Now every gardener wants to surprise others and neighbors with something unusual, grown on his site. If you live blueberry "patriot", a description of which is given in this article, the neighbors definitely will not remain indifferent. Everyone will ask you for a cutting. There is nothing difficult in growing this plant, simple nuances will provide you with a high yield and excellent taste of berries.
Anyone who begins to be interested in such a plant as a blueberry "patriot", a description of the variety, reviews can tell a lot and help make the right choice. If you still doubt whether you want to see this beauty on your site, read more detail with the characteristics.
Variety refers to mid-ripening, ripening year begins around mid-July. Depending on the region, these dates may vary slightly. A perennial plant, in height can reach even two meters. The bush is not very branched, its stems are predominantly rectilinear. In spring, it is covered with beautiful flowers, and in the fall it has a very decorative color. Due to this property it is used for decorative purposes.
Useful properties of the plant
Blueberry "patriot" (description of the variety, features, reviews about the berry, and literally beckon to plant it on the site) has not only decorative properties, but also a number of other useful characteristics. Its berries perfectly remove toxins and decomposition products, which is caused by the presence of natural anthocyanins in them. Also in the fruits of this plant are the necessary elements that stimulate the digestive process, strengthen the walls of blood vessels, beneficially affect the work of the heart.
The variety of blueberry “patriot”, the berries with the sourness of which do not leave anyone indifferent, is very useful for pregnant women. After all, it is in her that there is such a necessary folic as well as elagic acid.
Blueberries are also very useful for people suffering from eye disorders. If you work at a computer for a long time, then you just need to periodically include these berries in your diet. But in case of peptic ulcer it is necessary to be very careful with the use of these fruits.
Delicious fresh blueberries have a beneficial effect on the human body and contribute to increased immunity.
Choosing a landing site
Blueberries "patriot" (description of the variety, reviews, planting which sometimes simply pushes to start it on its own plot) has its own peculiarities of agrotechnology. These include the choice of planting site and soil. Most of all this bush will like a sunny place protected from the winds.
With regard to the choice of soil, the best for blueberries suitable sour composition. If the acidity is insufficient, then the harvest will be poor. With a large discrepancy between the acidity indicators, the bush may stop growing altogether. However, if the acidity index is higher than 3.7, then the plant may start to hurt, or even die.
When choosing a place for planting blueberries, you need to choose a place that is not very wet. Also groundwater should not be too close to the soil.
Planting and care
The description and cultivation of a grade of a blueberry "patriot" does not cause any difficulties. Biennial seedlings are planted preferably in rows or each separately. After the landing site has been determined, a hole should be dug about 70 cm deep. The distance between the bushes should be 1.5 meters. This distance is necessary for the plant for normal development.
Before you put blueberries in the hole, you need to fill the last with certain materials, the type of which will depend on the type of your soil. With the prevalence of sand in the soil at the bottom it is better to put clay. Chopped moss is also a good addition. If the acidity of the soil is very weak, you can apply irrigation water with dissolved organic acid.
After planting, the soil around them needs to be mulched. This will protect against drying out and will also inhibit the multiplication of weeds. A layer of mulch is not less than 7-9 centimeters. As the rotting mulch needs to be updated.
Growing in hot climates
Blueberry “patriot”, planting and caring for which under normal conditions do not represent anything difficult, in hot climates needs additional attention. In conditions of strong heat and drought, the bushes of plants should be sprayed daily. It is recommended to loosen the soil several times a season.
Pruning a bush
Blueberries "patriot" (description of the variety is given in this article) need periodic pruning of the bush. This makes it possible for him not only to have a neat appearance, but also to heal, get rid of sick branches. Also during pruning recommend to remove the old and broken branches. This is best done in the spring or in the winter. If you do not remove the old twigs, the distribution of nutrients will occur incorrectly, which can adversely affect the yield.
Reproduction of blueberry
Blueberry "patriot" (description of the variety cited above) can be excellently reproduced in several ways. First of all, seed will be suitable for this. You can also use lignified cuttings or divide the root system.
To select high-quality seed material, you need to pour the crushed berries with a glass of water. Good seeds will immediately settle to the bottom. They can immediately be collected and landed in a tank with sand. However, this method does not deserve much confidence from gardeners, since the plants thus obtained can begin to bear fruit only after 6-7 years.
