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Bromeliad flower care at home Indoor bromelia after flowering Reproduction

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This amazing plant comes from the tropics and subtropics of Latin America. And is a distant relative of the well-known pineapple. Its main decorative feature is different blooms of all kinds. In conditions of our climate, it adapts perfectly, with the exception of the winter period. But as a pot culture, he does not give his owner any trouble.


Content:

Tropical beauties need good lighting and high humidity which is achieved by constant spraying. Water Bromelium must be plentiful with a frequency of 1 every 5-6 days.

The leaves are fleshy and dense, lancet shape. A compact rosette is formed from them, from which a spike grows.

Inflorescence color varied:

A rich palette significantly expanded due to the efforts of breeders and added two-color varieties.

Optimal location, lighting and temperature

For full growth and development it is important to make the right choice. A great option is the windowsill on the east side. If you have an aquarium in one of the rooms, then the flower there will be best. It requires high humidity.

It is necessary to avoid the space where the devices constantly work - a fan or an air conditioner. Bromelia is afraid of drafts.

It requires a lot of light, but without direct sunlight. This causes burns. In winter, when the daylight becomes shorter, additional lighting is required. You can use a fluorescent lamp. But in any case it is not sent to the pet, it is better to take it aside or send to the ceiling.

This inhabitant of the tropics and subtropics loves the heat. The optimal indicators of a thermometer for him are 22-27. Permissible and lower temperature. But a critical mark of +11. Below it, it should not fall. In winter, the room should be from 16 to 19 degrees.

Watering and moisture

Requires regular and plentiful. The higher the temperature, the more fluid is required. But from stagnation and excess water, rotting of the root system is possible. For the prevention of the pot put on the pallet. The next watering is carried out after the topsoil dries from the previous one. But the drops that fell into the pan, do not pour out. Pebbles or sand in the base will help to avoid pernicious evaporation. From December the schedule changes.

Enough watering every 6-7 days. Moistening only the land is not enough. It also requires spraying the foliage. So representative of the flora absorbs liquid for outlets. Each month, the stems and leaves are cleaned from dust with a clean, moistened cloth. This measure is necessary for the absorption of oxygen by the leaves. But spraying is permissible only in the warm season. In winter, such measures will cause soreness of the plant. Use only soft, boiled water. Exotic does not tolerate a hard liquid.

Humidity is the most difficult requirement in our climatic conditions. At least 65% required. To do this, they spray the air, put water in the room, use electric humidifiers. Does the task well and the aquarium.

Soil and fertilizers

Preference is given to acidic soil. Strictly not suitable garden land. If there is no desire to prepare the substrate yourself, then you can buy in the store mix for orchids. Sand and peat will help to adapt it for a tropical beauty.

For self-made soil preparation will be required:

  • bark,
  • charcoal,
  • claydite (one part),
  • humus and leaf soil (in two parts).

For a looser composition make sphagnum in a ground form. This will help the mixture become more air and water permeable.

For flowering fertilizers are applied to indoor plants, in liquid form. There are 2 options fertilizing - basal and foliar. For the latter, spraying fertilizer from an atomizer is suitable. Green matter nutrient penetration into the plant itself. But let's just watering fertilizer. In cold seasons, the need for additional nutrition is reduced. It is carried out 2 times per quarter. And in the summer twice a month.

Bromeliad Transplantation

Transferring a change of "place of residence" is bad. It is better to do it by necessity - in case of infection with diseases or lack of free space.. After purchase, it is not required. In this difficult period of adaptation, replacing the container is harmful. To grow a new bush using young shoots. The soil in the pot poured on the pillow from the drainage. Deepening seedling 3 cm.

Mealy worm

About the pest say yellowed and sluggish leaves. You need to deal with them with the help of special means - insecticides.

The basis of her diet - the juice of the stems. But not only this is harmful. Insect waste products are a favorable environment for the appearance of fungus. Uninvited guests collect hands. Then treated with soapy water. Repeating the procedure in a week is the key to successful pest control.

Spikes

As soon as an exotic representative of the flora begins to bloom, you can breed it with "children". To determine whether it is time to separate the young processes from the parent bush will help size. They must be at least one-third of the "mother". Separate them with clean hands. Scissors or other garden tools can damage the roots. Transplantation takes place immediately in the finished substrate. But it is not worth deepening, it is enough to carelessly sprinkle with soil. All leaves are left on the surface. Better adaptation contributes to phosphorus. The process ends with abundant watering. Rooting does not last long - 1-2 months. After that, transplanted into permanent pots.

Child sprout grows very slowly. This type of bromeliad cultivation is possible not earlier than the adult specimen is 2-3 years old. Accelerate growth grower can, if you follow the advice of experienced gardeners. Ethylene gas required. He is able to produce fruit. It is enough to place them in an empty aquarium or container that can be covered, along with a pot.

Inefficient and complex method. To increase the percentage of germination planting material is sown in the soil, which was previously disinfected. For guaranteed disposal of pests and bacteria, it is better to use several methods of pickling. Seed bowls are filled with soil mixture from sand, sphagnum and sheet soil (in equal parts). You can add shredded root of another plant - fern. This will increase resistance to diseases.

An important role is played by lighting and humidity.. Requires moist air and partial shade. The first shoots appear after 4 weeks. Dive into separate cups when you need 3 full leaves. Transplanting into the main pot takes 2–3 months.

How to choose a healthy plant in the store

Inspect the plant carefully and do not hesitate to ask all your questions regarding the flower from the seller.

Having come to the flower market for a new pet, pay attention to the overall appearance. Conduct a thorough inspection of the leaves, sockets, peduncle. A healthy representative foliage has an elastic, fleshy, saturated green color. There should be no damage, dried tips or yellowing. Any damage - a serious reason to refuse to purchase. Through the wounds of a pet can get bacteria.

A root system with an unpleasant smell or visible defects is a sure sign that you cannot grow a seedling at home.

Bromeliad Description

The bromeliad family to which the flower belongs, according to the information database The Piant List, has more than 60 species. Among them are both land-type bromelias and epiphytes. Several plant species are specially cultivated for fiber extraction. For local residents, wild bromeliad fruits are a source of food and a product for soft drinks.

For breeding at home using only terrestrial bromeliads. The leaves are very dense, hard and fleshy, have an arrow shape. A neat rosette of leaves is crowned with a spike of a very bright color. The shape of the inflorescence can be a head or a panicle. All known species of the family are united under the name: "bromeliad mix".

Growing conditions

The vegetation of the plant is significantly affected by moisture and light. A good idea to increase the moisture content in the room is to install an aquarium. You can go the other way - get a special air humidifier.

With regard to lighting, it is very important to exclude direct sunlight on the surface of the leaves in the spring and summer. Rays cause burn sheet plate. This trouble can be avoided if you choose a room with windows to the east. In the winter season and late autumn, due to lack of solar energy, it is recommended to use a specialized fitolamp.

When you turn on the lamp light is concentrated on the ceiling. Bromeliads are contraindicated drafts. It is advisable to do without air conditioning or a fan in the room where the flower is located.

How to care for bromeliad at home

Bromeliad home care photo How to transplant bromelium

Taking care of bromelias is easy if:

  • suitable soil was selected for it
  • mineral organic matter is timely introduced,
  • humidity, illumination meet all requirements
  • the plant itself is regularly irrigated.

