In order to develop properly, the plant must receive nutrients in a timely manner. The most important of these is potassium. Its insufficient amount in the soil layers helps to replenish potash fertilizers. It is customary to calculate the content of an element in the form of its oxide (K2O).
In plant cells, potassium is present in ionic form in the cytoplasm and cell sap. It is smaller in the older parts of plants, as well as in roots, seeds and tubers. Potassium is rich in young leaves and stems. In the straw of potassium cereals more than in grains. Together with manure, the element returns to the soil (straw is used as a bedding for animals), thereby restoring its fertility.
With sufficient flow of potassium into the plant:
- The oxidation processes in the cells are more intense.
- Cell metabolism is increasing.
- The plant is easier to tolerate the lack of moisture.
- Photosynthesis is accelerating.
- Increases enzymatic activity.
- It is easier to exchange proteins and carbohydrates.
- Plants more quickly adapt to negative temperatures.
- More organic acids are formed.
- Resistance to pathogenic factors increases.
With a shortage of potassium:
- From simple carbohydrates are not synthesized complex.
- The formation of protein in the cells is terminated.
- There is a delay in the development of reproductive organs.
- The stalk becomes weak.
Plants need potassium more than all other nutrients. For the harmonious development of vegetable crops, for example, it is necessary to deposit 250 kg K per hectare of area.2O. For cereals, the rate is slightly less.
What are the signs of potassium deficiency?
Potassium deficiency mainly affects crops growing on light soils. Symptoms of a lack of an element become noticeable during strong growth (in summer).
- Brown spotting develops.
- The leaves change color: turn yellow, then turn brown. May appear bluish with a bronze shade.
- There is a "regional burn" - the death of the tips and edges of the leaf blade.
- The veins on the leaves are immersed deep in the fabric.
- There is a thinning of the stem. It becomes less dense.
- The plant ceases to grow rapidly.
- On the leaf surface is wrinkled.
- The leaves begin to curl into a tube.
- Marked inhibition of budding.
The soil content of potassium varies greatly depending on its structure. It is better to keep it heavy (loam, clay) soil. In them, the content of the useful element reaches three percent. In light soils it is less (not more than 0.05%). The most potassium depleted is peaty soil.
The main quantity of the element is in the upper soil horizon. But the majority of potassium cannot be absorbed by plants, since it is a part of poorly soluble substances. And only 10% of the element is available for assimilation. Therefore, to increase the yield, the lack of nutrients must be replenished with potash fertilizers. They dissolve well in water, and potassium becomes readily available for plant crops.
Potash ores - raw materials for the production of potash fertilizers
Potassium fertilizers include:
- Potassium-containing ores,
- Concentrate from natural fertilizers,
- By-products of industry.
The main types of potash fertilizers are produced by processing natural salts:
- Containing sulfur: K2SO4∙ 2MgSO4 - langbeinite, KCl ∙ MgSO4∙ 3H2O - Cainite, K2SO4∙ MgSO4∙ 6H2O - Shenit.
- Chlorides: KCl ∙ MgCl2∙ 6H2O - carnallite, nNaCl mKCl - sylvinite.
The composition of natural salts is different. In terms of potassium content, sylvinite, langbeinite, and shenite (about 25%) lead.
Of the 120 known natural potassium compounds for processing is their limited amount.
Concentrate of natural potassium ores
It is unprofitable to use pure natural ores for feeding crops, since they contain a large amount of ballast (unnecessary) components. Due to ballast, the price of depositing and shipping increases. And some components are even harmful to individual plants (for example, sodium chloride contained in natural sylvinite). Therefore, the task of the potash industry is the processing of natural ores in order to extract highly concentrated fertilizers from them. Cainite and sodium sylvinite are used most often for enrichment, from which concentrated potassium chloride is obtained by industrial methods.
The most common nutritional concentrates:
Its production is about 90% of all potassium-containing tuk. This fertilizer is rich in potassium (up to 63% in terms of oxide). In appearance, these are small crystals of white with a gray shade or pink. They have a high hygroscopicity (water absorption). Therefore, there are problems with storage and transportation. This is a very significant drawback. Entire research institutions are currently working on this issue. One of the options for reducing caking is granulation. Numerous methods for treating crystal grains with various anti-caking components are also proposed.
The largest enterprises for the production of potassium chloride are in Canada (about 38% of world production), in Russia (32%), Belarus (9%).
Potassium chloride is extracted from natural ore in two ways: halurgic and flotation:
- Galurgic method. Solubility at a certain temperature of different salts is different. This is the essence of the method of separation of potassium chloride and sodium chloride. If you increase the temperature from room temperature to 100 ○, then the solubility of potassium chloride almost doubles, and the solubility of sodium chloride practically does not change. The potassium chloride crystals obtained are white and highly compacted. Waste production is sodium chloride, from which technical salt and soda are obtained.
