Bearded irises can be recognized by a bristly strip ("beard") in a flower along the central vein. In modern varieties of "beard" often wide and fluffy. The varieties are so good that it is difficult to choose the most interesting. Especially now, when on sale annually unknown before this grade. Beautiful and those varieties that have long been considered novelties. And since the number of varieties of bearded irises is in the tens of thousands, an amateur grower has a choice.
It is worth paying attention to the dwarf and undersized varieties. They are decorative, unpretentious, grow rapidly and feel great even among the stones. In the Moscow region, these irises usually bloom in the second half of May - early June. Popular medium-sized bearded irises bloom from early June. They are winter-hardy, they do not break when the wind blows, they are perfectly cut and have a lot of other advantages. The bush of tall irises that blooms from the beginning of June to the fourth decade of the month looks magnificent. This is the pride of an amateur grower. However, the place for such beauties needs to be selected very carefully.
I often buy planting material of bearded irises in supermarket chains, in specialized stores, garden centers or nurseries. We grow irises on the site, which are shared by familiar amateur growers.
Delenka in colorful packaging
In stores, planting material of bearded toffee is most often sold in a transparent bag with some kind of filler (dry peat or chips). On the "cover" is the name of the variety and a photo of a flower. Every year, according to my observations, the size of the delenk is getting smaller. Therefore, I try to choose such a bag in which a larger living room with live kidneys is sold.
Delenka should be viable, not drying out. You can not take moldy and softened rhizomes. Planting material acquired at the end of winter (during this period the assortment is richer) can sometimes survive only when growing. Such difficulties are justified when it is the only chance to grow a very beautiful or rare variety.
First of all, I carefully cut off some of the dried leaves. They are so tough that they can be an insurmountable obstacle to the growth of new leaves. After that, the iris is planted in the ground.
I already wrote in the article “How to save perennial phloxes and irises bought in winter” that the rhizomes of bearded irises became so tiny that they fit in cups from sour cream. This has its plus: a clear saving of space on the windowsill. A commercially reasonable (for producers) method of reproduction of irises by buds on a wedge-shaped fragment of rhizome requires mandatory rearing in ideal indoor conditions.
When planting a piece of rhizomes of bearded iris, there is one secret. Its upper part should be open to be illuminated by the sun. Later, when the iris comes to life and begins to give leaves, it can be covered with soil.
I water moderately, only in the edges of the pot. So as not to soak the rhizome. I do not use any growth stimulants.
Purchased packs with high-grade planting material of bearded irises are left in a dry cool basement. I place them in a cardboard box in a position in which the xiphoidal leaves should appear, and not upside down. During storage of planting material heat and moisture are dangerous.
Division and landing of a bearded iris on the site
If you wish to propagate the variety you like, it is enough to separate a part of the knotty branched rhizome that has live buds on the sides. The xiphoid leaves are shortened to 15 cm. The minimum size of the delenka is a small piece of mature rhizome with roots and one fan of leaves. Delenka with 5 - 7 leaves will fully bloom next year. Occasionally dying old links with live buds, but without roots and leaves, are used for reproduction.
It is very easy to determine the time for planting: in central Russia, it comes 10 to 15 days after the end of flowering, i.e. since the beginning of July. Landing delenok better finish before the end of August. With the expected warm and long fall landing is carried out until mid-September.
Keep the delenka need in a place where it will not start to rot from moisture. It should not be wrapped in a damp cloth or kept in a plastic bag.
Landing delenki on the site
There are a few mistakes, due to which an amateur grower can lose an iris. Most of them occur during landing.
The rhizome of bearded irises is located horizontally. The root system is complemented by long roots, similar to cords. The rhizome should not be buried, it is flush with the ground. Once upon a time, due to inexperience, I ruined several unpretentious irises, greatly deepening their rhizomes. Before planting, I moistened the landing site well, considering that landing “in the dirt” should be beneficial.
Bearded irises do not tolerate excessive moisture. They “shout” about it, trying to be closer to the soil surface. They are safer to plant on a small elevation. The vertical position at first can be saved with additional support with rods or some other objects. Within a month, the roots will grow, which will keep the rhizome in the correct position and will not allow it to fall.
