The spring period for any plant is considered important because of the beginning of the vegetative process. The normal development of young shoots is the key to a generous harvest. Special attention in the spring care is given to voracious crops, which include garlic.
Winter garlic care for autumn planting
Winter varieties are planted in the fall. Pre-selected a suitable place for the culture, which excludes shading and strong drafts.
Predecessors in the open area can be: cucumbers, early cabbage, onions, zucchini, pumpkin, squash. After the potatoes, planting beds under spring or winter garlic is not worth it, the likelihood of infection with a nematode, fusarium is high.
Proper open field planting
- spacing between rows - 25-30 cm,
- distance between teeth in a row - 15-20 cm,
- closure depth - 10-15 cm.
The period of work is the end of September, the beginning of October.
Winter garlic is planted in late September-early October
Gardeners recommend dividing the beds in the direction east to west. This will ensure normal warming and illumination of the culture in the summer until the moment of harvesting.
Pay attention and seed preparation. It needs to be sorted out by removing damaged teeth. It is also recommended to carry out disinfection by soaking garlic in copper sulfate solution (5 tablespoons of water per 5 liters of water). As a disinfectant, a weak solution of potassium permanganate or “Maxime” is suitable.
After planting the beds are mulched with a layer of peat (you can also use sawdust, humus). This will help the seedlings survive the harsh winter. In the spring the mulch is removed, why, so that the shoots are not stuck.
The need for fertilizer and processing when growing garlic
Garlic is greedy, so it pulls out of the soil a large number of micronutrients necessary for the growing season. After harvesting, such a site should be generously enriched with fertilizers, and it is recommended to re-plant it. in 3-4 years.
It is recommended to use special complex fertilizers for garlic.
Culture perfectly responds to organics and minerals. It is better to use them in a comprehensive way to prevent rotting of planting material or forming heads.
Soil is prepared one month before planting. They dig up it and introduce humus or compost. Also, to increase the fertility of the soil, superphosphate (30 g.) And potassium chloride (20 g.) Are added per 1 m2. In the presence of an acidic environment, wood ash is used.
After the snow (about a week later), the first complementary feed is introduced. At this stage, it is appropriate to use urea (7-10 grams per 1 m2) or ammonium nitrate (10-15 grams per 1 m2). The procedure should be repeated in the second half of May, when heads begin to form.
Loosening and weeding in the spring
To ensure normal air circulation, it is necessary to loosen the soil. The first time it needs to be done after the appearance of shoots above the ground in April. Rakes or light harrows should be run (3-4 times) across the rows, immersing the tool by 8-10 cm.
Loosening is necessary for air circulation.
This procedure maximum saves valuable moisture in the earththat has accumulated in the country during the winter period. At this stage, weeds are manually removed.
After 2-3 weeks weeding is carried out with deep removal of weed roots. During the growing season, the neighborhood with them is highly undesirable, since there is a high probability of rotting of the onion forming. Cleaning weeds from weeds is prevention of the spread of diseases and pests.
The absence of dense thickets does not attract insects, because for the deposition of larvae they are looking for secluded places. When performing work, you should remove the ground from the stalks of garlic to form holes. This provides good access to plants moisture from precipitation or irrigation. In total, the first stage of the growing season is 2-4 loosening and weeding.
Often, gardeners mulch the soil to reduce weeding and loosening. peat or rotted manure. The crop is additionally enriched with nutrients, and weeds rarely make their way through a layer of mulch.
Rules of watering with water and saline
Garlic refers to moisture-loving plants, therefore, at the first stage of the growing season and during the formation of heads, regular irrigation with water is necessary.
After emergence of shoots it is necessary to carry out regular watering.
The amount of fluid to regulate depending on precipitation and soil conditions. Sample rules:
- with moderate heat and rain, pour 10-12 liters per m2 (1 time in 10 days),
- in dry weather, the rates remain the same, but the frequency of watering increases to 1 time in 5 days,
- in rainy weather, there is no need to water the plant.
The soil after watering should be moistened to a depth up to half a meter. To complete irrigation activities should be harrowing to ensure deeper penetration of moisture into the soil.