Creating a plant comfortable conditions, you can easily get an unusually bright, lush, long-blooming bromelium. Below we will tell in detail about all the intricacies of plant care.

Soil for the plant

Due to the fact that bromeliad prefers an acidic pH of the medium, the whim of this tropical beauty must be fulfilled. It is forbidden to take land from the garden. It is better to buy a ready substrate. Take, for example, a mixture for the cultivation of orchids, adding a little sand and peat.

We must not forget that the plant loves light, well-drained soil. It is good to lay a thin layer of expanded clay on the bottom in the pot before filling the substrate, improving the drainage properties of the soil.

The temperature that will be most appropriate for the life of "Latino".
As a representative of tropical countries, bromeliad loves heat, needs it. Temperatures below + 12 ° C are detrimental to the plant. Therefore, in the cold period, it is impossible not to monitor the temperature. It is necessary to support not below +16 .. + 18 ° С. The +23 .. + 25 ° C mode is the most comfortable for bromeliads.

How to water bromelium, humidity

How to water and care for bromelium photo

  • The flower is very sensitive to the lack of water, so frequent (daily) watering through the pan in the summer heat is welcome.
  • With the onset of cold weather, watering is reduced to 1-2 times a week.
  • In order to avoid an excess of moisture, which causes acidification of the soil, it is necessary to engage in drying its upper layer. At this stage, switch to pallets irrigation.
  • To eliminate the rapid evaporation of water from the pallet, put a certain amount of sand or pebbles there, moistening them periodically.
  • Hard water does not suit bromeliads. It is better to moisten the soil with chilled boiled water.

Bromeliad loves spraying in the summer. Its role is important, because through the outlet of the flower is a partial absorption of nutrients. Do not purposefully fill the outlet with water. From this it decays, which will cause the death of the plant. It is enough to sprinkle the leaves with water. Spraying should be stopped when the ambient temperature drops to + 18 ° С. Once a month it is recommended to clean the flower rosettes.

The moisture index where bromelium is located should not be below 70%. In case of violation, urgent measures are taken to increase the humidity. This is done as follows: water is sprayed around the plant with a spray. Or install an additional container with liquid near the flower pot.

There is no doubt that accident and a wet sand pan will help to save the room from unwanted dryness. Like any plant, bromeliad receives oxygen through the leaves, which is why it is so important to keep them clean. One wet wipe per week will be quite sufficient to eliminate the oxygen starvation of the flower.

  • For fertilizing apply liquid fertilizer specifically designed for indoor flowering plants.
  • Basal dressing provides for watering the earth around the flower, foliar - this is spraying the diluted fertilizer over the leaves and rome bromeliya.
  • Often, 1 time per decade, feeding is carried out in the summer and during the flowering period. The rest of the time - 1 time in 2 months.

How to transplant bromeliad after purchase

How to transplant bromeliad

Bromeliad transplants do not like. Without urgent need, do not disturb the flower in vain. You can transplant it to another place in the only case: if the acquired pot with bromelium is too small.
Procedure for transplanting:

  • prepare a large pot
  • buy or prepare the soil yourself
    pour soil into the pot, making a recess for planting,
  • plenty of water to moisten the landing site and gently move the flower there. Do not shake the ground from the roots of the previous pot,
  • add a little bit of soil, lightly tamping it down to make the plant steady.

When bromeliad blooms

Bromeliad blooms usually begin in summer. Its inflorescence is called modified upper leaves, which complement the very ordinary-looking flowers.

With one little trick, you can speed up the beginning of the flowering of bromeliads.. For this, the bromeliad pot is placed in a large plastic bag, and a plate with apples is placed next to it. Ten days will be enough to stimulate the plant to bloom a little earlier.

The secret lies in the ethylene, which emit apples. Under his influence, bromeliad "confuses" all flowering periods. Blooming, the plant does not require special attention. It is only necessary to put on control that the light and moisture were in sufficient quantities. Then flowering from 3 weeks to 2 months will be guaranteed. Bromelium has one peculiarity: it blooms only once in its life. While dying, the socket leaves numerous babies who are the breeding material of this tropike.

Botanical description

A compact rosette is formed from the fleshy, dense leaves of an elongated shape. The coloring is dark green, some varieties have a beautiful marble pattern. Flowers of different shades, but always bright, expressive and large. Inflorescence magnificent, rises from the center of the outlet on a powerful peduncle.

Bromelia refers to epiphytic plants, that is, it receives nourishment not only from the soil, but also from the air, therefore it can grow on very poor soils. As a support, the plant chooses trees, large stones. Some species of bromeliads in nature reach three meters in height. Low-growing, mostly hybrid varieties are grown in apartments.

The only flaw in bromeliad is that it blooms only once in a lifetime. Then the main maternal outlet gradually dies off. Flowering long - lasts several months. To replace the deceased outlet kids are formed.

Bromeliad care and creation of a suitable microclimate

Bromeliad is a tropical crop that needs a special microclimate and care. The main reason for the death of the plant - improper watering. Improper humidity, temperature and lighting also adversely affect the condition of the flower. Bromeliad flower care is to maintain a favorable microclimate parameters, proper watering and systematic spraying.

  • Lighting Bromelium is put on a well-lit place, but they do not allow direct sunlight to enter - sunburn easily forms on its leaves. The optimal location - the western or eastern side with a slight shading of light tulle. Bromelia fades and does not bloom on the north window.
  • Temperature . Tropical heat-loving plant places high demands on the temperature of the content. In the summer it is maintained at a level of 25 ° C. In winter and during flowering, relative coolness is needed - about 18˚С. Maintains short-term decrease in temperature to 12˚С. When choosing a place take into account the increased sensitivity of bromeliads to drafts.
  • Watering Watering bromelium should not like other indoor cultures. Water is poured directly into the outlet. In the warm season, they are watered often enough - at intervals of two to four days. In autumn and winter, one irrigation per week is enough. Drying the root system does not allow.
  • Humidity Optimum air humidity is not lower than 60%. Bromeliads need regular spraying. A pot with a flower put on a tray with wet moss, decorative pebbles or expanded clay. You can use special humidifiers.
  • Feeding. Home bromelia responds thankfully to fertilization. It can be fed with special liquid complexes for bromelias no more than once every two to three weeks. When using other fertilizers, it is considered that there are no copper and boron in the composition. They have a toxic effect on bromelium. In nature, culture costs a small amount of nutrients, so it is important not to exceed the dosage. Раствор удобрения вносят по аналогии с поливом – непосредственно в листовую розетку.
  • Почва . Корневой системе нужен рыхлый, воздухопроницаемый грунт. Готовят его из листовой земли, песка, торфа и перегноя. To improve the properties of the soil, you can add a small amount of birch coal, turf and coniferous soil.
  • After flowering. If the bromelium has faded and began to fade, no need to try to reanimate it. This is a natural process. Bromeliad care after flowering is aimed at accelerating the growth of young shoots. The mother outlet is not removed until the babies are stronger.