The soil should be neutral and structural, permeable to air and water. Its composition complements the sand. Better with wood ash that the iris loves. Ideal - cultivated loam. In too nutritious, fatty soil, bearded irises fatten and suffer from bacterial infections. Humus is better to put on the bottom of the landing pit, and not at the level of occurrence of rhizome.
When planting a bearded iris, it should be borne in mind that its rhizome grows rapidly due to the emergence of new links.
Bearded irises, according to my observations, have the best and longest bloom on the eastern side of the plot, which is not shaded by tall trees and shrubs. These plants love the rising sun. In the sun, the irises fade away faster and sometimes burn out. Do not like irises and those places where the wind walks. Especially the northeast.
I described some peculiarities of care for bearded irises in the article “How not to destroy bearded, Siberian, marsh and bulbous irises?”.
Top dressing of bearded irises
In the spring (after the beginning of growth), while it is still cool, I feed up bearded irises with nitrate (sodium, potassium or calcium).
In the period of budding, you can indulge the irises with Agricola (for flowering plants).
In the summer (after flowering) I introduce sulfate or ammonium chloride. You can use the universal fertilizer for the colors "Agricola No. 7" or Nitrophoska.
In the fall and throughout the season, the best fertilizer is wood ash.
How to cure iris?
Spring is a time when we look forward to the emergence of sharp leaf tips from the ground. After all, it is for him that we judge how this plant has hibernated. Especially after a long or frosty winter. For bearded irises, frost is dangerous (minus 7 - 15 ° C) at the end of autumn, if there is not enough snow.
It happens that not only flower buds freeze slightly, but also the “back” of the rhizome. It is better to dig up and transplant such an iris, after cutting out the damaged tissues and having dried them a little. Lateral renewal buds will help the plant survive if it is possible to halt the process of decay. As a medicine, wood ash and brilliant green are suitable. You can use other ways of dealing with decay. Once I helped cure a rotten rhizome ... an expired streptocide powder.
For the fight against gladiolus thrips and as a preventive measure, the insecticide systemic and contact action "Confidor" helps. It is resistant to washing off with rain. This drug has low toxicity to warm-blooded animals, but is dangerous for bees. Processing is best done in the evening.
With fungal disease, iris heterosporosis, oblong brown spots appear, which are first visible on the edges of the leaves. Strong plant from this may not suffer. However, severe infection (especially of weak bushes) leads to the fact that all the leaves dry up. Affected leaves are cut and burned. Recommended subsequent treatment of the place of growth of iris with copper oxychloride (2%), phytosporin solution or Strobe (more for prevention). To save the variety, it is better to dig up the rhizome and hold it in the phytosporin solution for about 20 minutes, dry and transplant to a new place.
A beautiful flowerbed of irises alone is very real.
Most killer birds (this is the flower’s second name) prefer sunny areas with good drainage and do not like drafts. They will gratefully accept mineral supplements, but they cannot tolerate generously fertilized soil. Organic matter on the site where these flowers will grow, you can make no later than a year before the formation of flower beds.
But in every rule there are exceptions: marsh and Siberian irises, on the contrary, prefer moist soils.
No cramped and no offense
When making a flower bed, you immediately need to remember how the irises are planted in order to get the desired result. If there are only iris in the flowerbed, taller varieties are located in the northern part of the flowerbed, so that all the plants have enough sun. When putting irises, it is advisable not to forget about the intervals. Between the rows you need to leave 70 cm, but the distance between the plants in the row will depend on their growth. For the smallest, undersized varieties, 15 cm is enough, plants of average height will be satisfied with 20 cm, while all 50 cm are quite high.
Given the timing of flowering of different varieties, you can create a flower bed, flowering six weeks and maintaining a very attractive appearance until autumn. And so that the irises remain decorative as long as possible and bloom more abundantly the next year, the flower stalks should be cut off, the last bud will hardly fade.
