UhRica is an extraordinary beauty plant of the heather family. It is difficult to compare it with other plant crops, because the shape of its leaves is very interesting and unusual. Some gardeners compare it with heather, and inexperienced people believe that it is one and the same representative of the flora. Outwardly, it really resembles heather. But it is an evergreen shrub, and heather is not.
Erica leaves - needles 1 cm longlocated on the entire stalk. The stem is long, straight, steady. A small flower of Erica resembles a bell. Flowers collected in a brush. Their color varies depending on the variety and variety of eric, usually white, pink and purple.
Homeland Erica - South Africa. She was reclaimed in England in the 18th century. Since then, it has become popular in different countries of Europe and Asia. In the CIS countries came from Germany in the XX century.
Erica is used for landscape design, garden and even as an indoor flower. This beautiful evergreen shrub is pleasing to the eye over the years and does not require much effort to grow and maintain. However, in order for him to feel comfortable, care is needed.
How to grow Erica
The first thing you need to pay attention to before landing Ericathis is soil. The shrub feels great on drained soil, which does not penetrate the air. The soil should be chosen fertile, enriched with useful substances, with a high content of turf, sand and peat. Such conditions need to be created for Erica at home. Erica does not like the stagnation of water in the roots and the excessive moisture that causes illness in Erica.
Erica also does not like direct exposure to sunlight. The best location that will suit Eric is a lighted and cool location. When planting and growing Erica at home, it is best to pay attention to the East or East-West window, where Erica will feel most favorably. It is important to remember that different varieties of eric are used to different conditions. Erika Rosy will feel great in neutral soil, Erika Darlien in sour soil, and Erika wandering in alkaline.
To plant Eric, you must follow the instructions:
- The temperature of planting is +10 degrees. This is the most favorable temperature for planting Erica. If you plant Eric in the cold season, for example, in the fall, then its shoots will freeze, and the plant will not bloom, it will fall sick and die.
- Prepare the plant for planting. Plants can be stored in containers. Eric needs to be kept in water for 1-2 hours. This should be done after trimming.
- Create sand drainage.
- Dig holes.
- Plant the plant in the wells. The distance between plants should be about 40–50 cm. The depth of the hole is 20–25 cm.
Proper care is needed for every plant. Need to time to water the plant, cut and feed it. Watering is carried out only with soft water, as Erica can not withstand the substances contained in solid water. It is necessary to maintain the soil moisture level so that Erica does not get sick.
Spray the plant should be slightly cool water several times a week. In no case can not re-moisten the flower, as this can cause a serious illness of Erica, as well as heather. An important condition - fertilizer plants. Eric needs to be fertilized with quality when planting and after trimming. It is necessary to scatter the fertilizer under the bushes or add to the soil during watering. It is best to use complex mineral fertilizers, but you should not use pure fresh organic matter. Great for Kemira wagon, as well as fertilizers for azaleas and rhododendrons.
Do not forget about pruning bushes for better flower growth. It is necessary to remove dried twigs in time, which are not capable of forming new shoots and do not contribute to the growth of new flowers. It is necessary to carefully trim the part where the leaves grow. It is important to comply with one condition - asymmetric pruning. So the bushes will look beautiful, neat and attractive.
How does Erica survive the cold? Need to take care of wintering plants. To keep Eric from freezing, when the first cold comes, you need to fill the ground with dry leaves or peat (the layer should be 10 cm). Erik needs to be carefully covered with spruce leaves, which will save Erik from cold and frost and acidify the soil with needles, which will also be very useful for Erika.
You can pay attention to several methods of reproduction of this amazing plant:
- Cutting is a fairly simple and effective way to plant an Erica. It is necessary to cut the upper cuttings of a plant 2-3 cm long, and then plant it in the ground (2 parts of peat and 1 part of sand). The soil should be covered with a layer of sand, which is approximately 1 cm. Then the container with cuttings should be covered with a film and kept in a warm place, the temperature of which is 17–20 degrees. Direct sunlight should be avoided. Saplings enough months to take root.
- The plant can also be propagated by layering. For this method, you need to choose the strongest shoots on the bush, gently tilt them to the ground and attach to the loosened soil with a wire. For this method, you can use a stud. Finished shoots need to fall asleep land. We must not forget to moisten the soil in time and water the shoots. After strengthening the shoots, you can carefully transplant them.
- To propagate a plant with seeds, it is necessary to prepare the correct mixture of heather, coniferous soil and sand. Seeds need to be planted, scattering them on the surface of the earth. Suffice it to press them to the ground, there is no need to fall asleep them. Week need to moisten the seeds well. After the first week, you can cover the plants with a film and maintain a temperature that is favorable for Erica - 17–20 degrees Celsius. Rooted seedlings will seem in 3-4 weeks.
- Dividing a bush is a less common method of breeding plants of the Heather family, however it is also acceptable and used in gardening. To do this, simply dig up the entire bush, divide it into parts with a shovel, and then bury the resulting components of the bush.
Diseases erica: how to fight?
One of the most dangerous and common diseases of erica is it's dropping leaves with an insufficient amount of moisture in the soil, characteristic of heather. To eliminate the problem, you need to increase the amount of water consumed by Erica. You need to give the plant a lot of moisture. However, it is important to remember that excess water is detrimental to a fragile plant, it can rot and die.
Insects love Ericatherefore they are also a common danger that a gardener and his flower may face. Erica, like heather, is especially loved by ticks and worms. If you notice pests, it is enough to take a cotton swab dipped in alcohol and walk on the stems and leaves of the plant. This simple method allows you to quickly and easily get rid of ticks and worms. To insects no longer attacked the plant, you need to treat it with insecticides, as well as wipe or spray Eric a special soap solution that protects it from pests. It is very important to collect all the rotten and dried leaves lying under the bush of Eric, because they only attract insects.
