The fragrant geranium, which is also called pelargonium (or, in Latin, “Pelargonium graveolens” - fragrant pelargonium) is a plant beloved by florist because of its unpretentiousness, leaf beauty and healing air-purifying properties.
Care at home for such a geranium is simple, but has some nuances. Next, consider what conditions she needs, reproduction and transplantation rules, as well as problems that a florist can face.
What is this plant?
A fragrant perennial plant of the family of geranium comes from South Africa. Branched shrub has a developed nodal rhizome and strong straight stems.
Unlike the geranium, which everyone is accustomed to seeing "on grandma's window-sills", flowers Relargonium graveolens inconspicuous and small, but the leaves are very decorative: palmate-lobed, covered with fine villi.
At the slightest touch to the leaf, geranium exudes a strong, unlike anything else, thanks to the phytoncides useful for humans.
You can read more about fragrant geraniums here, and learn about the use of the plant in traditional medicine and its beneficial properties in this material.
See further photos of geraniums:
The necessary conditions
- Air. For fragrant geraniums, the most comfortable will be a moderate temperature regime, closer to cool: in spring and summer it is 18-23 ° C, in winter - 15-18 ° C.
Pelargonium graveolens needs fresh air, therefore a room with this plant needs to be aired well every day, and with the onset of persistently warm weather it is recommended to take the pot with pelargonium bush to the balcony for the whole summer.
In the latter case, the land must be disinfected. Peat in the composition should not be! Land in a pot must be periodically loosened so that oxygen can flow to the root system.
Planting and breeding
Geranium fragrant can be easily propagated with cuttings throughout the year, but the most favorable periods are from February to March and from July to August.
- From the upper part of the plant, they peel off the stalk, 7-8 cm long. The lower leaves are removed from the stalk and put into the water to give roots.
- Another way is for more experienced flower growers: planting for rooting directly into the ground; for this, the cutting is kept in the air until the wound dries out, and then it is planted in damp ground, covered with a cap for 7 days. After the sprout is well rooted, it is lightly pinched to stimulate branching.
Theoretically possible planting Pelargonium graveolens from seeds, but, according to amateur flower growers, the matter is very troublesome and in most cases unsuccessful.
Young plants need to be transplanted annually, and adults - only in case of emergency. The best time for a transplant is in the spring months. The procedure is simple: first, the bush is cut, removing excess branches and leaves from it, and then transplanted into a prepared pot with a layer of drainage at the bottom and an earthen mixture.
Watering and feeding
Pelargonium should be watered very moderately: it will easily endure a small drought, but is very sensitive to an excess of water: the root system dies from overflow, leaves fade. The best thing is to water the plant after drying the top layer of soil 2-3 cm deep. Water must be taken after 30 minutes. after watering, drain the excess from the pan.
Geranium fragrant can be fed with any universal fertilizer, but remember that “Overfeeding” with nitrogen will weaken the aroma of the leaves, even if the plant grows well.
For geranium non-flowering odorous care (watering, feeding, pruning, etc.) is completely analogous to the previously considered care for fragrant geranium.
Pelargonium fragrant shrub is able to grow to 1-1.5 m, and if it is not cut, the plant will turn into an ugly tree-like liana. Therefore, from the first weeks of growth of the bush and then every year in the spring (best of all in March), the plant is nipped with the removal of growth points and pruning.
Pests and diseases
Fragrant plant can damage whitefly, aphid, sometimes it is affected by rust. Most often, the pests settle on young plants, affecting their leaves and shoots.
To get rid of pests will help special drugs (Aktellik, Keltan, etc.). To prevent rust, avoid stagnation of water and frequent watering.
In order for fragrant geranium to please year round the beauty of carved graceful leaves, its owner care should be taken to ensure that the plant receives enough light and cool airAvoid excessive moisture and trim the bush in time.
Knowledge of these and other subtleties of care at home, discussed in the article, will allow Pelargonium graveolens to maintain a decorative look for many years.
General description of the plant
The odorous pelargonium has a well-developed root system, therefore it can grow on almost any soil. The flower is presented in the form of branched shrubs, which has lobed leaves of bright green color. The lamina is covered with small villi, which when touched help to feel the smell of the flower.
What is the difference between fragrant geranium and other geranium varieties?
This plant was brought to Europe from the Cape of Good Hope, where it was first discovered. To date, many varieties of fragrant geranium have been bred, but they have something similar, something that distinguishes fragrant geranium from other varieties.
The peculiarity of this flower is the presence of glands on the stems and foliage of the plant, which with a small branch or touching a person begin to exude flavor. This flavor is very similar to the smell of apple, rose, cinnamon and nutmeg. In total, scientists counted about 150 aromas that are able to exude these flowers.