What will we plant
Irises multiply and vegetatively, and seeds. The second method is too complex, flowering will have to wait 2-3 years. Why do you need such a trouble? This method is used in breeding stations for breeding new varieties. If you still want to experiment and get a flower of unusual shape or color, sow the seeds in early spring or autumn in a hotbed. There, young plants will develop 2 years, then you can plant them on a flower bed. In the northern regions of the grain do not have time to ripen before the onset of cold weather. When threatened by frost, cut the boxes and keep them at home until the seeds ripen.
To properly prepare the place, think about what kind of irises you will plant on the site. All varieties bloom well for 4 years, then they need to be transplanted. The Siberian species can live in one place for up to 10 years, but these colors have a drawback: they do not fill the air with aroma. For bearded varieties need soil with good outflow of groundwater and rainwater, they grow better on high ground, and the marsh toffee likes moisture, it is often placed near water bodies. You can plant onion varieties, they have a richer palette of colors, an interesting combination of colors. This species has one drawback: immediately after the flowering of the bulbs, it is necessary to dig and store all summer in a cool place, and in the autumn to bury it in the ground again. If additional work does not scare you, enrich your flower garden with such plants.
Country owners usually prefer to grow bearded irises and propagate them by dividing the rhizomes. If you want to start planting in the spring, in the fall, take care of the preparation of tubers. There are recommendations to divide the bushes at the end of September, but it will be correct to look not at the calendar, but at the plant. When the flowers wither, and the greens and underground parts continue to develop, it's time to harvest rhizomes. You may have to do this work several times: each class has its own ripening time. Do not wait until all the bushes are ready, if you are late, the quality and viability of planting material will deteriorate.
Dig up the plant, dust off the ground and divide into pieces. In each new seedling there should be a bundle of leaves and an underground part of two annual units. At the rhizome of the main bush, cut off the dried parts and shorten the root processes by a third. For all fragments, completely remove the dry and damaged leaves, and for the remaining feathers, cut the upper half. Treat the underground part with a disinfectant solution, dry, sprinkle the wounds from the cuts with crushed coal with sulfur and put it in a dark cool room where the seedlings will be stored until spring. Sometimes flower growers do it easier: before planting with a shovel, cut off part of the bush and transfer it to a new place. At the same time there is a risk of damaging the plant, but usually both the main bush and the cut fragment feel good.
Rhizomes of beardless irises can dry out during storage. This species well winters, if you put the tubers in a container with the ground. In spring, the seedling that began to develop along with a lump of soil began to grow.
Flower Garden for Iris
Irises love the sun - choose a place for a flower bed on a light, protected from strong winds. Dig up and loosen the soil. If you want to create comfortable conditions for flowers, get rid of weed roots and pest larvae, sift the earth through a large sieve. Soil moisture depends on the type of plant: for bearded irises, soil with good drainage is needed, and marsh and Siberian varieties prefer to grow in wet areas. On good soil, these flowers can develop without additional fertilizing, but if you decide to apply fertilizer or herbicides to the soil, the flowerbed will be ready for planting only in a month.
If the land is not very suitable for growing irises, it can be improved.
- Add potassium and phosphate fertilizers to fatty soil.
- In acidic reactions, neutralize the soil with chalk or ash.
- Add sand and peat to loam.
- Sand bed can be improved with clay.
Dig holes 10 cm deep. The distance between the plants depends on the height of the above-ground part:
- curb varieties - 15 cm
- irises of medium height - 20 cm
- tall bushes - 50 cm.
If you are going to make a multi-tiered flower garden, plant the lowest varieties on the southern side, and the highest varieties on the northern side. The distance between the rows should be at least 70 cm, then all the bushes enough sunlight.
Spring planting rhizomes
Rhizomes winter well under snow, but if young bushes do not have time to get stronger, they can die. Therefore, planting irises in the spring is preferable in the fall. If you want to see flowering bushes this summer, hurry with the device flower beds. In the southern regions, the soil is already ready at the end of March; in colder margins, it can be planted in April or May; it is not recommended later. The rhizomes are very hardy, they will take root at any time, but the bush must have time to form and release flowers. The first summer, do not wait for large lush inflorescences, the plant will enter full force only in the third year.