- Erica Herbal or Erica Herb - It is a large shrub with beautiful spreading branches. It can reach 40-50 cm in height. This type of erica is also called “winter heather”. Under favorable conditions, it can bloom in winter. The bush of this plant has bright green leaves that turn red in the fall. Herbal erica flowers are very beautiful, have a pink tint (sometimes white), the shape of a bell. Flowering frequent and abundant. This species can grow in the sun and in the shade. It is one of the most frost-resistant types of eric.
- Erica Pink - quite cold-resistant view. This is a small shrub, reaching a height of 60 cm. The leaves are juicy, green. The shrub itself looks very elegant and is perfect for decorating the yard or terrace. It grows very quickly and well, prefers a sour soil and high humidity. The flower has a pink color. Some gardeners prefer not to close the plant, planting a number of coniferous shrubs. If there is no coniferous shrub, then the plant should be sheltered from the cold.
- Erica treelike - This tree, reaching a height of 3 m. This plant looks very beautiful at any time of the year. When flowering tree acquires an unusual shape and shade. The flowers are white, the anthers are reddish or brown, shaped like bluebells. This plant is also very fragrant.
- Erica is gray - uhthe shrubs, reaching a height of 30-40 cm, less than 50 cm. Look great in landscape design. Require shelter in the cold season.
Erica is a beautiful plant., the proper care of which will ensure a beautiful flowering, fragrant aroma and a beautiful view. This plant will certainly decorate the garden or terrace and will be a wonderful decoration of landscape design.
When erica color
Flowers of Erica look like bells, they are drooping, gather in a one-sided racemose. Depending on the type of coloring varies from white to deep purple hue.
Flowering occurs in summer or winter. In cold regions, Erica blooms in spring or late autumn. It seems that flowering lasts about six months, since dried flowers stay on the plant for a long time.
Growing erica seed
Seeds of Erica photo
Generative (seed) propagation of Erica involves the cultivation of seedlings. Sow seeds on seedlings in spring. Prepare a soil mixture consisting of equal proportions of sand and peat.
- Fill a wide container with the substrate and distribute the seeds on the soil surface (they are small, so they should not be buried).
- Spray the crops from a fine sprayer, further soil moistening in the same way so that the seeds do not "drown".
- To create the effect of a greenhouse, cover the crop box with glass or plastic on top, but raise the shelter daily for ventilation.
- The lighting should be diffused, maintain the air temperature within 18-20 ° C.
- Shoots will appear after 3-4 weeks, then the shelter can be removed.
- When sprout reached a height of 8-10 cm, they must be seated on individual pots. They are not transplanted into the open ground until next year.
During the warm season, seedlings can be taken out into the garden, and they should spend the winter indoors with an air temperature of 10–12 ° C.
Choosing a place for landing
Erica grassy planting and care photo
When choosing a site for planting, please note that the soil requires a breathable, well-drained, acidic reaction (pH level 3-4). The most suitable option is a mixture of turf land, sand and peat. The soil of this composition is introduced into the landing hole or used for growing in a container.
The stagnation of moisture at the roots of Eric categorically does not tolerate (fraught with disease), so do not plant in the lowlands and in the flooded areas, if the groundwater is close to it, build a high bed.
Planting Erica in the open ground
It is possible to plant Erica in open ground with the onset of spring relative heat, when the air temperature is set at +10 ° C. This is the initial correct step in further successful cultivation.
If you plant Eric in open ground in the fall, the plant will not have time to take root and grow strong before the onset of winter. At best, the young Eric will freeze slightly, but most often the plant dies.
- Make a landing hole depth of 25-30 cm, length and width is also about 30 cm.
- Place a coarse sand drainage layer on the bottom.
- Place the seedling in the center of the fossa and cover it with a substrate of appropriate composition.
- Before planting, the seedling must be removed from the container and placed in warm water to be saturated with moisture.
- After planting, the root neck should be flush with the soil surface.
- Water, let the water soak in and immediately grumble the surface of the soil with sawdust, wood chips or peat.
Between individual plants adhere to the interval of 20-50 cm. For a group planting to have an appearance, it is necessary to use at least 5 plants. They will get decorative (grow well) after 3 years.
It is necessary to provide a suitable temperature regime (of course when growing Eric in room conditions). The air temperature should be between 18-20 ° C, and during the flowering period it should be between 7-8 ° C. If temperatures are higher, it is necessary to take care of the humidity. Spray the plant several times a week, periodically place it on a pallet with wet moss, expanded clay, pebbles.
How to water
In open ground in dry hot weather, apply sprinkling. For irrigation and spraying, use softened water at room temperature.
In the summertime, water it plentifully and often, but do not allow overmoistening of the soil. If the earthen room in the pot is dry, for 40-50 minutes, place the container in a bucket of water. In winter, provide moderate watering.
How to feed
To support the strength of the plant, enough to feed once per season. It is not recommended to use organics as a fertilizer, especially when fresh.
A suitable fertilizer for Erica is a complex mineral fertilizer (for example, Kemira Universal, apply 20-30 g per 1 m²) or fertilizer for rhododendrons, azaleas (reduce the dosage indicated on the package). Top dressing bring with water for watering. In order not to cause burns to the plant, try to avoid getting liquid on the leaflets.
How to trim
In the first two years of growth, the plant can not be cut. In the future, you can carry out light formative pruning bush. Also remove dry, damaged and diseased shoots, try not to touch the old wood. Pruning spend early spring or after flowering. Remove withered buds as well. Use wilts, and cut the cutting areas with garden pitch or pounded charcoal.
Wintering Erica in the open field in the Moscow region and the middle lane
Growing Eric in the open field, be sure to take care of shelter for the winter. After the first frosts, the tree trunk circle is peeled or peeled with dry leaves, cover with spruce branches. This design will definitely protect the landing, even in a snowless winter. Shelter remove the spring with the onset of heat.
Regarding room Erica, it is necessary to feed the plant with complex mineral fertilizer and send it to a cool, bright place for wintering.
Diseases and pests
Most often the plant suffers from fungal diseases.