The glands are presented in the form of fine hairs, which in appearance may resemble down. They are able to secrete phytoncides that negatively affect microbes and also scare away moths. Sometimes fragrant dried leaves of pelargonium are put in the closet to keep clothes from moths.
Please note that at home pelargonium of this variety may not bloom. And if the blossoms are present, they are small and solitary. You can find varietiesthat have small and separate blooms. Under natural conditions, such a shrub can reach almost one meter in height.
In countries where the climate is warm fragrant pelargonium is an excellent plant. It is used to create suspended gardens or to decorate facades.
What are the varieties of pelargonium fragrant?
This fragrant flower differs in shades of smell, color of leaves and flowers. The most popular varieties include the following:
- Lemon Geranium. This variety has a strong lemon scent, as well as soft purple flowers. Mabel Gray is great for home cultivation, as this variety is easy to maintain and very easy to reproduce.
- Mint variety plants have delicate leaves and small flowers of pale pink color. If you choose the right care, the plant will respond with good growth.
- Apple variety Pelargonium has small round white blossoms, as well as sheets with corrugated edges. Geranium has an interesting smell of apple cider, from which it got its name.
- Dark Pink Pelargonium. This shrub has leaves with a golden frame, well suited for decorating the garden. Please note that this type of home is growing very reluctantly.
- Pink grade pelargonium fragrant. This is a container plant that has leaves of a light green shade with a white border. The plant has the scent of fresh rose. Watering such a flower should be very careful, as it does not tolerate waterlogging.
What kind of lighting is needed for such a plant?
Pelargonium is a light-loving flower, but it can grow in the shade. Growing a plant at home is best placed geranium on the west or east side of the house, where the sun is only for one half day.
What is the optimum temperature?
In summer, the optimum temperature for geraniums is 25–30 ° C, and in winter, 10–18 ° C will suffice. Spring plant is best bring to the balconyso that it gets the right amount of fresh air and sunlight. Please note that in winter, the room with a flower should be aired as often as possible.
If in the summer you allowed the flower to overheat, then you should cut off all sluggish leaves, and move the pot to a cool place. Try to avoid frostbite and sudden changes in temperature, as there is a probable fact that the plant will not bloom.
How is soil best suited for growing geraniums?
For the cultivation of such a shrub should choose a soil that is rich in various minerals. Soil for landing you can purchase or cook yourself. To prepare the composition itself will require peat, sand and garden soil.
Pay attention that the soil should be loosened as often as possible. This is to ensure that the root system received enough oxygen.
What and when to feed?
Experienced gardeners recommend feeding with complex fertilizers, which contain phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium in their composition. Pelargonium tolerates organic fertilizers very poorly, so it is better not to use them. Geranium trebuy good feeding it is during the period of active growth. If you do not conduct this procedure in time, the young plant will gradually lose its decorative properties.
When to transplant a plant and its reproduction features?
When choosing a pot for transplantation, you should consider the size of the cutting, and the fact that the root system will increase. During transplanting shrubs should be created good drainage system in a pot, it is necessary so that the excess moisture does not linger. Watering the planted seedling should be only filtered or settled water.
Geranium can multiply in the following ways:
- division of the bush into several small bushes,
- planting seeds.
When breeding cuttings, should be cut only the tops that have more than three sheets. Cuttings best at the end of summer or at the end of winter. After cutting the cuttings should be put in water, this is necessary in order to form the roots. To conduct rooting plants can be both in the soil and in the water.
Seed multiplication takes much more time, and the result does not always justify waiting. Before sowing, seeds should be soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate.
Dividing the shrub into several parts is an easy and effective way. This procedure should be carried out in the spring.
What are the healing properties of the plant?
It has already been proven that geranium releases air into essential substances that have a calming effect.
Essential oil from this plant relieves stress and helps to fight depression. This oil is active used in aromatherapy and medicine. It is very often used in the compositions of painkillers and wound healing preparations.
Medicinal decoctions of such geraniums are very often used for diarrhea, nosebleeds and salt deposits in the joints. Such a solution can be used to treat wounds in sore throat or skin rashes.
As lotions and compresses, use juice from fresh geranium leaves. Juice can be used to treat cataracts or ear diseases. Pay attention to what means can negatively affect on the mucous membrane. Before using an infusion or geranium juice, consult with your doctor and check if you are allergic to this remedy.
As a result, it should be noted that fragrant geranium is a unique plant that conquers not only with its decorative properties, but also with its smell. Such a shrub requires a minimum of careHowever, creating the right conditions, the plant can please you with lush flowering and unique aromas.
What is special about fragrant geraniums?
