Onions - this is one of the first plants that people started to grow. He has about four thousand years since the reclamation and the beginning of cultivation.
No world cuisine can be imagined without this vegetable, because most dishes without its use seem bland and tasteless. There are a lot of varieties of bulb onion, and each has found its fans.
Each gardener has his own secrets for the good ripening of onions in the garden, but most importantly, adhere to the correct technology of agricultural technology, to get a big harvest, whether it be planted in the ridge or from seeds.
Basic requirements for growing onion seedlings
Not the most fastidious plant is considered cold resistant, grows well at a temperature of twelve to sixteen degrees of heat, the seeds germinate even at five degrees in the cold season. Sharp varieties tolerate frosts better, sweet varieties can die at open degrees at several degrees of frost.
Bow responds well to watering in the early stages of growth, in the future it needs dry soil in order to mature better. He needs more sunlight. Despite its small mass, onions require special attention to the soil composition. Soil on the bed should be quite loose and nutritious.
Weeding beds must be carried out regularly, as the culture does not tolerate proximity to weeds.
The right decision is to organize the onion beds and plant the vegetable in the places where they grew before. cucumbers, cabbage, tomatoes or potatoes. These are the vegetables for which organic matter is added to the soil.
It is not recommended to plant onions in the place where they were grown in the past year. Best of all, if you return to this site in five years.
The increased acidity of the soil is harmful to the plant, since it absorbs the nutrients worse and may be affected by downy mildew.
Before planting bow does not tolerate liming of soil compositionIt is recommended to apply wood ash.
Chinese way - how to plant technology in the ridges
This option may help increase yield. The main feature is the landing of onions on the ridges, and not in the beds themselves. Heads grown in this way are distinguished by flat shapes and large sizes. The tops of the vegetable are perfectly illuminated by sunlight, warm up, from this onion gets good protection from exposure to rot.
It should be added that it is better to loosen and water such beds, to remove weeds from them.
It is possible to sow at air temperature equal to 5 degrees. Planting material must be sorted out, smaller bulbs are allowed to be planted as the soil warms up. Larger ones should be held by May. Such a measure will give you the opportunity to harvest at one time.
After the bulkhead sevok for a couple of weeks before landing warms up. To do this, it is placed in a box and placed near the battery.
It is mandatory for each onion carefully trimmed tail, removed excess scales. If you have damaged the growth neck, you can put the material aside. For landing it is no longer suitable.
The soil for planting must be prepared in the fall. A spoon of superphosphate, a teaspoon of nitroammofosca, and two of dolomite flour are added to each square of the plot. In the spring, the bed must be re-dig, you can add a little manure, just not too fresh.
Combs are arranged, the height of which should be about fifteen centimeters, the interval between them is up to thirty. Sevok planted ten centimeters at a depth of three centimeters. Seeds should not be trampled, it would be better to sprinkle them lightly with earth.
In the first month of growth, if the weather is dry, the onions should be watered twice. But this is the case if it still rains between the irrigations.
You can feed three times. In mid-May, mullein is added. In June, it is the turn of potash salt, urea and phosphate fertilizers. The third time it is necessary to fertilize at the moment when the onion begins to form.
The peculiarity of the Chinese method lies in the fact that weed beds must be as weeds growthat happens quite rarely.
Copper sulfate is used as a protective measure against powdery mildew.
Method of planting and sowing seeds into the soil
This method of planting is recommended for the north-western regions and Belarus, when the onion is not able to fully ripen, which reduces its shelf life.
In mid-spring, the seed material is calibrated, more than large specimens. After sowing "dry" the first shoots will appear in three weeks. In order to give acceleration to the process, you can soak the seeds in potassium permanganate, and after a day, scatter on the fabric and leave it alone to make it pee. But it is necessary to observe that the planting material remains sufficiently moist.
Furrows do in the distance twenty centimeters. One gram of seed is enough for two meters of sowing, planting depth - up to three centimeters. For convenience, you can mix the seeds with sand, sprinkle the grooves after planting with dry earth.
Onion seeds are planted in the grooves
When planted in the garden
Landing time depends on weather conditions. If warm weather is established in the spring, then sowing can be done in the last days of April. Otherwise, you have to wait until the earth warms up.
Sevok lands in the first may decade. Residents of the north-western regions can orient themselves when planting onions in the flowering of the bird cherry tree.
For sub-winter sowing, beds are prepared in autumn. Landing is carried out in the second half of Novemberbefore frost.
Secrets of the right agrotechnology
It should not be allowed to form a crust or weed grass on the soil surface. To this end, the beds must more often loosen to a depth of five centimeters. Weed vegetation is best removed in the initial phase of growth, when the seedlings are still reddish.
After the start of the turnip formation - it must be opened by a third
It must be remembered that the bow loves to show off. When the turnip begins to form, it is necessary open to third, freeing the hanger. This technique helps the bulb to form well and fully mature.
Harvesting turnip and feathers and their storage
As soon as new feathers ceased to appear, and the bow acquired a characteristic shade, it can be removed. As a rule, it falls on mid-August - early September. If you skip the harvest time, the vegetable will start growing again and will be of little use for storage.
The collected bulbs are washed, cleaned of husks and dry feathers, trimmed roots. To dry it laid out in a single layer in the room, which is well ventilated. After a few weeks, new flakes of golden hue appear on the bulbs. This means that the vegetable is ready for long-term storage.
Before long storage, the bulbs are peeled and removed.
As a rule, gardeners prefer cultivation of onion with sevke, purchasing it in special stores. It can be planted in the winter, after preparing the garden bed.
But if you follow all the recommendations, then in the Chinese way you can get a good harvest of this beautiful vegetable.
Hello dear readers!
Continuing the conversation about growing onions and in this article I want to tell you about growing onions from seed.
There are three ways growing onions from seed:
- first - we grow onion sets, and already from it the following year - onion turnips,
- the second - in one year we get a turnip directly from the seeds, planting them either very early in the spring or seedlings,
- the third is podzimny sowing.