Gray rot develops with high humidity and soil. This happens when excessive watering, flooding with melt water or late shelter removal in the spring. A gray bloom appears on the twigs, shoots begin to partially die off, and platinum leaves fall off. treatment with antifungal fungicidal agent (Fundazol, Topaz) will be required. If there is a significant damage, treat the shrub with Bordeaux mixture or 1% solution of copper sulphate, treat 2-3 times with a frequency of 5-10 days. In order to prevent treatment with similar drugs carried out in early spring (after removing the shelter) and in the fall.
Possible defeat powdery mildew: young twigs are covered with a whitish bloom and die. The appearance of red-brown spots is a symptom of rust. Treatment with fungicides is required to rescue from these diseases.
If the buds and shoots get a strange shade, are deformed - this virus defeat. Cure the plant is impossible. Sick plants dig and burn, so as not to infect others.
You may encounter such a problem as leaf fall. The reason is the lack of moisture, it is necessary to water well and adjust the moisture regime.
Among insect pests spider mites and mealybugs can cause trouble. When growing a bush in room conditions, moisten a cotton swab with an alcohol solution and remove traces of insects (whitish webs or the like of lumps of cotton). In any case, treatment with insecticide is required. For prophylactic purposes, spray plantings with soapy water, timely remove fallen leaves from under the bush.
Erica in landscape design
Erica in landscape design photo
The most spectacular look is ericaria (garden, consisting of Eric, heathers, dwarf conifers). He looks neat, well-groomed, stylish. The size of ericaria is at least 1 m². And the best form - wavy, long or round, square or triangle categorically do not fit.
Together they harmonize perfectly, since the requirements for soil and care are similar.
It makes sense to grow with heather, because they are distinctive flowering period - the site will always be decorative. Have a landing on large lawns or along buildings, stone and wooden garden partitions, gravel paths.
Erica in landscape design mix of color photos
Сочетать эрику можно с такими хвойниками: пирамидальные или колоновидные можжевельники, ель поника, можжевельник казацкий, ель «птичье гнездо», микробиота, шаровидные туи, карликовые сосны, кипарисовики. Также в партнеры годятся: карликовая береза, ива шерстяная, гаультерия, подбел. Для придания яркости можно посадить парочку рододендронов, которые следует разместить посередине или на заднем плане.
Эрика в дизайне сада фото
If erikarium is viewed only from one side (located near the wall of the building or near the fence), place tall plants as a background and place the “babies” in the foreground. If the composition is viewed from all sides, plant high plants in the center.
Erica and Heather in the overall composition of the photo
Along the edges of the composition, small-bulbous plants can be planted: proleski, muscari, snowdrops, crocuses, hinodoksu, narcissus, and you can complete the picture with ground covers.
Ceramic figurines in ericaria misplaced. A wooden stump, a beautiful snag, a boulder will organically fit in.
Erica Rosy or Grassy Erica Herbacea or Erica Carnea
Erica Rosy or Grassy Erica Herbacea or Erica Carnea Photo
The flowering period lasts from November to April. In the natural environment is most common in Central and Southern Europe. The height of the shrub reaches 65 cm, and in width it grows to 45 cm. It is well branched, the shoots are densely covered with needle-like leaf plates 4-8 mm long. The leaves are collected in whorls of 4 things. Inflorescences in the axils of the leaves. Corollas bell-shaped, drooping, pink, red, less often - white.
Erica graceful Erica gracilis
Erica graceful Erica gracilis photo
Bush half meter height. It has an uneven crown: the central shoots are longer than the side. Linear leaflets are only 4 mm long, light green in color. Oval-shaped corollas are collected in inflorescences of 4 pcs. on the tops of the shoots. The hue of the flowers is bright red. In varietal plants, flowers can be white, pink. This species tolerates only light night frosts, therefore it is grown as a letnik or in a pot. Vegetative reproduction (rooting of cuttings). Preferably growing in a shady sheltered place. Suitable partners in the area will be cyclamens, stonecrop, chrysanthemum.
Erica Darlene Erica x darleyensis
Erica Darlen photo Erica x darleyensis
A hybrid that starts flowering in April or early May. The shrub is highly branched, in a natural environment it reaches a height of 0.9 m, with cultural cultivation it is limited to a half-meter mark. Remarkable at a rapid rate of growth, which found particular popularity among gardeners. The flowers are white, pink, bright crimson (depending on the variety). Growing will require a plot lit by bright sunshine and protected from strong winds. Not all varieties are resistant to frost, grown as letnik or pot culture.
Erica Four-Dimensional or Cruciform Erica tetralix
Erica four-dimensional or chrysolithic Erica tetralix photo
A species capable of wintering successfully in conditions of central Russia in the presence of shelter (winter hardiness zone 4-5). When planting near conifers can do without additional shelter. The bush is compact, the stems are upright, stretched in length by 0.5-0.7 m. When planted on well-drained, hydrated soil, the acidic reaction will grow quickly. The leaves are green with a gray tint, there is a felt pubescence. It blooms in summer to late autumn. The flowers are white, pale pink or red.
Erica treelike Erica arborea
Erica Trees Erica Arborea Photo
A nice heat-loving tree with a height of not more than 3 m. In the conditions of the natural environment it lives in the Mediterranean. The tree is so attracted gardener that in our regions it is grown in containers. During the warm season, you can use as a mobile decoration of the garden, balcony, loggia, gazebos, and with the onset of cold weather you need to transfer to the winter garden. Flowers in the form of bells, look down, snow-white with anthers of a red-brown shade, very fragrant, gathered in a racemose inflorescence.
Erica Spiky Erica spiculifolia
Erica Spiky Erica spiculifolia photo
It is a low (about 25 cm) spreading shrub. Oblong leaves of dark green strewn with stems. The flowering period occurs in June-July. The most delicate bell-shaped beaters have a pale pink shade. It withstands temperatures as low as -23 ° C, successfully winters under snow cover, but it is better to build a shelter. The plant previously belonged to a genus close to Eric: Bruckentalia (Bruckenthalia).