More successful is the next breeding method. Several low-growing twigs are bent to the ground and sprinkled with sawdust or earth. As a rule, after a couple of years, such roots have their roots, and this bush can already begin to bear fruit. However, for this it is pre-separated from the parent plant.
Patriot blueberry disease in some cases can carry significant danger and even lead to the destruction of the bush. To avoid this, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures in a timely manner.
Very often among the diseases of blueberry is monilioz. It looks like frostbite of some parts of the bush. In this case, the affected parts must be cut and burned to avoid further spread of the hearth.
If the young shoots began to appear red swelling - this is a reason to sound the alarm. These symptoms may signal the occurrence of fizalosporoza. The disease is characterized by the fact that it has an enormous rate of spread. Control measures are cardinal enough - cutting and burning a bush.
Blueberries "patriot" (description of the variety is presented in this article) may also be affected by gray mold. The disease is quite dangerous, often the bush is completely destroyed. The possibility of rehabilitation is there, but this process is long and troublesome, and no one can guarantee complete success. Nevertheless, if the illness is noticed on time, then there are still good chances to cure it.
Blueberries belong to winter-hardy plants and can withstand temperatures down to minus thirty degrees! However, in snowless winters there is a very high probability of freezing bushes. In order to prevent this moment it is necessary to start preparing your bush for the winter in advance. Twigs should be carefully tied and bend to the ground before the first frost. As soon as a stable sub-zero temperature is established, the plant is covered with burlap or other similar material. However, do not use polyethylene.
According to testimonials from experienced gardeners, it is better to further protect the base of the blueberry bush for the winter. A mixture of peat and sawdust is well suited for this purpose. If snow falls, it will serve as an additional protection against freezing and the plant should winter well.
Lack of trace elements
The appearance of blueberries can tell the gardener what microelements the plant needs. If you began to notice that the leaves on the bush began to fade or even turn yellow, and the yield dropped significantly, then the plant lacks nitrogen. But if the leaves begin to turn black and die off, then there is a high probability of potassium deficiency. With a lack of magnesium on the leaves may appear red edging.
Often gardeners in their reviews complain that a grid of green and yellow veins begins to appear on the leaves of a blueberry. This may be the result of a banal iron deficiency. But the appearance of bluish leaves on the top should really alert: it is a shortage of boron, which can have quite serious consequences.
Lack of certain microelements adversely affects not only the appearance of the bush, but also its fertility and viability. You should not allow severe depletion, because due to the lack of a trace element, you can not only not get the desired yield, but also destroy the plant. To avoid trouble, you need to carry out top-dressings in a timely manner and apply the necessary preparations to the soil. In time taken preventive measures will be the key to a good harvest and a healthy garden.
Selection of seedlings
In order for the harvest to be good, you must initially find the right sapling. Do not buy just shoots planted in a container. Make sure the roots are visible in the holes.
The color of the bark should be dark at the base of the plant and brighten closer to the top. If you find that the leaves are yellow in color, this means that the plant in excess contains potassium or calcium.
In this case, it will be necessary to limit the supply of these elements to the roots. However, it is better to initially buy healthy seedlings.
The best place
So, we already know that planting blueberries is better in places that are well lit by the sun. Also, make sure that the territory where the bush grows, does not blow drafts or strong wind. All this can cause irreparable damage to the plant.
Plant blueberries better on higher ground. This will ensure the outflow of excess moisture from the plant, which does not love her. Such an effect can also be achieved by creating a trench, which can be dug in a convenient place.
Why do you need to prepare the soil for blueberries? The fact is that ordinary black soil is not suitable for the healthy life of the Patriot blueberry. Before planting, make sure that the soil is acidic.
Recommended pH level: from 3.2 to 5.2. If the balance exceeds the maximum level, then it can be reduced by adding sulfur (but this should be done in the previous season). So the soil is oxidized by soil bacteria.
It is better if the blueberries will grow in loam or in sandy cakes. Such a soil composition is optimal; a heavier plant will not be accepted.
It is necessary to create the most comfortable conditions for the growth of the bush, namely to prepare the drained soil. You can make it from peat and sand. Also added soil, which is desirable to take from under the pine.
The plant grows well on the soil in which there is a lot of organic matter. Therefore, experts often recommend planting green manure crops on the territory where blueberries will be grown next year.
You need to plant a plant early, but when exactly - in spring or autumn - it depends on you. If you live in an area that has a cold or cool climate, then it is better to land in spring.