- Flotation method. The components of sylvinite have a different ability to adsorb substances that increase their hydrophobic properties (non-wettability with water). The basis of their separation is based on this. The potassium chloride crystals obtained are pink, rather large. Hydrophobic additives, which remain on their surface, reduce hygroscopicity, and ultimately - caking, fertilizer.
Not all plants tolerate chlorine, which most potash fertilizers contain. Therefore, potassium sulfate is a real find for such plants. It contains about 50% K2O. Another advantage of fertilizer - the lack of hygroscopicity, because of problems with transportation and storage does not arise.
Pure potassium sulfate is a small white-colored crystals with a yellowish tinge. To obtain potassium sulfate use natural fertilizers: langbeinit and Shenit. However, today they have learned to process potassium chloride. A small amount of potassium sulfate is formed during the industrial production of other substances as a by-product.
This is a more expensive fertilizer because it is used mainly for crops that do not tolerate chlorine: grapes, tobacco, buckwheat. Good potassium sulphate has proven itself when growing vegetables in greenhouses. For some plants (cruciferous, legumes) sulfur is useful, which is also found in potassium sulphate.
This fertilizer is obtained by processing chenite. Its advantage is the presence of magnesium (9% in terms of MgO). K2O is less in it than in other potassium-containing fertilizers - 29%. It has a pink with a gray tint color and very fine structure (very dusty). It does not absorb water, so it is well stored and transported. Quite effective, especially on light soils.
40% potassium salt
To obtain it, mix potassium chloride with sylvinite. Natural fertilizer becomes more concentrated. The resulting mixture consists of small crystals of pink, grayish and white. Under plants that do not tolerate chlorine, make it not recommended. Its content in the mixture is even greater than in pure potassium chloride.
If you mix potassium chloride with another common natural ore - Cainite, you can get 30% potassium salt. The advantage of this mixture - in the content of magnesium. It is especially useful to apply it on soils depleted by this element (sandy, sandy, peaty).
Cement dust contains quite a lot of potassium - from 10 to 35%. The element is part of various salts: bicarbonates, sulfates, silicates, carbonates. All of these salts are highly soluble, so potassium easily enters plant cells. This fertilizer is applied to crops that do not tolerate chlorine. In addition, it has alkalizing properties and neutralizes acidic soils.
This chlorine-free fertilizer is available for both villagers and many summer residents. Ash contains potash (potassium carbonate). Its amount varies greatly in different types of fuel. For example, ash of young deciduous plants contains up to 14% of potassium oxide. In the old conifers it is less. Ash can be called complex fertilizer, because, in addition to potassium, it contains phosphorus. The presence of potassium oxide in the ashes allows it to be used on soils with high acidity.
The general trend in world practice has been the expansion of the production of complex tuk with a simultaneous reduction of unilateral forms. ATDual (nitrogen-potassium and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers) and triple (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers) are produced. Based on the production method, they are complex, mixed and combined.
Complex potassium-containing tuki:
- Potassium nitrate (KNO3). It contains about 46% K2O and 13% nitrogen. These are small crystals, painted in gray-white with a yellow tint color. They are soluble in water, not hygroscopic. Mainly used for growing vegetables.
- Ammophosphate. Most of it potassium - 30%. Also contains 4% nitrogen, 24% phosphorus.
- Nitrofoska. It contains equal amounts of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus oxides. Fertilizer is obtained by the decomposition of apatite by the sulfur-nitric acid method, with neutralization of the extract with ammonia and the addition of potassium chloride.
- Liquid complex fertilizers. The composition of utility services includes potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus.
Usually, the presence of potassium in complex tukas is indicated by the letter “k” in the title. Recently, however, the name does not always reflect the composition. Therefore, you need to carefully read the instructions on the package.
The composition of potassium-containing fertilizers includes substances that are perfectly soluble in water. When they are applied to the soil, they quickly react with its components. K + is bound by soil colloids. The chlorine anions, remaining in solution, are easily washed out of the soil layers.
Potash fertilizers, especially chlorine-containing fertilizers, are better for digging in autumn.. The substances are mixed with the wetter part of the soil where the main root system is located. Nutrient absorption is faster.
If the soil is light, then potassium-containing tuks can be applied in spring, since potassium is weakly retained in such a soil and is quickly washed out.
Potassium fertilizers have a high acidity, so they are often used together with calcium fertilizers or lime. On chernozem (sierozem) soils having an alkaline reaction, potash fertilizers do not have a negative effect on plants.