The most up-to-date variety is Balkan Rose, which is far superior to the decorativeness of both species and other varietal plants.
Erica Gray or Gray Erica Cinerea
Erica gray or gray Erica cinerea photo
Spreading bushes with a height of 20-50 cm. The flowering period lasts all summer, retreating with autumnal cold. Winter hardiness zone 4-5 (up to -34 ° C). Still, landing is better to cover for the winter.
Healing and other beneficial properties.
Erika gray and erica cross-leaf possess the curative properties. They are good diuretics used in the treatment of gout.
Some species are beautiful melliferous plants.
Erica treelike has valuable wood (briar), which is used for the manufacture of pipes.
Landing. Care and cultivation.
Most types and forms of Erica prefer rich, loose, acidic soils. Some species grow well in neutral and alkaline. Grow better in the penumbra, but can and in the lighted areas. Do not tolerate stagnant water. When dry, the leaves turn brown, dry out and fall off. When grown in arid conditions need regular irrigation.
For forcing the rooted cuttings are planted in small plastic and ceramic pots with a mandatory drainage layer. In the summer they are kept in the prikop in the open ground with light shading. For landscaping, it is necessary to cultivate for two years in cool greenhouses or shaded areas. The distillation plants are placed in December in an indoor ground with a temperature of 6-8 ° C (10 days), then the temperature is raised to 13-15 ° C. To extend the flowering period to 2-3 months, the temperature should be reduced after the start of flowering. The soil is preferably moist, and the irrigation water is of the same temperature at which the plants are kept.
Propagated by seeds, cuttings and division. The seeds are small, so growing plants from them is laborious. Seeds are sown in closed ground in boxes or in bowls without embedding and kept under cover until mass shoots. The substrate of coniferous, heather earth and sand is moistened with a spray bottle. At a temperature of 18-20 ° C and daily spraying 1-2 times a day, seedlings appear in 1-4 months. Seedlings dive into the above mixture. In the summer they are taken out to the open ground or greenhouse with shading on hot days. In autumn, the plants are set in cool greenhouses at a temperature of 10-12 ° C.
The most rational method of reproduction is cutting. On the cuttings they use mainly the tops of the semi woody shoots. Growing cuttings in various substrates: peat and sand, peat and perlite. At a temperature of 18-20 ° C and frequent spraying cuttings rooted massively after a month. After the cuttings have taken root, it is recommended to replant them in order to further avoid yellowing.
Apply these highly decorative plants in parks, rocky alpine and winter gardens, used as pot and vygonochny culture. In addition to decorative features, the plant has other features. For example, pipes for smoking are made from the roots of a tree-like species, since they keep heat perfectly. Quality tubes are made from centenary roots. Also considered to be great honey plants.
Erica is a representative of the Heather family. About 700 species of the genus Erica are found in southern Africa. The rest in the wild can be found in Turkey, the Mediterranean countries, as well as in the Caucasus and the island of Madagascar.
The first such plant began to grow the British in the middle of the XVIII century. One century later, the breeders of Holland and Belgium began to breed Eric, as well as work on the development of new varietal forms and hybrids. In the CIS countries, the flower was delivered in 1994 from Germany.
Today, numerous varieties of this plant are grown both in open ground and in indoor conditions. Pots with decorative bushes decorate the rooms, window sills, balconies and loggias.
Erica with its appearance and structure is very similar to heather. Novice flower growers often confuse these plants or believe that these are different names for a single flower. However, if you look closely at the bushes, then you can notice some differences. For example, in Erica, the leaves are needle-shaped, arranged on the shoots at right angles, while in heather they are scaly and down to the stems.
Erica has the appearance of evergreen shrubs with narrow leaves up to 1 centimeter in length, similar to the needles. During the flowering period, the plants are covered with a large number of small flowers of the bell-shaped form, after withering, they retain their color and do not lose their decorative appearance for a long time. Inflorescences can be painted in various colors from white and milky to dark red and purple. In some varieties, they gather on the tips of the shoots and form tassels, while in others they hide in the leaf axils along the entire length of the stems.
Erika seeds are very small. They have the ability, while in the soil, to remain viable for 10–20 years.
Erica refers to the ornamental plants, which are among the first to give greens and covered with flowers, announcing the arrival of spring. For most varieties characteristic Abundant and long-term bloom that occurs twice a year:
- from the last week of February to April
- from June to October.
Numerous members of the Erica genus are shrubs ranging in height from 20 to 150 centimeters. From each other, they differ in color of leaflets and inflorescences, structure and form, as well as requirements for conditions of detention. There are varieties with golden stems.
Despite the large variety of species and hybrid forms, flower growers prefer to grow four main types of Erica, which can be maintained both at the plots and at home.
This species was bred by English breeders in 1905. He is a hybrid form, obtained by crossing varieties Erica erigena and Erica carnea. From the first, the plant inherited a large number of flowers, and from the second - a long flowering period. A feature of this species is its rapid development and active growth.
Darlene erica grows in the form of an outstretched shrub 25–50 centimeters high, wild specimens have stems 70–90 centimeters long. Bushes linear leaves, painted in dark green color. Snow-white, lilac-pink or dark crimson flowers form one-sided inflorescences.
There are 25 varieties of this variety. In European countries, the following varieties are popular, flowering from February to May:
- Jeni Porter - lilac-pink bloom,
- Arthur Johnson - plants up to 70 centimeters tall with purple flowers,
- Silbershmelts - white inflorescences,
- Durley Dale - small bushes 40 centimeters high, covered with numerous light colored flowers (pink and purple)
- Erect - purple-pink blossoms.
These forms grow well in Europe, and in Russia they prefer to grow the White Perfection and Kramers Roth varieties. However, they do not differ in winter hardiness and are afraid of cold weather, so they need to be sheltered for the winter.
