The daisies blooming in the meadow and in the garden leave no one indifferent. Chamomile garden - the favorite flower of Russian summer residents. Several dozen species of herbaceous perennials in nature can be found in all climatic zones, except for the tropics, ice and deserts.
The culture attracts flower growers with massive and long flowering, simple care and the ability to plant and propagate their favorite variety without much experience. Read about the landing of a primrose perennial and care for her with a photo.
Description of garden perennial daisies
For registration of flowerbeds use the brightest large-flowered plants. For the first time, daisies were interested in flower growers more than two hundred years ago, therefore, over time, many cultivated varieties have appeared. And although perennial garden daisies can be of different heights, have different flowering periods and the shape of inflorescences, all daisies have much in common. First of all, it is the recognizable form of the inflorescence-basket, the core of which consists of small tubular flowers of yellow color, and the frame - of false-tongued petals.
Today, thanks to the efforts of breeders, semi-and terry varieties of garden chamomile have become available to gardeners.
Compared with wild specimens in cultivated perennials:
- flowers are larger
- bud formation is much more active
- flowering period longer
- flowers may reappear in the second half of summer.
The garden chamomile depicted in the photo, Leucanthemum vulgare or Leucanthemum maximum is commonly referred to in the people as a cornflower plant or greenberry plant. In early spring, a rosette of oblong basal leaves appears above the soil. When inflorescences appear on faceted, upright stems, plant height can vary from 20 to 80 cm. Depending on the variety, the diameter of the inflorescences can reach from 3 to 10 cm.
The reproduction of garden chamomile by dividing the bush
The daisies planted on the site thrive well, forming clumps, which retain decorative elements outside the flowering and resemble green pillows. However, after several years perennial rejuvenation is required, otherwise the inflorescences become smaller every year, the foliage becomes shallow and weaker.
Perennial garden chamomile propagated by seed and vegetative way. If these beautiful flowers are already growing in the flowerbeds, it is enough to divide the adult curtain into several.
It is best to plant perennials in the first half of autumn, dividing the plant into parts so that each has a part of strong rhizome and several points of growth. The soil for planting chamomile should be dug up, cleaned of weeds and moistened:
- Hole digging a little more root system.
- The plant in the planting pit is located at the same level, after straightening the rhizomes.
- The hole is covered with soil, which is compacted and watered.
Since the seeds from the faded baskets do not convey the features of the parent plants, vegetative reproduction is indispensable if you want to get young clumps of any varietal chamomile garden.
The more often curtains rejuvenate, the more effective their flowering and larger inflorescences. However, a spring transplant can delay or cancel the appearance of buds.
Sowing garden perennial daisies and planting it in the ground
Chamomile seeds have excellent winter hardiness, so they can be sown both in spring and in winter. Autumn sowing not only saves precious spring time, but also ensures natural stratification. This means that the shoots will be more friendly and strong.
Spring reproduction of garden chamomile seeds is possible in two ways:
- sowing in thawed, dug up and loosened open ground,
- sowing at home for seedlings, which in the warm season, transferred to a flower bed.
In the second case, the plants are stronger, they bloom earlier and by the winter they manage to form a lush strong rosette. Planting chamomile garden seedlings is carried out in the second half of February or in March. For sowing, they take a light, friable substrate based on sand, garden soil, and peat. Seeds of several pieces are laid out in seedling tanks or peat pots filled with moistened soil. Above sprinkled with a thin layer of the same substrate.
Under the film or glass and at high humidity crops should be until the emergence of shoots, that is, 10-15 days. Then the trays are transferred to the light and the shelter is removed. If necessary, arrange additional lighting for 14 hours a day, otherwise the seedlings are strongly stretched and weakened.
Picks are performed when the garden chamomile seedlings reveal 2–4 true leaves and are about 5 cm high. For active tillering, the main stem can be pinched.
After one and a half or two months after sowing, the young plants take out into the open ground to the previously prepared sunny areas without stagnant water and with neutral acidity of the soil.
Planting garden chamomiles is carried out in the prepared soil, which is not only dug up, but also loosened. Weed plants are carefully selected from the soil, and a complex fertilizer for decorative flower crops is used to feed the seedlings.
It is more convenient to transfer seedlings with a lump of earth without damaging the root system. In this case, the wells dig a little more than the size of the containers, and the intervals are carefully covered with soil, compacted and watered. Although the plants are still small, they have to grow much, so between the saplings they leave intervals of 20 to 40 cm, depending on the variety of garden chamomile and the design of the flower bed. The first flowering of plants planted with seeds and seedlings should be expected only in a year.
Care for chamomile garden after planting
All kinds of daisies, including garden, light-requiring. They do not tolerate the proximity of groundwater and growing in dense, caking soil.
But at the same time, perennials favorite by florists are very undemanding to care and can grow even on poor soils with humus, endure drought and not be afraid of serious attacks by pests.
However, after planting chamomile garden care of them must be attentive and systematic. Young plants need frequent until rooting, watering. The flowers that firmly settled in the new place are no longer so tender, and they are watered only in hot dry weather.
Time for irrigation is chosen so that water droplets in the sun do not play the role of lenses and do not cause ugly burns on the leaves and inflorescences.