Bromeliad transplantation after purchase is not required. The only indications for transplanting - a very small pot or poor soil. Bromeliad does not like transplants, often ill after them. Therefore, everything must be done quickly and accurately. Prepare a larger pot in advance, wash it well and sterilize it. The soil is calcined in a frying pan, cooled, poured into a container. In the center they make an indentation and pour water there. Carefully planted bromeliad with a clod of earth. Dust ground, slightly compacted. The first time after the transplant is kept in a shaded place.

Breeding features

Bromeliya breeding at home is done with the help of babies, which are formed after the death of the main outlet. Children are considered ready to transplant when they have reached half the height of the mother plant, have increased their own root system. From the moment of the appearance of the children to their readiness to transplant, it takes about a year. To plant bromelium, follow the steps below.

  1. Training . The maternal plant is carefully removed from the pot, freed from the soil.
  2. Branch kids. Roots washed with water, with a sharp knife gently separate the children from the main plant. Sections are treated with coal powder, the children are left for a day to dry.
  3. Seated Prepared children are seated in separate small pots. The root collar is left above the ground surface. They create greenhouse conditions for young plants — cover them with a can or polyethylene. Under the shelter hold for about a month, regularly air.

A less common method of propagation of bromeliads is seeds. It is almost impossible to get high-quality planting material at home, so store seeds are often used for growing a new hybrid variety.

Content

  • 1. Listen to the article (soon)
  • 2. Description
  • 3. Care
    • 3.1. How to care
    • 3.2. Watering and feeding
    • 3.3. Bloom
    • 3.4. Transfer
    • 3.5. Breeding
  • 4. Pests and Diseases
    • 4.1. Diseases and their treatment
    • 4.2. Pests and control of them
  • 5. Types and varieties

Bromeliad flower - description

Homemade bromeliad is a perennial herb with a well-developed and reliably holding a flower in the ground with a root system, usually a shortened stem, decorative, often prickly and variegated, dull green leathery leaves up to 50 cm long, forming a funnel, and a tall peduncle that crowns bright yellow or red spike-shaped, racemose, paniculate or capitate inflorescence. Bright inflorescence give large stipules. After completion of flowering on the plant, boxes or juicy berries are formed, in some species they grow together into seedlings. Currently, about 35 species of bromeliad are grown in room culture.

How to care for bromeliad at home.

Home flower bromeliad needs special conditions of detention. He needs a lot of diffused light and clean air: to ventilate the room where room bromelia is located, it is often necessary, but in no case should the plant be allowed to stand in a draft, near a fan or an air conditioner. If you keep bromeliad in direct sunlight, protect it from them at least from noon to 15-16 hours: the burning sun can leave burns on the beautiful leaves of the flower. The optimal place for bromeliads is the windowsills facing east. In winter, when the day becomes short, you need to install additional artificial lighting for the plant, and the light source should be directed not at the bromelium, but at the ceiling.

Comfortable temperature for bromeliad in summer is 20-25 C, and in winter - 15-18 C. The lower threshold is 12 ˚C, but the plant cannot be kept at this temperature for too long.

Watering and feeding bromeliads.

Bromeliads at home requires frequent watering, and in hot weather - daily. Many growers pour water into the funnel formed by the leaves of bromelium, since it is through the leaves that the plant absorbs most of the nutrients. However, in order to moisten the plant in this way, you need to have experience and skill. For beginners, we advise you to moisten the substrate in a pot. To avoid the development of putrefactive processes, allow the top layer of soil to dry out between irrigations, but there must always be water in the pan. In winter, watering is carried out once a week.

Bromeliads require high air humidity: it must be at least 70%. Maintain this level by spraying the leaves, placing water tanks or an aquarium near the plant. You can use a household electric humidifier or place a bromeliad on a pot with wet pebbles. And for spraying the leaves, and for watering the plants need boiled, previously separated from the chlorine within two days of water.

Because bromelium gets oxygen through the leaves, they should always be clean: wipe them at least once a week from dust with a damp sponge.

Bromeliad is fed with a solution of mineral fertilizers for flowering houseplants.. In the warm season it is necessary to feed once every 2-3 weeks, and in the winter it is enough once a month and a half. Top dressings can be root (having watered with a solution of fertilizers of a pre-moistened substrate) or foliar, that is, spraying bromelium with a solution of trace elements on the leaves.

Bromeliad bloom.

Bromeliad blooms usually occur in the summer. If you want to speed up the beginning of flowering, put a few apples around the pot and cover the flower and fruit with a plastic bag for 10 days: the ethylene released by the apples stimulates the plant to bloom. How does bromelia bloom? The flowers of this plant are inconspicuous, but the bracts are bright, catchy and eye-catching. Depending on the type, flowering can last from several weeks to several months.

Do not rush to remove the peduncle of bromeliad, wait until it is completely dry, and only then carefully cut off the flower arrow. Keep in mind that the faded rosette of bromelium will not bloom again: after flowering, it dies, but leaves the babies, which develop into independent adult plants.

Bromeliad reproduction.

Bromelium is propagated after flowering is completed, from February to April. At the base of a faded plant appear shoots - kicks. They are given to grow up and get stronger within 2-3 months, then cut with a sharp sterile knife, sprinkle the slices with coal powder and allow them to dry out. Since the processes already have roots, they are planted in pots with a wet mixture of peat and sand, fixed and rooted at a temperature of 20 ˚C. Bloomed kicks bloom in a year or two.

Bromeliad diseases and their treatment.

In rare cases, bromelium can be affected by the fungal diseases of powdery mildew and rust, which can be overcome if the plant and substrate are treated several times with copper-containing fungicidal preparations.

Direct sunlight can leave brown burn marks on bromeliad leaves, so in the afternoon, curtain the window with a light cloth.

From chronic overmoistening, especially in conditions of too low temperature in the room, bromeliad leaves can lose turgor and turn yellow, and the brown tips of the leaves indicate that the plant suffers from dry air and insufficient watering.

As you can see, all the ailments of bromelias are associated with violation of conditions of detention and poor care. Follow our recommendations and bromeliad will always be healthy.

Bromeliad pests and control.

When improper or inadequate care for bromelia, mealybugs or scale insects can parasitize. Collect them by hand and wipe the leaves with a sponge or cotton swab moistened with soapy water, and after a while wash the soap with clean water, while covering the substrate with a film in a pot. If it is not possible to destroy all pests in this way, treat the bromeliad with an insecticide - Fitoverm, Aktar, Aktellik, but make sure that the solution does not get into the funnel. If you do not want to resort to chemistry, try using a tobacco solution to kill insects.

Bromeliad species and varieties

Of the species of the genus Bromeliad grown in culture bromeliad penguin (Bromelia pinguin)which occurs naturally in Mexico, Ecuador, Venezuela and Costa Rica. This species, containing the biologically active enzyme penguinin, in nature forms large aggregates from oblong fruits.

However, among the lovers of flowers, bromeliads are called not only representatives of the genus of the same name, but also plants belonging to other genera of the Bromeliad family.