Pelargonium fragrant can be distinguished from its relatives by smell, and it is not flowers, but leaves that emit it. However, all kinds of geraniums have a specific flavor, but only this variety has a special, mostly fruity, smell.
Scented geranium has many species with different smells: some emit a tart rose scent, others a delicate apple smell or fresh pineapple notes. Lemongrass is most often grown in indoor conditions - this is how people call pelargonium, whose leaves smell like lemon.
The main decoration of the fragrant “little ball” is its leaves, in contrast to other varieties that are planted for the sake of lush and abundant flowering. The sheet plate of this plant is very beautiful, it is quite large, with carved edges. But pink flowers are almost always small, collected in a tattered umbrella, however, you can not see them often, as perennial blooms very rarely. But fragrant geranium grows "like yeast." Apparently, this property was preserved for the flower initially, because in nature the bush is able to reach more than 1 m in height.
Essential oil of fragrant pelargonium has healing properties and is widely used both in medicine and in cosmetology.
It is a pleasure to grow fragrant geranium, since it is absolutely not demanding to care. It is enough to provide her with comfortable conditions, namely:
- Loose nutrient soil. Do not get involved in the peat substrate. The flower grows better in the usual mixture of garden soil, humus and sand (in the same amount).
- Suitable pot. A large pot is only needed for a powerful, adult plant. Young bushes in such a pot can start to hurt.
- Good lighting. In a shaded place, geranium begins to stretch, shoots become thin, and the leaves - not so lush.
- Moderate watering. Short-term lack of watering flower transfers better than excess moisture, in which the root system begins to rot.
- Regular pruning. If you do not pinch the plant in time, it will grow tall and thin, with a small number of side shoots.
As for dressings, fragrant pelargonium grows quite actively without them. If desired, you can sometimes add a little nitrogen fertilizer to the water when irrigating.
Pelargonium species are odorous
Regardless of the variety, fragrant indoor pelargonium is a small branched shrub, studded with leaves of palmate-lobed shape. Flowers that are common in ordinary geraniums in the form of umbrellas are rather inconspicuous and shallow, and the inflorescences themselves, although remotely resemble an umbrella, are still too rare to be called beautiful or attractive. It is also noteworthy that the smell itself does not stand out from the inflorescences, but from the peculiar villi that completely cover the plant.
At one time, many advanced breeders worked on the form of odorous geranium, in connection with which the world was revealed a large number of varieties of pelargonium of this variety. Hybrid varieties slightly differed in the structure of the leaves, the accuracy and shades of the inflorescences, but they differed in the properties of their aromas. While some varieties of fragrant geraniums smell sweet and mint and exude a striking freshness and smell of coniferous forests, others may smell like nutmeg, citrus, peach and apple, spreading around the atmosphere of an orchard.
But some growers of pelargonium of this variety is valued not only because it is so fragrant. The plant, among other things, has useful properties in terms of folk healing.
In our country, the most common on the window sills are:
- Pungent peppermint - a species with a mint smell, widely branched, leaflets carved, gray-green shades. Flowers light pink.
- Mabel Gray - exudes a pronounced lemon flavor. Leaflets sprawling bush rough to the touch. It blossoms in small purple-pink flowers.
- Chariti - Another owner of a lemon smell, but in this case, diluted with a pink scent. Excellent bush on private beds, at home he feels bad. One of the few varieties of fragrant geranium, which can boast a good aesthetics, because its leaves have a golden frame.
- Lady plymouth - exudes the scent of a rosebush. Отлично чувствует себя на подоконнике и замечательно смотрится из-за того, что каждый его листочек обрамлен тонкой белой каемочкой.
- Apple Cider — название говорит само за себя (переводится как «Яблочный сидр»). The plant is unpretentious, grows well in the home, with the mind is not particularly different, but exudes a striking aroma of apple orchard.
Care at home for fragrant geranium will be correct only if you maintain the temperature characteristic of the native latitudes of the plant. For the active growing season (early spring - summer - early autumn) it is necessary to maintain the temperature within 28 ° C (± 2–3 °). During the hibernation period (late autumn - winter) it is best to keep the plant at a temperature of 14 ° C (± 4 °).
With the arrival of late autumn, geraniums growing in flower beds should be dug, transplanted into pots and placed in a heated utility room, where the temperature does not fall below 10 ° C in winter.
The plant does not need spraying. It is well able to accumulate moisture in its dense foliage, so water treatments for the vegetative part are needed only in the case of a long, prolonged drought.
Attention! In sunny time, the plant is not recommended to spray categorically. To start spraying, you need to wait until geranium covers a shadow, and it does not move away from direct sunlight. The same rule should be followed in the case of ordinary watering.