Look at the condition of the rhizome. Cut out diseased, damaged or rotted parts, shorten long processes. Disinfect the planting material in the solution of potassium permanganate, and then treat with a growth stimulator. Be sure to hold the planting material purchased on the market in a disinfectant solution: you do not know in what conditions the tubers grew and were stored.
If you are going to plant several rows of identical irises in height, make a hill with a slope to the south of the bulk soil. Rear bushes will be on the dais, and will get enough light.
At the bottom of the pits make a mound of sand and install a rhizome on it. When digging in the planting, be careful, do not confuse what kind of flower is there. In bezborodnyh varieties rhizome and part of the stem should be under the ground, and the bearded iris tubers are not fully buried, the top must remain on the air. If you plant varieties that need to be buried, cover the ground with a layer of mulch 5 cm thick. With thinner backfilling, weeds will have enough strength to break through the compost, and they are happy to attack the flower garden. Water well planting, it is necessary not only to moisten the soil, but also to ensure that there are no air cavities around the roots. If the weather is too sunny, the first days pritenyayte plants.
When planting, note that this flower can move, and the next year will be a few centimeters from the place where you put it. If at the same time the fans of the leaves will be directed in different directions, the flower garden will look disorderly and neglected. Arrange the beams in one direction, it is better that they are rotated along the row, and the flowerbed will immediately take on the decorated look.
Caring for a young planting does not take much trouble. If you have prepared the ground correctly, you will not need flowers for the first time. Abundant watering plants will be needed only when the buds start to tie, before that moisten, when the top layer of soil becomes completely dry. Weeding takes the main time: the root system is located at a shallow depth, and it can damage it with coarse tools. Hand off weeds with a small hoe. For the prevention of disease spray bushes Bordeaux liquid, and from pests process karbofosom.
Ирисы хорошо приживутся и дадут обильное цветение, если при посадке вы учтете особенности каждого вида. Одни могут расти во влажной земле, другим нужна почва без застоя воды. Есть общее требование для всех сортов этих растений: они все любят солнце, и на затененных участках плохо цветут.
Weeding a flower bed is very difficult, with a hoe you damage the roots of bearded irises, which are located on the surface. To facilitate the task itself, sift the soil in the flower garden or shed it with herbicides. After making chemical compounds rhizomes can be planted only in a month. Many species do not tolerate waterlogged soil, it is desirable to arrange a flower garden on a bulk elevation, you can also make good drainage or add hydrogel to the ground. Do not be afraid that caring for irises will take you a long time, if you plant the rhizomes correctly, the flowers will not require you to take great care.
How to plant the irises in open ground. Features of planting and breeding irises: dates of planting in spring and autumn, feeding
Irises are perennial flowers that are very loved by gardeners for simplicity and ease of cultivation.
Plants tolerate winter, and planting irises in open ground does not cause trouble. But the features of growing worth knowing.
Terms of planting irises in open ground
You can not imagine the lush blooming irises without regular transplants. If the plant has been grown on the site for more than 4 years, the bush should be thinned out. Experienced gardeners are advised to transplant the irises to a new place in the autumn, while the weather is warm or in early spring. Each method has its own characteristics.
Spring planting irises
The entire procedure must be carried out correctly so that there are no problems with breeding.
1. Surviving winter tubers sort out, remove rotted and spoiled. Planting material is soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes.
2. Purchased in a store or at an exhibition, the iris tubers are treated with a growth stimulator.
3. Planting irises is carried out on a sandy pillow so that the roots do not suffer from excess moisture in the soil.
4. For full-flowering plants need a surface planting, so the roots cover half. Deep planting leads to the fact that the irises do not bloom.
5. Moisture-loving varieties of irises: marsh and Japanese are planted somewhat deeper.
6. The distance between tall varieties should be kept at 50 cm. Dwarf irises are planted 15 cm apart.
Photo planting irises in open ground
These simple rules allow you to grow beautiful flowers in your summer cottage without mistakes. Planted in the spring irises bloom next year. If the plant releases a flower arrow this year, then it should be removed so as not to weaken the flower.