To preserve the soil moisture longer, the root zone is mulched with peat. In addition, the flowerbed is regularly weeded, and the surface layer of the earth is loosened.
Although garden chamomiles are very unpretentious, lush flowering can only be achieved if the plants get enough nutrition. Therefore, nitrogen fertilizers are applied under the roots in the spring. Faded inflorescences necessarily cut together on the stem. This will help keep the plant strong and permanently decorate the area with white chamomile lace.
When flowering ends, the care of flowers does not stop. Closer to the autumn, adult curtains are divided, all old, dead parts are removed, peduncles and dry leaves are cut out.
If the soil at the site is sour, in the fall it must be deoxidized with dolomite flour or lime.
Chamomiles are frost-resistant, but they can freeze in winters with little snow, so clumps before the cold are cut to the ground and densely sprinkled with peat, lapnik or other suitable material.
But is it a daisy?
Many consider daisy to be a native Russian flower. Meanwhile, these plants of the Astrov family can be seen in the wild conditions on different continents (in Australia, South and North America, and even South Africa). We have these flowers grow in the wild, they are called chamomile medicinal, and on the basis of them creates a lot of both medicinal and cosmetic products.
However, there are "cultivated daisies," they are also called garden or decorative. But biologists are sure: this is no daisy, but another representative of the Astrov family - nivyanik or nivnyak. Due to the external similarity of him and some more white flowers (aster, feverfew, chrysanthemum, gerbera), we also call chamomile. We will talk about nivyanik in this article, calling him daisy - so familiar ...
Description: varieties and varieties of cornfield
In fact, this is not a daisy. These daisies have small inflorescences with marginal flowers tending to zero in size, such as fragrant. But the name pleasant for hearing began to apply and to our heroine. Popovnik and Nivyanik - these are the real names of chamomile garden.
This is a perennial plant belonging to the botanical family of the Astrovs. It differs from real medicinal camomiles:
- non-branched stems
- whole dense leaves
- relatively large, single inflorescences.
In nature, the nivyanik prefers a temperate climate. By origin, it is very close to chrysanthemums, so it is not surprising that three species (common, largest and magnificent nyvyaniki) were included in the list of outdoor cultivated plants. For planting in homestead flower beds, the varieties of chamomile garden presented in the photo are suitable:
- Alaska is a cold-resistant variety that blooms all summer,
- Crazy Daisy - a magnificent terry variety with shiny leaves and impressive, up to 1 m tall, requires good watering,
- May Queen - when landing in the fall and good care begins to bloom in the last days of the school year,
- Princess - inflorescence diameter up to 10 cm,
- The North Star is famous for the extraordinary white of long marginal flowers.
Council Tell the children that, according to legend, a large daisy grows where a fallen star hit the ground. They will gladly help you care for the plant.
Planting plants: two alternative ways
Cultivated relatively recently, the barley did not forget the skills of independent seed reproduction. It is recommended to sow in spring, at the end of May, when the threat of cold return is completely over. Seeds are scattered thickly over the surface of the plot, slightly sprinkled with fertile soil. In the northern regions, you can cover the area with agrofibre seeds.
Threaded seedlings sprouts at the age of three pairs of true leaves. This is done because the small seeds of the plant are difficult to separate from each other. Struggling with thickening, 2-3 plants are left at each point, between which leave up to 40 cm distance. Watering is done with caution.
Growing garden chamomile can start with seedlings. As in the first case, the seeds almost do not close up, and the seedlings subsequently dive into individual containers. Before the emergence of the seedlings, the future plantation of the cereal is held under film or glass, and later copiously sprayed from a spray bottle. In open ground, seedlings Nivyanik transferred in late May.
Flower garden care with chamomile garden
Planting a solar flower is produced only in drained soil in a well-lit place. Care on them requires minimal, but systematic. It consists of the following activities.
- Weeding. It is difficult for weeds to score a cornfield, but its thin stems and medium-sized leaves will be lost against the background of extraneous vegetation. In addition, aliens can bring with them pests and take away water and food from chamomile.
- Watering. The amount of water and the frequency of the event depend on the specific region, but in any case the drying of the soil should not be allowed.
- Loosening. On the open ground around the bushes of garden chamomile systematically break the soil crust. This allows minimizing evaporation of water and improving the conditions for respiration of the roots.
Before the onset of winter, the drying out shoots of the nivyanik are cut into a stump. Young plants can be covered with a layer of fallen leaves, adults are able to winter through the open field on their own.
Fertilizer and fertilizer for bright flowering
When growing chamomile garden, it is impossible to do without fertilizer, because it needs food for blooming a huge inflorescence. The larger in growth and more active in flowering the variety, the more nutrients it needs.
Phosphorus-potassium fertilizer is applied in the fall when preparing a flower bed for future plantings. In the future, spend nitrogen supplements:
- in the spring after complete disappearance of snow cover,
- at the beginning of budding,
- in the middle of July.
Ammonium nitrate, urea, mullein, or bird droppings diluted in water are suitable as a source of nitrogen.
Attention! Chicken dung is a fertilizer oversaturated with nitrogenous substances and capable of burning chamomile roots. Dilute it in the ratio of 1:15 and contribute only on wet soil.