Salt water or salt water is practiced to create protection against onion flies. Carry out the procedure should be at the stage of formation of 3-5 leaves. To prepare the solution using a glass of salt in a bucket of water.
According to the advice of experienced gardeners, this method of treatment should not be abused, because the excess sodium and chlorine contained in the product inhibit the growth and development of plants. Moreover, such a mixture is dangerous for the soil, it destroys its structure, provokes leaching of useful microelements from the nutrient layer. It is necessary to closely monitor how much mineral is added, and if that is to drain the excess and dilute it with plain water.
Common mistakes when taking care of garlic
The simplicity of the plant relaxes many inexperienced gardeners who violate the rules of care. Ardent tutelage, garlic is also considered unnecessary. does not need much wateringlike many other cultures.
With excessive watering, the heads may start to rot.
It is worth taking into account the mistakes that gardeners often make when growing garlic.
- Planting garlic at the same place leads to a significant reduction in yield. The optimal time interval is 3-4 years.
- Shading beds with tall trees, shrubs or buildings is unacceptable. Lack of sunlight affects vegetation.
- In the devastated soil of a good harvest does not grow. In autumn and spring, it is necessary to carry out planned activities for feeding the plantation.
- Nitrogen fertilizers are undoubtedly useful and important for culture, but their surplus leads to a decrease in shelf life. Enter them is not appropriate at the beginning of the head formation period.
- Abundant watering is appropriate only at the initial stage of development of the shoot. Further, the rate is reduced, and before harvesting for 20-25 days irrigation stops altogether.
- Some owners practice the cultivation of garlic from cloves and broths (seeds) on the same bed. This can not be done, since the landing technology has different conditions and terms.
- Planting material must be sorted. When splitting cloves, it is not worth damaging the scale, because it prevents rotting.
- There is an erroneous opinion that it is not worth hurrying with the harvest, as if the heads will gain more volume. This is a delusion, the delay threatens the decay of cloves. After the leaves turn yellow, the root vegetable is ready to be dredged and dried.
Garlic is easy to grow, but you still have to make some effort and care for a rich harvest. For convenience, gardeners make a schedule of mandatory measures, which allows to provide the plant with nutrients in a timely manner and to prevent diseases and pests.
Loosening and weeding
At the beginning of the growing season, weeds should be regularly destroyed, which will take away valuable nutrients from still fragile garlic. Loosening the soil in the beds improves the water and moisture permeability of the earth and provides oxygen to the roots of the seedlings that lie in the upper layers of the soil. It is recommended to hold the event in spring and early summer, each time after the planned watering, carefully loosening the ground to a depth of 3-4 cm.
Why remove the arrows from the arrowed varieties of garlic?
Winter garlic is an arrow and an arrow. Shooting varieties in the beginning of summer throw arrows, on the end of which inflorescences with air bulbs ripen. Experienced growers recommend to remove the arrows, when they reach a height of 10-15 cm. Such agropriem allows you to redirect nutrients to the bulbs and thereby increase the size of the heads.
General principles of care
In order for the first garlic shoots to appear on the beds, the air temperature is sufficient to rise to zero degrees. At a temperature of +5 degrees the plant is already starting to form cloves. Full aging occurs in summer, at a temperature of + 20-25 degrees. All these features are very important to consider when caring for garlic in the spring.
- It is necessary to appear the first shoots, as all winter shelters from the garden can be removed. As a rule, winter garlic is sheltered from snow and frost with the help of dry foliage and grass, tree branches. If you do not remove these protective layers in a timely manner, sprouting shoots of this vegetable culture will begin to deform. In addition, there is a risk of damaging the young shoots by careless movement.
- With the onset of heat, it is necessary to very gently break through the soil between the rows. This will eliminate the dried crust of the earth, which will impede the normal growth and development of vegetables. In the process of loosening the soil should not go deep into the ground by more than 5-6 cm, so as not to accidentally damage the growing onions of plants.
- Any varieties of garlic, both winter and spring, require careful watering in spring. Watering should be very abundant, because the plant is very fond of moisture. To keep moisture in the soil for as long as possible, you can use the mulching of the beds.