Grassy or ruddy
Erica grassy or ruddy grows in the center and in the south of Europe. It is a shrub with a height of 30−65 centimeters with a branched crown with a diameter of 15−40 centimeters. Needle leaves 4−8 millimeters long have a glossy surface and are painted in bright green color. The drooping, bell-shaped flowers form small brushes (2−5 centimeters), which are hidden in the leaf axils. Usually their color varies from red to pink, less often white.
The beginning of flowering depends on the region: in the southern regions, Erica blooms earlier, sometimes in March. But the more northern the area of growth, the later this process begins, for example, in Russia it falls on the end of April and the beginning of May.
Alba is considered the most popular variety of ruddy ericas, with its help a lot of interesting hybrid forms have been bred.
Pink or Isabel
Pink Erica is a small evergreen shrub up to 15 centimeters in height with a volume crown up to 40 centimeters wide. Her narrow needle-shaped leaves have a dark green color, in winter they turn brown.
The flowering period is in April-May. At this time, the plant is decorated with a large number of small bell-shaped flowers with a light honey aroma. They are located on the tops of the stems and are painted in white or light pink color. Representatives of this species very effectively stand out against the background of snowy thawed down.
The root system is dense, located close to the soil surface. It is very sensitive to soil compaction. The plant prefers sunny spots or partial shade. For rooting young shrubs, the ground in a flower bed must be kept moist. Wild varieties often grow in wetlands, but cultivated flowers do not tolerate moisture retention in the soil.
The species is distinguished by abundant flowering, tolerates short droughts and frosts well. Usually used to create group compositions with other members of the heather family.
It is worth noting that pink Erica in 2002 received an award from the British Royal Society of Gardeners.
Graceful Erica - shrub up to 50 centimeters. It has an uneven crown of light green color: the central branches are longer than the lateral ones. Linear leaves, similar to needles, are small in size, their length is only 4 millimeters.
The flowering of an elegant Erica begins in October and ends closer to February. Depending on the variety, elongated oval flowers may have a varied color, most often white or pink, but there are varieties with bright red flowers. They are collected on the tops of the stems of 4 pieces and form small buds.
Propagate such plants in a vegetative way., by rooting cuttings in nutritious and acidic soil. The shrub does not require special care, it needs regular watering and good lighting.
Most often, Erica gracilis is used as a room annual. It goes well with chrysanthemums and cyclamens. To create a beautiful composition, flowerpots with a flower are often decorated with special pebbles or roots.
Planting in open ground
The erica flower in its natural environment prefers to grow on light, breathable and well-drained soils. For successful cultivation, the plant should provide similar conditions. Direct sunlight has a bad effect on the condition of the flower, so it is worthwhile to find a slightly shaded place with good lighting for it. Erika will feel great on the east or west-east side of the house.
Planting shrubs stands in the spring, after the onset of the first warm days, when the air temperature rises to 10 degrees. The soil should be sour, you can prepare the soil mixture of river sand, turf and peat. Before planting, the old earthen room, located on the root system of plants, must be well moistened.
It is recommended to fill the drainage material in the wells. It will not allow moisture to accumulate at the root system, which will save it from disease. For this, claydite, broken brick, clay shards and crushed stone are usually used.
Some growers plant Eric in open ground in the fall. However, in this case, the shoots can freeze, which often leads to the death of bushes.
Watering and loosening
Like other conifers, Eric should be watered with soft water at room temperature. Do not allow strong overmoistening of the soil and moisture stagnation. After planting, as well as during hot and dry periods, the shrub will have to be watered more frequently and more abundantly.
In the evening, many flower growers sprayed the earth in a spray wheel from the spray gun. This procedure has a beneficial effect on the development and growth of the flower, and also provides it with the necessary level of moisture.
When loosening it is worth remembering that the roots of eric are located close to the surface and do not tend to the depth of the soil. This procedure should be carried out either if the soil is compacted, or when removing weeds. Timely mulching of the near-stem circle will prevent weeding and loosening, as well as provide the bushes with a favorable microclimate. Peat, tree bark, as well as sawdust and wood chips are commonly used as mulch.
Common varieties of erica include:
- herbal (herbaceous),
- Darley (Darlen),
- four-dimensional (cross-shaped).
Grassy Erica can be stretched to a height of 50 cm. This species includes approximately 200 varieties, many of which are suitable for cultivation in the middle lane. In terms of apartments it is almost not planted, more used for the design of the landscape. During flowering, becomes pink or crimson color.
Gray, or ashen, Erica is suitable for home because it does not tolerate cold. В высоту куст достигает 20–25 см. Он раскидистый, с явно выраженными декоративными характеристиками — пепельно-розовыми цветками и листьями сизого оттенка.
Дарленская (дарлейская) разновидность эрики относится к гибридам двух других видов. Сорта этого вида быстро растут, в высоту могут достигать 1 м. Цветение начинается в мае. Большинство сортов не обладает морозоустойчивостью, поэтому дарленскую эрику лучше выращивать дома.
Изящная эрика вытягивается вверх до 50 см. Blooms with bright red elongated flowers, collected in small inflorescences at the ends of the branches. Depending on the variety, there are bushes of white and pink shades. The flowering period lasts from October to February.
Spiky Erica is a miniature shrub whose height does not exceed 25 cm. The flowers are pink, the flowering period is summer.
Four-dimensional (cross) Erica is a compact bush with a spherical crown, decorative and winter-hardy. The flowers are white, red or light pink. The leaves are collected in decorative whorls. Under garden conditions it grows to a height of 30 cm. The flowering period is summer.
Garden flower planted in the open ground in spring. Autumn landing is not carried out.
The plant will not be able to develop in those areas where moisture is stagnant (in the lowlands). The soil should be acidic, loose and well drained.
It is better for Eric to plant in places, slightly protected from direct sunlight, in the penumbra it is often protected by a hedge. The main thing is to water the bushes in time so that the soil does not dry out.