What is potassium fertilizer
For this type of soil additive, plants are characterized by a high content of potassium (K) and its oxides. Mineral ensures the effective distribution of sugar within the tissues of crops. The element itself and its oxides stimulate the development of foliage, increase resistance to parasites, diseases, external negative factors. In combination with other components, the mineral makes the fruit more sweet, juicy and suitable for long-term storage without the use of preservatives.
Potash fertilizers are supplied to the market under a huge number of grades, but in general they are divided into 3 large groups. Concentrated formulations are made using direct ore processing in production. These include potassium sulfate and potassium chloride, potassium magnesium sulfate, potassium magnesium concentrate. The second group is raw potash salts (kainit, sylvinite). A third type of formulation is obtained by mixing pure and concentrated bases.
Potash fertilizers themselves are produced mainly in Canada, Belarus and Russia. They account for about 85% of the ore deposits. Development of deposits are made by type of coal (open and closed type). Raw materials for fertilizers are delivered to production, where they are ground, mixed, processed to the desired type of fertilizer and then delivered to sales points.
What is potassium for plants?
On mineral-unsaturated soils, plants of even the hardiest varieties show low yields, while more demanding crops die. Lack of potassium affects the growth and quality of fruits. This is due to the fact that complex carbohydrates do not form complex, the reproductive organs of plants degrade, and protein synthesis stops. The normal potassium content contributes to:
- increased cellular metabolism
- high resistance to pathogens,
- increase in organic acids
- increased resistance to temperature, frost resistance,
- enzymatic activity
- accelerate photosynthesis,
- increased metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins,
- acceleration of cellular metabolism.
Potassium deficiency is determined by external factors. Unfortunately, novice farmers get this knowledge only empirically, so it is important to look closely at the external signs of a deficiency of microelements that will manifest themselves in the summer period. Another way is to plant information about the local composition of the soil before planting and select the appropriate type of fertilizer to compensate for the mineral deficit. External signs of potassium deficiency in plants are as follows:
- the delay in the formation of buds,
- leaves become wrinkled, twisting occurs,
- reduced growth rate
- stems become thin,
- the veins in the leaves and tissues of the plant go deep into the body,
- edge burns appear - the edges of the leaves darken, die off,
- the shade of foliage becomes bluish or yellow with a pronounced bronze tint,
- stem and foliage become weak and fragile,
- brown spots appear.
Types of potash fertilizers
There are two options for the separation of feedings with potassium. Chemical composition of fertilizers are sulphate and chloride. This determines the full range of components relative to the total mass of potassium and the method of processing ore in production. In terms of saturation, fertilizers are concentrated or raw (pure ore, which has not undergone cardinal processing at the enterprise).
In the market, this type of feeding is considered the most popular. The presence of chlorine inhibits plant growth, reduces the quality of the crop, so for chlorophobic cultures, these types of mixtures are not used. Fertilizer is applied only in the fall (it is necessary to withstand the dosage), so that the chloride component will evaporate from the soil by spring. A key disadvantage of fertilizer is a high ability of salt accumulation in the soil, which increases its acidity. Characteristics of the substance:
- visual description: pink crystals,
- chemical composition: Cl (chlorine) - 40%, K (potassium) - 46-65%,
- advantages: high degree of soil acidification,
- disadvantages: strong hygroscopicity, problematic storage, does not suit some plants,
- recommendations for use: it is desirable to apply fertilizer only in the fall, it is important to respect the dosage.
Another name for this fertilizer is potassium sulphate. It is effective for legumes, cruciferous. In the feeding there is no chlorine. It is used in cases when plants do not tolerate the chlorine component in the soil (strawberries, grapes, tomatoes, cucumbers or buckwheat, roses, tobacco). Sulfur in the composition of the fertilizer prevents the accumulation of nitrates in the soil. Traditionally, this top dressing is obtained from natural minerals langbeinite and schonite. It is used in autumn and spring for closed and open ground. Characteristics of potash supplementation:
- visual description: gray or whitish small crystals,
- chemical composition: sulfur - up to 20%, K - 50%,
- advantages: it is allowed to use at any time of the year, the mixture absorbs moisture from the air poorly (it is well preserved even in an open container),
- disadvantages: it is not used with lime compounds, it is not used on soils with high acidity,
- recommendations for use: the choice of dose of the mixture should be calculated for a specific culture.