But first of all, before we start sowing seeds, let's decide which varieties we will plant.
From this depends largely on the method of cultivation, and planting dates. Now in Russia there are more than 60 varieties of onions, which can be divided into two groups: varieties of northern origin and varieties of southern origin.
Northern varieties need a 16-17 hour longitude to form a full-fledged onion, while southern varieties need a 13-14 hour longitude.
Therefore, if we plant northern varieties in the south, we may not get bulbs. Southern varieties require more heat and have a longer growing season.
Also keep in mind that northern onion tastes sharper and is stored very well until the new harvest, if you follow the rules of storage.
Southern varieties have excellent taste, but they store much less time.
Most Russian onion varieties belong to long day bows. These are such varieties as: Strigunovsky, Bessonovsky, Arzamas, Myachkovsky, Danilovsky, Rostovsky, Odintsovets other.
From varieties of foreign selection recommend - Stuttgarter Risen, Globo, Densimore, F1 hybrid Bonus.
And if you want to grow lettuce, you can plant such southern varieties as: Spanish-313, Karatal, Lugansk, Krasnodar G-35, Cabo.
We grow onion sets
In the previous article, questions about the basic requirements for growing onions and preparing the site for onions were covered, so we will not return to them, but proceed directly to the pre-sowing preparation of seeds and their planting.
Terms of landing. First of all, we determine the landing date, this is one of the most important moments. Sowing is carried out as soon as the soil allows, because even with a slight (especially in dry years) being late with sowing, both field seed germination and yield and quality of seed plants are reduced. In this case, onion sets ripen very poorly and, most importantly, they are not stored for a long time.
In central Russia, landing is best carried out in the last decade of April, if the weather does not present any surprises.
And one more thing, although it is believed that the naglet (the onion seeds are also called) retains its germination without loss for 2 years, but I advise you to use annual seeds.
Seed preparation. First of all, let's check the seeds for germination, to do this, put a few pieces of seeds between layers of damp tissue and put them in a warm place. If after a while the sprouts appear, then you can start preparing for planting.
Next, we determine if our seeds need treatment: the seeds that we buy in specialized stores basically all have already been decontaminated (although there are exceptions), but the seeds that you yourself have grown are preferably treated with some fungicidal disinfectants.
Or you can use for this a weak solution of potassium permanganate and keep in it the seeds for one day. It is very good to warm the seeds for 30 minutes in hot water with a temperature of about 50 degrees, and to keep them in aloe juice for 30-40 minutes.
To speed up the emergence of seedlings (onion seeds germinate very slowly), soak the seeds in water at room temperature. This should be done 3-4 days before sowing.
We pour the seeds into a fabric bag, filling it in half, tie it up and drop it in water for 30-35 hours. During this period of time, we change the water 3-4 times.
Then we scatter the already swollen seeds in a thin layer onto a damp cloth, cover it with a second layer of damp cloth and leave them warm.
After two days, the seeds begin to spit up and you can start sowing, but after the chernushka is a little dry, so that it acquires flowability, and mix it with chalk so that the seeds are better visible on the dark ground.
Sowing seeds. Sowing is carried out by the belt method on a bed about 1 meter wide with very loose soil. Loose soil when sowing nippers is necessary because the onion sprout, which has the form of an eyelet, will be very difficult to break through to the surface if the soil is dense or we will deeply dig the seeds into the ground.
In connection with this, we sow seeds in the grooves with a depth of 1.5-2 cm. It is desirable to withstand the distance between the seeds 1-1.5 cm.
The seeding rate is very important, since the growing season of the crop depends on it, as well as the quantity and quality of the crop.
If we rarely sow the seeds, large sevok (hauls) will grow, which will not have enough time for ripening.
If we sow the seeds often, then we get an unripe shallow seed (non-standard), which is poorly stored and begins to germinate early.
Then we carefully close up the grooves, compact the soil so that there are no air chambers between it and the seeds.
We mulch the beds with sown onion seeds with peat or humus layer of about 2 cm, and then carefully pour them, trying not to blur the planting.
After that, the bed is desirable to cover with plastic wrap to create a favorable water and air regime for the early germination of seeds. After the emergence of seedlings film must be removed.
Care of crops. First of all, it is necessary to carefully monitor that a soil crust does not form and promptly remove all weeds. If we have weeds on crops during the period of emergence, the yield of onions is reduced to 50%, and the ripening of the bulbs is very noticeably delayed.
When the soil crust is formed, the onion seedlings are thinned and uneven, which also leads to a decrease in yield and a deterioration in its quality.
Sometimes weeds appear before the emergence of onions and there may be a danger of the destruction of the onion seedlings when weeding and loosening.
To prevent this, it is very good to add some seeds of lettuce or radish to the seeds of chernushka when sowing. They will ascend first and show us the location of the onion rows, and after the emergence of onion shoots beacon plants can be removed.
When the shoots have 1-2 true leaves, we carry out the first thinning of the crops in heavily thickened areas, leaving 1.5–2 cm between the plants. The second thinning is done after the formation of 3-4 leaves and leave a distance of 4-6 cm between the plants.
I want to draw your attention to the fact that it is impossible to delay in any way with both weeding and thinning, because otherwise the thickening accelerates the formation of the bulbs, the plants do not have time to form enough leaves and the bulbs are small.
We water the planting of onions 1-2 times a week, provided that the weather is dry, and only in the first half of the growing season (May - June). Then we stop watering as the onions mature.
And 1 week before harvesting, it is recommended to conduct foliar feeding of crops with potash fertilizer, as this contributes to better maturation of the plantation.
Harvesting, storage preparation and storage features. We start harvesting onion sets in the second half of July - August (depending on the weather), as soon as the leaves turn yellow by a third of the height.
On harvesting onions and preparing it for storage can be found in the previous article about onions.