- If during the growth and maturation of the heads a small amount of precipitation falls, you can water the garden every other day.
- Two weeks before the intended harvest, watering garlic beds should be stopped.
With proper care, gardeners can get very large heads, rich in vitamins and other beneficial substances.
Spring Garlic Care
Proper care of winter varieties in the spring includes loosening, careful watering and competent dressing. Starting to care for this crop should be immediately, as soon as the snow melts and out of the ground seem the first shoots. As a rule, this occurs in mid-April.
- At this time it is very important to break through the soil on the bed between the rows. The plant is very important to have sufficient access of oxygen to the root system.
- Sown under winter garlic begins to germinate very early. Young shoots tolerate cold, so lowering the temperature to -3 degrees is not critical. During the melting of snow the plant receives a sufficient amount of moisture. Further he will need careful watering and feeding with nitrogen compounds.
- Soil for planting winter garlic prepared in advance. The soil must be carefully dig and saturate with useful substances. However, in spring the garden still needs nitrogen fertilization. That is why it is necessary to make nitrogen supplements as soon as the snow melts.
- To prepare homemade fertilizer for garlic beds, you can dilute 1 liter of slurry to 10 liters of water and pour the area obtained with a raster. This can be done even in the case when the soil is not completely thawed.
- For the manufacture of fertilizers, you can use chicken litter. In this case, 1 liter of fermented litter will require 20 liters of water. Compost or rotted manure can be applied to the soil.
- In the springtime, urea can be used as a mineral fertilizer. It is brought into the ground in several ways. You can dilute a tablespoon of fertilizer in a bucket of water and pour a bed over the resulting solution. You can sprinkle the soil with dry powder, and then carefully water the area. Gradually, top dressing will dissolve and bleed into the soil to the roots of the plant.
- Some gardeners prefer ready-made fertilizers - for example, Agricole. It is possible to plant such a fertilizer in accordance with the instructions attached.
Re-feeding landings carried out after 2 weeks. Some experts - growers recommend re-make the same fertilizer - urea, slurry or rotted litter.
According to other gardeners, it is better at this time to feed garlic beds nitrophoska go nitroammofoskoy. To prepare the fertilizer will need 2 tablespoons of fertilizer in a bucket of water. You can buy ready-made fertilizers in the store - “Agricola”, “Fertility”, “Effecton”.
It is necessary to water garlic in the spring at the rate of 30 liters of water per 1 square meter of bed. It is very important that during the formation of the bulbs the top layer of soil does not dry out. 2 weeks before harvesting, water the garlic bed completely stopped. If you do not need flower heads, all arrows should be deleted when they reach a length of 9–10 cm.
Very important remove winter garlic from the garden - This will ensure its good storage. Otherwise, the heads will begin to crack and disintegrate. Chives garlic will start to get lost in the soil. Winter varieties need to be harvested in July or early August. If the summer is rainy, winter garlic should be harvested earlier.
Spring Garlic Care
Spring garlic is planted in the soil at the end of April or the beginning of May, when the snow is completely gone from the beds. By the time of landing should be completely excluded the likelihood of freezing. The optimum air temperature in the daytime is + 5 degrees. A great many gardeners and gardeners pay attention to the phases of the lunar calendar and according to them they plant in the soil of garlic.
Choosing a landing site
To get a good harvest of spring garlic, must carefully choose a placewhere you plan to plant it.
- If the vegetable was planted in order to get young greens, it is best to choose a shaded area, then the greens will be very soft and juicy. This garlic is very good for making fresh vegetable salads.
- For strong garlic heads, a well-lit open area of land on the plot is more suitable.
- For a bountiful harvest, do not forget about the need for crop rotation. It is best to plant the crop where tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes and cabbage grew last year. In such a place, the harvest will be greater and the plant will be less prone to disease. You can plant garlic and after legumes.
