superphosphate, 200 g of phosphate rock, 50 g of potassium sulfate.
After covering up the fertilizer to a depth of 25 cm, digging the soil.
Planting apple trees after you have green manure grow on this plot and you mow them.
In sandy soil
Prepare the soil a year before planting seedlings, scatter on the area of 1 m² - 15 kg of humus, 0.5—0.7 kg of lime, 70 g of superphosphate and 40 g of potassium. Add 50 kg of clay per m² to this land.
Seal fertilizer to a depth of 50 cm.
Also sow the green manure, mow them and you can start planting seedlings.
Pour clay or silt on the bottom of the pit..
Proper planting in sandy soil.
Features of planting of columnar apple trees
Prepare landing pits in the fall.
The landing pit should have a size of 50 × 50 cm, put the top layer of earth on polyethylene, add 4 kg of humus, 2 tbsp. spoons of superphosphate and 2 tbsp. spoons of potassium, mix.
If the soil is acidic, then add 50 g of dolomite flour. Cover the pit and excavated soil so that the rains are not washed away.
On the seedling trunk when planting there should not be leaves, and the rhizomes should be wet. Therefore, you can dip the roots in warm water for 10 hours. You can slightly cut the secondary roots, then they will quickly absorb water.
Watch the video about planting of columnar apple trees:
Restore the original shape of the pit, fill a mound, put a seedling, straighten the roots, then fill the ground.
When properly seated, the root neck should be 5 cm above the ground surface. After that, pour 2 buckets of water under the apple tree and grumble. Beat the trellis and tie the apple tree.
Features planting dwarf apple trees
If the apple tree is grafted, there is a bulge in the place of transition of the root to the trunk. A sapling that is 2 years old should have a stem up to 50 cm high and 4-7 branches.
After purchase, wrap the roots in a damp cloth and tie a cellophane bag. If you can’t plant a seedling right away, then bury it in wet soil.so that its roots do not dry out.
Landing dwarf trees resembles the planting of ordinary varieties of apple, but there are differences. You should plant an apple tree in black soil, but if the soil is not very fertile, then dig a hole 1.5 m deep, 1 m wide, in which you place fertile land.
Choose to plant a sunny and windless place.
If the roots are dried, then put the roots in water for a day. Make a hole 0.5 m deep and 0.7 m in diameter. Put the top layer of earth onto the film.
Put a humus bucket on the bottom, then the upper deposited layer of soil, add 2-3 buckets of water. Then place the seedling so that the grafting site rises 2-3 cm above the ground.
Fill the apple tree with the remaining soil, tamp the ground, make a stem shaft with a height of 10 cm and a diameter of 65 cm. Grate with humus.
Tie a seedling to 3 stakesthen the apple tree will grow straight. This is required due to the fact that the dwarf apple tree has small roots that can not be held by the winds.
Требуется сажать так, чтобы не заглубить место прививки, иначе яблоня утратит карликовость. Если вы все же заглубили на 5 см место прививки, то удалите лишнюю землю.
Если вы заглубили больше, то приподнимите яблоньку и подсыпьте вниз земли.
На каком расстоянии сажают саженцы?
Сильнорослые яблони plant so that between trees there is an indentation of 4–5 m, and between the rows - 6 m. If you plant low-growing varieties, then between the rows - 4.5–5 m, and between apple trees - 3–3.5 m.
Dwarf Apple Trees plant 2.5 m between them, 4 m between the rows.
Column-shaped apple treesAs a rule, they put in 1 row: dwarf in 0.6 m, semi-dwarf and vigorous in 1.2 m.
The distance between crops in the area.
If you have water even closer to the surface, then plant apple trees on a dwarf rootstock.
Trees on the dwarf rootstock can be planted in case of close occurrence of groundwater.
True, if you still get an ordinary apple tree, then you can specially prepare the soil - pour cement to the bottom of the planting pit or sleep hillocks, and plant seedlings in knocked down boxes.
When planting, make sure that the root neck of the apple tree is 4-5 cm above the surface.