Store grown onion sets must be differently depending on its size. Therefore, the first thing we do is sorting it into small ones up to 1.0 cm in diameter, medium - 1.5-2.5 cm and large - more than 3 cm.
Sevok best stored in cloth bags and in a dry well-ventilated area. For a small set, the optimal storage temperature is 0ºС, because, since it tends to dry out, at a higher temperature, such a bow can completely die.
The problem of storage of small sets (non-standard) can be solved by planting it before winter, because it does not under any circumstances and can give an excellent crop of onion turnips.
Middle and large sevka is well kept at room temperature (up to 18ºС). At higher or lower storage temperatures, the onions may go to the arrow after planting.
One-Turnip Onion Seed
To grow onions from seed in one year is quite real. Our resourceful gardeners have learned to do it very successfully, using two methods: firstly, this is early spring dense sowing of seeds, and secondly, this is growing through seedlings.
The most suitable varieties for such cultivation of onions are considered Myachkovsky, Strigunovsky and Odintsovo. Also good varieties Russian size and Exibichenwhich have very large onions (350 g each, and sometimes up to 500 g) of a delicate, sweet taste.
And now let's take a closer look at each method.
Early spring landing. For the cultivation of onions in this way, early varieties are best suited and the onions grown in this way will not be stored for so long, therefore it is best to use it first.
It is recommended to start sowing around April 20-25 (depending on the weather). We warm the seeds, disinfect, germinate and sow very early on the beds prepared from autumn.
The beds should be covered with plastic wrap in advance so that the earth warms up well before planting seeds.
On the day of planting, we remove the film from the bed, make grooves and spill them with hot water. Then we lay out the seeds, sprinkle them with humus or compost, compact the soil and cover the bed again with a film.
We remove the film from the bed only when seedlings appear.
Further care for planting is the same as for onions, which we grow from the sevka. The only difference is the need for thinning the landings.
Первый раз следует проредить лук, когда он достигнет 7-10 см. Второе прореживание проводим через 3 недели и третье — через 2-3 недели после второго.
В итоге расстояние между луковицами у нас должно получиться около 10 см. При таком способе выращивания репчатого лука очень важно, чтобы луковицы успели полностью вызреть.
Чтобы как-то ускорить этот процесс, можно сделать следующее:
- To spend in the second half of the growing season unraveling bulbs so that they are half above ground.
- Slightly pull the bulbs by the feather, as if lifting them in the ground or slightly cutting the roots with a shovel.
With these actions, the process of nutrients from the leaves in the bulbs is greatly accelerated and their maturation is faster.
Some summer residents, to speed up ripening, crush the onion leaves, but this method is dangerous in that pathogenic bacteria or pests can get into the neck of the bulb.
With this method of planting seeds, it is quite possible that not only a turnip onion will grow, but also sampling onions and onion sets. Therefore, after harvesting and drying onions, it must be sorted into large (more than 4 cm), medium (3-4 cm) and small (up to 3 cm).
Then large bulbs are left for winter storage, medium bulbs need to be consumed first, they are also suitable for forcing green onions, small bulbs (sevok) are left for storage for spring plantings.
Onions through seedlings. Growing onions through seedlings, of course, troublesome, but not difficult. But there are a lot of advantages: firstly, the onion matures perfectly by autumn, not at all worse than the one planted with a sevka, secondly, the crop is two times larger than when sown at once in open ground.
We sow seeds for seedlings at the end of February - the first half of March. Onion seedlings at home are grown in boxes, seedling pots or other containers with a height of at least 10 cm.
The main condition - the walls of the containers should not be transparent, since the light will interfere with the development of the root system.
Seeds can be sown in the grooves with a depth of 1 cm or simply densely planted over the entire area of the container.
Then from above we fall asleep with a layer of earth (1 cm), slightly compacted, gently water (preferably with a spray bottle so as not to wash the seeds from the soil) with warm water and place the container in a warm place (22-25ºС), covered with foil.
Approximately in 10-15 days shoots begin to appear and the film is removed. After the appearance of the shoots (loops), we place the containers with the seedlings to the brightest place, while it is desirable to maintain the air temperature of 9-12ºС for 3-5 days.
Then it is recommended to raise the temperature to 15-20ºС during the day and 10-12ºС at night. If the air temperature in the room is higher, then regular airing is necessary so that the seedlings do not stretch out and do not become ill with the black leg.
In addition, if the seedlings grew at elevated temperatures, then later, when landing in the ground, it does not take root well.
Onion seedlings are watered sparingly, and there is no need to re-moisten the soil. Before planting seedlings in the ground, we feed it two times, but if it grows strong and healthy, then we can feed it once.
We carry out the first top-dressing in a week after emergence of shoots, and the second - in two weeks after the first.
The solution for dressings can be prepared both from mineral fertilizers and from infusion of mullein by mixing in water in a ratio of 1: 6.
We feed very carefully - little by little.
At the age of about 60 days, seedlings can already be planted in the garden. By this time, it becomes strong, has a developed root system, 3-4 true leaves and a base thickness of 3-4 mm.
Usually onion seedlings are planted in the garden from May 1 to 10, depending on the weather in the region and the soil condition. It is not afraid of small frosts.
The best time for landing is the second half of the day, when the air temperature is already beginning to fall. Before transplanting the seedlings we water thoroughly, then each plant is carefully removed from the ground.
If the roots are long, they should be shortened slightly, by about one third. This is done to ensure that when planting the roots do not bend upwards, as this will decrease the survival rate of the plants.
We plant onions in rows with a distance between plants of 8-10 cm, between rows - 20-25 cm. If you plant onions of large varieties, then it is better to adhere to the 30x30 cm scheme. Immediately after planting, we plant the bed well.
Later in the first week, until the plants take root, we water every day, keeping the land moist. Then watering should be carried out as the soil dries.