Autumn planting irises
After the bloom has already completed, and the arrows are killed, you can begin to transplant irises. The best period is the first half of autumn, when the weather is warm, and before the frost for a long time. The later the iris roots are planted in the ground, the longer and worse they will take root.
The principle of planting irises in the open ground in the autumn is no different from the spring procedure. Overgrown roots are dug, sorted, divided into plots and planted in a new place.
If winter is expected to be frosty, then after the autumn planting of the rhizome, you need to additionally cover with peat, dry leaves or sand. In spring, plants are free from mulch. Planted in the fall of irises in the spring will delight flowering.
How to choose a plot for planting irises in open ground
For regular flowering and successful cultivation of irises, it is important to consider not only the planting dates, but also to choose the right place.
Irises should be planted on an elevated place where the morning sun will warm their roots. Wet areas in the valley are completely unsuitable for growing irises. In addition, the site should be protected from wind and draft. Moisture-loving varieties of irises, by contrast, are planted in marshland or near water bodies.
Soil before planting irises need to carefully prepare. Plants prefer nutritious and loose sandy soil. Heavy soils are dug up by adding sand and peat. Poor land composition enriches with mineral fertilizers with phosphorus and potassium. In the spring they bring rotten compost and humus. Manure for the cultivation of irises do not apply.
In non-cultivated areas, the land is treated in advance with fungicides and herbicides to prevent diseases and suppress weed growth.
Reproduction of irises when planting in open ground
The fastest and most reliable way to propagate irises is by dividing the bush during transplantation. Such plants are blooming next spring.
In order for reproduction to be successful, a well-grown healthy bush of iris is selected, dug out and proceeds to division.
1. Rhizomes cleaned from the ground and separated with a sharp sterile knife or hands.
2. Each individual plot should have a leaf bud and one or two tubers. Old roots are pruned, and damaged tubers are thrown away.
3. The leaves of the irises are cut to a height of 5-10 cm, while removing all dry and damaged.
4. Prepared rhizomes are disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate and dried in a well-ventilated place.
Tubers are planted in a new place in the fall in the usual way. The beds are well watered.
If the time for breeding was missed, the weather is cool, then it is impossible to plant irises in open ground. Sprouts do not have time to take root and die in winter. In this case, the planting of rhizomes is carried out in boxes, which are stored at a temperature of 7-8 C throughout the winter. In the spring irises are planted in the garden.
How to care for irises in the open field
Iris care includes standard procedures: weed removal, watering and fertilizing. Weeds must be cleaned regularly, but manually, so as not to injure the rhizomes.
In addition, young planting irises cover before the coming winter, and in the spring shelter is removed. There is no need to cover adult bushes.
Irises are fed from early spring to the second half of summer. The first top dressing is carried out on wet soil with granular fertilizer, which is carefully put into the soil, trying not to damage the roots. Adult plots of irises, it is preferable to feed the following compounds:
1. Nitrogen fertilizer + phosphorus and potassium in the proportion of 2: 1: 1 at the very beginning of the growing season.
2. Mineral fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the ratio of 3: 1: 3 during the budding period.
3. Top dressing from phosphorus and potassium in equal parts after flowering.
If the nutrients are not enough, then the irises grow poorly, their flowering is scarce. Perennial feeding in the first year after planting is not necessary if the wells were filled with all the rules. Starting from the second year of cultivation, plants are fertilized according to the above scheme. This has a positive effect on their growth, development and flowering.
Watering irises is carried out only on especially dry days, in rainy summer there is enough natural rainfall.
Problems in growing irises in the open field
With the arrival of spring, irises are attacked by pests. Every two weeks it is necessary to carry out preventive spraying. In the period of budding, the treatment is temporarily suspended. For spraying use complex preparations of a wide spectrum of action.
Since the most common disease of iris is bacteriosis, then regularly inspect the rhizomes for the presence of rot. Damaged parts are dug, and the landing site is disinfected with potassium permanganate.
To prevent infection of irises by various diseases, every autumn it is necessary to cut off all foliage and dry peduncles, in which pests accumulate. In addition, at least once a season you need to spray a copper sulfate or other copper-containing drug.