Planting spring garlic in the ground
To make spring garlic grow and develop faster you can pre-germinate it before landing in the ground. To this end, the teeth are wrapped in a damp cloth or gauze, and then placed in polyethylene for 2–3 days. Germination of garlic cloves is carried out at room temperature. It should be noted that such a procedure is completely optional. Dry seeds before planting. Planting culture is best in April or May. By this time, the snow should be completely gone, and the soil warms up to 5 degrees Celsius. If the soil in the garden is completely dry after a snowless winter, you must first water the garden.
Plant should be planted to a depth of 5-6 cm. If you have previously germinated teeth, they must be dug very carefully, taking care not to damage the roots. Immediately after the garlic has been planted, the garden bed must be mulched. The distance between the individual planted teeth and between the rows should be 20 cm.
The temperature regime at different stages of growth garlic will require different:
- During the growing season the optimum temperature is the range from +5 to +10 degrees.
- At the stage of bulb formation, the plant will need a temperature of + 15–20 degrees.
- The ripening of the bulbs occurs at a temperature of +20 - 25 degrees.
During the formation of the bulbs to water the garden with garlic should be moderate. If the summer is rainy, garlic can not be watered at all. In this phase of growth, excessive moisture will be harmful to garlic - the bulbs can start to rot, besides there is a risk of developing the disease.
Feed fertilizer spring garlic can be twice. The first feeding is carried out after the snow melts. At this time, the bed is fertilized with a solution of mullein or bird droppings. Fertilizer concentration is 1:10. The following feeding is carried out in the middle of summer - in June-July. Summer feeding is carried out with a solution of ash at the rate of 200 grams per bucket of water.
Like any vegetable, garlic requires regular soil loosening and pest control. To reduce the frequency of weeding and irrigation can be using mulching.
What is garlic
There are two varieties of garlic:
This classification is due to the period of its disembarkation.
Winter garlic is planted in the fall. It is distinguished by a large onion and high yield, compared with another variety, but unsuitable for long-term storage. Zubkov - from 6 to 10, they are located in one row. Winter garlic can be bolted, resulting in bulbs-bulbs.
Яровой чеснок отправляют в почву 20–25 апреля. Его головки меньше, как и зубчики, которые расположены по спирали, их может насчитываться до 30. Этот сорт отличается более низкой урожайностью, но высокой лежкостью.It reproduces exclusively by teeth, since it is not typical for bolting.
Winter garlic: planting and care
The most successful option is considered loamy neutral soilwhich was not grown on garlic or onions for 3-4 years. Beans, pumpkin, cabbage or greens are considered good predecessors. It is desirable that the site was smooth, without elevations and sinks, in open areas, which receives a lot of direct sunlight.
Before planting, it is desirable to fertilize the soil. For this perfect humus or compost. Use a fertilizer bucket per square meter. It is also recommended to add a tablespoon of superphosphate or nitrophoska and a glass of fluff lime or dolomite flour.
In case you are not lucky to have suitable soil, its quality can be improved with additives.
- If the soil is clay, a bucket of peat will save the situation.
- Peat soil is adjusted bucket loamy soil.
- In the sandy soils add a bucket of loamy soil, peat and all the necessary additives for the standard version.
Next, they dig up the bed, level it and treat every 10 meters with 1 liter of copper sulfate solution (40 g of vitriol per 10 liters of water). Immediately before planting, it is desirable to cover the soil with a film.
Planted winter garlic 1–1.5 months before the first frost. In regions with a more severe climate - around September 20, in the warmer - since October 15.
It is not advisable that the garlic sprouted. This usually indicates that he was disembarked too soon. But this is not critical - it is important that the plant has developed a strong root system. In this case, he is not afraid of any cold.
On the bed before planting create grooves 6–10 cm deep. The depth depends on the size of the cloves, the larger ones are planted in deeper grooves. It is desirable to compact the soil: it contributes to the development of larger bulbs.
The recommended distance between the teeth is 15 cm, and the spaces between the rows should be about 30 cm.
2-3 weeks for warming make peatabout 2 cm thick
If severe frosts are possible, the bed must be carefully warmed. Straw, twigs or grass are suitable for this. But before the emergence of germs, it is necessary to remove any obstacles to the growth of the plant.