The soil at the time of planting should already be quite acidic. To do this, you can make sulfur in the soil for plowing for six months (not later), or just water the soil with acidic water.
Seedlings for planting should already be in the containers next to you. Remove them from there and straighten the roots. Be careful: do not tear or confuse the roots.
The holes in which the blueberries should be planted should be 60 cm deep, and the width and height should be 80 cm. You can make the size wider (but not deeper), if the territory of the site allows. Keep a distance of 2 m between rows. It is recommended to sprinkle conifer needles on the ground after planting for better nutrition and moisture saturation.
In the care of any plant, the main rule is timeliness. So is the case with blueberries: do not forget to water it in time so that the soil does not overdry.
Scattering conifer needles over the roots also allows you to keep the land around from pests such as weeds that interfere with the normal growth of blueberries. And to increase the level of yield, you can use an uncomplicated technique: 5 years after the first flowering, trim a bush.
The plant must be properly irrigated. Most often used for this drip system. This is very convenient, since, if necessary, with the help of it you can make preparations for protection against pests.
This method also saves from frosts, which can suddenly catch up with blueberries in the spring, and is great for watering in the summer. Cons of drip irrigation - a strong water consumption and loss of the perfect appearance. Crop plants better in early spring. In this case, you can see which parts of the shoots have deteriorated after wintering, and remove them. Also remove the thickened stems. Their presence will interfere with the normal development of the berries, and as a result the fruits may grow too small.
Blueberries are easy to care for, the only problems that can be on the way to normal cultivation are diseases and pests that affect the plant's body. However, even these pests quite a bit.
Among those who can harm blueberries are hares, mice, some species of birds, and larvae of the May beetle. One of the few diseases that can touch a plant is gray mold.
To notice it is simple: a fungus of the corresponding color will appear on the shoots. It may develop in spring when the temperature is not high enough or when excessive humidity is present.
Advantages and disadvantages
Blueberry garden varieties "Patriot" are chosen and loved primarily because it has many advantages over other plant species. Among the main advantages are:
These and many other positive aspects you can open in your garden plant, provided that you properly care for the culture.
If it is responsible to carry out all stages, including even the selection of seedlings, then blueberries can produce 9–10 kg of berries per season. Such a high fecundity is the highest in the list of all varieties.
The next plus is frost resistance. After all, not every plant can be grown in cold areas, where the climate is simply not created for gardening. Even at low temperatures, the berries remain tasty and keep a long shelf life. Positive is also considered to be the factor that the presented variety fights excellently with various diseases at the stage of their origin.
If there is not enough space on your site, but you want to get a good harvest, then growing blueberries is a great way to save space. This effect is achieved due to the growth of the bush is not in width, as is usually the case, but in length.
Often gardeners are faced with a problem when the crop dies due to spring frosts. The plus of the tall blueberry “Patriot” is that it begins to bloom after such events, which means it will not disappear for that reason.
And finally: all the berries of the plant are securely attached to the bunch, and the bunch - to the branch. Therefore, the harvest does not fall from the bushes long enough, and this allows you to get additional time to harvest.
Of course, no plant can do without its drawbacks: blueberries will not bloom immediately. The first good harvest you get only after 5, and maybe even 6 years. Of course, before this the plant will bear fruit, but not so abundantly. Now that you know the description of the Patriot blueberry variety, its main features and methods of care, you will be able to put them into practice and get a bountiful harvest of large berries, without spending a lot of energy.
History of the variety
Patriot's homeland, like any blueberry, is North America. The variety is bred in the resort town of Beltsville, Maryland. In 1952, as a result of cross-pollination of Dixi, Michigan LB-1 and Earliblue varieties, seedlings of tall blueberries were obtained, which are distinguished by good yield and high decorative properties. Saplings are on sale in 1976. In honor of the upcoming 200th anniversary of the unification of the states, the blueberry was called the Patriot.
Description of Blueberry Patriot
Bush Patriot high - up to 1.8 m, consists of upright and not too branched shoots. Young leaves have a red tint, mature - dark green. The variety is resistant to late blight, stem cancer and root rot. The patriot, unlike most blueberries, is less picky about soil composition and climatic conditions, self-infested. Однако богатым урожаем одаривает на рыхлом и кислом грунте, в тёплом и солнечном месте сада, окружённый другими сортами для лучшего опыления.