Another common problem with growing is lack of flowers. This suggests the wrong farming practices and inadequate care of the plant. Carefully inspect the place where the irises are planted, perhaps it does not comply with the rules. If the soil is poor, then the plants need to feed.
As you can see, planting and growing irises in the open field does not cause much trouble. It is enough to follow all the recommendations and give the plant a little more time.
Photos of iris flowers
There are few plants that can be compared in beauty with unpretentious and hardy Siberian iris. Its flowers are collected in several pieces at the top of the peduncle. Siberian irises with narrow bright green foliage have always stood out with a bright accent of the garden; in the upper part their leaves are elegantly bent.
These irises bloom profusely every year. They are resistant to diseases, winter-hardy, wind-resistant, quickly create a bright spot. In their palette are collected a variety of colors and shades from pale white to dark purple with a purple hue. There are blue and yellow among them.
Another indispensable quality of Siberian irises is immunity to bacteriosis. Moreover, he also heals the soil in this disease. If the site is infected with bacteriosis, then in only 3-4 years Siberian irises will heal the soil from this terrible disease.
Iris planting time
Novice flower growers, not knowing how to plant irises, refuse these luxurious flowers. At the same time completely lost in terms of planting: whether in the spring, or in the fall. Surprisingly, these magnificent plants can be relocated to a new place almost always!
And you can start creating beauty even in April, even in summer after flowering, and if the autumn warmth lasts a long time, then in September it will be not too late to plant a favorite variety. If only it would take root before the cold, and it will take about a month and a half.
Well, if not enough time, and the cold is about to descend, then how to be? You can put pieces of rhizomes with one kidney and a pair of roots into pots and keep them in a room where the temperature will be not lower than 7, but not higher than 8 degrees. In the spring they can be settled in a permanent place. By the way, during the spring planting, a good result is obtained by treating the seedlings with “Zircon”. To do this, in 1 l of water add 20 drops of the drug. Soaking time - 20 minutes.
The easiest way, applicable in both spring and autumn, is used by most gardeners.
- Forks dig up the whole plant and divide the rhizome into 5–7 parts with 2 buds and a couple of roots on each.
- Wash the blanks with a pink solution of manganese and leave it for 20 minutes.
- Carefully inspecting each fragment, remove the rotted areas.
- Shorten the leaves by a third or even half.
- Long roots cut to 10 cm.
- Cuts on rhizome powdered with ashes.
The summer option allows you to get planting material, almost without harming the flowering parent plant. Use a sharp knife to carefully cut out a young fan of leaves with a small piece of rhizome. Butonov on preparation should not be. In a shaded cold room almost 90% of the material will take root in two weeks.
It is worth using seeds only if there is a desire to work out the selection, because the flowers on the plants obtained will have to wait for three years, not less.
Proper planting irises
Regardless of when it is decided to plant the iris, and whether it will be a flower bed or curtain, this should be done correctly.
- Prepare wells with an elevation in the center or pave two grooves, separated by a full knoll.
- Carefully laying out the rhizome on the dais, straighten the roots.
- Sprinkle a sapling with a layer of earth no more than 3 cm and slightly compact the soil around it.
- Water immediately after planting and after 4–5 days.
- If the sun warms too much, which is likely in the spring, seedlings pritenyat.
Now it's time to check. If the leaf fan does not roll to the side and rhizome surface peeps slightly, then a new the plant is planted correctly.
How many times to fertilize
If the iris bushes are already more than four years old, it is justified to support them with fertilizers, and the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium will change: in early spring 2: 1: 1, before flowering 3: 1: 3. Well, after all the flower stalks are already cut, the “last merci” of potassium and phosphorus in equal quantities. Nitrogen is not introduced at this time, it will only cause abundant growth of greenery and reduce up to the complete absence of buds in the next year.
What you should pay attention to
- Often, happy owners of the most simple and rare varietal irises have questions related to the growth of these plants. The fact is that rhizomes grow in a horizontal plane, forming rather dense “cakes”, and therefore five-year-old irises simply need to be seated. Thickening may lead to irises will weaken and there will be no flowering at all.