Spring Garlic Care
The most important period of care for winter garlic is spring. When the temperature rises to zero degrees, he throws out the first shoots. This is the first signal that it’s time to get to work.
As soon as the soil dries out a little, it is necessary to loosen the soil a little - 2-3 cm, not more. This procedure will destroy the crust, which prevents normal growth. But it is important not to overdo it - at a distance of 6–8 cm there are still not fully formed heads, which can be damaged by careless actions.
Garlic during its spring growth needs plenty of moisture.
- Under the condition of dry weather, watering should be done every 5–6 days, consuming about 10–12 liters of water per square meter.
- If there is a moderate amount of precipitation, the air temperature does not rise above 30 degrees, it is worth repeating watering with the same amount of water every 8–10 days.
- In rainy time, garlic does not need watering.
To enhance the effect of irrigation is recommended to mulch the soil. Peat or humus is excellent for this procedure.
Stop moistening the soil no earlier than 18–20 days before harvest.
An important element of garlic care is its top dressing. After all, the amount of nutrients contained in a fragrant plant directly depends on the elements that are introduced into the soil during its growth and development.
- First feeding. It takes place in a very early spring - as soon as the plant throws out the first 3-4 leaves. At this point, fertilizing with urea is recommended. The solution is created in proportion: 1 tablespoon of urea per 10 liters of water, and then the composition is sprayed. Consumption - about 2 liters per square meter bed. Another option of feeding is the use of granular preparations. Superphosphate or ammonium nitrate in granules sprinkled along the rows of garlic and sprinkled with a thin layer of soil.
- Second feeding. It is carried out in 2-3 weeks. Solutions of nitrogenous and phosphoric fertilizers (nitrophosphate, nitroammofosk), decoctions of herbs or bird droppings are excellent for this. Alternatively, you can use liquid fertilizers "Effecton", "Agricola" or organic fertilizer "Fertility".
- Third dressing. It takes place during the ripening period of the bulb - at the end of June. Now diluted superphosphate is introduced into the soil, which accelerates the development of the head.
The high immunity of garlic to various external factors does not negate the fact that the necessary care is in regular weed removal. The harvest will be in any case, but its quality directly depends on the efforts made.
It is necessary to recognize that regular soil mulching significantly slows the growth of weeds, which is an undoubted advantage.
Another problem can be arrows, to which winter garlic is inclined. They must be removed - break off or cut. You can leave some of the most powerful shooters and in the future use for growing.
Some gardeners recommend cutting any greens above 15 cm throughout the spring.
Growing winter garlic bulbs from bulbs
Before planting it is necessary to free the bulb from the inflorescence. Material is sown from September to October, depending on the air temperature. First, the soil is fertilized with 3 kilograms of humus or compost and a tablespoon of superphosphate, the bed is carefully dug up and leveled. Then at a distance of 10–15 centimeters grooves are made with a depth of 2–3 centimeters. At intervals of 1–2 cm, prepared onion are laid out, covered with a small layer of soil and left for the winter.
Gather winter garlic late July - early August. The main sign on which determine its suitability for collection - yellowed and lying leaves. After digging the head must be dried for two weeks in the sun and prevent exposure to moisture. Such garlic is suitable for long-term storage.
Spring garlic: planting and care
The requirements of spring garlic to the soil are identical. Fertile loamy soil is needed, in which mineral and organic fertilizers are applied before planting. You should not plant garlic where potatoes or tomatoes were previously grown.
The term for sending zubkov in the soil varies significantly - April 20–25.
The soil must be wet. The dug-up beds are covered with furrows with a distance of 20–25 centimeters from each other. Chives of spring garlic are noticeably smaller than those of winter. They do not need to be embedded deeper than 2–3 cm. The distance between the teeth is about 6–8 cm. You should not press them into the soil either - this does not contribute to stable and healthy growth.
Spring garlic is also very demanding for watering. Doses of water necessary for its growth are similar with winter garlic. Evidence of insufficient watering are the dry tips of the leaves. But an excessive amount of water can badly affect the safety and nutritional characteristics of the future head.
Fertilizing plays an important role in the care.