On the garden plot
In early spring, before the beginning of the growing season, young seedlings are placed in the soil at the chosen growing place.
Before disembarking at the site, a pit up to 25 cm deep is prepared in advance. A drainage layer is formed at the bottom, for which small pieces of broken brick or crushed stone are used. Top poured soil. Planting material is buried in the soil along the root collar - it should be located above the ground.
If several plants are planted at once, they maintain a distance of 50 cm between bushes.
At home, Eric is put (or transplanted) into a container with drainage holes and a drainage layer (expanded clay can be used) at the bottom to avoid stagnant moisture. The soil is sandy, loose. You can cook it yourself by mixing peat, sod land and river sand (3: 1: 1).
In the room conditions, Erica is demanding for air, he must be fresh, so for the flower arrange daily ventilation. In the warm season pots are moved to the street.
The flowering period will continue for a long time if you place the plant in a cool room (about + 10 ° C).
In dry weather, irrigation of the bushes is advised to use the method of sprinkling. Water should not be too cold. After moistening the soil, it is sometimes possible to carry out a shallow loosening (no deeper than 5 cm).
House flowers are watered in the summer often, but at the same time they are taken into account so that water does not stagnate. In winter, adhere to moderate watering.
Fertilizers and fertilizing
Organic formulations are not used for growing Erica. Complex mineral supplements are suitable for the plant: Kemira Universal (no more than 30 g per 1 m 2), fertilizers for azaleas and rhododendrons (reduce the dosage specified in the instructions).
Fertilizer is applied with water during irrigation, trying to keep the substance from falling on the branches. The minimum quantity per season is 1 dressing, usually before flowering. But some gardeners apply fertilizer even after pruning.
Indoor bushes are fed more often: 1 time in 3 weeks during flowering and 1 time before hibernation.
Forming a bush
Pruning for the formation of the bush begin to carry out in the fourth year of life of the plant. The branches are cut below inflorescences. Carry out the procedure after flowering.
In the spring, they arrange sanitary pruning, removing damaged and dry branches. Cutting places need to be treated with garden pitch.
Also, Erica can be propagated by simply dividing one mother bush into several parts during transplantation.
- Cuttings harvested at the end of the summer, cutting strong shoots. Length of twigs: 8–10 cm.
- In the tank pour the soil mixture (from sand and peat - 1: 2) and place the cuttings in it, if desired, treating with root stimulator.
- Planting material is deepened by 2 cm. The container is covered with film or glass, creating greenhouse conditions. Every day, the film is briefly removed for ventilation. Ensure that the substrate is wet. The container is placed in cool conditions (not higher than + 15 ° С).
- When the cuttings take root, they are transplanted to the site or in separate pots. Transplant is best done in the spring.
This method of reproduction is used in the springtime. To obtain a strong layer, take a healthy and strong shoot and bend it to the ground, fix it with a stud. Few sprinkled with earth, while the tip of the branch should remain on the surface. Soil watered.
The soil should not dry out so that the twig can root successfully. A year later, in the spring, it must be separated from the bush and planted as an independent plant.
Application in landscape design
Erica is suitable for single planting and for diluting group plantings: for the decoration of alpine slides, paths and lawns, for creating Ericas (Erica, heather and hvoyniki are planted together).
A flower in the garden will be harmoniously combined with decorative spruce, juniper, thuja, dwarf pine, haulia, cypress, dwarf birch, decorative cereals, thyme.
Eric in pots is used to decorate the veranda, window sills, balconies.
Use in floristics
Sprigs with flowers used in the preparation of dry flower arrangements. They are carefully dried and sprayed with hairspray for greater preservation.
After getting acquainted with all the subtleties, planting and caring for an Eric plant will not cause difficulties for a novice gardener who loves ornamental crops.
Agrotechnical conditions for growing Erica, care
- Lighting and location. In order for Erica to enjoy the beauty of flowers, it is necessary to choose a place in the garden with bright but diffused light. If the plant grows in the shade or partial shade, then the color of the buds will turn pale, and their number will immediately decrease. Place in the garden should be protected from drafts and wind. As protection in the open air, it is worth planting a number of hedges from such plants as mahonia, cotoneaster or conifers. If Erica grows indoors, then a window sill of a south, east or west window will be suitable for it. In the north - light required with the use of fluorescent lamps or special fitolamps.
Content temperature Naturally, this applies only to plants grown indoors. Indicators of heat should not exceed 18 degrees, and during the flowering period, drop to 7–8. If the temperature rises, you will have to increase the humidity.
Air humidity. If the heat indicators have become more than 20-22 degrees, then you will need to put humidifiers or install the pot on the moist clay, at the bottom of a deep tank. It is possible to spray the leafy crown.
Watering. It is required to use only soft water, devoid of impurities, hard - will kill Eric. Watering in the summertime is carried out frequently, but it should be avoided overmoistening the soil. If the substrate is too dry, then the pot of Erica is placed in a bucket of water and kept there for 40-50 minutes.
Pruning erica bush and general care. In the first 2 years after the plant has been transplanted, the branches are not cut. Later Erica can be carefully cut the shoots in order to form the crown. It is required to carry out this operation after the end of flowering, somewhere towards the end of November or in early March, before the plant begins to bloom. Branch when pruning must be shortened below the inflorescences. It is important to try not to capture old wood. When flowering is over, the pot is turned on its side and the faded buds are shaking.
Fertilization. For erica is not recommended to use fresh manure. When feeding, complex mineral fertilizers should be used (for example, Kemira Estate at the rate of 20–30 grams per square meter). You can buy fertilizers for azaleas or rhododendrons, they are sold in specialized flower shops. The dosage is slightly reduced from that specified by the manufacturer. Care must be taken to ensure that the solution does not get on the leaves, so as not to cause burns. Regular feedings once a year in the spring (you can select the time in the middle of spring). Fertilizers are applied to water during watering.