- In addition, the iris can arbitrarily "move", shifting to the side. Therefore, growers regularly adjust the process of rhizome growth.
- Cover for the winter only one-year-old irises make sense, but you need to remove the protection on time, the snow will barely melt so that mold fungi do not develop on the rhizomes. The root system of older plants is already strong and is well wintering without shelter.
- Like other plants, irises need protection from diseases and pestsso do not neglect the prevention of these troubles. Help florist in this case karbofos, Bordeaux liquid.
Among the necessary agrotechnical techniques weed control is important, but since the root system of irises lies very shallow, uninvited guests are manually removed and the earth is loosened no deeper than 5 cm.
Another important point. No matter how much you want to pamper the handsome, watering iris extremely carefully, trying not to wet the flowers, and very moderately, because of the excess moisture can rot the roots and rhizomes. After flowering, watering should be reduced.
It may seem that the garden orchid, as the irises were called for an elegant flower, grows almost everywhere and does not require incredible efforts from the florist. In essence, the way it is, but only if the interests of the flower.
Japanese (xiphoid) irises
Japanese irises or scientifically - sword-shaped irises. Hybrids of these colors are unusual in their form, even for irises.
Plants are fastidious and require complex care. These flowers iris require slightly acidic soil, moderately wet in summer, during flowering, fertile, without the slightest admixture of lime. The main problem that arises during cultivation is dry wintering.
In the winter, they are covered with dry oak leaves, and plastic wrap is laid on top of them. But at the same time, it should not be allowed to dry the roots. To solve most problems with growing, such irises are grown in containers, and in the winter they are transferred to a non-frozen room.
Unusual flower shape - this is not the case with other irises
Marsh irises are the most enduring of the entire genus of irises. They can grow in water, and near water, and in a swamp.
At the same time, the marsh toffee feels good on dry soil. At one place it can grow and retain its attractiveness for 8 years or more, almost without requiring care.
Choosing a place
For planting any irises, a place is set aside from the wind and open to the sun, especially in the morning. It should be well-drained soil. Irises are very fond of when the "back", rhizomes lit by the sun. But grow well in the penumbra, especially Siberian irises, whose delicate blue flowers quickly fade in the bright sun.
For most irises, light loam is preferred. But on sandy soil, these flowers will also feel good. Heavy, moist, clay soils are diluted with sand and peat. On lowland, wet areas only marsh irises grow.
It looks like spring properly planted irises
Iris transplant in spring
The most convenient time to replant - 2 weeks after the end of flowering. Well settled irises planted in the spring. Flowers with a lump of earth can be transferred to another place during the entire warm period.
Spring transplantation of irises begins when young leaves appear. A landing bed in this case is prepared in the fall. Humus, compost, bone meal and some lime are added to the soil. In the spring, when the soil dries out, they dig a hole about 0.4 m in size and 15 centimeters deep. At the bottom form 5 mounds. On them horizontally, sending the leaves out, put dried delenki. Roots dellenok straighten. Fall asleep remaining land. Watered. As a result, the rhizomes of planted plants should be covered with 1 cm of soil.
Iris rhizome in the hole for planting
Planting irises in autumn
Autumn planting irises begin in August, when the heat subsides and before the cold snap, until October. Dig up the soil. If it is heavy, it is diluted with sand. Dig a hole with a depth of 15 cm. A prepared cut off rhizome is laid on a rolled up hillock. Roots sprinkled with sand. Fill with earth so that the “back” remains on the surface. Water well. Plants are better placed in a circle. Rhizomes do not mulch, it hinders their growth. In early spring they fertilize the soil with complex mineral fertilizers.
Planting bulbous irises
Iris bulbs are planted in the soil from September to October. Soil dug up, filled with sand and full mineral fertilizer. A hole of about 15 cm is prepared, the bulbs are planted to a depth of 7-8 cm from the surface, with the sharp end up. A neighboring bulb is planted no closer than 15 cm. Planted bulbs are covered with leaves or brushwood. Do not remove the mulch until the spring passes the danger of frost. With the advent of steady warming, all the excess is raked, freeing shoots access to the light.