The following agrotechnical measures are no different from those used in the cultivation of onions in other ways, namely: weeding, watering, loosening, feeding, cleaning.
On this, perhaps, the article will finish. In it I told you about growing onions from seeds in two ways: by a two-year crop - we grow onion sets, and from it the following year - onion turnip and one-year - in one year we get onion directly from seeds, planting them or very early spring or seedlings.
We will talk about the third method — the winter of sowing — in a subsequent article.
Basic requirements for growing onions
Onions are cold-resistant plants and can grow at a temperature of 12-15 ° C. Crop seeds can germinate even at a temperature of 5-6 ° C. In general, frosts tolerate sharp onion varieties well. Sweet species with a slight decrease in temperature can quickly die in the open field. In the early stages of growth, watering is extremely important for the plant. With proper watering onions begin to grow rapidly. Before maturation, the soil must be maintained in a dry state. This contributes to better ripening of the vegetable.
When growing onions, the summer resident should take into account such nuances:
- The plant is harmful to increased acidity of the soil.
- Before planting, it is recommended to use wood ash, since the culture does not tolerate liming of the soil.
- It is not recommended to plant the plant in groundwater.
- Soil on the bed with onions should be loose.
Biological features of onions
Onions belong to two-or three-year plant species. When sowing seeds of a two-year crop in the first year, summer residents receive bulbs, which, when planted the following year, form arrows with seeds. Three-year culture in the first year of growth gives onion sevok. The resulting sevok in the second year are planted in the ground and grow out of it bulbs. Only in the third year the plant forms arrows and gives seeds. Culture refers to the plants of the long daylight hours. Rapid growth and maturation are observed in areas with a long day. In regions with a short day, onions grow poorly and do not yield seeds.
Growing seed from seed
Many gardeners prefer to grow onions from seed.
This method has undeniable advantages:
- Onion seeds can be easily purchased at the store, where the assortment of varieties is represented quite widely.
- In contrast to the purchased onion sets, the gardener will be exactly sure of the planting material, its quality and benefits.
- Self-cultivated onion sets will be adapted to the specific type of soil and climatic conditions.
However, to grow a good onion sets is not as easy as it seems at first glance. Many gardeners face certain problems.
Often with the wrong care plant:
- falls out
- forms small bulbs.
The most important step in the cultivation of onions is the choice of the date of sowing. Planting seeds should be done as soon as the soil allows. A slight delay with planting dates may affect field seed germination, yield and quality of planting. A delay in sowing does not allow the vegetable to ripen fully and adversely affects its long-term storage. A favorable period for landing is the third decade of April. At this time, as a rule, the weather does not present surprises in the form of severe frosts.
The seeds offered by the stores are processed with a fungicide and are fully prepared for planting.
The following procedures should be performed on seeds grown independently before planting:
- Soak seeds in warm water for a day.
- Etch nag in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- Soak the planting material in the Epin solution (2 drops of the solution per 100 ml of water).
- Heat sevok in hot water 50 ° C for half an hour.
Significantly accelerate the emergence of onion seedlings can germinating seeds. To do this, sevok a couple of days kept in wet gauze, preventing it from drying out.
It is important to remember that Chernushka has a short shelf life, so it is recommended to use only last year’s seeds for sowing.
When planting a seed of two years or more shelf life there is a big risk not to wait for germination.
Before sowing dry seeds, the prepared bed must be watered with hot water. When sowing germinated seeds or seedlings, preliminary watering of the beds is not necessary.
Plant seed in two ways:
A gardener chooses a method of growing onions based on his personal preferences.
Sowing in rows
When planting onions in rows, do the following:
- Mark with the sharp end of the groove at a distance of 25 cm.
- Place the seeds in rows at a distance of 1.5 cm.
- Sprinkle sev with loose soil or humus for 2-3 cm.
- Condense the soil with a spatula and pour a bed of watering can.
- Mulch the bed with peat, files and humus and, if possible, cover with foil.
The size of the future bulbs directly depends on the seeding depth. A thinner layer of seeds will not give friendly shoots, and deep planting will not allow the bulbs to form.
With this method of landing do such manipulations:
- On the bed formed wide strips with a width of 8-10 cm and at a distance of 20 cm from each other.
- The material is randomly sown on a leveled surface (at the rate of 10 g per 1 square meter).
- They tamp the soil and water the beds.
- Soil mulching is done with humus, sawdust and peat.
The main advantage of the ribbon method is that when the bulbs are formed, the seeds that are next to it are moved to a free place in the bed.
Care of crops
The first shoots of onions after planting appear in a week. The initial stage of the development of onions is the buildup of feathers. Watering plants in dry weather should be done 2 times a day. When forming bulbs closer to July, watering should be stopped. When heavy rains onion beds must be hidden. To do this, you can put the arc and close the crops with plastic wrap. Some craftsmen put the roof over the bed and cover the crops with film. Weeding and mulching the soil must be done at all stages of plant development.
The small onion ripens by the end of July and the beginning of August. At this time, the feathers of the plant fall on the ground and begin to turn yellow. During the harvest, the onions are usually pulled out along with the tops. After that, the harvest is evenly laid out under a canopy and left to dry for 10-15 days. If during the harvest the weather is sunny outside, it is allowed to leave the sevok on the garden until the feather dries. When the bulb absorbs all the nutrients, the feather is cut off, leaving a 2-3 cm tail.
Seeding preparation for storage
Depending on the size of the harvested onion harvesting methods may vary.
The first stage of preparation is the sorting of bulbs by size:
- small - up to 1 cm
- average -1.5-2.0 cm
- large - more than 3 cm
The best place to store a sev are bags from the net. The vegetable storage room should be well ventilated. The optimum temperature for storing shallow seals is 0 ° C. At higher temperatures, onions of small diameter tend to dry out and may die. Middle and large sevka can be stored at room temperature. At high temperature storage, the bulbs can go to the arrow after planting.