This is the most affordable product that is used for feeding plants in private gardens. If ordinary firewood without paint or chemical impregnation was used as a raw material, this fertilizer can be considered environmentally friendly. This gray powder is suitable for all types of soil (clay, sand, black soil) and plants. Use ashes year-round in dry form or mixed with water. It is important not to confuse wood ashes with a stove (when coal or coal dust is additionally used for firing). Characteristics of the substance:
- visual description: gray-black powder,
- chemical composition: depends on the type of wood burnt,
- advantages: accessibility, ease of use, the almost complete absence of negative qualities,
- disadvantages: strong volatility in dry form, incompatibility with some types of superphosphates,
- recommendations for use: when feeding plants, it is desirable to use the ash of one type of wood.
The basis of the substance is potash (potassium carbonate). Its percentage in ash depends on the type of wood that has been burned. For example, deciduous saplings of young trees contain up to 14% of potash. Wood ash can be used on soils with a high level of acidity, but it cannot be combined with bird droppings, manure, superphosphates, nitrogen mixtures. In addition to potassium, ash contains:
Potassium fertilizers - their importance and use
If the plant lacks potassium, then ammonia begins to accumulate in its cells. This leads to instability before fungal diseases, exhaustion of shoots. After all, then in green cells, the generation of protein and synthesis of composite carbohydrates are suspended, the stem is made weak. With a deficit of potassium in the soil, the fruits and flowers on the stems do not originate. The excess of this trace element also adversely affects the formation of culture. You should know all the features of the use of potash fertilizers, be more careful with them and not overestimate the dosing.
What are potassium fertilizers for?
You need to know the effect of potash fertilizers on plants. Thanks to him:
- In plant cells, the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins is intensified, sugar accumulates, photosynthesis is accelerated, and water balance is regulated.
- Culture is better accustomed to low temperatures and harmful bacteria, tolerates drought and moisture deficiency.
- The resistance of plants to diseases - rot, powdery mildew, rust - rises.
- Commodity and flavor characteristics of vegetables are improved, they are better preserved in winter.
- Potassium is important for the flowering flora, when it is deficient, the buds either do not form at all or are tied inconspicuous.
When to apply potash fertilizer to the soil?
The application of potash fertilizers to the soil depends on their composition. Chlorine-containing mixtures close up under the autumn digging. Seedlings can not be fed with such feeds, otherwise young shoots may die. When to make potash fertilizers:
- Potassium chloride. Since chlorine is included in the structure, potassium chloride is added to the soil previously. They fall asleep on the site for the winter before plowing, it is prohibited to fertilize the land before planting.
- Potassium sulfate. Drawn up in the autumn and spring in the hole. In the winter before digging - at the rate of 30 g per 1 m 2, and in the spring before planting - 5 g per 1 m 2.
- Potassium salt. It has a lot of chlorine, enrich the earth with it in the fall. The amount of potassium salt per 1 m 2 - 30-40 g.
- Potassium nitrate. Falls asleep in the spring, when progressing new shoots. Norm - 20 g per 1 m 2, diluted in 10 liters of water.
Potassium fertilizer - application
Nutrients are absorbed most of all by plants in spring and autumn. When deciding which potash fertilizer is best to use, you need to take into account the sensitivity of each subspecies to chlorine. In case of intolerance of this component, it is better to choose a sulfate preparation. Often, farmers use potash saltpeter, because it is acceptable for all plant species.
Potash fertilizers for indoor plants
Flowers are demanding of potassium, when it is deficient, they slow down growth, the duration of budding, the leaves fall off. After winter, in a fertile mixture, this mineral should prevail over nitrogen, and in the fall - vice versa. Potash fertilizers for home colors:
- Potassium sulfate is introduced together with nitrogen-phosphorus feed in spring and autumn.
- At the time of flowering is better to apply potassium nitrate.
- Relevant to floriculture and wood ash.
Mineral preparations are produced in liquid, dry (granules) form, in the form of sticks. Particularly relevant complex compounds, including the main minerals in a particular percentage of compliance. Compositions with a high content of potassium and phosphorus are relevant for feeding ornamental flowering species, nitrogen - for decorative leafy. Dilute them and select dosages as prescribed on the package. Feed the plants during the season of active vegetation, leaf growth and budding.
Potash fertilizers with their own hands
To support plants, you can make potash fertilizers at home:
- The most freely available ingredient is wood ash. It contains potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron and copper. Ash is used in dry form or diluted with liquids. To prepare the composition of 25 g of the component pour 1 liter of water and leave for 8-10 days. The resulting tool watered plants. Garden crops are fed with dry ash - they are scattered on the site in a volume of 200 g per 1 m 2 throughout the season. Ash can be put in the wells (a handful) when planting plants.