Голубика Патриот даёт богатый урожай на рыхлом и кислом грунте, в тёплом и солнечном месте сада
The variety is able to tolerate frosts up to 35-40 ° C, suitable for growing in harsh climatic conditions with a short light day. Patriot blooms for the first time the next year after planting, but at the time of maximum fructification comes at the age of 5-6 years. The average yield is up to 7 kg from a bush, the highest is 9 kg.
The average mass of blueberry berries Patriot - 4 g
Patriot is suitable for cultivation in any private garden and on industrial plantations. Large berries are harvested by hand. Variety refers to the medium early, flowering occurs in May, and the harvest - in the middle of July (continues until August). Fruits are large - up to 2 cm in diameter, collected in brushes, sit tightly on the branches, have a round flattened shape. Peel - elastic, light blue, pulp - greenish, sweet and aromatic. Fruiting Patriot regular.
How to grow blueberries
The requirements for the conditions of growth and care of blueberries differs from our usual currants, gooseberries and raspberries. In particular, Patriot is contraindicated in organic matter in the form of humus, chicken dung and manure, it needs acidic (pH 3.5–4.5), moist and loose soil. Failure to follow one of these rules will result in the death of the plant. Patriot has a huge advantage: resistance to diseases and pests. As they say gardeners, he is not sick. Almost all the misfortunes characteristic of other fruit crops bypass blueberries.
Terms, place and stages of landing
The best periods for planting are spring, before bud break, and autumn, after leaf fall. In the northern regions with a short autumn is better to choose spring. A place under blueberries should be well lit and warmed by the sun, with the presence of protection from the wind from the north side in the form of a wall, a solid fence or a hedge.
The best predecessors are perennial grasses. It is impossible to plant blueberries after crops under which organic matter, ashes, lime, dolomitic and bone meal were introduced.
The landing pit for blueberries is filled with a special mixture that has nothing to do with ordinary land on the site.
- Dig a hole 40–50 cm deep and 70–80 cm in diameter, or even better - 1 m. The fact is that the blueberry roots are superficial and spread apart. The wider the landing pit, the longer the blueberry will have enough soil suitable for it. If the pit is small, the roots will quickly get to ordinary land, the plant will get chlorosis, stop growing, and the yield will decrease. The removed soil will not be useful to you, you can immediately distribute it evenly over the plot.
- Spread on the ground a strong film, tarpaulin or other material on which you can use a spade to mix the substrate to fill the pit. Pour peat (sour) peat, river sand, rotted sawdust of coniferous trees on the prepared surface and mix.
You can limit yourself to peat and sawdust or peat and sand in equal proportions.
Video: blueberry planting rules
If the groundwater in your area passes deeper than 40–60 cm from the surface, then you will often have to water the blueberries — twice a week, 2 buckets under the fruit-bearing shrub. This dose is recommended to be divided in half: one bucket in the morning, one in the evening. Gardeners who can not so often visit their site, arrange drip irrigation. In particularly hot days, blueberries can be poured over the leaves.
The rate of irrigation of blueberries depends on weather conditions, the size of the planting pit and the absorbency of the earth.
However, do not blindly follow the instructions. The rate of irrigation depends on weather conditions, the size of the planting pit and the absorbency of the land around it. Watering follows from the watering can with a strainer, so as not to erode light soil. Once a week, acidify the water, as when planting, with vinegar or citric acid (1.5 tablespoons per 10 liters of water). Watch for the intensity of water absorption, it should go deep, and not stagnate at the top. After watering, squeeze in a fist a lump of soil from under the blueberry. If water drops are squeezed out, it means that the bush is over-wetted. Add mulch under it, next time reduce the amount of water. Remember that waterlogging of roots is just as dangerous as drying.
Some gardeners limit the planting pit, arranging wells with waterproof walls (for example, plant plants in cut and dug barrels). This is done in order to protect the roots of blueberries from the usual soil with unsuitable acidity. As a result, when there is heavy rain and watering, water stagnates, there is no place to leave excess moisture, the roots rot, the plants die.
Peculiarities of soil under blueberries
The soil under the blueberry is different from the rest of your site, and therefore requires other care:
- As the bush grows, widen the planting hole, digging the groove adjacent to it around the circumference and pouring sour soil. It is impossible to damage the roots, which means that the digging should be done in advance, ahead of the growth of blueberries. The adult bush of the Patriot occupies a plot of land with a diameter of about 1.5 m, its root system has the same size,
- near the bush it is impossible to chop down the weeds with a chopper and loosen the soil deeper than 3 cm. The roots of the blueberry are superficial and practically do not recover,
- regularly, as the land subsides, sprinkle the mulch, you can podokuchivat bushes. Use peat, rotted sawdust, pine litter. These materials acidify the soil, and their thick layer prevents the rapid evaporation of moisture and inhibits the growth of weeds.