- First feeding. It is carried out with the appearance of the first shoots. At this time, the plant requires nitrogenous fertilizers. Urea and mullein solution is used with a flow rate of 3 liters per square meter. Also suitable infusions of herbs or a solution of bird droppings, humus. This feeding is repeated twice: after the appearance of the first leaflets and 10 after that. Do not make fresh manure - it can very negatively affect the future storage of garlic.
- Second feeding. Now phosphate-potassium fertilizers are applied to the soil: 2 spoons of superphosphate and a spoon of potassium chloride or potassium sulfate are spent on a bucket of water. This feeding is also carried out twice, also after 10 days. Between the procedures you can fertilize the soil with ashes (glass per square meter).
- Third dressing. It is carried out during the formation of teeth. To improve this process, the plant needs phosphate-potassium fertilizers again.
To get a large onion of spring garlic, it is necessary after each watering loosen the beds. It is also recommended to bind the leaves to reduce their nutrition. In this case, all the beneficial substances will come to the teeth, making them more juicy and large.
Spring garlic is harvested in late August - early September. The heads are dug out and left to dry for 6–8 days right on the garden bed. Then they collect and cut the leaves. After that it is suitable for storage.
Garlic Spring Care
The success of garlic cultivation lies in timely and proper care. The first thing to do in early spring is to remove the protective cover from the beds. It is impossible to be late with this event, otherwise the young green feathers of the plant can be damaged, and the shoots can be supported. Winter garlic beds are covered for the winter in order to protect the plant from the cold and prevent it from freezing
The first feeding and treatment of pests
When growing garlic, it is important to provide the plant with the necessary nutrients from the very beginning of the growing season. In the spring of the growing season, the crop needs nitrogen fertilizers, which will have a positive effect on leaf growth. For the first feeding, it is best to use urea, 1 tablespoon of which is diluted in 10 liters of water. The solution is used for root dressing at the rate of up to 3 liters per 1 square meter. m Watering with nitrogen fertilizer is carried out early, as soon as the plant releases 3-4 leaves.
In rainy weather, it is better not to use urea water, but a granular compound for garlic fertilizer.
Dry dressing of garlic is carried out in furrows up to 2 cm deep, which are then powdered with earth.
For the second spring feeding, which is carried out in 2-3 weeks after the first, experienced gardeners recommend using nitroammofosku, 2 tbsp. spoon which is dissolved in 10 liters of water. The consumption rate of the solution is the same as with the addition of urea. Fertilizer fertilizer with phosphorus significantly affects the beginning of the formation of garlic heads.
Garlic responds well to fertilizing with organic fertilizers, with the exception of fresh manure.
In the spring it is recommended to carry out preventive treatment of garlic plantings from pests and diseases:
- Watering with Fitosporin, Maxim, 1% solution of copper sulfate will protect garlic from fungal diseases,
- Epin, Zircon processing activates the protective functions of the plant, increases its immunity,
- Powder beds with ash, tobacco dust - good protection against insect pests.
Weeding and loosening are labor-intensive procedures. To reduce their number, it is recommended to mulch garlic plantings with peat, rotted manure, straw, sawdust, dry grass. Besides the fact that it is more difficult to break through the weeds through the mulch, this procedure also has a number of positive points:
- when used as a mulch of peat and humus, the culture receives additional nutrition,
- if the mulching is carried out after the first loosening, the moisture from the bed will not evaporate so quickly, respectively, a hard crust does not form on the surface, preventing good air exchange,
- season mulch will rot and will be an excellent fertilizer for new cultivated plants.
Mulching will have a positive effect only if they take into account the peculiarities of using different compositions for ground coating:
- layer thickness when mulching with mowed grass should not exceed 2 cm. A thicker layer can lead to the formation of a mucous mass,
- straw used as mulch can attract mice, slugs,
- dry grass contains a large number of weed seeds,
- sawdust and pine needles have acidifying effects on the soil, so they are recommended to be used only on soils with a neutral or alkaline reaction.