Chamomile: plant reproduction
Nivyanik seeds keep well on its flat basket even after full ripening. Dead flowering shoots are cut and dried in the room, after which the seeds are carefully removed from the basket and put in opaque bags. You can store seeds in jars with a good supply of air, which put in a cool shaded place.
The second method of breeding Nivyanik - the division of the bush. The operation is carried out in the spring, digging and dividing the largest specimens. For each delenka, it is necessary to prepare in advance a planting hole about 15-20 cm deep with a layer of fertile soil at the bottom. After planting, the soil is pressed to the roots and watered abundantly. Further care when growing delenok exactly the same as when sowing seeds.
Diseases and pests of cornfield
With proper care garden chamomile rarely attacked by parasites, but still such cases are likely. In the open ground on the leaves of cornfield can be found:
- powdery mildew, similar to fine white powder,
- gray rot in the form of unpleasant dirty fluff from the mycelium of the fungus,
- rust, resembling uneven red spots in appearance,
- Fusarium, which is expressed in the general oppression, browning and drying up of the plant.
All these are fungal diseases, the struggle in which lies in the timely treatment with drugs with a high content of copper sulfate or a strong solution of soap.
From the number of pests on the nyvyanik, one can meet aphids and thrips, against which the spraying of "Aktellik" helps (the instructions on the label). The yellow midline flowers are affected by the star-winged fly that falls on the cornflower from other aster plants. Destroying weeds is the best way to stop the flies from reproducing.
The combination of garden chamomile with other plants
Photos of the best gardens of Russia and Europe show amazing garden chamomile compositions with reed, pyrethrum, calendula, cornflowers, yellow and red poppies. Low-growing varieties successfully frame lawns and garden paths. The combination of a berry with a wild alpine slide or the banks of an artificial pond evokes a feeling of pristine nature, a bright summer half-day.
Nivyanik, he is a garden chamomile - a meadow plant, refined in its simplicity, appreciated by growers, a welcome guest of the gardens in the styles of romantic and country. Regular weeding, tracking soil moisture and its nutritional properties allow us to admire snow-white stars in our favorite flower garden from year to year.
Brief description of the culture and the best varieties
The garden daisies belonging to the Asterov family are perennial plants with branchy bushes containing a large number of inflorescences with dense, pronounced buds. Stems differ elasticity and strength, their height varies depending on the variety. Petals of an oval or curved shape are painted in pure white color, the core is bright yellow.
The growing season is about five months. Early varieties bloom after mid-May (some are capable of autumn re-flowering), late - after mid-July.
The bloom is long-lasting, so for almost the entire summer, huge giant garden chamomiles grown in a country house or garden plot delight the eye with flowering in a flower bed or in a front garden. Habitual to many, undersized varieties with small inflorescences look cute and touching. But large - always attract attention and cause admiration.
Of the classic daisies, the most popular varieties on the right are:
- Silver Princess - with flowers with a diameter of 10 cm,
- Aglaia - with terry chrysanthemum buds on stems 80 cm high,
- The garden princess is a compact plant that, being grown from seeds in the open field, blooms all summer.
However, the Astrov family is large and includes many garden chamomile-like flowers. The most popular species from the number of multi-colored daisies:
- feverfew pink and spray felicia with blue and blue flowers
- yellow color of rudbeckia and lilac, purple, violet shades of kosmeya,
- as well as pleasing the most different colors of echinacea and helihrizum, coreopsis and gerbera.
One of the most popular varieties of the Nivyanik Greatest - plants, in the form of a flower practically indistinguishable from a large garden chamomile, - Alaska. It throws out large flowers with a diameter of up to 10 cm and reaches a height of 80-90 cm. But the thick terry of the variety Fiona makes it look more like a chrysanthemum: flowers with white fluffy flower heads stand in cut to three weeks, decorating the interior.
Цветок ромашка садовая очень неприхотлив: несмотря на то, что любит хорошую освещенность и чувствителен к качеству почвы, с меньшей интенсивностью, но будет цвести и размножаться и в не самых комфортных для себя условиях. Однако есть некоторые нюансы агротехники, которые следует учесть заранее при планировании цветочного дизайна. Chamomiles, cornflowers and geleniums grow rapidly. They need to be divided once every 2-3 years (with a rarer division with the bushes, it is already difficult to cope), otherwise, due to the thickening and natural death of the shoots in the middle, the plants will completely lose their decorative qualities.
Successful cultivation of chamomile garden depends on the type and properties of the soil: the culture loves sandy soils, is well drained and suffers from the close occurrence of groundwater, dense, compacted land strata. If in the garden on the plot for planting the soil is sour, it is fertilized with hydrated lime since autumn (the culture is very responsive to the addition of this additive) and dolomite flour.
For proper nutrition of the flower requires regular making compost, peat, humus. Such care for a comfortable environment will ensure high-quality, healthy development and abundant flowering.
Garden daisies decorate flower beds and flower beds in all regions of the country. From the specific climatic conditions depends only the time of the beginning and end of flowering. The optimum temperature for a flower is 18-22 ° C, but higher numbers on the thermometer will not cause harm. Flowers love watering, but survive and long dry periods. Some species of the Astrovs, such as Felicia, do not tolerate direct sunlight and shading in the midday heat.
In cold winters, these frost-resistant plants can freeze out, if you do not prepare them for wintering in an appropriate way.