Like all geranium, fragrant pelargonium does not tolerate periods of prolonged rain. Therefore, before planting in the garden, you should attend to the device of good drainage under the plant. In room conditions, a drainage layer should also always be present in the pot. Watering should be done 2–3 times a week, waiting until the upper part of the ground in a pot (or flowerbed) in the root zone dries out.
In winter, watering should be done no more than once a week.
The soils of the plants of this species are picky. Perfectly cleaned from rhizomes and insects forest land. The main thing is that the black soil is not poor in mineral substances. It is also not desirable that the soil be too clay. This must be mixed with sand, otherwise the root system of the plant will develop poorly in it. In addition to this, pelargonium loves the soil to be rich in oxygen, which is absent in the clayey. In any case, it is best to periodically loosen the earth in a pot sharpened with a Korean stick.
Transplantation and reproduction
Geranium treats such procedures badly and leaves them for a long time. Therefore, geranium transplantation should be performed only in the following cases:
- due to transplanting from flower beds to wintering pots (with the onset of autumn),
- if the plant has grown from a small pot,
- if the plant was inadvertently flipped through recklessness and fell out of the pot,
- if there is a defeat of land in a pot with mold (which is immediately heard by a specific smell after watering),
- if geraniums are going to be propagated by dividing an overgrown bush, etc.
A flowering plant is transplanted only in case of emergency!
Propagate the plant in three ways:
The most common is the division of the bush into components. Already during the season, pelargonium develops so that the main bush can be divided into several smaller ones. The process of separation and seating occurs in the spring. Each part with its roots is separated from the main plant and settled in its own pot.
In the second place is grafting. This is a longer way, during which the upper part with three leaves is cut off from the mother plant and placed in the water. After some time, the roots of the stalk appear, after which the newly appeared independent plant can be planted in a pot.
The seed method is more laborious, long and often ending in failure, so it is little practice and you should not talk about it.
Geranium fragrant medicinal properties and contraindications
The beneficial properties of this plant have been known for a long time, and many folk healers successfully use them in the treatment of such ailments as:
- gastritis and ulcerative lesions of the stomach,
- adrenal gland diseases
- inflammations of various kinds,
- arterial hypertension, etc.
For the manufacture of drugs cut fresh geranium leaves fragrant. Usually they are not dried, but simply washed under running water. In the future, medicinal decoctions, water and alcohol tinctures and extracts are made from these leaves. But to get rid of some of the symptoms and conditions, sometimes, do not even need to prepare any mixtures.
For example, to get rid of a headache, you only need to pick a couple of leaves, fold them in four, and, folding a tube, insert it into the ear opening with a sharp edge. After some time, according to experts-healers, the pain will begin to subside.
And in order to normalize high blood pressure, it is enough to pin down 1 pelargonium to the back of each wrist.
Do not have to bother with the preparation of the drug to relieve symptoms of otitis. To prepare effective drops, you need to cut a few leaves, finely chop them and, gathering in a handful, squeeze through marlechka into the prepared container. The juice of the leaves is collected with a pipette and buried in the ears. It's simple.
Description and difference from other types
Fragrant Pelargonium was brought to Europe from the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa). She immediately became very popular with breeders who brought new varieties from this plant.
Difference of fragrant Pelargonium from other species and varieties are special glands that produce an enchanting scent. The remaining species are odorless. The glands resemble small hairs that cover leaves and stems. The plant may smell:
- Chocolate (Peppermint),
- lemon (Cyan Sunburst Pelargonium),
- Cinnamon (Ardwick Cinnamon),
- Orange and other citrus fruits (Orange fizz),
- an apple (Fringed apple and Aromatic),
- eucalyptus (Lady Plymouth),
- lemon / rose (Frosty's Fragrant),
- strawberries and strawberries (Scarborough).
In total, there are more than 150 species of fragrant pelargonium. Smell occurs when you hold your hand over the plant or pour it over.
Another feature is that the mole is afraid of this plant. As a rule, in the house where there is fragrant pelargonium, it simply does not happen. In addition, leaves the plants shift winter things in order to precisely protect them from pests.
Interesting varieties of fragrant pelargonium:
- Diamond. It blooms in spring in a delicate pink color. It has a pineapple smell.
- Chocolate Mint It grows like a vine, often used for decoration of arbors and baskets. The leaves have an interesting color.
- Citronella. It looks like a bush that will grow as much as you allow it. Spring blooms small white flowers. It smells of citronella.
- Dr. Livingstone. The leaves are like a Christmas tree. Publishes a lemon-pink scent. It grows small in size (20-30 cm), easily propagated.
Prior to breeding, it is necessary to properly prepare the soil. Pelargonium does not like peat substrates, so they use garden soil, sand and humus for planting. They are mixed in equal proportions.