Rules for watering and treatment with saline
Garlic loves moisture. With its deficiency, it does not die, but forms small heads, it begins to turn yellow and dry ahead of time. It should be borne in mind that an excess of moisture leads to the development of putrefying diseases, deterioration of the taste of teeth (they will be watery), as well as to poor capacity of the heads. Orientation when organizing irrigation should be on the weather and soil condition. Determine the need for soil moisture can be as follows:
- dig a hole about 10 cm deep in the garden with garlic
- from the bottom of the pit take a handful of earth and squeeze it in your palm,
- if a lump of earth does not crumble when released - garlic does not need watering. A crumbling handful signals the need for moisture.
Watering is best done in the evening. During the day, the moisture partially evaporates, and during the night it absorbs all into the soil and moisturizes it to the maximum. An approximate irrigation scheme may look as follows:
- if spring is rainy, wet, then watering the planting is not necessary,
- in moderately hot weather with a small amount of natural precipitation, watering is carried out every 7–10 days,
- in hot, dry spring watering is organized after 4–5 days with a consumption rate of at least 1 bucket of water per square meter. m
In the spring begins the flight of the main garlic pest - the onion fly. To repel it, prophylactic spraying of garlic plantings with saline is carried out:
- 1 cup of salt is dissolved in 10 l of water,
- using a spray bottle, the solution is applied to green garlic shoots. The specified amount is used to process at least 3 square meters. m, Preventive treatment is carried out when garlic leaves reach a height of 10–12 cm
- it is desirable to carry out the treatment in the evening, and in the morning sprinkle garlic with plain water and water the garden.
Additional treatments with saline are carried out only if signs of damage by garlic are observed by pests: shoots begin to turn yellow, become brittle and stunted. In this case, spraying is carried out twice more with a break of 10–15 days, and the concentration of the solution should be the same as in the prophylactic treatment.
Please note that sodium and chlorine contained in salt water can disrupt the ecology of the soil, impoverish it, slow down the growth and development of plants. Saline is able to destroy and scare away not only pests, but also beneficial insects, so you need to use it deliberately. If after two or three treatments there is no positive effect, then other pest control methods should be used.
If garlic does not sprout
Sometimes, instead of the expected friendly shoots, only separate shoots appear on the bed with garlic. In this case, experienced gardeners are advised to dig up some cloves planted and assess their condition:
- if the clove is lively, strong, its roots begin to grow, then it is necessary to water the garden bed, feed it and after a while such garlic will sprout. The reason for the delay is most likely too deep or late landing,
- if the dug clove becomes soft, it has no rudimentary roots and signs of decay are observed, then it froze and will not rise.
Garlic freeze can occur for several reasons:
- Winter garlic was planted early (in September and early October). In the fall, he managed not only to take root, but also to germinate,
- the landing was too shallow (less than 5 cm)
- the garlic bed is organized in the shade, therefore, in severe frosts, the land on it froze earlier and deeper,
- plantings were not covered for winter by spruce leaves, fallen leaves or other available material.
In this case, to save the situation will help planting spring garlic, which is carried out in late April. Winter garlic, planted in the spring, often gives a single-toothed bulb, which will not be stored for a long time and should be immediately recycled.
Spring garlic care is standard and uncomplicated, but in order not to forget to carry out all the mandatory activities, it is recommended to make a schedule of fertilizing and treatments. He will help you provide the plant with nutrients in a timely manner and prevent diseases and pests.
What is spring care?
Garlic is a unique plant in our vegetable gardens. Doughness can even with a small sub-zero temperature. At a temperature of + 5 ° C, it begins to form teeth, but at the same time it grows quietly and matures at a temperature of 20-25 ° C.
There are two types of garlic: winter and spring. The first one lands in late autumn, in winter, the second - in spring. But, with the exception of planting dates, spring care for these two types of garlic is almost identical.
Spring care for planting garlic includes:
- regular loosening of the soil between the rows and between the plants,
- irrigation, if necessary,
- conducting timely supplements,
- destruction of weeds.
Only by carefully completing all the listed points, you can count on a good harvest.
Winter garlic care should begin as soon as the snow melts. Сначала нужно убрать с чесночной грядки защитное укрытие, которым вы, как заботливый и рачительный хозяин, укрыли его на зиму. Делать эту работу лучше всего утром, когда небольшой морозец «прихватит» грязь на грядке.