Seed preparation for planting
Before starting work, all the material for sowing is moved.
Bulbs are removed from the total mass:
Sevok sorted by size. Large copies should be planted earlier. They are used to produce greens and seed formation. Small and medium bulbs give the best yield.
To increase the yield and resistance to various diseases with sevke need to do the following measures:
- Dry the seed for one week in a dry place.
- Pour onion with warm water (50 ° C) for 15 minutes.
- Place it in cold liquid for 15-20 minutes.
- Soak the bulbs in the complex fertilizer and leave overnight.
All these procedures harden crops, contribute to the rapid germination of the plant, which will have increased resistance to infections.
Forerunners of onions
Before planning future crops, the question of crop alternation on selected soil is particularly important. With proper crop rotation, soil fertility is preserved, the plants are reliably protected from damage by pests and infections. Onions can not be placed more than 3 years in a row on one site. When choosing a landing site, it is worth considering that the best predecessors of onions are cultures under which large doses of organic matter were introduced into the soil.
Soils on which they previously grew are considered to be a good place for the growth and development of a culture:
Onions are cold-resistant crops, so they can be planted in early spring at a soil temperature of 10-12 ° C. Short-term frosts do not affect onion seedlings, however, a cold snap to -3 ° C can greatly harm adult plants. As a result, they stop their growth and development, as well as seed ripening. For the formation of seeds and uterine bulbs, a plant needs a sufficient amount of moisture. The lack of water does not allow the culture to grow to large sizes.
Preparation of beds
When digging the plot in the future bed for onions add:
- wood ash
Adherents of natural farming can plant siderats in a future garden bed. Mustard is best for this purpose. It will provide the soil with nutrition and will repel pests. In the spring, a few days before the onion landing, the ground is loosened with a flat cut and formed a bed. After compacted soil and pour it with warm water.
To plant the bow by the classical method, you must perform the following steps:
- Make grooves sharp angle hoes.
- Leave a distance of 30-40 cm between rows for convenient weeding.
- Prepared furrows fertilize organic.
- Bulbs to plant at a distance of 10-15 cm roots down.
- Pour warm water over the landing site, cover it with earth and compact it.
If desired, from the sun and heavy showers beds of onion can be covered with spruce branches for a week.
The main feature of this method is the landing of onions not on the beds themselves, but on the ridges. The onion grown by this method has a flat shape and rather large sizes. The shoots of the plant are well lit by the sun and warm, due to which the onions are absolutely not exposed to rot.
Chinese way of planting onions
To land the Chinese method do the following:
- In the fall they fertilize the soil with superphosphate and dolomite flour.
- In spring, the soil is re-dug up and not too fresh manure is added to it.
- Crests 15 cm high with an interval of 30 cm are made.
- At a distance of 10 cm from each other, sevok planted to a depth of 3 cm.
- Onion sprinkled with earth and watered.
The main advantage of the Chinese method is the absence of weeds.
The video from the channel "Yield garden" shows the cultivation of onions in the Chinese way.
To grow a good harvest of onions, you can adhere to the proper farming practices:
- It is unacceptable that a crust forms on the soil surface and weed grass appears on the beds.
- Onion beds should be loosened to a depth of 5 cm, while avoiding damage to the onion root system.
- Weeds need to be removed from the bed in the initial phase of growth.
- When forming turnips, it is recommended to bare it by a third. This technique contributes to the good formation of the bulb and its full maturation.
Compliance with the irrigation regime allows you to grow a large and juicy onions.
During the formation and growth of leaves you need to water the plant regularly:
- in May - once a week,
- in July - once every 10 days.
Between irrigation, the land should be loosened and free from weeds in between rows. When growing onions on greens, the soil is watered as it dries.
It is important to remember that a month before harvesting, watering of the crop is completely stopped.
When growing onions in open ground, the plant must be made to feed.
Their calculation of 1 square meter of soil must be fed according to the following scheme:
How to grow onion sets from seed
Good onion seeds are a guarantee of a quality result, so you need to choose them very carefully. Seeds of any variety that you like will fit, provided that they have ripened, were properly collected and stored in a dry place. If the seeds are the same size, dry, black, shiny, free from impurities and mold, feel free to use them for sowing.
Preparing the soil for sowing onions
Before sowing onion seeds in the ground, you need to choose the best place for this. The best seedlings succeed where last year grew zucchini, cucumbers, tomatoes or cabbage. But on the onion bed and next to it could remain pathogenic bacteria and onion fly.
Choose a well-lit, well-ventilated place, dig up the earth and start fertilizing about a week before sowing. In a loose breathable soil, add half a bucket of rotted manure or compost and 1 tbsp. нитрофоски, Кемиры Универсал, Растворина или другого комплексного минерального удобрения на 1 кв.м.
На тяжелых глинистых почвах к этому комплексу добавьте по 1 ведру песка и перепревших опилок, а кислые загодя смешайте с половиной стакана золы или доломитовой муки на 1 кв.м.
Посев лука семенами
Сам посев прост и не отнимет у вас много времени. Приступать к нему в средней полосе можно в предпоследнюю или последнюю неделю апреля. But residents of other regions will have to decide when to plant onions with seeds, depending on the weather. In any case, you need to be guided not by return frost (the onions can cope with them), but by the average daily temperature - it should be above 15-18 ° С.
On a note! Many gardeners are wondering whether it is possible to plant onion seeds before winter. It is possible, but this method has its own nuances. First, the ridges should be prepared the same way as in spring, but not earlier than October. And secondly, the onion seed planting itself before winter begins only on frozen ground, or even on the first snow, when the thaw is no longer foreseen. Seeds are sown a little thicker than in the spring, necessarily dry, immediately covered with previously harvested earth or peat, and the ridge itself is covered with a thick layer of spruce branches.