Video: how and what to mulch blueberries
Fertilizers for Blueberry Patriot must also be sour. Nitrogen containing is recommended to be applied three times per season with an interval of 2 weeks, starting in early spring and ending on July 1.
- mulch from the rotting bark of conifers,
- an infusion of herbs containing acid (rhubarb, sorrel, sour to chop, pour water, insist 1-2 days and pour under the bush),
- ammonium sulfate: 1 tsp. 10 liters of water.
The dose of liquid dressing depends on the capacity of the soil - 5–10 l per adult plant. In the second half of summer, add 100 g of superphosphate, 15 g of magnesium sulfate, 2 g of potassium sulfate and zinc sulfate per bush (dissolve in 10 liters of water or scatter on the ground, pour and grind).
Ready-made mixture for blueberries or heather crops, for example, for azaleas, is also suitable for feeding.
The easiest way to feed is to buy a special fertilizer and follow the instructions.
Forming and trimming the bush
Patriot is prone to thickening, because it is characterized by intensive growth of shoots. Proceed to pruning need for 3-4 years, removing the curves, broken, weak, frozen, growing into the bush branches. The goal - to form a plant of the strongest shoots, equidistant, directed in different directions, not hinder the growth of each other.
When pruning, you need to remove the curves, broken, weak, frozen branches growing inside the bush
After another 2 years pruning is complicated by the removal of all the old 5-6-year-old shoots. After 10–15 years of life in your garden, the yield of the Patriot will decrease, the berries are crushed. To restore the previous productivity, it is recommended to cut off the entire bush near the ground, leaving only the roots. Such a rejuvenating pruning triggers the active growth of new shoots. After 2-3 years, the blueberry will once again delight the abundance of large fruits. As a result, the Patriot is able to live for more than a century.
All activities for the formation of the bush spend in early spring, before the sap.
Shelter for the winter
Despite the declared cold resistance of the variety, in fierce and lightly snowy winters, the upper parts of the shoots can freeze to the level of snow. In addition, the Patriot is tall, and the thickness of the snow cover of 1.5–1.8 m is a rarity for many Russian regions. For these reasons, either cover the blueberries for the winter, or be prepared to drastically shorten all frozen shoots in the spring.
Before the onset of cold weather, cover the ground and the lower part of the bush with a spruce twig, it will protect the roots from freezing, and the shoots from eating with mice and hares. Young low bushes wrap breathing covering material entirely. Pry branches to a height of more than 1 m to the ground and also warm with breathable materials.
Young blueberry bushes for the winter, you can wrap up completely
Harvesting: how to store, what to cook
Patriot blueberries begin to collect in mid-July. Berries ripen unevenly, so cut them off in several stages. The first fruits are large, and by the end of the harvest they become very small. Dense skin allows storage and transportation. In the refrigerator, in an airtight container, blueberries remain fresh for 2 weeks, and when frozen, they retain their taste and aroma for a whole year. It is better to eat the first large and beautiful berries fresh, and small ones - to start up for processing.
Blueberries are rich in antioxidants that slow down cell oxidation and aging. In addition, this berry contains substances that can reduce blood sugar levels, break down fat, strengthen the walls of blood vessels.
Blueberries are used to prepare compotes, jams, jams, candied fruits, used as a filling and decoration for baking. Tinctures, liqueurs and liqueurs are very fragrant and beautiful from this berry. In winter evenings, dried blueberry tea with honey will warm and remind you of summer.
Reviews of growing blueberry Patriot
Of the 3 varieties planted, only one was good - the Patriot. For the second summer there were already brushes with berries. And he has good growth energy. That's what I want to multiply. True, I have a heavy clay, planted in a mixture of clay and spruce leaves, added sulfur and fertilizer for rhododendrons.
I bought my Patriot out of self-pollination. I still understand now - I need a couple.
I have several Patriot and Northland bushes. Patriot has more berries and tastes better, Northland is smaller and sour, planted it later, because I read that the crop is higher during cross-pollination, but I didn’t notice much difference, and so almost all the fruits were tied.