The substrate is used with good air and water permeability. The composition of the soil mixture should include:
- peat, coarse sand and sod soil (in proportions 3: 1: 1: 1), if the soil is more neutral, then part of the peat in the substrate decreases,
Plant propagation tips at home
In order to get a new bush "sisters of heather" planted seeds, cuttings or propagated by layering.
Cutting cuttings carried out at the end of the summer. They are required to land in the sand-peat mixture (in the ratio 1: 2, respectively). Then the branches wrapped with plastic wrap to create greenhouse conditions with high humidity and heat. Cuttings are required to periodically air and moisten the substrate. Indicators of heat should vary in the range of 18-20 degrees. Cuttings during rooting protect against direct sunlight. After 3-5 weeks, the roots should appear in the seedlings.
If reproduction is carried out using otvodok, then in the spring, you want to choose a healthy shoot, then prikopat it in the ground and press it with a wire or hairpin. The layer of soil with which the shoots are sprinkled needs to be moistened regularly and to prevent the soil from drying out. As soon as the roots develop at the shoot, it is necessary to carefully separate the new plant from the mother bush and transplant separately.
With the help of seeds it is better to propagate the natural varieties of Erica. The substrate for this is made on the basis of coniferous soil, heather land and river sand (in a ratio of 1: 2: 1). Seeds are sown on its surface, the seedlings should be covered with a piece of glass or covered with plastic wrap. Heat values should not fall below 18 degrees. Every day you need to moisten the soil in the container of the spray with soft warm water. The germination of seed may take up to a month time. As soon as the seedlings grow up, they need to dive in separate containers and gradually accustom them to the solar streams of light. In order for the seedlings to get stronger, wait about 2 more months.
Growing problems erica
The plant is practically not subject to pests and diseases, all difficulties occur in violation of conditions of detention and care. The most common is the defeat of fungal diseases.
The most common problem is gray rot, which occurs when air or soil is humid. This happens either in the case of a gulf of substrate in an Erica pot or when a large amount of snow is in the garden and there is no meltwater runoff, and also if the shrub was improperly covered for winter or the shelter was removed too late.
As soon as the first symptoms of the disease appear: the gray bloom on the branches, the partial dying off of the branches and the discharge of the deciduous mass, antifungal fungicidal preparations are required (for example, Topaz, Fundazol). If the lesion has affected most of the Erica, then use a 1% solution of copper sulphate or Bordeaux fluid. Cultivate a bush in 2–3 calls with a regularity of 5–10 days.
Prevention requires a similar treatment in late autumn or in the month of March, as soon as the winter shelter is removed. If the leaf plates become brown in color, and the tips of young shoots begin to fade, then this is caused by excessive watering or abundant food.
Sometimes the plant can infect powdery mildew, symptoms are drying of young twigs, the leaves are completely covered by a white-gray patina. Fungicides are also used here. If a red-brown spot appeared on the leaves of eric, then these are symptoms of rust. Means of struggle are the same.
If shoots and flowers begin to deform on the plant, and a strange unusual color of leaf mass and buds appeared, then these are signs of a viral disease. Treatment alas, no! The plant is required to dig and destroy - burn.
From pests that can harm the bush, emit a mealy worm and spider mites. In Erica begins to appear vatoobrazny bloom on the leaves or in the internodes, a thin cobweb on the back side of the sheet, as well as the deformation and yellowing of the foliage. In this case, the treatment is carried out with insecticides.
Interesting Facts about Erica
The plant is a good remedy for treating gout - in which uric acid crystals are deposited in parts of the human body, as well as erica tinctures are used as diuretics - agents that reduce the body's water content (in the kidneys, liver or cardiovascular system). Basically, for this purpose they use erica crustaceous or erica gray.
At the same time, we can recall how many times representatives of the heather are mentioned in the literature - from honey, which is produced, for example, by Erica, which is an excellent honey plant, in ancient times they made heady drinks.
The excellent wood of this “sister of heather” is also used to make high-quality pipes for smoking tobacco.
Species of the genus Erica
- Erica Herbal (Erica carnea). Often this plant can be found under the name of Erica Rouge. It is an evergreen shrub with a spreading crown, reaching 30-50 cm in height. It is also popularly called “winter heather”. If you plant this variety in the southern regions, the flowering may begin in the winter months, so many growers prefer to grow it in central Russia because of its winter hardiness. On the basis of this plant created up to 200 varieties. You can grow almost as a ground cover, because, growing, shoots form a living carpet. Used for the construction of alpine gardens or heather gardens. The branches of the shrub prostrate, and shoots are bare, covered with dark gray bark. The color of the leaves is bright green, they have a linear elongated shape, arranged in a whitish manner in 4 pieces. Their size comes to a centimeter. The leaves that are below the bush and rather old with the arrival of autumn are painted in a reddish tint. Blooms pink-red buds, sometimes there are whitish color schemes. Their form is bell-shaped, drooping. Arrangement of flowers in the axils of leaf plates. There are going to 2-4 pieces, from which the final inflorescences-brush, one-sided. The flowering process is extended from mid-late spring (directly depends on the place of growth) until the month of July. In areas it is more potent, it begins to open flowers in March.
Erica four-dimensional (Erica tetralix). It is sometimes called Erica Creeper. This species is also able to endure winters in central Russia. The plant has a shrub growth with compact size. The stems are pulled straight up to a height of 50–70 cm in their natural environment, in conditions of premises from 15 cm to half a meter in height with a diameter of 50 cm. The leaves are painted in a gray-green color scheme, a very decorative variety. Sheet plates are assembled in whorls of 4 units each, possessing a felt downiness. The flowering process is extended from summer to autumn. The colors of colors can be white, pale pink or red.