On the chosen day, the prepared ridges are shed with warm water, and then they are grooved on them. Their depth should be no more than 3 cm, the distance from each other should be about 15 cm. The bottom of the grooves is powdered with ashes and set about laying out the seeds. Yes, they are precisely laid out at a distance of 1.5-2 cm from each other, and not sown in the conventional way. Although the rate of sowing onion 4 g per 1 meter, sow it like dill is not worth it - the shoots will be uneven, and the onions will interfere with each other.
Sown seeds sprinkled with a thin layer of earth, peat or sand, ridge mulch. If the seeds were germinated, additional watering is not necessary - they will appear on the surface in a week. But the dry seeds need to be watered gently, and they do not grow up earlier than in 10 days.
IMPORTANT! Although the bow is not too thermophilic, a strong frost can beat the tender shoots, so cover the ridge with a spanbond or film for the night.
Care of seedlings of onion seed
Onion seeds sprout slowly, and the young leaves grow very, very long. If you see the seedlings in a couple of weeks after sowing, then a couple of true leaves - only in a month. Despite the pale appearance, it is impossible to forget about the onions, otherwise much more active weeds will absorb it and it will be impossible to find it in the wilds of dandelions and woodlice.
As the soil dries (once every 3-4 days), water the onion shoots with warm water, regularly shallow the aisle regularly, smashing the crust. When there are 3-4 true leaves on each plant, thin the crops, leaving 3-4 cm between them. Then make two additional feeding with an interval of 10 days. For the first you will need 1 tbsp. urea in a bucket of water, for the second - it is half a tl. superphosphate and potassium sulfate.
IMPORTANT! When feeding, pour fertilizer into the grooves, not the leaves, to prevent burns.
Cleaning and storage of onion sets
In the second half of July, the leaves of the seed roll begin to turn yellow and lie down. Do not be frightened and strive to "water" fading plants. In fact, these signs indicate that the set is ripe and ready for harvesting.
Pull out the bulbs, lay them right on the ground (if the weather is dry) and leave for 3 days. Then take to the hottest place (in the attic or veranda) and dry for another 5-7 days. Before removing the onion sets for storage, sort it. The best bulbs are obtained from a seam with a diameter of 1.5–2 cm, a larger arrow is used, and a smaller one dries.
ON A NOTE! It is not necessary to throw away the culling - you can easily plant it before winter to get an early harvest in the spring.
Store sevka in fabric or mesh bags in a cool and dry place. A barn, a glassed-in balcony or a storage room in the apartment will do.
How to get onion seeds
Do you want to completely switch to your own seed production, but do not know how to collect onion seeds? It's pretty simple, although some skills will still be needed.
- Choose 5-7 large and healthy bulbs of the same variety.
- In May, plant them in the ground, putting 150 g of compost under each and placing them at a distance of 50 cm from each other.
- Regularly loosen and spud plantings, apply nitrogen fertilizer to the soil twice.
- Tie the bow arrow to the peg and protect it from birds.
- After the onset of yellowing onion flower stalks, cut them off and hang in a warm dry place to ripen.
- Shake the ripe seeds out of the flower cap, fold into a paper bag and sign.
Growing seedlings of onion seed on the windowsill
Seeds of onion seedlings are sown in boxes 10 cm deep until March 5-12. For germination using peat soil with trace elements or independently enrich it with wood ash at the rate of 0.5 cups per 5 kg. Germinated seeds sown to a depth of 1 cm and leave the container at room temperature, slightly moistening. After the emergence of seedlings, the temperature is reduced to 14-16 ° C, and the seedlings are thinned out so that 2-3 cm between them remains.
Watered the seedlings every other day with warm water, twice fed with complex mineral fertilizer according to the instructions. By the time of landing on each plant should be 3-4 true leaf.
Site preparation for sowing and bed formation
Onion prefers to grow in sunny non-acidic areas, and grows well in ridges after tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, peas or cabbage. To reduce the acidity of the soil, we introduce dolomite flour or hydrated lime into the ground.
Prepare the plot for sowing as follows:
- In the fall, we add 4 kg of peat, nitrophosphate and superphosphate (a tablespoon), 4 kg of humus and wood ash (3 tablespoons) per square meter in the fall.
- Having distributed top dressing on the ground, we dig it to a depth of 20 cm. Add river sand to the clay soil.
- In the spring we make low beds (if the place is damp and high) of a meter width. We slap a shovel and disinfect with copper sulfate, spreading a tablespoon of the product in a bucket of warm water, using 2 liters of solution for each m². Pour the solution into the watering can and spill the beds.
Before planting onion sets in the spring, cover the ridge with polyethylene for a couple of days.
We sow the seeds after the last snow has melted, when a 10-centimeter layer of soil is thawed out: gardeners sow chernushka onions from the middle band in late April.
Onion seed treatment before sowing
Before sowing seeds on the onion sets, cultivation and care of which will not cause unnecessary trouble, we process them, protecting them from pests and diseases, and speeding up germination.
- Wake up seeds for fast germination. Wrap the seeds in a cloth and hold for 15 minutes. in heated to 50 degrees water. Omit for a couple of minutes in the icy water. Achenes are activated and hardened.
- For disinfection immerse the cloth with the seeds wrapped in it in the ash infusion (2 tablespoons per liter of water, insist day) for 12 hours. Or we maintain seeds in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour.
The cultivation of the seeds is complete: we sow the onion in the beds after a couple of days.
How to care for onion seedlings
Care for onion seedlings is a snap: they, like other plants, need watering, feeding and weeding. To know how to grow onion sets, we carry out the following care of the sprouts.
Water the crops from the watering can, putting the smallest attachment on it, or spray it once every three days (if there is no rain). After the emergence of sprouts, we reduce watering to once a week (if there are no droughts). In early July, we water the onions even less often, so that excessive moisture does not interfere with the formation of the onions.
At any time we water carefully, as the young onion has thin feathers and it is easy to break them, and they are simply necessary for the formation of healthy bulbs.