Important and the choice of the pot. Pelargonium can not absorb nutrients from the earth in a large pot. The products of its vital activity accumulate here and begin to kill the plant.
Geranium propagates in three ways:
- division of the bush. In the spring, pelargonium is removed from the pot and neatly divided into several parts (each must have a lobe and a root). Then they are transplanted into the prepared ground and watered abundantly,
- grafting. The cutting (a small twig on which there are 2–3 leaves) is detached from the plant. Put it in the water until the roots. As soon as this happens, you can transplant the stalk into the ground and cover it with a bottle, thereby creating the desired microclimate. Watering is carried out around the bottle. As soon as several new leaves appear on the sprout, the cover is removed. Cut the stalk in late summer or winter
- seeds. Seeds are laid on the prepared soil at a short distance from each other and covered with oilcloth. At the first shoots the cover is removed. As soon as several leaves appear on the sprout, it can be transplanted into a pot.
Dignity and healing properties
The undoubted advantage of fragrant pelargonium is its appearance and wonderful aroma, which it gives to its owners. Geranium blooms for a long time. It is easy to care for her. There are practically no disadvantages of this plant.
Geranium refers to plants that have medicinal properties and contraindications.
Geranium is fragrant and has healing properties, thanks to which it is used to make medications that treat infertility, reduce pressure, improve mood, heal insomnia, and normalize digestion.
In cosmetology, decoctions and tinctures of pelargonium are used to care for the skin of the face and hair. But the most popular in this industry received the oil of this plant. It is used for oily, sensitive, flaky and irritated skin. Hair after using it less fall out and become softer. Simple cosmetics can be purchased at the pharmacy or make yourself.
Despite all its advantages, preparations and cosmetics from pelargonium have their disadvantages. They can not be used by children under 3 years old and the elderly, pregnant and lactating women, as well as those who suffer from gastritis, an ulcer or thrombophlebitis.
Fragrant geranium - unpretentious, quite popular garden and indoor plant with a specific smell. The plant is a branched bush with a well-developed nodal rhizome. The leaves are carved palmate-lobed shape. Covered with villi, which, when touched, exude an intense aroma. Flowers are collected in umbrellas, small, inconspicuous, white and pink color. It is the peculiarity to distribute an unusual strong smell that is the hallmark and the main value of fragrant geranium. In addition, simple care and its exceptional healing properties attract the attention of housewives and gardeners.
Varieties and varietal differences
Varieties of odorous geraniums differ in the color of leaves, flowers and shades of smell. From the leaves of hybrid varieties, even with a fleeting touch, amazing aromas emanate: apples, nutmeg, lemon, peach, mint and even pine needles.
- “Mabel Gray” (lemon). The properties of the variety are determined by a strong lemon flavor. It has rough, wiry leaves with pubescence and umbrellas of lilac-pink flowers. When pruning part of the tops of the plants go on reproduction. Mabel Gray is very good for growing at home.
- "Pungent Peppermint" (mint). Spreading plant with gray-green, delicate leaves and small pale pink flowers. Exudes a strong mint flavor. For careful care responds with wild growth.
- "Apple Cider" (apple). It is an attractive compact plant with tiny white flowers and rounded leaves with pleated edges. Characterized by the unusual aroma of apple cider. Loves care and watering.
- "Chariti" (lemon pink). This variety is well suited for the garden. Spectacular shrub with large leaves with golden framing. It has an amazing lemon-pink smell. At home, growing reluctantly.
- "Lady Plymouth" (pink). Graceful container plant with light green foliage with white border. Attracts attention with the pleasant aroma of fresh rose. Special care is careful watering.
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Features of development and care at home
Geranium of this type does not require any non-standard attitude. This is a grateful and unpretentious plant. Timely care and proper conditions of detention will provide him with full development, growth and flowering, as well as protection from disease. There are several conditions, following which will allow to grow a beautiful indoor plant and preserve its inherent properties.
- Despite the fact that geraniums are light-requiring, they can easily endure the absence of bright sunlight, for example, in the depths of a room or on a northern sill. At home, the best placement is the east or west side of the room, where the sun's rays drop in for half a day.
- A special property of geranium is the ability to accumulate water in the stems and leaves. She does not like an overabundance of moisture. Therefore, the plant does not need to be sprayed, but only watered with water at room temperature as the soil dries.
- At home, in winter, the plant does not tolerate heat, but it feels great on a cold window-sill (15-18 ° C), and in a warm time - on an open loggia or balcony.
- Lack of essential nutrients leads to lethargy, dull color and shredding of leaves, to stop flowering. To prevent this from happening, the plant is fed with ready-made complex fertilizers (with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). It is not recommended to make fresh organic.