How to grow chamomile
Apply two methods for planting chamomile garden:
- seeds directly in open ground or through seedlings. The second option is preferable in areas with a cold climate - in this way the planted plants bloom earlier in a short summer,
- dividing the overgrown bush, which is desirable to do annually for rejuvenation, in any case - at least once every two to three years.
Sowing seeds in the soil in the open air is carried out in the winter. The division of the bush can be carried out in spring and autumn. Seedlings breeding method used in the spring.
In late February - early March, seeds are sown in moist soil, laid on good drainage. They are very small, so they are powdered with a thin layer of earth or do not do it at all. Moisten the top with water from a spray bottle and cover with a film before germination, placing the box in a warm place.
Sprouts make their way in two weeks. The film is removed and rearranged capacity to a bright place (window sill). In the phase of the two leaves are planted seedlings in separate cups with a drainage hole at the bottom. On open beds, seedlings of chamomile garden transfer after the establishment of warm even weather in May. It is desirable that the air at the time of landing warmed up to 15-17 ° C. Chamomile seedlings are tender, some of them die, so they do not regret the seeds when they are sown.
Culture can be planted with seeds in open soil in autumn, and in the southern regions - in early spring. This method saves the precious time of spring and provides a natural stratification - shoots appear strong and together.
Garden daisy seeds are already buried up to frosts to a depth of no more than 1 cm. They are kept between 25-35 cm between rows. They are sown sparsely in the rows, but in spring the seedlings will need to be thinned out in any case, leaving between seedlings first - 20-40 cm. They are well accustomed to the new place, so the extra ones can be transferred and planted in other areas.
After planting, water carefully, taking care not to wash the seeds, and gently loosen, preventing the appearance of a crust.
Peculiarities of care
During the propagation of a seedling culture, young plants fall into the open ground at the age of one and a half to two months. In addition to watering, making dressings, weeding and loosening, care for their cultivation, as well as caring for plants obtained by sowing seeds directly to the beds, includes regular transplantation of plants, preparing them for winter. With infrequent need, one has to attend to the treatment and prevention of flower diseases and the control of insect pests.
Watering and feeding
Regular watering the flower like, but the moisture should not stagnate - it leads to disease and death of the culture.
In time made fertilizing will help the plant to develop properly, to be strong, to bloom long and hard. The need for them is estimated by the appearance of the bushes: if the leaves are bright in color and dense, resilient to the touch - garden chamomiles do not need top dressing. Excess fertilizer will harm them. If fertilizing is needed, they are made:
- in early spring to the soil - ammonium nitrate (30 g per 1 sq. m),
- when bud formation begins - phosphorus and potassium (can be replaced with ashes).
Mineral fertilizers and organics, it is desirable to alternate.
Weeding and the formation of the bush
This is an important element of plant care. Weeds are the main competitors of garden plantations in the fight for nutrients and water. Loosening enriches the roots of plants with oxygen. Carried out before irrigation, it allows water to get better access to them, and then - to prevent the formation of a dense crust that does not allow air to pass through.
Good care for chamomile garden also means on time to remove (trim or break) stepchildren from the leaf bosoms, because they also draw off nutrients and moisture.
Preparing for the winter
In order for the plant to sustain winter frost losses, you need to take care of it in the fall, after flowering. Even before the frosts, they cut off all the above-ground parts and mulch the ground under a bush with dry leaves and spruce branches. In winter, whenever possible, snow is chucked up on a plot with chamomiles, especially if winters have little snow - the lack of snow cover can lead to freezing of plants in extreme cold.
The plant can multiply:
- seminal way
- dividing the bush
- using cuttings.
Reproduction by sowing seeds is described above. Seeds are harvested from the middle tubes when the flowers are completely dry.
When dividing the bush rhizome divided into segments, each of which must contain a rosette with leaves. The best time for the procedure is spring at the moment when the foliage begins to grow or the end of August, after the end of flowering, but at least once every three years.
Not all species of garden chamomile breed, but many are propagated by cuttings. Work carried out in late June or early July. The cuttings are young green shoots 15–20 cm long. Clean sand (10 cm) is poured onto the layer of fertile soil, watered with a solution of potassium permanganate and vertically stick cuttings into it, after having moistened them with water and Kornevin preparation. Cover with a plastic bottle, closed and without a bottom. The handle is kept in the shade and the soil is kept moist. After the leaves appear, the banks are removed, and in the winter they are well covered with spruce branches or transplanted into boxes with soil mixture in the cellar. In the spring after sustained warming planted in the ground.
Choosing a landing site
Although this is an unpretentious flower, but without proper care, the plant will lose its beauty, the leaves may turn yellow, the stems will become thinner, and the flowers will become quite small. It is enough to know the basic rules for the care of perennial plants. Landing should be sunny. Chamomile does not like sour soil, so it is worth considering. To reduce the acidity of the soil can be added to it with hydrated soda or wood ash. Before planting, the soil should be fertilized with minerals and organic matter. Shrubs should be planted infrequently.
Seed propagation involves planting seeds directly into the ground. This should be done in May, when the air temperature warms up to + 16–18 ° C. Seeds are sprinkled with a thin layer of earth, covered with a film and periodically watered. In two three weeks the first shoots will appear. After the plants have four leaves and more should order them. Leave 2-3 bush at a distance of 30-40 centimeters.