Guzmania, or Guzmania - a genus of epiphytic stemless plants grown in the nature of Brazil, South Florida, the West Indies, Ecuador and Colombia and widely represented in room culture. Leathery belt-like leaves of guzmnias form a goblet-shaped rosette in which morning dew or rainwater accumulates in nature, and the inflorescence located on the leafy arrow consists of nondescript flowers and bright yellow inflorescences of yellow, orange, and even purple. At home, these species and cultivars of the Gusmania are most often grown:

  • gusmaniy reed - a large plant with a dense rosette of bright green leaves, reaching a length of 50 cm. On the back of the leaves - brown stripes. On short peduncle - inflorescence of small white flowers, which are almost invisible due to orange or red apical leaves. Grades: Minor, Tempo,
  • Gusmania Nicaraguan - medium-sized plant, ideal for growing in room culture. It has an upright spike-shaped inflorescence with lemon yellow flowers and scarlet bracts and a dense, compact rosette of 10-15 lingual light green smooth leaves up to 2.5 wide and up to 5 cm long, covered on the upper side with small scales, and with the lower ones painted in brown or purple color.

In addition to the described species, mosaic, tricolor, blood-red, Ostara, single-faced, Donnell-Smith and conifer are also cultivated at home.

Vriesia (Vriesea) - genus of South American tropical plants with large, bright paniculate or spikelike inflorescences and decorative rosettes of succulent, dense, long leaves. Among them are both epiphytes and land forms. The most famous species in room culture:

  • Sanders Vriesia - a plant with a rosette with a diameter of up to 60 and a height of up to 40 cm from smooth leathery leaves with a gray-green color, often with a purple tinge, more clearly appearing on the underside of the leaf plate. A drooping or direct peduncle crowns the spike-shaped racemes inflorescence, consisting of yellow flowers and the same shade of stipules,
  • Vriesia is beautiful or brilliant - a dweller of tropical rainforests with a rosette of shirokolantsetovidnyh, variegated, as if covered with dark transverse strokes of leaves up to 40 cm long. The color of the stripes can be either dark green or purple. On the erect peduncle, a broad lanceolate spike is formed from yellow flowers and bright carmine-red bracts.

In addition to the described species, home grown, royal, perforated, hieroglyphic and even gigantic varieties are also grown at home.

Echmea (Aechmea) - a genus of epiphytic plants common in South and Central America with leaves jagged along the edge, forming funnel-shaped rosettes, and with bright inflorescences on a long, thick peduncle. The most popular home grown species are:

  • ehmeya dull red - a plant with a dense funnel-shaped rosette of lingual, light green at the top and violet leaves on the underside up to 50 cm long with finely serrated edges and scales located on the leaf plate. The inflorescence consists of pale blue flowers and bright red bracts,
  • ehmeya sparkling - a plant with a loose rosette of pale green with a bluish bloom of belt-shaped leaves up to 40 cm long and 6 cm wide with a jagged edge and a rounded tip. Inflorescence of coral-red flowers with blue top and bright pink bracts forms on the peduncle.

In room culture, one can also find echmeas, holostine, tailed (bearded), striped, shaggy, curved, double-rowed, Weilbach and others.

Tillandsia (Tillandsia) - a type of herbaceous plants, numbering about 500 species growing in the nature of South and North America. Most of these plants are epiphytes, but there are lithophytes and terrestrial species growing on stones in the genus. Some types of tillandia are popular indoor plants:

  • Tyllansia "Head of jellyfish" - the most famous form of an unusual shape, resembling an onion with closed leaf bases, folded to the side only at the top. The rosette of leaves is usually inverted, bright purple flowers reach a length of 32 mm, and the inflorescences are linear or finger-shaped,
  • tillandsiya blue - view with narrow curved leaves up to 30 cm long. The base of the leaf plate covered with small scales is reddish-brown. The plant blooms dense elliptical spike-shaped inflorescence of small blue or purple flowers and lilac or pink bracts.

Popular are also tillandsii Duer, Linden, rhinoceros, silver, Gardner, violet and others.

Neoregelia (Neoregelia) - herbaceous perennial from Peru, Colombia, Brazil and Ecuador with smooth, glossy, belt-like, broadly linear, spiny leaves along the edge. In the center of the rosette, the leaves are often whitish or light-purple, and during flowering, they all or completely turn red from the ends. Cestate inflorescence leaves the center of the outlet. The most famous species of the genus:

  • neoregelia carolina - a plant with a broadly funnel-shaped rosette with a diameter of up to 50 cm from bright green glossy tongue-like leaves with thick spikes on the edge. At the beginning of flowering, the top leaves of the rosette turn red. A simple capitate is formed deep in the rosette and consists of pale lilac flowers up to 4 cm in length and milky-green bracts. The species has varieties with pink, green or white longitudinal stripes on the leaves,
  • tiger neoregelia - epiphyte with a dense round rosette of tongue-like leaves with a pointed tip and brown spikes on the edges. The sheet plate is decorated with irregularly shaped brown stripes, and at the base the sheet is covered with small scales. The inflorescence of this species is simple, many-flowered, consisting of reddish in the area of ​​the apex, asymmetrical spatulate bracts and pale purple flowers.

Other types of neoreghelia are also grown at home: blue, bubbly, offspring, few-flowered, beautiful (well-dressed), gloomy, marble and others.

The main conditions of care and cultivation

Care for the bromeliad flower at home is easy. The main thing is to provide him with comfortable conditions.

For the full growth of the flower you need:

  • pick up the right soil
  • time to add mineral organics,
  • irrigate regularly with soft water
  • Watch out for humidity and light.

Among themselves, bromelias differ in color, structure of leaves and inflorescences. At home, you can only breed terrestrial species. Such plants have fleshy, dense leaves in the shape of an arrow or a sword. From the dense leaves, collected in a neat outlet, grows a tall flower with inflorescence saturated color. Blooming form - head or whisk. Popular species of the family have a common name: bromeliad mix.

Bromeliad vegetation is affected by lightness and humidity.. You can create a favorable indoor climate using an aquarium or a special humidifier. Continuous maintenance of temperature that is normal for bromelium contributes to its active flowering. Indications on the room thermometer should not be less than + 25 ° C. During flowering and transition to the resting stage, the temperature can be reduced to + 18 ° C. A mark below the threshold of + 12 ° C cannot be tolerated.

The lighting should be pretty bright. However, you should take care that direct sunlight does not fall on the surface of the leaves. In the spring and summer, bright sun causes severe burns of leaf plates. It is better to put a bromeliad flower on the window on the east side to avoid possible problems. In autumn and winter, the lack of solar energy is compensated by the light of fluorescent lamps, which are sent to the side or to the ceiling.

Bromeliana is very afraid of cold and drafts, so it is undesirable to install a fan and air conditioning in the same room with the plant.

Choice of soil for bromeliad flower

Bromeliad loves an acidic pH environment, so you should not use ordinary soil from the garden.

The soil is easy to prepare with your own hands.

If you can not make a suitable soil by yourself, then you can buy a ready-made substrate in a flower shop.

The sequence of self-preparation of the soil:

  1. Garden land must be sanitized.
  2. Смешать с ней мох сфагнум и торф, чтобы к корневой системе постоянно поступал воздух.
  3. Добавить немного древесного угля и перлита.

Бромелии нужна лёгкая, хорошо дренированная почва. Для улучшения дренажных свойств на дно небольшого горшка укладывают тонкий слой керамзита или кирпичной крошки, а затем засыпают субстрат. After planting bromeliad, the surface of the substrate is covered with moss. Thus, the moisture in the soil will last longer, which will prevent drying. If there is no moss, then it is replaced with shredded fern roots. Charcoal and perlite increase soil fertility several times.