I planted the American Patriot after peeping from a friend, she grows in a greenhouse in a pot, and the pot in the pan with water, blooms and produces fruit. I'm growing in a greenhouse, I haven't noticed any particular difficulties.
Patriot is a universal variety that is suitable for both individual and industrial cultivation, adapted to the climate characteristic of most Russian regions. The bush, besides its high yield, is distinguished by good decorative qualities, since the branches in summer are covered with berries of different shades of green, red and blue. Attention and care variety requires no more than any other blueberries.
Blueberry Patriot belongs to the varieties mid-term maturity. Berries ripen around mid-July. Depending on the climatic conditions, the time of cultivation may differ slightly. North America is considered the birthplace of blueberries. Variety Patriot was bred in the state of Maryland in 1952. However, in the sale of seedlings arrived only in 1976.
Shrubs plants are distinguished by high growth. They reach 1.6 m and even 2 meters in height. The shoots on the shrub are erect and moderately branched. Shrub covered with small leathery leaves of juicy green color. Young leaves have a reddish tinge.
As they grow, they turn dark green. All these qualities make Patriot bushes very attractive. In addition to the high yield of berries, many gardeners note the high decorative qualities of this variety. In spring, the plant will pleasantly please with its flowering, and in the fall it will surprise with the succulent color of the foliage.
Variety Patriot is a powerful growth force. Its large berries in diameter reach 19 cm and in appearance resemble beautiful balls. These berries are considered the most delicious and large among the varieties of blueberries. The period from flowering to harvest is 45-57 days. Unripe fruits have a reddish color, while ripe berries have a light blue color. The fruits on the bushes are collected in clusters.
The fruits of the Patriot taste nice, have a flattened shape. Fresh berries are very good in taste. The peel in them is elastic, which is important for transportation and long-term storage.
The advantages of the variety
This variety is ideal for growing at the dacha. It has many advantages that most gardeners like:
- frost resistance whereby it is suitable for growing in central Russia, since the Patriot variety can withstand temperatures as low as -37 ° C,
- not afraid of pests and diseases, for example, late blight and root rot, resistant to dry weather and slight overwetting of the soil,
- ripe berries stay on kuta up to 10 daysare beautifully stored and carry transportation,
- the structure of the bush makes it possible to penetrate the light through the branches, so the shrubs can be planted close to each other,
- high yield, in fact up to 9 kg of berries are removed from 1 bush.
Blueberries have a wonderful fresh taste. They are also harvested for the winter, jams, preserves are made from them, dried and preserved, as well as frozen.
Place for landing
The variety has its own characteristics and should immediately select a specific place on the site. Best suited sunny place and windless. Suitable for growing acidic soil. You can use several components for this:
The desired level of composition can be obtained by adding a little sulfur to the soil mixture. Before planting a blueberry, it is necessary to prepare such a soil on the site for 7-10 days. Bushes are usually planted in early spring or late autumn.
Young bushes are planted in prepared holes, size 80x80 cm. Previously, drainage and prepared acidic soil should be laid at the bottom of the hole. Since young plants have a poorly developed root system, it is lowered to a depth of 10-15 cm. The trunk of the bush should be covered with a layer of 4-6 cm. The roots must be spread out so as not to form a clod.
After landing, be sure to mumble near-stem space. To do this, use dry coniferous bark or old needles from coniferous plants. The distance between the bushes should be up to one and a half meters. If you plant them too thickly, then you have to add more fertilizer.
Blueberry Care Patriot
After planting blueberry bushes they should be provided regular watering. He should be moderate with using sour water. On rainy days, when moisture is too much, you need to make small trenches near the bushes to divert excess water.
Experts recommend throughout the year to perform 3 feedings:
- in early spring,
- at the beginning of flowering
- with the advent of the first ovary.
Mineral fertilizers should be suitable for acidic soil in combination with nitrogen mixtures.
In the first year after planting, it is better not to give fruit to shrubs. All appeared inflorescences should be immediately removed. This technique will allow the bush to get stronger, gain strength and build wood on the trunk. This will provide an opportunity to get a much higher yield next year.
The first pruning is performed only after 4 years. Carry it out after harvest in late autumn. Also pruning done in early spring until laying buds. If you regularly and correctly perform pruning, you can increase the yield of berries.
In regions where winters have little snow for the winter, they are sure to cover. Agrofiber or lapnik is used as a covering material. Bushes bind and slightly tilted to the soil.