You can start growing chamomile garden with seedlings. Start sowing on seedlings should be in March. In the prepared container with a weakly acidic soil, seeds are evenly distributed and covered with film or glass. Then put in a warm dark place.
Moisturize the soil as needed. After the shoots appear after 1-2 weeks, the shelter is removed. Now the container with the seedlings must be moved as close as possible to sunlight or under a fluorescent lamp.
When sprouts have a third leaf, they should be dived into separate pots. Often, peat or plastic cups are used for such purposes. For the tillering of garden chamomile, you should pinch its stem over 3-4 leaves. To transplant seedlings in open ground is possible only after the final warming, in the middle or end of May.
Reproduction by dividing the bush will quickly get a flowering plant. More in this way can be rejuvenated plants. After all, chamomile is a perennial plant, and after 2–3 years the bushes become thick, the shoots in the middle of the shoot die off, the flowers become smaller and less attractive. This procedure is carried out at the end of September. Thus, the flower will have time to take root before the onset of cold weather.
Choose an adult bush of three or 5 years of age. The dug bush is shaken off the ground and divided into parts along with the rhizome and the ground part. Each separated bush should have its own rhizome and growth points. The hole must be dug a little more rhizome and pour mineral fertilizers there. After that, the plant is placed in a planting pit, compacted with soil and watered abundantly. If you carry out the division every year, the flowers will be larger.
Some varieties can be propagated by cutting, but this is too time consuming process, so they try not to use it.
Chamomile very quickly and simply multiplies, with proper care, the number of bushes will increase and increase, which can not but rejoice gardeners. Knowing some of the features in the cultivation of chamomile garden, care will be much easier.
- Chamomile is a “sunny flower,” so she loves sunlight very much. She needs to take sun baths for at least 5 hours a day.
- Like any plant, this flower loves watering. Although daisy is considered drought-resistant, but regular and abundant watering you will achieve a beautiful and lush flowering. On hot days, you need to more closely monitor the humidity.
- A flower bed or flower bed must be kept clean, weeding from weeds.
- In order for the bushes to get enough moisture and air to the roots, the ground should be raised.
- The soil should be periodically fed with nutrients. The first dressing is carried out before planting. Then they do it in the middle of spring, ammonium nitrate. But in the period of setting the buds, the faded plants should be fed with urea. Slaked lime or dolomite flour can be added to the soil with high acidity in the fall.
- Flowers should be cut during flowering., periodically replant and rejuvenate chamomile bushes.
- In the fall, the surface of the cut, leaving hemp. After that, the root is instilled and covered with peat, leaves or sawdust. This is done to ensure that the plant suffered frost.
Improper care and excess moisture can cause the sun flower to get sick. The most common diseases that can overtake chamomile: gray rot, rust, powdery mildew and fusarium.
Rust can be noticed very quickly. On the leaves appear red spots, and on the back of the leaf are spores of the fungus.
Gray rot It appears brown spots on the shoots and leaves. With increased humidity, the disease progresses and the spots are covered with gray fuzz.
Mealy dew. To know the disease can be on white plaque on the aboveground part of the flower. Over time, infected shoots become brown.
Fusarium - A disease that affects the roots and root neck. The tissues begin to rot, the stem becomes thinner, the leaves turn yellow and the plant dies.
There are also pests that love to eat chamomile, causing her harm. These are wireworms, star-winged flies, aphids and thrips. To combat these insects, plants are treated with special insecticides.
In order to prevent the death of chamomile, it is necessary to carry out timely watering, weeding and drain the soil. If an infected plant is found, remove it, if possible, to avoid infection by a number of growing specimens.
Where and how does chamomile love to grow?
- Plot. Soil decorative daisy loves neutral, although it will also feel good in limestone soil. It is also desirable that the place of its future growth be sunny (with direct falling sunlight).
- Fertilizer. Suitable complex flower dressing. Also humus, compost, and peat introduced into the soil will be enjoyed by the plant.
- Care. Frequent watering "young", moderate watering rooted adult plants. Mulching with peat after watering. Loosening the top ground ball and weeding.
- Many years. It is believed that in the same place the bush should not grow longer than 5 years. Therefore, you can ruthlessly dig up old plants, planting new ones.
- Diseases. Chamomile is afraid of powdery mildew (whitish coating on the leaves and stem), rust (red spots on the front of the leaves), gray rot (brown spots on the leaves and stem), fusarium (rotting roots, yellowing of the leaves). When gray rot is better to pull out and burn the bush. For other diseases, you can use antifungal drugs (say, "Fundazol", "Topaz": how to make them, written on the package).
- Pests. The star-winged fly lays the larvae in the yellow part of flowers, thrips and aphids suck the juice from the leaves and the stem, the wireworms sap roots. Ways to fight these enemies are different. If insecticides help against aphids (Aktellik, Agravertin), then a trap with a piece of carrot inside will help to catch and destroy wireworms.
- Seed collection. Dried flowers are cut and dried in the room. After that, they are removed from the "basket", placed in an opaque bag or a can (but in the latter case, the seeds are not poured to the very top - they need air for storage). Hibernate seeds in a dark, cool place.