Bromeliad mix propagation occurs in a vegetative way. Usually the division is carried out in the autumn after flowering, in early or mid-September. A new plant is obtained by using lateral shoots called kicks. The shoots are cut with a sharp knife and firmly fixed in a mixture of sand and peat, for further rooting. If done correctly, it will occur within 4−8 weeks. Saplings are watered moderately, but regularly.

Home care for bromelium is simple. Roots of bromelians are rare. In case of forced necessity, this is done once every two years. Usually flower growers carry out transplantation in the case when the roots begin to bulge out.

A new pot should be 2–3 cm wider than the previous one. In too large a pot, the earth will quickly sour.

Home care

Bromelia does not tolerate drought, so in the summer it is watered every day. The distilled or boiled water should be at room temperature. It is poured not into the pot, but into the pan, as the roots do not absorb moisture from the soil. You can pour water into the rosette of leaves itself, then in the sinuses moisture that bromelia loves will linger. In autumn and winter, the flower is watered no more than twice a week. To avoid the rapid evaporation of liquid from the pallet, pour some sand or pebbles into it. The substrate is watered too, but not plentifully.

Fertilizers play an important role in the home care of bromeliad mix. They are made 2 times a month, starting in March and ending in late August. In summer, the plant needs regular spraying. Top dressing can be mixed with soft water, and slightly irrigate the leaves.

Bromeliad species

The bromeliad family is represented by a huge number of species, among which are found as epiphytesso and land plants.

Well developed root system ground bromeliad keeps them in the ground and provides water and nutrients. In nature, these species grow on a variety of soil composition: forest, sandy, marsh, saline, rocky.

This group includes bromeliads (pineapple krupnokhoholkovy, cryptanthus and others) with shiny fleshy, leaves, which retain a supply of water that helps plants survive drought. There are representatives in the group succulent type (gehtiya, dikkiya, ortofitum) living in the deserts.

Caring for them is not much different from the care of ordinary indoor plants. For planting use a fertile mixture of humus, peat, sand and leafy ground. Watered with soft water, not over-wetting the substrate.

Most bromeliads are epiphytes. Have Echemea, Bilbergia, Viresia small roots reliably keep the plants in the ground, on a support, and even on a smooth surface.

Food and water supply comes from the leaves. Leaf plates resemble a groove, and the expanded bases form a funnel, in the center of which water and organic matter accumulate - dust, particles of leaves, small insects.

Atmospheric bromeliads also live on tree branches, leaves, stones and cacti, but their sockets do not accumulate water. But the leaves, covered with hairs or scales, not only collect raindrops, dew and dust particles, but also absorb moisture from the air.

How to choose bromelium?

Care is largely determined by the conditions in which the plant lives in nature. Therefore, buy bromelium only after you are sure that you can provide the necessary temperature, humidity and level of illumination.

  1. Delicate fragile leaves characteristic of plants that live in conditions of high temperature and humidity.
  2. Bromeliads growing in forests differ large number of broad leaves.
  3. Stiff Thorn Leaves indicate that their owners are xerophytes living in the desert.

Temperature

In tropical species (Pineapple, Gusmania, Vriesia, Cryptanthusa) the rest period is weak, therefore most of the year the temperature is maintained within 23–26 ° C.

Subtropical species (bilbergia, neoregalia, ehmeya) in winter contain at 8–12 ° C.

Soil fertility does not matter for epiphytes, as long as the substrate is water and breathable. For them, prepare a loose mixture of pine (firbark, sphagnum, leaf earth or humus and sand.

For reservoir bromelias preparing a richer substrate of leaf, humus soil, sphagnum, expanded clay, coal and bark. Adult plants require acidic soil, with a reaction pH of 4.8–6.

At the bottom of the pot must fill a layer of expanded clay, pebbles or cover drainage holes with shards.

The rosette develops for several years before flowering, but the flowering itself lasts from 2-3 weeks to several months. Bromeliad flowers, as a rule, are short-lived and unattractive, but surrounded by spectacular bracts. After flowering rosette dies.

Bromeliads have a weak root system. Plants can not overfeed, and the soil - pereuvlazhnyat. Water during watering is poured into the outlet, the substrate is moistened only after drying. In the summer, the leaves are sprayed twice a day from a spray bottle.

During active growth every two weeks, water is replaced with a solution of a liquid complex fertilizer. The concentration should be 5-6 times lower than that indicated on the package.

Direct sunlight is safe for pineapple, cryptantus and marble neoregalia. Most bromels grow well in bright but diffused light. In hot weather, they must need to pritenyat.

How to care for gusmaniya?

Gusmania, or Gusmania - plants 30–35 cm tall with a funnel-shaped rosette of green leaves. In some species, during flowering, they become bright red.

It blooms in April or August. In the course of the cultivation, the color range was significantly expanded, and today plants can be found not only with red and pink, but also white, yellow, orange, purple, scarlet and almost black spike inflorescences.

It is the most thermophilic representative of the bromeliad family. In summer, the temperature is maintained within 23–27, in winter - 16–18 ° C. For normal growth requires high (not less than 70%) air humidity and bright but diffused light. Due to lack of light, the plant may not bloom.

They are grown in pots with a diameter of 10–12 cm. The container is filled with ½ expanded clay or pebbles, and the substrate is poured on top. When soil subsides, they pour fresh water every year.

Transplantation and watering the video, video:

Guzmania transplanted once every 2-3 years.

Feature of care is watering. Soft water is carefully poured into the outlet, but does not allow it to stagnate, since various organic particles - dust, midges - rot, contaminating the water.

Following this, the leaves also rot. Therefore, plants are kept indoors and never endured to the open air.

In order to ensure high humidity, it is recommended to put a plant pot in a tray filled with gravel and water.

Like other epiphytic bromels, guzmania is propagated by shoots that form after the death of the maternal rosette, and seeds that are obtained by artificial pollination.

Bromeliad care at home after flowering

After the rosette is cut, the flower continues to be watered through the tray and maintained in the usual way. The plant has lost its decorative effect, but over time the leaves will close the cut. It is possible to transplant the mother bush in a more spacious pot: this will stimulate further growth of green mass, but you should not hope to see the flowering a second time: the beauty blooms only once in a lifetime.

Bromeliad diseases and pests

Proper care always brings beneficial fruits. But what to do if the ends of the leaves are covered with brown spots or any leaf dries out completely? This is a sign of non-compliance with the requirements for plant care. The reason for drying lies in the irregularity of watering, or the humidity in the room is greatly underestimated.

The main pests of bromeliads are the scytum, mealybug. As soon as the parasites are noticed, they must be collected and destroyed. And with the help of a soap solution to treat the leaves of the plant. To combat the shield in the soapy solution add alcohol. Among the means of chemical plant protection flower growers prefer the bioversecticide "Fitoverm".

What is who?

Bromelia began to germinate in the rainforest. It was from there that they began to deliver it to different countries. America is still the birthplace of this flower, and the closest relative can rightfully be considered pineapple.

Compared with other tropical plants, bromeliad has a huge number of species - more than 2 thousand. A feature of this plant is its love of living on the branches of trees.