Excessive humidity is almost always the main cause of the formation of fungal diseases in blueberries. Mulching the soil will help to avoid this. Mulch will cover the spores of the fungal pathogen and will not allow microorganisms to multiply further. Bordeaux mixture is used for the purpose of prophylaxis, first before the buds swell and then in late autumn, when the leaves have fallen.
Virus and microplasma diseases attack blueberries:
- necrotic spotting,
- reticulation of branches
Such diseases are incurable, so the plant should be removed and burned. The greatest harm and danger to blueberries - birds. Birds are very fond of the berries of this plant and always fly to peck them. Salvation from them will be a grid or a scarecrow, standing nearby.
Blueberries are attacked by various pests that can be controlled with fungicides and insecticides. If the bushes are processed in time, then these means will provide them with resistance. The most dangerous pests include:
- shield, тля - они любят сок голубики и переносят различные вирусные болезни растений,
- листовертка - ее привлекает в голубике литься, цветы и почки, обвивают паутиной верхнюю часть растения,
- Chafer - eats flowers and leaves of the shrub, and its larva gnaws the roots, disrupting the root system, therefore it is necessary to remove the beetles in time to protect blueberries,
- pine silkworm - loves leaves.
Bushes are also attacked by mice and hares. It is advisable to cover them in the winter with a fine mesh to save the plant.
Blueberries are very tasty and healthy, because they contain many valuable substances for the body. Such a plant will decorate the site and give tasty and healthy fruits with sourness. The taste of the Patriot variety is remembered for a long time and will appeal to all berry lovers.
Planting a Blueberry Patriot
Forest blueberries, which can be found in the wild, are very different from their “cultural” relatives. Garden shrubs are very demanding of growing conditions, and the Patriot variety is no exception.
The yield volumes will depend directly on the selection of the growing place and the planting material itself, so we have prepared for you some useful tips that will help grow the Patriot blueberry properly.
The main requirement in planting refers to the selection of a suitable site for the placement of culture. First of all, you need to consider the lighting mode. Blueberry prefers well-lit areas protected from drafts. If the plant is in the shade, the fruiting will be low, and the berries - small. A strong wind or draft also adversely affects the condition of the plants, as powerful gusts can damage young fruit-bearing branches.
Note: Planted seedlings varieties Patriot better on a small hill. It will not allow the stagnation of moisture at the roots and prevent the development of fungal diseases or rotting of the roots.
But special attention should be paid to the soil on which blueberries will grow. For the Patriot variety, as well as for other types of this crop, the usual fertile soil does not fit. The soil must be acidic with a pH level of 3.2 to 5.2 units. The best soil is considered to be loam or sandy loam: this soil is quite loose and light, whereas on heavy soils the shrub does not take root well or quickly dies.
In addition, the soil should not be overwetted, so planting blueberries in areas where the groundwater is less than 50 cm from the surface is not recommended. To make the soil more drained, you can add a little peat and sand, and for the normal development of the root system - a little soil from under the pine or birch.
There is one secret that will help make the land more suitable for blueberries. Culture responds well to the soil, flavored with organic substances, however, organic matter can not be applied directly during planting. If you plan to grow blueberries, sow the green manure in the selected area, and only next year begin planting seedlings.
In addition to the selection of a suitable site for growing, you need to pick up and high-quality planting material. It will depend on the health of the seedling how quickly the crop will take root in the new place and start fruiting.
When choosing a blueberry seedlings Patriot, pay attention to such nuances:
- Planting material is better to buy in containers. In this case, the root system of the plant is closed, and if you miss a suitable time for planting in the spring, you can save the plant until the fall (Figure 2).
- Make sure that the roots are not visible through the holes in the container. This means that the plant has been in the tank for too long and may be weakened.
- Carefully inspect the seedling bark: it should be clean, without any stains or growths. Their presence indicates that the plant is infected with a disease
- The color of the bark also matters. In high-quality healthy seedlings, it is dark at the base, but brightens to the top.
- Pay attention to the seedlings leaves: they should not have a yellow tint. If such a color is still present, you should not buy a sapling, as it received too much potassium or calcium, and may not settle down after transplanting to open ground.
Having picked up a suitable sapling, it is possible to start direct planting. The landing time depends on the climatic region. In the south, plants can be transplanted into the ground in spring and autumn, but in regions with a cool or temperate climate it is best to carry out the procedure in early spring, before the buds wake up, so that the plant can settle down and grow strong before winter.