- Wintering. From late autumn, a flower garden with this plant should be covered before cutting off all above-ground stalks. Suitable as non-woven material and sawdust.
The most popular grades of cornfield
Or nyvnyaka, gardener, chamomile garden, in a scientific way Leucanthemum vulgare. This is a whole genus of plants, consisting of more than 20 species. Such daisies are tall (from 15 to 60 cm) and slender, have flowers with a diameter of 2.5 to 6 cm, with white petals along the edges and a yellow “basket” inside. They are bisexual (they can pollinate themselves).
This genus has been cultivated since the year 1500. It has many subspecies flowers.
Original nivyaniki pale yellow.
Another lemon flowers with thin petals, going in several rows. Bushes are low (about 50 cm), flowers up to 10 cm in diameter.
Semi-double flowers with double rows of white petals: some long and straight, moderately wide, others (near the heart) - small, rounded. The choice of people who prefer all the original.
The sizes are the same. The middle is dark yellow, white petals go in two rows.
Height 50 cm, the leaves are glossy, creeping along the ground.
Large (up to 16 cm in diameter) semi-double flowers, white petals thin, of different shapes.
Another original daisy. Its peculiarity is that white petals, growing in several rows, are wider at the ends than at the base.
The flower looks like a white "thin" chrysanthemum. White petals are thin, straight. Semidouble.
About a meter in height and up to 12 cm in diameter of the flower. The yellow center is small, white petals are arranged in several rows.
Silver spuns (silver spoons)
A look very similar to real nit, but the petals of such flowers are rather wide than narrow.
Interesting "chrysanthemums" with thin petals, very fluffy in appearance, with the full dissolution of the yellow center is almost invisible (it is filled with white petals).
The most magnificent and terry option of a nivyanik. The center is slightly yellow, surrounded by a mass of white petals of different sizes, reaching in many rows. Flowers are relatively small, their diameter is only 7, maximum 8 cm.
In addition, a very successful grade of perennial decorative large chamomile is considered the largest. This perennial plant "growth" from 50 to 100 cm, with spatulate leaves, flowers with a diameter of about 11 cm, the white petals of which are placed in 2 rows. Grow this garden culture since 1816.
Moreover, this variety also has several subspecies. Among them there are also terry flowers with a lot of white, slightly twisted edge petals - the central parts of such flowers have a white color, therefore many confuse them with chrysanthemums.
Classic white daisy-like flowers with long white petals and a small center.
Chamomiles, which are characterized by abundant flowering with a low "growth" (about half a meter).
Chamomile giant (large), nivyanik. Growing up
Large daisy - a perennial plant, which is beautifully wintering in the open ground. Scientific name - Nivyanik. This is an amazing flower in its beauty and size. For all its simplicity, daisy large (giant) does not cease to delight people who admire its beauty. For more than a decade I have been growing a cornfield in my garden plot. Тем не менее никто не может пройти мимо цветущей на моем участке гигантской ромашки, не остановившись на мгновение, любуясь белоснежным облаком из этих удивительных цветов.
Ромашка гигантская (нивяник) превосходна в срезке. Cut off at the beginning of flowering (the “age” of a blooming chamomile flower is easily determined by the mass of the anthers on its yellow patch), it will stand in a vase for up to two weeks. You just need to change the water in the vase and refresh the cut on the trunks of flowers.
And this chamomile is called gigantic because, in comparison with the garden chamomile familiar to all, it is indeed a giant. The size of a flower at a nivyanik in diameter can reach 15 and more centimeters. The height of a large chamomile (gagant) depends on the age of planting. In the first year after planting, the height of the plant is on average 70-80 centimeters. At the same time, the trunks of flowers are very powerful, at the base their thickness can reach 1 centimeter.
In subsequent years, the cultivation of chamomile flowers height up to one meter, but the trunks are already becoming thinner. This is caused by the thickening of the growing bush. If you grow chamomile in one place without replanting, for several years, the bushes thicken greatly, the trunks become very thin (no more than 5 millimeters), the flower itself becomes shallow, although the height of the plants can be more than 1 meter.
In their garden and backyard areas, flower growers grow various varieties of giant chamomile. Nivyanik varieties differ in terms of flowering, in the form and number of rows of petals. On some daisies petals are egg-shaped, on the other petals are straight with rounded ends. One variety has only one row of petals, the other has three.
The earliest daisies in the florist of our area bloom in late May. The latest varieties of giant chamomile bloom in the second half of July. I note that the early varieties of chamomile tend to bloom again in late summer and early autumn. True, this bloom is very poor and the flower itself is not as lush as at the first flowering. Growing on your backyard different varieties of flowering chamomile varieties of giant, you can be able to enjoy its flowering throughout the summer.
Reproduction, planting and transplanting large chamomile
The easiest and most affordable way breeding chamomile giant (nivyanika) - division of the bush. In order to grow really large daisies, for the plants to be strong and give a large flower, you need plant chamomile no less than once every three years. If this is not done, the bushes will thicken, the flower becomes shallow, the stems are drawn out and become thin. Old dying roots inhibit the growth of young roots, the middle of the bush becomes bare, the bush grows in a ring. The division of the bush also allows you to multiply the variety faster.