Erica Darleyen (Erica darleyensis). The plant is a hybrid of Erica grass and Erica Erigena, which has been cultivated in England since the beginning of the 20th century. The first variety gave it a duration of flowering (from November to May), and the second gave plenty of buds. Often this Erica is sold in the countries of Western Europe as a Christmas plant. The height of the bush is close to the meter mark in nature, the variety is not as hardy as previous species. The crown is spherical and dense, the height starts from 40 cm with a diameter up to half a meter. Higher growth rate than erica ruddy. The color of buds varies from white to rich crimson tones.
Erica treelike (Erica arborea). The plant has the shape of a tree, unlike other varieties, and prefers to settle on dry and stony surfaces in the wastelands of the Mediterranean lands. The flowers are whitish in variety, possessing anthers of a red-brown color scheme, their form is bell-shaped, drooping, and racemes are collected from them. Possess strong fragrant aroma.
Erica Spiky (Erica spiculifolia). Half-shrub with a spreading crown up to 25 cm in height. Color deciduous mass of dark green. The flowering process takes place in the June-July months. Color buds pale pink.
Больше об эрике розовой смотрите в этом видеоролике:
Описание и фото
Эрика внешне очень похожа на вереск, но гораздо эффектнее. Куст с прямыми ветками достигает 200 см в высоту, существуют виды – деревья, высотой в несколько метров. Листочки растения представляют собой иголочки, в длину до 1 см.
Цветочки-колокольчики мелкие, собраны в соцветия-кисти. Окраска преимущественно белая, розовая, красная, фиолетовая.
Популярные в Подмосковье виды и сорта
Erica Herbal (Rosy). Dwarf evergreen shrub, forming a lush cushion of delicate greenery. In height reaches 20-40 cm, in width to half a meter. The shoots are hard, small leaves, needles are small, during cooling they become bronze in color. Abundant flowering occurs in April - May. The flowers are small, arranged in a one-sided brush, pink, red or white. Blooming erica exudes a pleasant honey aroma. It grows very slowly. Winter hardy Grades:
- Aureya - a variety with yellow-colored foliage and pale pink flowers,
- Challenger - with bright crimson flowers,
- The golden star - foliage has a golden hue, the flowers are white,
- Isabel - snow-white bloom,
- Rosalie - pink flowers,
- Rubra - pink inflorescences with purple tint,
- The snow queen is a variety with white flowers,
- Winter beauty - flowers of rich pink color,
- Winter ruby - bright red flowers.
Erica is graceful. Bush, half a meter high, pyramidal shape. Leaflets linear, up to 4 mm, light green. The flowers are bright red, appear on the plant in October and bloom all winter. This species is grown as a houseplant.
Erika is a cross-piece (four-dimensional). Lush bush height 40 - 50 cm. Needle foliage, gray-green. Blooms in mid - late summer with red or pink flowers. Grades:
- Ardi - dark pink flowers with a lilac shade
- Pink shine - pink-purple flowers,
- Silver bell - white flowers with silver shine,
- Pink star - pink bloom.
Erica Darlen. Evergreen sprawling shrub up to 50 cm high. It grows quickly and has a rich flowering of pink or purple flowers. Grades:
- Spread silver - a variety with dark green foliage and white flowers,
- Darley Dale - abundant bloom purple-pink,
- Setting - flowers purple, with a pink tinge.
Erica is pink. Winter-hardy, reaching a height of 50 cm. It grows quickly, blooms pink.
Site selection and soil preparation
Erica is a light-loving shrub that cannot stand direct sunlight. When home growing it is placed on the eastern window-sills. In the garden, fit the slopes facing east or west. You can plant a shrub under the trees so that their crown pritenyala planting in the afternoon.
The branches of the Erica are fragile, so the plant is planted in places protected from the wind.
The shrub grows on well-drained, nutrient-rich soil. Stagnant moisture at the roots is destructive. A good composition of the substrate should include sod, humus, sand and peat. Soil acidity is different for different species. For example, Erica Darlinska grows only in acidic soil, and ruddy soil needs neutral.
In the garden, shrubs are planted only in spring, when the soil has warmed up to at least +10 degrees. In the middle lane and the suburbs plant planted in May. Autumn planting is possible only in the southern regions with warm winters, and even then there is a risk that the plant will not have time to take root.
Planting holes are prepared with a depth of 20 - 25 cm. Sand is poured at the bottom, a layer of 2 - 3 cm. If the soil is clay and wet, the drainage layer is increased, and crushed clay or expanded clay is added to the sand. Then the hole is filled with fertile soil mixed with peat and sand. The distance between the bushes erica is 40 - 60 cm.
A seedling, 2 to 3 hours before planting, is kept in water, with the addition of a root formation stimulator (Kornevin, Heteroauxin). After that, it is placed in a hole and covered with earth, after straightening the roots and watered abundantly.
Watering eric hold regularly, with soft water, strictly under the root. For varieties - lovers of acid soils once a week, the water can be acidified with citric acid or vinegar. The soil under the bush should not dry out. Mulching of the earth's surface with peat and sand will help to save valuable moisture.
The plant responds positively to spraying with cool water several times a week in the summer. At the same time it is impossible to fall on the flowers and spray in the midst of the heat!
Fertilizers are fed twice a year. In the spring, as soon as the soil dried up after the snow melted, granules of superphosphate were scattered under the bushes (30 g per 1 sq. Meter). After flowering, they are fed with complex mineral fertilizer for rhododendrons and azaleas (Kemira, Agricola). Fresh organic can not be used!
It is important to correctly trim the shrub. In the spring, they clean the bushes, removing broken, frozen and weak branches. After flowering, shoots with faded buds are shortened. Cuts of branches are covered with garden pitch or a mixture of clay and mullein.
In the open field, Eric needs to cover for the winter. As soon as the first cold weather begins, and a slight frost will forge the soil, the shrub is mulched with peat or fallen leaves. Top cover with spruce branches or agrofabric. At home, wintering takes place in a cool (+ 14 ... + 16 degrees) and bright room, with moderate watering.
Erika can be plagued by ticks and cherries. You can get rid of parasites by rubbing the bush with an alcohol solution, using soapy water or spraying an insecticide.