Proper care will ensure rapid growth and harmonious development of the plant. To increase the number of shoots of fragrant geranium, you can with the help of competent pruning. Old stalks pinch, usually leaving 2-3 leaves. If a shrub is not formed in time, the plant can become very stretched and lose its decorative properties. And cut cuttings can be applied if reproduction is required.
Wonderful flower with fragrant foliage
Medicinal properties and application
The air in the house where fragrant geranium grows is filled with phytoncides and ethereal substances that have a calming effect on the condition of people. Geranium is an excellent antiseptic. The healing properties of this species are truly inexhaustible:
- healing aroma relieves fatigue, irritability and normalizes sleep,
- mashed leaves compress relieves lumbar and joint pain,
- concentrated geranium juice helps heal wounds and ulcers on the skin,
- therapeutic infusions and decoctions have an effective anti-inflammatory effect in otitis, sore throat, inflammation of the intestine and stomach,
- The smell of geranium has antidepressant properties.
What does an aromatic pot plant look like?
Scented geranium is a raw material for the production of geranium oil, which has found extensive use in the perfumery industry, cooking and cosmetology. Aroma lamps with geranium oil are widely used in everyday life. In addition, crushed leaves are added to tea blends and fruit desserts.
Despite the unique healing properties of geranium, preparations based on geranium raw materials have some contraindications, namely:
- pregnancy, child age,
- allergic reactions, individual immunity,
- gastric ulcer, gastritis, hypotension.
The fragrant geranium - a plant really amazing, is considered a talisman at home and the keeper of the family hearth. A special psychological comfort and cozy atmosphere is established in the house with this plant.
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The fragrant pelargonium perennial shrub at home is able to stretch into a long vine and fill the entire window, if you do not carry out timely pruning. With good lighting and enough nutrients, it stretches up to 2 meters, forming a sprawling bush. The lower part of the trunk is often woody. The whole plant is covered with glandular hairs, in contact with which emits a strong odor.
The location of the leaves is alternate, on the long petioles the palmate-lobed leaves are very decorative. They cover the whole bush with a thick openwork green. Depending on the variety, the leaf plate can be deeply dissected, “curly” or silver, with a lace or wavy edge. The root system is fibrous. The flowering is unsightly, small flowers, most often pink or purple, are collected in a loose umbrella inflorescence. The two upper petals are bent upwards; the three lower ones are directed clearly downwards. At home, flowering may not occur.
The Geranev family combines 5 genera and 800 plant species. Самый распространенный и многочисленный вид – герань, самый популярный среди комнатных видов – пеларгония.
Селекционеры не оставили без внимания душистые особенности пеларгонии и основная их работа была направлена усиление запаха. Так появились сорта с запахом хвои, мяты, лимона, муската, яблока, персика, розы, лаванды, кокоса, ананаса, имбиря, и даже мятного шоколада.
- Мейбл Грей обладает лимонным ароматом. Currently, the variety has been renamed Lemon (P. citronellum). Plants with rough leaves, and pronounced veins, strongly dissected. The inner side of the sheet is covered with down. The inflorescence is an umbrella, with small lilac-pink flowers. This is a large plant capable of growing up to 1-2 meters. Can be used as the basis of the standard culture. In some classifications, this variety belongs to hybrids of natural origin.
- Pelargonium tomentosum (pelargonium felt or indoor). Pelargonium with a strong mint odor. An evergreen, undersized shrub, spreads and branches strongly. The leaves are covered with small villi of gray color, which creates the effect of a felt covering. Flowers nondescript white with violet splashes. In the wild, it prefers semi-shady, well-humidified places, with sandy soils in floodplains and on forest edges.
- Pelargonium vitifolium (Pelargonium grape) the name received for the leaves similar to the leaves of grapes. This is an upright shrub up to 90 centimeters in height with white-pink and lilac-pink flowers. On the large upper petals there are bright dark stripes. In its natural habitat it is found in the south of the Cape of Good Hope along the floodplain of rivers and streams. Very pleasant aroma in a combination of lemon and rose.
Home care for pelargonium
Home care for fragrant pelargonium uncomplicated. Enough to follow a few rules. In the garden, the plant will feel good before the onset of cold weather. Since South Africa is home, when the temperature drops to 10 degrees, the plant must be transplanted. By this time, the plant forms a lush crown, forming a lush bush. Whatever the damage to the plant, in the spring you can prikopat it in a flower bed along with a pot.
Pelargonium is responsive to soil fertilizers, but it is not worth making concentrated solutions or organic matter under the bush. In early spring, when the plant is just waking up, nitrogen-containing fertilizers will do. They will help "wake up" the kidneys and form a lush crown. Before the beginning of bud formation (April) it is necessary to deposit potassium and phosphorus. This will help to form a beautiful, lush bloom.