This flower is not capricious in the care, but still it will require some of your attention. Bromeliad how to care for her, very few people know. In addition, it can grow both in your garden and on the windowsill of your apartment. Therefore, you should carefully understand this issue. Care and care

If you brought yourself this plant in the apartment, try to provide it with conditions that would be close to the natural climate. The plant requires bright light, while it is better to avoid direct sunlight. Also, you can not allow overheating of the plant and temperature changes.

In the period before flowering, it is desirable to maintain a constant temperature of about 25 degrees. When you have already seen bromeliad flowers, try to stick to 18 degrees. But do not forget that this flower does not like cold, so the minimum temperature at which it can still live is 12 degrees Celsius.

With irrigation can not overdo it, try to moderately saturate the soil with liquid. Ensure that the potted soil is not too wet. Do not pour water from the tap. It must be soft and low in salt.

Bromeliad should not be allowed to gather dust; periodically moisten the leaves with a sponge. In the summer, the plant can be sprayed with water at room temperature.

Regarding fertilizers, there are no special instructions, but at the beginning of the season - in the spring, it is advisable to buy feed for the soil so that the flowering period goes well.

The greatest enemy of bromeliads is high humidity. To make the plant feel comfortable, do not forget that the most suitable humidity is 70-75%. In the case of a strong decrease in humidity - below 60% - the plant will completely fade.

We get darling

Before you start bromelium, do not forget to think whether there will be a comfortable place for her in your apartment. First of all, you need to choose a room with suitable humidity. Also, it is best to place the pot on the windowsill, since it is from the air that the flower absorbs moisture. But it is better to put it there in the warm season.

Ensure that the plant is not in a draft or under strong sun rays. Bromeliad will feel comfortable on both the east and south sides.

The next stage is the choice of quality soil. Despite the bromeliad variety, a porous and loose soil should be selected. Drainage should be no higher than the third part of the pot. The soil itself should contain:

  • two pieces of leafy ground
  • one piece of humus,
  • one part peat,
  • and the floor of the sand river part.

You can add to the soil:

  • bark of conifer,
  • sphagnum moss
  • sod land
  • charcoal.

If you chose a bromeliad variety such as vriezia, then the soil must contain:

  • sphagnum moss in large quantities,
  • chopped pine bark,
  • peat,
  • leaf ground
  • dry mullein

Change the situation

Bromeliad reproduction, as well as transplanting is not difficult. For this, you should be attentive to a flowering plant. When bromeliad throws out its flowers, young shoots appear with them.

But do not rush to separate them from the flower. Firstly, it will not bear fruit in reproduction, and secondly, you can harm the "main" bromelium. Therefore, watch the process until the plant has completed its flowering period. Only then can you separate them by carefully cutting them off.

But to transplant bromelium is doubly careful. In general, experts do not recommend replanting this plant. But if suddenly it became much more and you noticed that it is closely in the pot, then you need to carefully deal with this process.

First of all, transplantation is carried out when the root system has become quite mature and resistant to change. Then, take a pot, a little more than the previous housing of the bromeliad and cook a land mixture.

For new soil, you need to take coarse sand, peat and garden gravel. Add equal parts of humus. Here you can also interfere with the substrate used for orchids. Do not forget about the new drainage layer, so that the root system can develop freely.

  • Do not be afraid to transplant the plant during the period when it has "kids". But wait until they grow a little and become a third smaller than the main flower.
  • If, after processing the “babies,” you notice that they have few roots, put them in the water so that they take roots.
  • Each process must sit in a separate pot with a mixture of land. When the plant takes root, you need to monitor the moisture and temperature.
  • Repot the adult plant should be no more than once every two years. If there is no urgent need, it is better to refrain from anxiety bromelias.

Being treated for diseases

Of course, if you do not adhere to the basic rules for the care of a plant, bromeliad flowers of any kind will start to get sick. If you have vriezii, then all the more you should immediately protect the plant from any parasites and prevent them from settling into a flower.

The most important pest of bromelium is a martyr bug. It sucks all the juice that feeds the plant, and leaves the fluid that forms the fungus.

If you notice parasites on your bromelium, get ready for the fact that you will manually get rid of them. After cleansing the leaves of parasites, you need to wash them with soap and spray tobacco solution.

But do not relax, if this happened once, it does not mean that it will never happen again.

Bromeliad species

The bromeliad flower is so beautiful that you have no idea what could be more beautiful. But it was not there. It turns out that bromeliads are a vast family with more than 40 genera and 2 thousand species. In our country, the plant was brought from South America.

The huge diversity of this family is amazing. The largest representative is Puaia Raymondia, it reaches 4 meters in height, and in the flowering period up to 10 meters. The smallest member of this family is Spanish moss tillandia, which is epiphytic.

The most delicious representative of this family is pineapple, it was his bromeliad that they first began to use as food, as well as for fiber mining and ceremonies.

In the 16th century, pineapple was brought to Europe, and the world has since learned about this numerous family.

Gardeners were amazed by the miraculous Guzmania, and a little later by the subtle Vriesia. Well, since bromeliads fell into the hands of breeders, the genus has expanded and become even more diverse.

Nowadays, many are frightened by the exactingness of bromelium and immediately abandon it because of too careful care. But as it turns out in practice, the plant is quite unpretentious, and even if it requires some time, it remains a beautiful decoration of any home and garden.

Tropical Beauty Bromeliad

Bright, unusual forms of exotic plants are increasingly found on the windowsills of amateur flower growers. One of them is bromeliad, a relative of pineapple. Her unusual look captivates and once and for all wins the hearts of lovers of indoor flowering plants.

This bright flower, a child of the tropical forest, is perfectly acclimatized at home, if you create conditions similar to its natural habitat. Its homeland is tropical and subtropical zones of Latin America. Description and photos of bromeliad The flower belongs to the bromeliad family, which has more than 2.5 thousand species. There are bromeliads terrestrial and epiphytes. At home, bred most often their terrestrial species. All bromeliads have dense fleshy leaves of lancet form. They are collected in a neat outlet from which the flower grows.

Her inflorescences are bright saturated colors - red, purple, yellow, orange, pink. Through the efforts of breeders, the color gamut has expanded, and now even two-color bromelium can be found. The shape of the inflorescence may also differ in different species - the head or panicle.

Bromeliads have many species and varieties, which have the common name “bromeliad mix”.

Placement in the apartment

A place for bromeliad should be chosen taking into account its light and humidity. And the latter figure is of great importance. The room should be with high humidity. Well, if there will be an aquarium.

The place for bromeliad should be well lit, but without direct sunlight, which can burn the leaves of the plant. The best option would be a room facing east. Зимой бромелии требуется досвечивание фитолампой, причем свет должен быть направлен не на цветок, а на потолок.

Бромелия категорически не переносит сквозняк, а это значит, что ее нельзя помещать в комнату, где постоянно работает вентилятор или кондиционер.

Размножение Бромелии в домашних условиях

It is carried out with the help of offspring, which are called “kicks”. To get a new plant, just gently trim young kicks from the main stem after flowering. Do not be afraid, even though this method seems radical, but this is the only way to propagate Bromelium. New flowers are planted in separate pots, they are rooted quickly. After transplantation, moisten the substrate, pour water into the outlet.

How to water Bromeliad?