- Cement dust is also potash fertilizer, not including chlorine. Recharge (20-25 g per 1 l of water) is relevant on acidic soil grounds, capable of neutralizing them, beneficial for crops that are not sensitive to chlorine.
Potash fertilizers - harm to humans
Traditional potash mineral fertilizers with adjusted volumes of application will not cause harm to humans. Their overdose can lead to the death of plants, deterioration of the quality of the crop. With special care should be used drugs with chlorine - they are allowed to make only in the autumn, so that chlorine is more likely to evaporate from the soil, and the potassium is stronger in it.
Of all the mineral preparations, nitrogenous are the most dangerous for humans. This is potassium, calcium, ammonium nitrate. When the dose is exceeded, they turn into nitrates and, if they enter the human body, they can cause suffocation, cancers, and cause poisoning. Therefore, if the processing of plants used complex potash fertilizers, in the structure of which is included, and nitrogen, then the measures of seeding substances must be strictly followed.
What fertilizers are potash
The role of potassium in the life of plants is great. What gardener does not use them? Mining is conducted from ore, in deposits of natural type. This fertilizer can be used on any soil composition:
- clay terrain
- on sandy beds.
The element is responsible for the growth of foliage and increases the resistance of the culture to all sorts of diseases and parasites. Fruits that are rich in potassium are well preserved in winter. The composition introduced into the soil is almost completely absorbed by plants.
It is perfectly combined with many mineral components, creates complex mixtures with them. There are many means, and each is different by its name.
How to determine the lack of mineral in the soil
Most of the potash needs to be supplied by plants cultivated in light peat areas. Especially strongly signs of failure of this element are expressed in the summer season:
- brown leaves appear on the leaves,
- foliage changes shade, becomes yellow or bluish with a bronze sheen,
- “edge burns” are observed - the tips and edges of the sheet begin to die off,
- the veins are deeply immersed in green tissue
- the stem becomes thin,
- landing stops intense growth,
- wrinkles appear on the leaves, they curl,
- the process of bud formation is suspended.
It is a mixture of potassium chloride and finely ground sylvinites. The percentage reaches forty, which makes feeding not so suitable for feeding plants that are sensitive to potassium chloride. For this reason, the composition is introduced into the soil in the fall, during the percoping of the beds. In the spring, it is allowed to use salt if the soil is heavily overwetted. Water will wash chlorine, and potassium will remain in the soil. In the summer, the composition is not used.
The structure differs in the increased hygroscopicity, quickly begins to cake when moistened. In this case, its properties are lost. To improve the performance, lime is sometimes added to it, but then there is a threat of an increase in acidity in the soil.
The use of potassium fertilizers for vegetable crops
Vegetables are very demanding to nutrition, moisture and temperature. They have a weak root system located in the arable soil layer. Therefore, they must be grown on well-aerated, fertile soils. All vegetable crops according to the degree of nutrient removal are divided into several groups. Some of the most beloved by the people of vegetables - tomatoes and cucumbers - belong to the middle group, and less than all makes potassium from the soil radishes.
A good harvest cannot be harvested without the use of potash fertilizers. The fact is that such dressings are vital for all crops in the summer cottage, and in the land they are not enough. However, to make mineral feed with potassium content must be properly. In this case, the plants will become more resistant to temperature extremes and other adverse factors. If fertilizers are used incorrectly, then the probability is high that the seedling will die.
There are several types of mineral dressings with the content of this component, but the principle of their action is almost the same. Potassium is also found in complex compound fertilizers, such as nitrophoska, diammophoska or amophosphate.
Why saplings need this element
This element does not take part in the growth of greenery, does not stimulate the growth of fruits, but the plant still cannot do without it. The task of potassium is the delivery of nutrients to the stem and above. It also stimulates the strengthening of tissues, creates conditions that impede the appearance of diseases.
Properly used mineral fertilizers based on this element improve the taste of the crop. Most of it is contained in buds, young shoots and shoots. With a deficiency of this element, the plant is trying to cope on its own, taking the nutrient from the "adult" parts of the culture. Changes can be noticed almost immediately, as the deficit of potassium is noticeable in the external appearance of the plant.
The introduction of mineral supplements based on potassium is useful for plants
- Accelerate oxidative processes in the cell,
- stimulate the acceleration of photosynthesis,
- increase the enzymatic activity
- enhance cellular metabolism
- promote easy metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins
- stimulate the formation of more organic acids.
Fertilizer deficiency in culture
- Cessation of protein formation in the cell,
- inhibition of the development of reproductive organs,
- termination of the synthesis of complex carbohydrates from simple.