For geranium suitable soil from the store or cooked yourself. It must meet the basic requirements: be loose, have a neutral acidity, contain nitrogen. For self-preparation of the soil will need a garden soil, leaf humus, sand in the ratio of 9: 0.5: 1. You can add ash and peat in small quantities. Pelargonium does not require a large pot and it is better to do transplanting in the spring time once a year.
A new pot should be 1-2 centimeters more than the previous one, equipped with a drainage hole and a drainage layer. As a drainage, you can use claydite broken brick or pottery.
The flower does not tolerate overflow. With abundant watering begins to hurt, mold appears, and if it is combined with cold nights, the plant can become infected with powdery mildew. Watering is only necessary if the clod of the earth is completely dry. Preventing this will help and the presence of at least 2 centimeters of drainage.
There are several ways of reproducing pelargonium. Most often at home, geraniums are propagated by dividing the bush and cuttings, but also by seeds. The process is more labor-intensive, but as a result a large number of healthy young plants develop.
Propagation by dividing the bush is best done in spring. A plant will fit, the root system of which completely filled the pot and is visible through the hole in the bottom of the pot. An adult bush is plentifully watered and taken out of a pot. The root system is carefully disassembled, if necessary, cut off with a sterile knife. Each part should have leaves and roots. The cut must be treated with activated charcoal and cinnamon powder.
After separation, the flowers are planted in small pots. Enough 10-14 centimeters in diameter. If the pot is too large, flowering will come later or be transferred to the next year, until the plant fills the entire pot volume with roots. Drainage should be put on the bottom of the pot. The soil can be prepared by yourself or purchased at the store. Land from the store must be diluted with garden soil and sanitized. To do this, it is calcined in an oven or shed with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Propagation by cuttings can be carried out throughout the year, but the best result will be from cuttings cut in the spring. During the spring pruning a large number of cuttings remain, which are easily rooted. A cut branch should have no more than 2-3 leaflets. Very large leaves can be cut in half. Slice the cutting is carried out at an angle, with a sharp knife or blade. It is better to sanitize it beforehand. The stalk is left at room temperature for several hours until the slice will glow. Ready cuttings put in a glass of water. Better to wrap it in dark paper. In the dark, the roots will quickly form.
In the water you need to add a tablet of activated carbon, and the diameter of the neck cut out a cardboard with a hole in which to put the cutting. It should not drown heavily in water, not more than 1 centimeter, otherwise it may begin to rot. Pelargonium easily takes root if it is simply planted in the ground. For this fit the usual plastic cup. Holes are made in it to drain water, fine drainage and soil are poured. The earth should not be very wet, otherwise the plant will not take root, but will begin to rot. The first time, until the cutting takes root, it is not watered, you can only spray the ground lightly. If it starts to fade, cover with a jar.
Reproduction by seeds is a long and painstaking process. Before planting the seeds must be processed. To do this, they are slightly rubbed on fine sandpaper and soaked in a stimulator for 3 hours. Then soaked in clean water, for another 3 hours. Soil from the store is saturated with nutrients, so it is better to make it yourself. It should include peat, river sand and turf in a 1: 1: 2 ratio. The capacity for the first planting of seeds should not be deep. Seeds are evenly distributed over the surface at a distance of 5 centimeters from each other. Sprayed from a small sprayer, if the earth was dry and cover the container with glass. Shoots appear within a month. After the appearance of 3-4 leaves can be transplanted into individual cups or directly into small pots.
Use in traditional medicine
Scented geranium has long been used in folk medicine. Due to the high content of essential oils, pelargonium is widely used in soap making, cosmetology and perfumery. Phytoncides secreted by the plant, contribute to the improvement of the microclimate in the room, cleaned of germs and refreshes the air.
The green part of the plant contains saponins, catechins, alkaloids, anthocyanins and flavonoids. Chemical compounds with tannic properties, antiviral and antibacterial effect. They contain macro and microelements, vitamins C, K and carotene. An important element with antimicrobial effect and widely used in perfumery and cosmetology is an aromatic alcohol - geraniol.
The range of application of pelargonium is very wide; it has an antiseptic, analgesic, diuretic, antiviral, bactericidal, anti-diabetic hemostatic effect.
Preparations based on pelargonium are used to treat laryngitis, otitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis and tonsillitis. Well removes pain in intercostal neuralgia, osteochondrosis, radiculitis, heel spurs. To do this, rub the sore spot with a fresh geranium leaf and wrap it up, creating a thermal effect. Used in the treatment of the female reproductive system (PMS, ovarian cyst). Traditional medicine is used in the treatment of pediculosis.