Home care and watering Bromelias: recommend moderate watering, the soil should not be too wet. But in the outlet must always be water. For irrigation, choose soft water with low salt content. Leaves should be wiped with a damp sponge, to avoid dusting. Bromeliad care in summer involves daily spraying. In the spring, Bromeliad should be fed with liquid nutrient mixtures. They can be purchased at the store, in consultation with the employee.

Humidity plays an important role in the care of home bromelium. The ideal humidity is 70-75 percent, but if such humidity cannot be achieved in an apartment or house environment, then keep the humidity at least 60 percent. With a strong decrease in humidity, homemade Bromeliad begins to fade, lags behind in development. To increase the humidity, use special devices (humidifiers) or place a tray with moist expanded clay next to the plant.

Bromeliad Transplant

It is performed as the plant grows. It is possible to replant house bromelium once every two years, but this provided that the capacity for the plant became too cramped, roots appeared from the drainage holes, the soil was too polluted with salts. For transplanting, remove the plant from the old pot, free the roots from the substrate. The diameter of the new pot should be 3-4 centimeters more than the previous one. A mixture for transplant buy from a special store. They should contain sand, peat, gravel, soil for orchids. Expanded clay is used for drainage. Some bromelias that grow at home do not need a transplant, as they die after flowering and give birth to their offspring, but periodically it is necessary to change the substrate.

Bromeliad Diseases

We propose to consider what are the problems of indoor plants and how to care for Bromeliad at home. If the homemade Bromeliads are too dark for them, then the leaves and flowers or leaf patterns turn white and turn greener to support photosynthesis. In a too bright place, the plant is threatened with burns. Lowering the temperature below 12 ° C causes the bromeliads to stop growing, and with prolonged exposure to low temperature, the leaves hang and then rot.

Brown edges of the leaves appear with an excess of heat and dry air. Excess water causes oxygen starvation, the roots die off of it. With faded leaves and dropping leaves and flowers, the plant responds to water scarcity. If bromeliads often end up in a draft, the leaves evaporate more moisture, which slows down the growth and leaves begin to fall.

Too high a concentration of nutrients damages (burns) the roots of Bromelia. If this happens, the root ball should be carefully watered and, if necessary, replaced with earth to care for Bromelia.

Stunted growth, yellowing, cessation of flower formation or forced flowering that occurs in plants, if they are threatened with death, in order to ensure the continuation of the species through seed formation, indicate a lack of nutrients.

Too high air humidity, which is, perhaps, only in closed flower windows or shop windows, contributes to the spread of fungi in Bromelia.

Bromelia needs thorough care to prevent diseases and pests. Keep Bromeliad at home clean and tidy, follow the rules of care. For treatment using a spray of colloidal sulfur, copper chloride, copper sulfate. But it is better not to make the treatment yourself. Contact a specialist in a flower shop. You will find the right treatment and bring your favorite flower back to life. Also diseases can appear from improper care.

Compliance with these simple rules for the care of Bromelium will provide an opportunity to grow a healthy plant that will please you.

Varieties and types of bromelia

This genus gave its name to the large family Bromeliace (Bromeliaceae). Approximately 50 species are widely distributed in South America, parts of Central America and the West Indies. Mostly it is ground perennials, similar to pineapple. The leaves are long, hard, with sturdy, hooked spines along the edge. The leaves in the bright sun are painted in a bronze color. They form large rosettes, which in some species increase in number, settling on long rhizomes and thus creating a kind of turf. Strong peduncle, rising from the center of the outlet bears leafy bracts, which are often brightly colored. The flowers are tubular, contiguous. They are replaced by large, fleshy yellow fruits, which in some species are used in medicine.

In warm climates for the most part grown in the open air, in full sun and well-drained soil. Bromeliads are relatively resistant to pests and diseases. Propagated by layering or seed, growing seedlings in a well-ventilated room to avoid infection by fungi.

Bromelia Balances (Bromelia balansae)

Height Width: a large species with a height of 1.5 m and can grow intensively.

Place of Birth: In South America.

Flowering time: at the end of summer.

Appearance of Bromelias Balances: peduncle 1 m in height is surrounded by brilliant bright red pointed bracts, the lower of which are colored only at the base. Purple flowers that appear at the end of summer are collected in numerous dense capitate inflorescences, surrounded by shorter whitish bracts. Orange-yellow berries, which require nearly a year to mature, can form very large brushes.

Care and maintenance of the flower bromeliad

Lighting: The plant prefers to avoid direct sunlight, in partial shade, the flower feels more comfortable. In the summer, provide diffused light, in winter, for better growth, put the plant closer to the light source.

Temperature and Humidity: Because bromeliad flowers come from the tropics, they prefer moist and warm conditions. They are well grown at room temperature 18-24 ° C. The temperature should not fall below 12 ° C, otherwise the plant will die. Epiphytes can grow on branches, trunks, etc., as well as in standard containers, ensuring permeability of soil with drainage.

The flower prefers a humid climate, but does not tolerate moist soil, therefore, a layer of expanded clay as a drainage is necessarily placed on the bottom of the pot to drain moisture.

Do not place a pot near a radiator in winter. Avoid dry climates. If necessary, install a humidifier, or a decorative fountain. In the hot period, bromelium is sprayed with soft warm water.

  • Watering: Over-wetted substrate is extremely negative for growth. Watering should be moderate, the water should not stagnate in the pan, and the next watering is carried out as soon as the top layer of soil dries out.
  • A significant part of moisture, bromelium takes from the outlet and leaves, so you need to spray regularly.
  • The water used is mild or distilled at room temperature.
  • Fertilizer: Fertilize a flower 2 times a month, using purchased liquid components, adding along with watering.

Reproduction: Seed propagation, simple and fast way to the emergence of the first shoots. In addition, hybrids do not get offspring. Reproduction can be carried out by cutting. The height of a healthy seedling, with its own root system, should be 15-20 cm. The hairs are placed in the ground with permeable and high content of organic substances.

The seedling is transplanted at a temperature of at least 20 ° C, making sure that the soil is sufficiently moist. The ripening period is about a month.

Transplant: Bromeliad does not need an annual transplant, or immediately after purchase. The procedure is carried out under the condition that the roots fill the entire space of the pot and appear on the surface.

  • The substrate is picked up light, with a good throughput of moisture and air.
  • Transplanted into well-moistened soil. Peat and sand are added to the substrate beforehand and everything is thoroughly mixed. At the bottom of the pot lay a layer of expanded clay as a drainage.
  • Flowering: for successful flowering do not overwet or overdry the soil. Beware of direct sunlight and drafts, and bromelium is sure to bloom with beautiful flowers.
  • After flowering, the flowers themselves gradually fade and dry, but do not remove them immediately, let them dry completely, and only then carefully cut them off.

Growing problems

Bromeliad will grow well with all the above listed rules and conditions of detention. Unfortunately, if gardeners do not pay the necessary attention, it comes to serious problems.

Excessive exposure to the sun leads to burns in the form of gray spots on the leaves.

At high humidity, or low temperature, the leaves darken and dry at the flower.

Pests: In case of non-observance of the rules, the plant is sick and weakens, which leads to the attack of such pests as: spider mites, thrips, scutes, mealybug.

Bromeliad family

For the first time, Columbus' associates also clashed with his representatives. Bromeliad flower comes from the rainforests of Young America. In 1805, all the data available at that time were compiled by Saint-Hilaire (French biologist). Now the family has about 2.5 thousand species. The impressive part of them are epiphytes, they grow on trees and have a sufficient supply of moisture in the leaf axils.