Too frequent sowing must be thinned out so that between plants there is 3 cm of free space. Otherwise, you will get too small a set.
Weeding and loosening
In time, we rid the ridge of weeds, pulling it very carefully, so that it does not drag along onion seedlings. The shoots shifted from the place wither and die, so before removing the weeds we spill a bed of water.
With a strong compaction of the earth, we loosen the aisles 3 cm deep, without touching the onion sprouts.
Once a month we feed the future onion with urea, spreading a tablespoon in 10 liters of water. Per square meter will need 3 liters of solution.
Having figured out how to plant the onion sevok in the spring, and how to care for it, find out when to collect ripe onions.
When to clean the bow sets
The maturation of the plantation falls on the beginning-middle of August, when the feathers turn yellow and fall.
We take out a beam from the ridge and unfold to dry in a dry, ventilated room for two weeks. After we cut off the dried leaves and dry the onions for another five days so that they will not be further struck by powdery mildew or rot of the necks.
Pour dried sevok into cardboard boxes and store at room temperature in a dry place.
Having considered in detail the question of how to grow onion seedlings, you can easily get a harvest of onions for the subsequent cultivation of a full-fledged turnip. The main thing is to buy quality onion seeds and process them before sowing, otherwise you can be left without a crop.
How to grow onions from sevka
Sevok is a small onion that grows from onion seeds ("chernushki"). Growing onions from a sev is quite simple, you just need to follow simple technology.
Onions are resistant to cold, but because sevok can be planted in the beds at the end of April. By this time, the soil in the middle zone warms up to + 12 ° C, and the air temperature is at least + 5 ° C.
If cold weather suddenly returns in April-May, young shoots will easily carry them. - they are able to withstand frosts down to -3 ° C. But for an adult cold onion is very undesirable, because it ceases to grow and develop.
How to prepare the plot
Plot for onions begin to cook in the fall. They carefully dig it up with a spade on a full bayonet and choose all the weeds and roots.
After that, make a soil rotten peat or compost. But manure, contrary to popular belief, onions is contraindicated. Because of it, the green starts to grow magnificently, and the bulb itself remains underdeveloped.
Also in the fall in the soil contribute potassium phosphate fertilizers (2 tablespoons of granules per square meter). Fertilizers in the fall usually lay 3/4 of the norm, and everything else is added in the spring.
With the onset of spring the bed is loosened, nitrogen fertilizers and the rest of the phosphorus-potash fertilizers are applied. Rows under the bow is better to rake low, at a distance of 0.6 meters from each other.
Place for planting onions
For growing onions in open ground need sunny and well ventilated area. The soil here should be loose, with weak or neutral acidity.
You also need to take into account those crops that were grown on this site before. Onions grow poorly after garlic. But after cabbage or solanaceous (tomato, potato), it will feel great. Various fragrant herbs like dill or basil are considered a good predecessor.
In no case should the legumes grow near the onion: peas, beans or lentils. With other cultures, it gets along relatively well. However, the carrot is considered to be the ideal neighbor for onions: it scares the onion fly, and the onion, in turn, will drive off the carrot.
Some gardeners put on the onion beds (between the rows) calendula and marigolds. They will not only decorate the garden, but also scare away various pests from the onions. Flower beds with onions should be periodically transferred to a new location. This is usually done every 3-4 years.
Planting sevka to soil
Seed beds need to be prepared in advance. To do this, make it shallow grooves with a row spacing of 40 centimeters. If the ground is too dry, the furrows need to be watered with settled water.
Planted sevkah with an interval of approximately 6-8 cm. The gap depends on the size of the onion, as long as the tip peeks out slightly from under the ground.
Usually sevok grows quickly and all at once. After about 9-12 days, the first green feathers appear on the beds.
For the normal development of the onions do not need a lot of water. However, in the very first month it is necessary to ensure that the soil is wet and does not dry out. Water is usually watered once a week, but if the weather is dry, then you can and twice. After each watering the beds should be loosened.
The first month during the irrigation, the soil should be impregnated 10-12 cm deep. As the onion grows and the root system develops, the watering depth is increased to 20-25 centimeters. In the very last month before harvesting the onions are not watered at all. But at this time it is necessary to carry out "dry watering": more often loosen the soil, gradually freeing the upper parts of the bulbs from the ground. Contrary to popular delusion, onions should never be dear!
During the season, onions are fed three times:
- 2-3 weeks after landing. This is especially important if the feathers grow thin and colorless. For the first feeding apply a solution of nitrophosphate or urea. After this procedure, it is imperative to wash the residual fertilizer from the feathers. To do this, you can use a hose with a fine-capped nozzle.
- 3 weeks after the previous feeding. This time, onions are treated with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. 20-30 grams of superphosphate and 10-15 grams of potassium salt are taken on a bucket of water.
- The third dressing is done according to circumstances. It uses the same ingredients as last time.
Weeding and loosening
Onions - a very unpretentious culture, but it is very sensitive to the condition of the soil. That is why loosen the onion beds often and regularly. This should be done only manually, trying not to damage the roots, which lie on the bow at a depth of 10-30 centimeters.
Onions are also sensitive to weeds. Foreign plants do not allow moisture to evaporate normally, which is why the onions rot the roots and develop various diseases.
Diseases of onions and other problems
The most dangerous for onions are fungal diseases. These include, first of all, measles rot and powdery mildew. If we talk about pests, then the plant is most annoyed by thrips, onion flies and nematodes.
Measures must be taken immediately, at the first signs of fungal diseases and pests. These include discoloration of feathers, their wilting and twisting, the appearance of bright spots and spots. It is better not to use various aggressive pesticides. It will be correct to look for bio-insecticides and biofungicides that will not harm either the plant or man. Many of the problems associated with growing onions can be prevented in advance, without waiting for serious consequences. Here are the main ones:
- Dying off of young bulbs. The most common cause of the problem - too thick planting, without subsequent thinning. Another reason for the withering away of the bulbs can be untimely feeding and insufficient watering.