Changes due to lack of this component
- The development of brown spot,
- changing the color of foliage from green to brown,
- the edges of the sheet plate begin to die off,
- stem thinning
- leaf twisting
- slower landing growth
- delayed budding process.
It should be noted that this substance is perfectly combined with other minerals. In addition, most plants easily absorb the main component.
The name of potash mineral fertilizers and the dose of application for growing plants
It is not rational to use mined ores containing potassium, since they contain components that can damage crops (sodium chloride). For this reason, potash ores are processed in different ways to obtain high-quality, nutrient fertilizers with a high concentration of the beneficial substance.
As a result of processing, various types of mineral feed based on it are produced.
Potassium (potassium) saltpeter
This fertilizer is most loved by plants during fruiting. In addition, this substance is the main for greenhouse crops. In addition to the main element (37%), nitrate is present in nitrate (13%), which is also essential for all plants. This tool can be used for the main application and for foliar recharge. On a hundred of territory it is recommended to take 20 grams of the drug, which should be dissolved in a large bucket of water. The best time for feeding is the time of growth of young shoots and the budding period. If, in addition to potassium nitrate, fertilizers containing nitrogen (ammonium nitrate, urea) are used, their dosage should be reduced by half.
Other name - potassium carbonate. This is a new fertilizer that does not contain chlorine. In industrial conditions, it is mined by treating potassium salts. Its composition contains a high concentration of its oxide (55%). Also in the substance are magnesium and sulfur, but in small quantities. On the weave garden should not make more than 20 grams. If the procedure is carried out in the autumn, then it can be slightly increased (up to 60 grams). For spring fertilizer you will need 95 grams of mineral matter.
Potassium Fertilizer Rules
At the first sign of potassium deficiency, mineral feed should be made based on it, but fertilizer should be applied correctly. There are several options for fertilizing, but it needs to be done quickly, because minerals are quickly absorbed by the earth, and after 24 hours their effect will lose its effectiveness.
Its goal is to provide planting with useful components for the entire growth period. The process is carried out in the fall or with the onset of spring.
Adding beneficial mineral elements when sowing or planting seedlings. His goal is to help the young seedling to take root quickly.
Such manipulations are carried out during the entire summer garden season. The task of post-sowing fertilizer - to fill the nutrient deficiency.
It is best to feed in small doses on the surface of the earth, a couple of times during the season, than a full dose in a single application. The first option is more effective. Basically, experienced gardeners for these purposes, take potassium nitrate. For the preparation of the nutrient mixture it is necessary to dissolve 35 g of the substance in 10 liters of water. For each landing will require at least a liter of useful solution. Manipulation is recommended to be repeated periodically, maintaining an interval of 14 days.
Top dressing of tomatoes, cucumbers and flowers with potash fertilizers
Tomatoes A large amount of potassium is not required, but it is also impossible without it, because the quality of the fruit depends on its quantity. A few mineral feeds are enough for tomatoes (calculations per square meters):
- When landing - 100 grams,
- makeup - 150 gr,
- top dressing - 300 gr.
Cucumberson the contrary, are demanding on this element. The first must be carried out after a couple of weeks after disembarkation, and the second - when the flowering of the vegetable begins.
- When sowing - 100 gr,
- first fertilizer - 200 gr,
- second feed - 400 gr.
Concerning colors, they are such vital feed. As a rule, potassium sulfate is added, but in combination with phosphate and nitrogen supplements. Do not exceed the dose of 20 grams.
When the plants bloom, it is better to use saltpeter with the content of the main element as a mineral additive.
It contains nitrogen, which favorably affects the development of plants. The fertilizer composition is perfectly preserved in a dry storage. With a little moisture, it hardens and becomes almost unusable. It should be made in the spring, during planting. The use of saltpeter is also permitted in the summer season.
The value of cement dust
The element is a part of a variety of salts that dissolve well, which makes it possible for potassium to easily saturate plant cells. It is applied to crops that react poorly to chlorine. With it, you can still neutralize the acidity of the soil. Therefore, the value of such feeding is great.
Value feedings in plant life
Oxidation in plant cells is more intense, there is an increase in cellular metabolism. Cultures easily respond to insufficient moisture, photosynthesis goes faster. There is a rapid adaptation to negative temperatures, the level of resistance to pathogenic manifestations increases.
Application technology for plants
There are three options for the use of fertilizers:
Most used in the fall, as many of its varieties contain chlorine. Dosages are set taking into account the exhaustion of the earth.
It will be better if you scatter the fertilizer several times over the surface, maintaining a distance of fifteen centimeters from the roots. Liquid formulations are effective, they should be prepared according to the instructions.