If representatives of bromeliads are regarded as home flowers, they are not too demanding to the conditions of detention. The only subtlety is the proper watering and maintaining the desired humidity and air temperature.

Calling plants bromelium, as a rule, imply one of the representatives of the genus of the same name. In total, it includes about 50 species. All of them are herbs growing on the ground, with a rosette of hard leathery leaves and flowers, gathered in the inflorescence of a panicle or head. The family includes a certain number of genera. We learn in more detail about the most common in our houses and apartments. All of them by mistake are sometimes called simply “bromelias”.

Bilbergia

A group of plants received its generic name in honor of the Swedish botanist, in total there are about 60 species. In the culture of indoor floriculture, bilbergia is the most common, drooping, which also served as the source material for breeding many hybrids and varieties. Leathery leaves reach 70 cm in length and form a dense rosette, like other bromels. Also in the shops you can often find Bilbergia Winda, pale-flowered, pyramidal (pictured above), Brazilian, etc.

Genus Vriesia

It includes a fairly large number of species - about 250 terrestrial and epiphytic plants, and 150 of them are cultivated under room conditions. They are known as the most thermophilic home flowers of the Bromeli family, sometimes you have to even provide additional heating of the pot. The leaves form a dense funnel, the color can be any - from monotonous to variegated. In culture, the most famous is bright Vriesia (pictured), the height of which, together with the peduncle, can reach up to one meter.

Genus gozmania

All representatives - epiphytes, there are about 120 species. On sale there are mainly reed guusmania and its varieties. The leaves form a flat rosette up to 30-45 cm long. Flowering lasts up to two months, after which the plant dies, like any other bromeliad. Home care is quite simple and will not cause any difficulties even for beginners. Also popular and known are the Gusmania minor (height up to 30 cm), mosaic (with decorative striped leaves), Zahn, one-eyed, blood-red, etc.

Genus cryptanthus

A small genus, including only about twenty species. The best way most of its representatives will feel in small greenhouses or greenhouses. Plants are valued primarily for the high ornamentality of the leaves, and not for flowering. Dense leathery plates have a wavy effect, and the number of varieties and a variety of colors can not be described. The most famous Cryptanthus is striated, stemless, two-lane, Foster, etc.

Includes about 180 species. Lovers of indoor floriculture is the most famous one - striped ehmeya (pictured). Beautiful leaves have spectacular stripes of silver color, formed by scales and disappearing with a lack of lighting or touch. The plant grows up to 50 cm in height. The flowers are small and inconspicuous, large pink bracts catch the eye. Also popular are Echmea Chantini, pubescent, sky blue, sparkling.

Conditions for bromeliads

Representatives of the family are typical inhabitants of the rainforest, and therefore the lighting is required for them. The bromeliad flower prefers a location with intense light, but without direct sunlight. The second important growth condition is the relative constancy of the temperature regime, without sudden drops and fluctuations. In the summer at the level of 18-25 ° С, and in the winter not less than 14-16 ° С. Add to all this high humidity. Any bromelia (species are quite numerous) requires daily spraying with soft, settled water. From this it follows that the most unfortunate location for the flower will be the space near the radiators. During the summer period, try to maintain a small amount of moisture in the leaf funnel.

Bromeliad: home care

It mainly consists of two points. First, the observance of the above conditions, and secondly, the correct watering and soil selection. We recommend buying soil in specialized stores. If you prefer to cook it yourself, then consider a few important points. Many bromeliads are epiphytes, and their root system is developed rather weakly, therefore, a large pot is not required. Ensure maximum air flow to the roots.

To do this, use the usual garden soil (previously disinfected), peat, sphagnum moss (it is possible to replace it with fern roots, previously crushed) in equal parts. Also add some charcoal. After planting, close the top layer of the substrate with moss, this will help retain moisture and prevent drying, which bromelia does not tolerate at all. Transplantation is carried out once every two years if absolutely necessary. The roots that will protrude to the surface and into the drainage holes will tell you about its necessity. New plant pot, choose 2-3 cm in diameter more than before. After transplanting, bromeliad care remains the same.

How to water?

This is one of the main points of care for bromelium. Compliance with all the subtleties will help you grow a beautiful healthy plant. It should immediately be noted that the flower is not among the moisture-loving, and excess water will lead to decay. Therefore, even at the planting stage, it is worth thinking about a good drainage layer (expanded clay, brick chips). Many members of the family are also well cultivated in hydroponics.

Use only soft water at room temperature for watering. Water not the substrate and the roots, but the very rosette of leaves. Moisture must linger in the axils of the leaves, which is exactly what bromeliad likes. Home care involves frequent and abundant watering in spring and summer and more moderate in winter. Fertilization is welcome, feed twice a month, from March-April until the autumn. Use special preparations for bromeliad or ordinary. Strictly follow the instructions, in this case it is better to breed more than “overfeeding” the plant.

Bromeliad: breeding

At home, the best is the vegetative method. From the old plant with the help of new processes, called kicks, get new. As a rule, they can be seen even before the beginning of flowering, but for rooting it is necessary to wait for its completion. By the time it comes in about September. The shoots are carefully cut with a sharp knife and planted in small containers filled with a mixture of sand and peat. Rooting takes place in the bulk successfully and quickly, it does not require any special conditions, the main thing - timely watering. Young plants the following year in the summer can please you with a beautiful flowering.

Flower setting

In the natural environment, the flower is located next to other, more sun-loving plants, so the main care at home is to ensure sufficient light intake. In the warm season it is necessary to exclude hit of sunshine on leaves. In winter, to increase the light, you can install the lamp, but direct the rays not on the aechmea, but on the ceiling or to the side.

При проведении генеральной уборки, растение, похожее по требованиям на ананас, следует защитить от возможных сквозняков.

Также, бромелия не должна находиться в помещении, где работает вентилятор или кондиционер.

Полив, ежедневный уход и режим обеспечения влагой

Уход за бромелией подразумевает под собой поддержание достаточного уровня влаги и тепла, поскольку это нежное тропическое растение. At home for a comfortable stay, she needs to maintain the temperature at 22-25 degrees. Such regimes contribute to intensive growth and development during the vegetative period. In winter, bromelia is at rest, the optimum temperature for it is from 15 to 18 C. But lowering the temperature below 12 degrees causes death. At rest, bromeliad care consists of weekly watering and maintaining moist air in the room where it is located.

In the warm season, you should water the tropical guest daily at home, but make sure that the soil in the pot does not turn sour.

Sometimes it is possible to dry the primer, but only the upper part. In order to prevent excessive drying of the soil, experienced growers recommend such care: pour cleaned sand or small pebbles over the ground, moistening them periodically. In such conditions, the freshness and beauty of the plant is provided. In the photo and video you can watch the unique outlines of this magical flower.

Plant Care

In addition to watering and lighting, bromeliad needs constant supervision of its leaves. High-quality care in home spaces is accompanied by timely cleaning of leaves from dust. This can be achieved in several ways:

  • Holding a summer soft shower. The temperature of the water should correspond as much as possible to the outdoor air at which the tropical guest is located.
  • Cleansing the leaves with a sponge.

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