Preparing the soil for planting large chamomile
The soil for planting giant chamomile is better to prepare in advance. Since chamomile is grown in one place for at least three years, the introduction of organic matter for digging is very desirable - at least 1 bucket of humus per 1 square meter. In addition to nutrients, the application of organic fertilizer also improves the soil structure and increases its moisture capacity. After three years, the soil under the chamomile is very compacted, the access of oxygen to the roots is deteriorating. If the humus is not in sufficient quantity, then it must be made in the furrows when planting flowers.
When digging a plot for planting grass, one should carefully select the roots of such perennial weeds as wheat grass. It is necessary to choose the larvae of the May beetle from the soil, if they come across, since this pest really likes to feast on juicy roots of giant chamomile.
When is it better to replant a giant chamomile (Nivyanik)
The best time for planting chamomile roots is after flowering, as soon as the young growth begins to grow. It is desirable that during the seating was not too hot weather. And best of all, if the weather is cloudy and dormant for several days after landing. Such conditions make it easy to take root for young sprouts.
From my own experience I know that it does not always coincide so that the weather will fall out favorable, and the gardener's time will have to prepare and transplant chamomile in summer. Personally, I used warm September rainy days for this procedure. Indeed, in September, there are already fewer cases in the garden and time can be painlessly prepared for preparing the soil for chamomile cultivation and planting nivyanik bushes. It happened that the daisy was transplanted in early October - it also rooted perfectly. You should be guided by the following: the earlier the planting takes place, the stronger the plants will go into the winter and the easier they will transfer the first wintering.
Can do planting chamomile giant and in early spring. In this case too - the sooner the better. There was a case when the winter ended too early and in the second half of February I had the opportunity to plant chamomiles. By the time of flowering, these plants are well rooted and formed a full-fledged large flower. Transplantation during March and the first half of April also gives good results. Later planting dates do not allow the plant to form a full-fledged flower. Nevertheless, planting chamomile even in May allows the plants to take root well, but the flower with such a period of planting does not have time to gain strength. An interesting fact is that regardless of the planting dates and the degree of development of the plant, the giant chamomile blooms strictly at the time appointed by nature.
How to plant a large daisy (nivyanik)
It is convenient to plant the grabber in the furrows made by the sapa (hoe or hoe, as you like). If during the digging of the plantation humus was not introduced, it is introduced into the furrows during planting and mixed with the soil. Furrows are filled with water and chamomile roots are planted in them. Shrubs should be divided as much as possible. I try to divide in such a way that each sprout that has at least one, even a very small root, is separated. If it is not possible to separate a single sprout, then a group of sprouts with a common root (roots) should be worn.
When planting, the roots should be sprinkled with earth so that after planting a row of sprouts planted in a shallow groove - very convenient for saving water during the first watering. Over time, the groove will be sprinkled, as new sprouting sprouts tend to rise slightly above the ground and can be slightly sprinkled with soil.
Latin name: Matricaria.
Other names: The wet nurse, Romain, Camilla, Nivyanik ordinary, Popovnik.
Chamomile belongs to the genus of flowering plants, its leaves are pinnately dissected. Chamomile flower complex, with a diameter of 4 mm. and more. Human species of Daisies have fairly large flowers - about 15 cm in diameter.
Secrets of growing chamomile at home
In the wild, daisy looks almost the same: the middle of the flower is yellow, and the petals are white. Chamomiles differ usually among themselves by the leaves and the size of the flower or the plant itself.
Chamomiles are widely distributed in America, Eurasia, South Africa, and also artificially bred in Australia. In Eurasia, camomile pharmacy, camomile odorous (camomile), as well as chamomile or forest are the most common. The fragrant Chamomile is so named for its special smell, which is enhanced if the plant is rubbed in the hands. In European countries, chamomile is bred because of its medicinal properties. There are also many garden species, of which about fifty.
In the wild, Chamomile prefers to grow in fields, meadows or forest glades, very often adjacent to the bell. The fragrant Daisy has recently played the role of a weed in the garden. Chamomile likes to grow in the fields, although very often it is found along the roads.
Drug Use: Fresh and dried chamomile flowers are actively used in traditional and traditional medicine, they contain anthemic acid, essential oil, glycosides and many other substances. Based on camomile make anti-inflammatory and antiseptic. Often its decoction is used: externally - for baths, lotions and various rinses, it is taken internally in the form of tea, which is very common in England.
Also, chamomile flowers make infusions that are taken with stomach pains, cramps in the intestines, and also as a diaphoretic. In view of the harmlessness, her broth is prescribed even for infants. Not less often, the decoction or tincture of Chamomile is used to give the hair a golden hue; this is done with the help of regular rinsing with Chamomile decoction.
Chamomile garden large perennial: how to choose and grow in the garden
Medicinal properties of chamomile pharmaceutical are known to many. Flowers are collected all summer, the main thing is not to confuse chamomile with other similar plants. The camomile pharmaceutical very well gets accustomed on seasonal dachas.
How to sow it properly, collect medicinal raw materials and for which diseases to use, we consider in this article.
Chamomile varieties to give
Chamomile is a member of the Astrov family. The height of the culture varies from 30 to 100 cm, and the diameter of the blooming bud - from 10 to 15 cm. Varieties differ in size of the bush, flower and the number of petals in the bud. Representatives of different species vary in color. They can be not only white, but also lilac, yellow, pink and red.