- Yellowed feathers. The reasons are the same: too tight fit and lack of moisture. However, sometimes the feathers turn yellow due to onion flies. Yellowed feathers lead to the early maturation of the bulbs, when they are too small.
- Incomplete ripening of the bulbs. The main reason for this is an excess of nitrogen in the soil. For prophylaxis, potash fertilizers should be applied to the soil (30-40 grams per square meter). The procedure is carried out in the middle of summer.
- Arrow formation. This happens if you buy sevka from unverified sellers. If there is any doubt, it is better to withstand sevings at a temperature of 25-30 ° C for two to three weeks before planting.
Onions are harvested in August, in the second half of the month. A rainy day will not work for this: onions will begin to rot and will be poorly stored. It is best to wait for truly sunny weather.
A month before harvesting, watering is stopped. The main sign that a crop can be harvested is a massive feather lodging. At the same time with the harvest it is better not to delay, otherwise the onions will grow again. Bulbs dig in and removed from the ground. If the weather is fine, they can be laid out to dry right on the garden: the sun will dry the onion better and kill any infections. Then the onions are dried indoors for about 7-10 days at 25-30 ° C. The last 12 hours you can raise the temperature to 45 ° C - this will be a good prevention of cervical rot.
The dried onions cut the leaves and leave the tails of 3-4 centimeters. For storage only mature and healthy bulbs are taken, on which there are no stains or damage. The crop should be stored in a dry, cool room, which is quite well ventilated. For storage it is better to use special nets, boxes and baskets.
How to grow onion sets yourself?
Although most gardeners prefer to buy sevok, it is easy to grow on their own. Onions in this case will cost the owners of the plots cheaper, and the result will be more predictable than from foreign sets.
The process itself consists of two stages: obtaining seeds and growing from them onion sets.
Planting onions for seeds
Seeds should be selected the best and healthy bulbs. They are slightly dried and placed in storage in a cool and damp place. About three weeks before planting, the bulbs are placed in a warmer (up to + 16 ° C) place. This temperature allows you to accelerate the growth of arrows.
Land for seed onions is prepared in the fall. They dig it up, pick roots and apply fertilizer. On 1 square meter should be 15-20 grams of potash fertilizer and 30 grams of phosphate.
The optimal time for planting in the open field is the third decade of April. It should be borne in mind that it will take 130 days for seeds to ripen, and they must be harvested before the first frost.
Before planting, it is recommended to cut the neck of the bulb. Во-первых, это ускорит появление всходов. А во-вторых, эта процедура поможет огородникам выявить больные и подгнившие луковицы.
После обрезки сразу же приступают к посадке. Для этого разрыхляют приготовленный с осени участок и загребают грядки, на которых делают канавки для луковиц. Грядки могут быть большими – до пяти рядов. At the aisle usually leave 25 centimeters, and the path between the beds is convenient to do 60 cm, adjusted for the possible installation of a greenhouse.
The bulbs are placed in the grooves Donets down. From each other, they should be at a distance of 15-20 cm, but then everything will be envy of their size. The planted bulbs gently fall asleep on top of the earth about 5 cm.
Seed onion care
Onions planted on seeds are regularly loosened and weed in the aisle. This helps to avoid peronosporoza and, as a consequence, a reduction in yield. Also recommended for the prevention of peronosporoza process onion with 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture, immediately after the testes grow.
So that the wind does not break and does not bring down the arrows, they must be strengthened. For this purpose, stakes are driven in along the borders of the beds, between which (along and across) they stretch the string. The recommended height of stakes is 1.5 meters, and the distance between them is 1 meter. Twine pull in three tiers at a distance of 40 cm from the ground and from each other.
Collecting and storing seeds
Unfortunately, the seeds do not ripen at the same time. Usually the first seeds ripen at the top of the umbrella, and only then - at the bottom. Gather umbrellas after they opened the boxes and seeded black seeds.
Umbrellas are cut together with the arrow (about 30 cm) and tied in bunches of 10-15 pieces. For the collection of seeds will require a well-ventilated room, for example, an attic. They can also be placed on the street under some canopy. Here you need to pull the wire and hang on it in pairs of bundles.
Under the wire lay burlap or film, on which the seeds will fall. The process can be accelerated slightly: to do this, periodically shake the wire or lightly tap on the beams. It is believed that the seeds that showered themselves, germinate better and sprout.
Sometimes it happens that due to unfavorable weather the seeds do not have time to ripen. But even in this case, they need to be removed, because frost can ruin the entire crop.
In this case, the arrows are pulled right along with the bulbs - so they can ripen even indoors. They are laid obliquely on the stretched wire, and a cloth is laid on the floor to collect the seeds.
Collected seeds need to veg, pour into water, mix and leave to stand for 10 minutes. Healthy seeds will fall to the bottom, and underdeveloped seeds, remnants of inflorescences and any garbage will be on the surface.
Good seeds are placed on a burlap in a thin layer and dried, mixing them periodically. Dried seeds are stored in paper bags in a dry place at room temperature. The maximum shelf life is 3 years.
Caring for sevke
Seeds in open ground germinate very slowly - about 2-3 weeks, and sometimes over a whole month. To accelerate their germination and growth, you need to build a small greenhouse. The film should be located only 20-30 centimeters from the surface. Due to this, moisture and microclimate ideal for seeds appear in the greenhouse.
Onion seedlings are small cotyledons that look like loops. If suddenly the roots got to the surface, then we remove such a bow - it will not survive anyway. If the landing turned out too dense, then it is thinned. The first leaf of the onion is formed 12 days after germination.
Sevok collected near the end of the garden season. The main sign that the crop has ripened is a yellowed and dead leaf. Onion dug and thin lay out to dry in the sun.
Sevok stored at a temperature of 17-18 ° C. Exceed it is not desirable, otherwise the bow next year will go to the arrow.