Размножить, омолодить и пересадить влаголюбивые ирисы можно ранней весной или в конце лета. Подготовленный к пересадке куст очищают от почвы, удаляют поломанные, больные или отмершие части. Корни обрезают, оставив третью часть. Листья подрезают на две трети. The rhizome cut into several parts is “disassembled” into landing areas.
Ready for transplanting rhizomes
The remaining roots are trying to gently unravel. On each resulting delenki should be 3-5 bunches of leaves. Land is prepared by adding peat and complex mineral fertilizer to the excavated soil. The planting hole is dug, taking into account that the roots, placed on the hillock of the rhizome, hang freely, and after compaction of the soil, the rhizome is 5–7 cm deep. Have saplings in 20 -30 cm from each other.
So you can divide the rhizomes
Planting care is reduced to weeding, careful loosening of the soil, watering, dressing, treatment from pests and diseases, pruning after flowering and before hibernation.
Top dressing irises
With the advent of warming, iris leaves are removed from the iris last year, carefully loosening the soil around the plantings. When shoots appear, the plants are fed with nitrogen and phosphorus, and after 15 days with nitrogen and potassium. The most important fertilizer application for flowering next year is three weeks after the end of flowering. At this time, make nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
It is dangerous to introduce nitrogen-containing feedings later, since the irises that are “overfed” with nitrogen cannot bear wintering.
To increase the winter resistance of plants, to help them go to a dormant state, in August they reduce watering, stop loosening the soil, but still continue to remove weeds.
Watering irises is necessary only during droughts. Fallen precipitation is enough for them. Be sure to water only when planting, during budding and with the introduction of fertilizing.
Fading flowers, and after flowering and flower stalks are removed.
In the second half of autumn the leaves of the irises are cut conically, leaving no more than 15 cm. Cut leaves burn as they contain pest larvae and pathogens. Before the onset of frost, rhizomes cover the ground with 5-7 cm. Above, it is good to put dry leaves, tops, and spruce paws. In winter, they plant snow on the landing.
Diseases and pests
Prevention - the main thing in the fight against pests and diseases. If you keep the area clean, timely remove weeds, moderately apply mineral fertilizers, then the plants will be less affected by diseases, and the number of pests will be reduced.
Most often, irises are affected:
- soft rot of rhizome,
The main reason for rot - recessed landing. With proper planting, the back of the rhizome always “sunbathes” in the sun. The first signs of bacteriosis are manifested in the drying of the leaves. They turn brown, bend over and pull out easily. At the next stage, the disease moves to a growing part of the rhizome, which rots.
Iris rhizome rot
The affected bush is dug out of the ground, the rotten part is cut out to healthy tissue, and etched with any fungicide, at least with potassium permanganate or iodine. Then stand in the sun for at least 8 hours. During this time, the rhizome is inverted several times.
It is found on the bushes iris and spotting. To prevent these diseases, it is necessary with the onset of stable heat to emerge the seedlings to process copper sulphate, copper chlorine, or any copper-containing drug at least 3 times in 5-7 days.
Pests also do not bypass the irises. They may appear:
- gladiolus trips,
- winter and killer scoops.
Having discovered uninvited guests on flowers, plantings are treated with karbofos several times with an interval of 5-7 days.
Bare slugs harm landings. You can fight them if you sprinkle the soil around the flowers:
- wholemeal ash
- mustard powder,
- granular superphosphate,
- finely crushed eggshell.
The last few years, flowers of iris and not only iris are almost completely eaten by bronzovka - quite large beetles with bronze or greenish tint on folded wings. These pests spend the night here on the buds that appear and in the half-opened flowers. If you shake the flowers early in the morning, then you can gather bronzovok numb from the cold into a substituted container.
In the daytime, this can be done by scouring beetles eating flowers with cold water. Beetles numb from the water easily shaken off in a substituted bucket of water or kerosene. The buds that have appeared, not only irises, but also roses, peonies, lilies, need to be treated with konfidor, mosilan or aktar. This will also reduce the number of pests.
Bronzovka harms not only irises, but also other flowers and plants