Additive is really popular. It is only necessary to remember that an excess dose of potassium or irregularities in the use of the composition harm not only the plants, but also the soil composition. Particular caution should be exercised with compounds containing chlorine.
- the cells are actively oxidizing,
- cellular metabolism becomes more intense
- the process of photosynthesis is significantly accelerated,
- enzyme activity gets higher
- the exchange of proteins and carbohydrates is faster and easier
- at negative temperature the plant adapts faster to the new environment,
- The amount of organic acid formation increases.
Effects of potassium deficiency
- The occurrence of brown spot.
- Leaves can change their color.
- The veins on the leaflets dive quite deep into the tissue.
- Stem significantly reduced.
- The plant stops intense growth.
- After some time, the sheets begin to curl into tubes.
Characteristics of potash fertilizers
This variety is mined mainly from potash ores in natural locations. Удобрения этого класса можно смело вносить в любой тип почвы. Кроме этого, калий является довольно важным элементом для развития общего состояния растения, так как именно он способствует распространению сахаров in all plant tissues, and it is extremely necessary for normal plant nutrition.
Potassium is also able to be responsible for the growth of leaf cover and significantly increase plant resistance to the development of various diseases and pests. Fruits that contain the required amount of potassium are well stored in the winter.
In general, this type of fertilizer can be divided into two large groups, which, in turn, include different types.
- potassium chloride - This type consists of more than 65% potassium and a few percent of chlorine, which is why it is completely non-toxic to plants, as many people think. In order to directly fertilize the soil, experts recommend making it in advance. It is best to do this in the autumn. Potassium chloride has positively established itself in berry crop fertilizer. It is categorically unacceptable to use potassium chloride for soil fertilizers just before planting, this procedure will adversely affect the plant as a whole.
- potassium sulfate - this fertilizer has another name, namely potassium sulphate. This type is used quite often, since it is considered to be considered one of the best. Among other varieties, only potassium sulphate has no additives that are toxic to the plant. As a top dressing, it can be applied directly to the well just before planting. The amount that can be applied at one time is calculated individually depending on the size and characteristics of the plant. In addition, potassium sulphate can be used both in open and in closed ground,
- potassium salt - This variety consists of potassium chloride and sylvinite. Contains a significant amount of chloride, so it should not be used for plants that react negatively to chlorine. Plants that are able to perceive chlorine well are fertilized according to the recommendations and dosage of fertilizer on the package. Experts recommend making it for the soil in which peat, sand and sandy loam prevail
- potassium carbonate - besides the main name, it is also called potassium carbonate or potash. Top dressing of this type does not include chlorine. Most of it, namely more than 50%, is potassium oxide, a small amount of magnesium and sulfur. Potassium carbonate is often used in potato fertilizer. At various kinds of industrial enterprises, this type is obtained by processing naturally potassium salts. On the garden plot, this fertilizer is obtained by the complete processing of various plants and ashes,
-wood ash - this fertilizer consists of natural ingredients, in addition, it is a relatively inexpensive and readily available potash fertilizer. Ash consists mainly of potassium (about 12%), calcium compounds, phosphorus and magnesium-containing elements. Use this type, according to many experts, it is possible in any period of the year. In the autumn, ash is introduced just before the start of plowing; in spring, ash must be introduced just before planting.
In the summer, it is permissible to use ash as a dry fertilizer, and also to dilute it with liquid, which will make it possible to obtain a complex fertilizer. With the help of wood ash it is possible to achieve not only the saturation of the plant with important elements, but also to significantly protect them from pests,
- cement dust - This type is obtained from various waste cement production. Dust is a potash fertilizer and does not contain chlorine impurities at all. Experts recommend feeding with its help on acid soils.
- potassium nitrate - most often saltpeter is used directly for plants that are in a state of fruiting. In addition, saltpeter is often used for crops grown in greenhouses. And since it contains more than 40 potassium and about 15% nitrogen, which are so necessary for normal growth and yield, saltpeter allows you to get a large amount of good yield. Potassium nitrate can also be used for dressing externally. Liquid character fertilizers are introduced mainly in the spring, when new shoots begin to develop. However, an excess of nitre leads to the partial or complete destruction of the plant,
- Kalimagnezia - this fertilizer consists of two components, namely potassium and magnesium. Most often it is used for sandy and sandy soils. Kalimagneziya is used for plants that have an increased level of sensitivity to chlorine,
- nitroammophoska - this type of fertilizer is considered to be nitrogen-potassium and is ideal for soil that needs phosphorus fertilization. If you make this fertilizer in a timely manner, you can get a plant with abundant flowering and well-developed fruits. Nitroammofosku is considered an inexpensive and quality type that can be used for both garden and garden crops. It includes the three most essential minerals necessary for the normal development and growth of any plant microorganism: 28% potassium, 23% phosphorus, 49% nitrogen components.