Figure 2. Distinctive features of high-quality seedlings
It is important to properly prepare the soil on the site. It is necessary not only to dig and free from weeds, but also to make it more acidic. To do this, you can simply irrigate the soil with aksylennoy water or make sulfur for digging, but this procedure should be carried out no later than six months before planting.
Planting holes should be 60 cm in depth and 80 cm in height and width. Between the rows adhere to a gap of two meters. In each well is placed a mixture of sand, peat and soil from under the pine tree, establish a seedling and sprinkle it with soil. It is important not to damage the delicate roots when planting, therefore, if your planting material is in a container and it is difficult to remove it, place a container for 20-30 minutes in water. After that, the earth will soften and remove the seedling without damaging the roots, it will be much easier. The landing site is better covered with a layer of mulch (conifer needles) to prevent moisture loss and stop the growth of weeds.
Features of growing
There are certain features in the cultivation of Patriot blueberries, observing that, you will surely collect a rich harvest of tasty and healthy berries.
The main care includes:
- Watering: should be regular, twice a week. Under each bush should be made on a bucket of water. However, in the process you need to monitor the level of soil moisture. If natural precipitation is present, watering can be reduced to prevent stagnant moisture at the roots. If possible, use the drip irrigation method.
- Acidification of soil: Since blueberries grow best on acidic soils, once a month, natural acidulants (citric acid or vinegar) should be added to the water for irrigation.
- Spraying: from July to August the temperature rises strongly, which leads not only to the evaporation of moisture from the soil, but also to dry air. These processes adversely affect the yield, so it is recommended to spray the above-ground parts of the shrubs daily.
- Loosening and mulching: These procedures are not only aimed at weed control. In the process of loosening, air penetrates to the roots faster, and a layer of mulch laid around the shrub prevents moisture evaporation and stops the growth of weeds. As mulch, you can use sawdust, straw, rotted leaves and bark.
- Fertilizer: also an important step in cultivation. Feeding is carried out by the method of irrigation, dissolving fertilizer in water. For this purpose it is better to use mineral preparations: superphosphate, ammonium or zinc sulfate. Alkaline fertilizers (manure, compost, humus or ash) are absolutely contraindicated for blueberries. It is important that fertilizers should be applied only from the second year of life of the seedlings, and feeding is carried out strictly according to the schedule. The first time nutrients contribute to the soil in early spring, during the swelling of the kidneys, and the second time - after harvesting.
These recommendations are simple, but compliance with them will preserve the health and yield of the shrub for many years.
Another important event is considered the shelter of blueberries for the winter. Despite the fact that the blueberry Patriot is frost-resistant, and the plants are able to withstand a temperature drop of up to -30 degrees, it is advisable to cover the bushes for the winter to prevent freezing of young shoots. To do this, bend the branches to the ground and cover with burlap or agrofiber. From above you can cover the shrub with fir branches. It is not recommended to use a film for shelter, because under it plants start to shed and may die from the fungus even before spring comes.
Pruning is also a mandatory activity in the care of Patriot blueberry. It is not only about sanitary pruning, which is carried out in the spring to clean the shrub from old, dry or damaged branches. Formative pruning also plays an important role in growing the crop (Figure 3).
In the first year after planting, the main purpose of pruning is to remove all fruit buds. This is necessary to preserve the health of the plant. If you leave the buds on the shrub, it will bloom and even bear fruit, but it will weaken too much and may not survive the winter. It is better to wait a year and get a much more abundant harvest.
In the next five years of growing, pruning a blueberry bush only involves removing dry branches that only consume the sap of the plant, reducing its yield. Only after this period, you can proceed to the direct formation of the bush. To do this, cut off any shoots, thickening crown.
Note: If the shrub is too thick, its yield will decrease, the berries will be too small and will begin to ripen later due to lack of sunlight.
Pruning branches that thicken the crown, not only increases yields, but also stimulates the formation and growth of young lateral shoots that can produce a crop.
Figure 3. Features of age trimming
For old blueberry bushes, which are more than 15 years old, apply the so-called anti-aging pruning. In this case, all above-ground parts of the culture are completely cut off at the root. Naturally, in this case, the year of fruiting is lost, but in return you get a fully rejuvenated shrub, which will again produce a bountiful harvest. It is important that the anti-aging pruning should be carried out either in early spring, before the beginning of the awakening of the kidneys, or in the fall, when the harvest is complete.
Useful information about growing blueberries Patriot you will find in the video.