Known sedative properties of pelargonium, its beneficial effects on the nervous system. Helps with neurasthenia, insomnia, headaches. Helps to stop bleeding in the stomach, uterus, lungs from the nose. Insects avoid encountering this insect. Helps in the fight not only with moths, but also with mosquitoes. Wound healing properties are used in the treatment of boils, ulcers, eczema, frostbite and cuts.
As with any drug, it is necessary to use preparations based on geraniums after consulting a doctor. Contraindications to the healing properties of fragrant geraniums may be an allergic reaction; it is not recommended for children under 6 years of age and for pregnant women, as well as for women during lactation. May cause allergies and an asthma attack.
Fresh leaves and juice
Fresh leaves help during inflammatory processes in the intercostal muscles and otitis. The leaves are crushed and applied as a compress or rolled into a tube and inserted into the ear.
Broth can be prepared from dry and fresh leaves. Some recipes use roots and flowers. To prepare the broth will need 1 tbsp. spoon of dry leaves and a glass of boiling water. Raw materials boil for one minute and insist 30 minutes. Take a decoction of one tablespoon with meals three times a day. Geranium leaf tea is recommended for insomnia, neurosis, and digestive disorders.
From the root, you can make a decoction for external use, otolaryngology, cosmetology, hypertension. For the preparation of the broth needed one tablespoon of dry root, a glass of boiling water. Broth insist for 2 hours.
Infusion in a cold way allows you to keep as much as possible nutrients from the leaves and root. On one glass of cold boiled water, finely cut 10 leaves and add 1 teaspoon of honey. Insist 8 hours. Infusion removes inflammation from the eyes, heals wounds on the skin and relieves inflammation from the mouth and throat.
For the preparation of alcohol tinctures need 3 tbsp. spoons of crushed leaves, 0.5 cups of alcohol and insist 7 days at room temperature. Apply for 0.5 h. Spoons 2 times a day, previously diluted with one tablespoon of water. The throat and mucous membranes are treated with a dilute solution, the wounds are washed, and also applied inside before bedtime for insomnia.
About a century ago, this oil had other names. He was called palmarozovym, rose and oil zest. Get the oil from the aerial parts of the plant by the method of steam distillation. The main producers are such countries as Algeria, France, Bulgaria, Tunisia, Spain, Morocco, Italy. But the oil that is grown and produced on the island of Reunion is most appreciated. Cultivated geranium and here in the Crimea, as well as in Georgia, Armenia, Tajikistan.
Essential oil has:
- restoring performance
- cytophylactic action.
At home, you can use essential oil as aromatherapy. 2-3 drops on an aroma lamp are enough. This will help to establish biorhythms, cope with insomnia and reduce pressure.
The oil has regenerating properties, which makes it indispensable during the care of dull and aging skin. It is able to remove facial wrinkles, improve the contour of the face and retain moisture in the skin. Helps fight acne. Pure oil is not applied to the skin, but grape seed oil, apricot, peach, almond oil, jojoba oil or olive oil can be added to the base oil. At 10 ml of base oil add 4-5 drops of ether.
A good pillow will be ensured by a grass cushion which contains geranium leaves or you can put a handkerchief under your usual pillow, on which you drop a few drops of geranium essential oil.
Treatment of long-term diarrhea is effectively infusion of the plant Pour 0.5 l of water at room temperature into the jar, add 2 spoons of crushed leaves and leave for 8 hours. Infusion filter and drink during the day in small portions.
With eczema and dermatitis
A tablespoon of fresh chopped leaves is poured with a glass of boiling water and put in a water bath for 10 minutes. Broth must be drained and add hot water to a volume of 200 ml. Broth taken before meals for a tablespoon. The affected skin is smeared with broth and applied as a compress.
For the treatment you need 5 leaves of geranium, 1 tablespoon of camphor alcohol and 50 grams. rye or oatmeal. The leaves are ground, and all the ingredients are mixed, a compress is applied to the outer ear. Be sure to consult with your doctor.
Crushed leaves in the ratio of 3 tbsp. spoons of 25 ml. infusion of valerian and a glass of serum are mixed and infused for 14 hours at room temperature. Then add 2 tbsp. spoons of butter and rye flour to make the dough. Compresses primatrivayut on all night on the calves and neck, in the morning they throw out
With hemorrhagic fever
Pure roots are crushed and poured with 1 liter of water, brought to a boil and boiled for 20 minutes. Broth drink warm, filtered to ½ cup every 20 minutes.
filter and add hot water to a volume of 200 ml. Broth taken before meals for a tablespoon. The affected skin is smeared with broth and applied as a compress.
For the treatment you need 5 leaves of geranium, 1 tablespoon of camphor alcohol and 50 grams. rye or oatmeal. The leaves are ground, and all the ingredients are mixed, a compress is applied to the outer ear. Be sure to consult with your doctor.