Chamomile perennial garden has the following popular varieties:
- Nivyanik or giant chamomile - the most popular variety, it is grown for cutting and drawing up floral compositions. The diameter of the inflorescences is 15 cm or more, and the height of the cornflower reaches 70 cm and higher.
- Garden princess is a plant that grows in height up to 30-35 cm. The size of the buds is quite large - about 10 cm in diameter. If a purple or yellow allysum is grown from seed, this variety will make him an excellent company.
- Alaska - a large representative of this flower culture. The height of the stems often exceeds 70 cm, and the size of the flower is 12 cm and more.
- The North Star is a tall plant, blooms all summer, loves sunlight and endures drought.
In a flowerbed you can often see specimens with buds of pink, red, orange color. These representatives include Doronikum and Feverfew. The common features of all the above-mentioned perennial varieties are resistance to weather conditions, the strength of the stems and the considerable size of the inflorescences. In addition, planting and maintenance are simple, long time-consuming garden work is not required.
Planting of prepared seeds in open ground
Before organizing the work of the gardener, it is important to remember the timing of planting chamomile garden in the country. The optimal period for sowing seeds in this case is from the end of May to the beginning of June. When choosing the date of planting seeds should be guided by weather conditions in a particular region. In any case, before sowing, the probability of frost should be zero.
To plant a culture experienced gardeners recommend in open spaces accessible to the sun's rays. In the penumbra, daisy, too, fully settle in and will delight delicate buds.
With regard to the composition of the soil, planting perennial chamomile can only be drained, fertile land with medium acidity. The same soil is suitable for planting lilies of the valley, host, begonias. When preparing the beds, you can add to the soil any nutrient composition of organic origin. The sowing process does not involve burial, since the seeds of this perennial are small. Laying the material on the surface of the soil, it is enough to sprinkle it on top of it with a thin layer of earth.
Video about growing chamomile garden.
After the first shoots with delicate leaves appear above the soil surface, seedlings should be planted.
Growing chamomile seedling method
In demand among summer residents and the cultivation of garden chamomile from seed seedling method. In this case, it is recommended to sow the prepared planting material already at the beginning of March.
The process consists of the following steps:
- The containers are filled with a light sand and peat substrate in equal shares.
- Seeds also do not require burial, it is enough to scatter them gently on the surface of the soil and lightly sprinkle with earth. On top of it is necessary to tension the film and place the container in a warm room. It is necessary to avoid contact with daylight seedlings.
After 2 weeks or a little earlier daisy should give the first shoots. At this point, remove the film and rearrange the container with the sprouts on the window sill or any other well-lit place. The main condition is the presence of sunlight. At the same time it is necessary to exclude the occurrence of drafts.
With excessive density, seedlings will need to dive into separate pots after the appearance of 2 first leaves. In the open ground, small daisies are recommended to be planted only after the end of the frost. This period in the Central region of Russia falls on the end of May. The same rules should be followed if landing of purslane, begonias, anemones and a number of other flowers is organized.
Planting is carried out on an open sunny place in pre-prepared holes 30 cm deep. The distance between plants should not be less than 20 cm. You should completely remove the earthen ball together with the seedling and place it in the prepared hole and sprinkle it on the sides. A seedling needs to be watered, and gently ram the ground around it.
Care for growing flowers
Unpretentious chamomile garden care involves an absolutely simple and does not require much time. To begin, you will need to provide young seedlings abundant watering. After rooting, the frequency of irrigation can be reduced by pre-mulching the circle around the flower with peat. This will ensure moisture retention for a longer period. Further care is to regularly loosen and weed the plants.
An important nuance is feeding chamomile. To begin, you will need to make fertilizer in the form of ammonium nitrate, scattered between the rows. An additional period of feeding occurs in the period of the appearance of the first buds. Urea solution is suitable as a fertilizer. In order to protect the soil from excessive oxidation in the soil, it is recommended to add a little wood ash.
Before the beginning of the winter period, the shoots are cut off from the daisies, the plants are covered with dry fallen leaves. With the onset of the first warm days, the leaves are carefully removed, and a urea solution is added under the roots.
Chamomile, planting and caring for which are extraordinarily light, attracts the attention with incredibly delicate buds that can decorate absolutely any garden plot. That is why all lovers of beauty should definitely look at this seemingly simple, but incredibly cute flower.
Photos of garden daisies
The photo shows blooming white daisies - tender and sweet to heart flowers of childhood. Modest and surprisingly touching, without much flavor, but memorable for a lifetime. They, as a symbol of purity and peace, delight with their charming perfection, giving a feeling of freshness and incomprehensibility of the tender beauty of their virgin-white petals.
Chamomiles in the garden look amazingly beautiful, surprising with their vitality and unpretentiousness. Just a few bushes of snow-white daisies will be able to revive your garden: decorate the irregularities of the plot, tree trunks of trees with a carpet covering, draw wonderful patterns on the lawn or decorate and improve the garden bed. Even when they are little cared for, they fully grow, bloom luxuriantly and easily multiply mainly by self-sowing. It is nice to see small openwork bushes with elegant light green foliage in the dull and dark time of the pre-winter.
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