It is possible to use nitroammofoska for any soil, however, it interacts most favorably with chernozem and alumina.
Soil fertilization rules
Potassium fertilizers contain substances that interact well and quickly with water. When they are directly applied to the ground, there is an instantaneous reaction of the fertilizer with the ground. Chlorine, which contains some varieties of potash fertilizers, is washed out gradually. The duration of the washout period directly depends on the amount of fertilizer applied, which contains chlorine.
Fertilizers, which have potassium, are recommended by agrarians to make fertilizers in October, when the ground is digging for the winter. It is at this time that the necessary mixing of the fertilizer with the wet layer of the earth takes place, where the root of the plant itself is located. In autumn, nutrient substances are absorbed much faster than, for example, in summer. When the earth has a loose and light structure, the potash type is recommended to be made either in March or in April. Adding during this period allows useful substances to leach out longer from the soil. And since potash has a high level of acidity, it is best to take it along with lime.
Potassium-type fertilizers are important, as they allow the plant to be fully provided with the elements necessary for its development. More than 75% of potassium is in the sap of the plant and is washed out fairly easily and quickly with water. When a deficiency of this element occurs, a slowdown occurs in the growth of the plant, which further leads to complete death. In addition, this type can have a beneficial effect on the intensity of photosynthesis in a plant, as well as significantly accelerate the exchange of both carbohydrate and nitrogen.
In comparison with other vegetable plants the tomato is not too picky. To get 100 kg of fruit you need about 50 kg of readily available potassium. Fresh tomatoes are not recommended for tomatoes, as there is a strong accumulation of vegetative mass. These plants require a high content of phosphate fertilizers. Potash fertilizers do not particularly increase the yield, but have an impact on the quality of the fruit.
For tomatoes it is recommended to make K2O in the following quantities:
- with sowing - 0.1 kg per hundred,
- 1 top dressing - 0.15 kg per hundred,
- 2 dressing - 0.3 kg per hundred.
Plants are very demanding on soil fertility. To grow 100 kg of cucumber, it takes 44 kg of potassium. In addition to pre-sowing tuk, the cucumber needs additional feeding: the first - two weeks after planting, at the beginning of flowering - the second.
For cucumbers, it is recommended to make K2O in quantity:
- simultaneously with sowing - 0.1 kg per hundred,
- 1 top dressing - 0.2 kg per hundred,
- 2 dressing - 0.4 kg per hundred.
Fertilizer flowers and fruit crops
At different periods of growth, plants require different amounts of potassium. Nutrients are absorbed the most in spring and autumn. And in the spring, potassium over nitrogen should prevail in the fertilizer mixture, and in the fall - vice versa. Phosphorus is consumed throughout the development period.. The K: P: N ratio for an apple tree, for example, is 2.53: 1: 1.95.
The best results are provided by the autumn application of potash corpses. However, according to research, a high effect is also observed when using them during the rest period (from October to spring).
Grapes make a lot of potassium from the soil, therefore it is necessary to fertilize it with potassium-containing tusks annually. Ash is an excellent potash fertilizer for this crop. You can make it in a dry form (a bucket for one plant), or in the form of an extract (dilute the ash with water, leave for three days).
Some gardeners believe that the more fertilizer to make under the plants, the better: supposedly, oil can not spoil the porridge. Mineral fertilizers are poured by eye. This can not be done. An accurate calculation of the dose of the fat is needed, based on the type of plant, its growing season, the type of fertilizer, the rate of application.
Why do plants need potassium
I learned from my own experience that potash fertilizers help plants to become more resilient, resistant to droughts and frosts, they provide faster growth and the formation of fruits.
If “burned” edges and a bluish tint or small “rusty” markings appeared on the leaves, and the buds and inflorescences became sluggish and frail, then it is possible to diagnose potassium deficiency in the plant without hesitation.
In large quantities, potassium is needed in sunflower, buckwheat, beet (including sugar), potatoes and other vegetable crops. Less potassium is consumed by rye, wheat and other grains.
Proper fertilization will help the plant to acquire many useful properties, increase immunity to disease and natural phenomena, while inept use of fertilizers can lead to various unpleasant consequences, including the death of plants. The use of fertilizers requires great care and attention. The first step is to take into account the type of plant and soil composition. In heavy clay soils, potassium is always more than in light sandy soils, the most poor in potassium soil is peat. It is necessary to take into account the fact that potash fertilizers are chloride and sulphate, and each of these types has its own purpose, its own advantages and, unfortunately, disadvantages.