Следующий шаг, который обязательно и незамедлительно нужно сделать — закрыть на грядке влагу. In the spring the earth dries very quickly. If you are a little late with this procedure, a dry crust forms on the soil surface.
With further drying of the soil, this crust will be covered with a grid of cracks, through which moisture will quickly evaporate from the bed. Worst of all, it is impossible to destroy such a crust and not to damage at the same time some of the young shoots of garlic.
There is no need to stick to any specific dates, you need to be guided by the weather outside the window. If spring comes early and warm, then you have to remove the protective shelter in the 20th of March, and close the moisture - in the first half of April.
Close moisture when the surface of the bed begins to change color, "gray". During this period, the earth is still soft, so it is enough to loosen the surface layer - 3-4 cm. It is not necessary to loosen with a sapka; a rake with sharp iron teeth is also suitable for this.
Close moisture must be in the area where you plan to plant spring garlic. Here the timing is not as tight as in winter plantings, but the more moisture you close for garlic in the soil, the better it will germinate and shape the heads.
In the future, loosening the soil both on winter and bright garlic plantings will need to be carried out after each heavy rain, and for their absence, after each watering. Garlic is very sensitive to both lack of moisture and poor air exchange in the soil. Therefore, each subsequent loosening should be at least 1 cm deeper than the previous one. The maximum depth - 10-12 cm - the depth of the layer in which the heads form and grow.
Garlic belongs to the dry-resistant plants. He will not die from a lack of moisture in the soil, but he will not be pleased with a good harvest either. Therefore, he needs regular watering, especially if the spring has stood arid. The soil in the area where garlic is planted should not dry out at the depth of the formation and growth of the heads.
The irrigation schemes for winter and spring garlic are identical, the difference can only be in their frequency. If spring garlic is planted in spring plowing (which I categorically do not advise what to do), then watering will have to be done every 3-5 days, and watering should be more abundant.
The approximate irrigation scheme will be as follows:
- In cloudy rainy weather do not conduct watering.
- In moderate heat, alternating with small rains, watering is carried out every 7-10 days.
- In hot dry spring watering is carried out every 4-5 days.
Regardless of the weather, the rate of water consumption remains unchanged: 8-10 l per square. m
To determine whether garlic needs watering, in the evening, dig a 4-5 hole, 8-10 cm deep, over the entire garlic bed with a shovel. Take a handful of earth from each bottom and squeeze lightly in the palm of your hand. If the soil after holding your hand, keeps a lump, then watering is not required. If it crumbles, then watering is necessary.
I practice evening watering - at sunset or after it. Unlike day watering, when part of the moisture inevitably evaporates under the rays of the sun, during the night it all absorbs into the ground. The next day, before lunch, I spend loosening - and, depending on the weather, I do not worry about watering for 5-10 days.
The last watering should be done no later than 2-3 weeks before harvest. I stop watering garlic at least a month before harvesting - I was convinced from my own experience that later watering, while promoting the growth of heads, impairs their safety.
For normal growth and the formation of teeth, garlic must be provided with the necessary fertilizers. At different periods of growth, it requires different fertilizers, so without a well-thought system of fertilizing it is impossible to achieve a high yield.
Usually, planting garlic planting is carried out in 3 stages. The task of the first feeding is the quickest forcing of the stem. For this, in early spring, when the stems form 3-4 leaves, garlic is fed with nitrogen fertilizers, more precisely, with urea.
Usually, it is recommended to dissolve a tablespoon of urea in 10 liters of water and pour the garlic planting solution with this solution, focusing on the consumption of 2-3 liters per 1 sq. M. landing.
I have been using a matchbox for measurements instead of a tablespoon: I put in fertilizer and close it, removing too much. Unlike an open spoon in a closed box is always the same volume. The only inconvenience is that the solution must be prepared in rubber gloves, otherwise urea dissolved in water will easily penetrate through the pores of the skin, poisoning the body.
The second feeding, in addition to the growth of the stem, should provide the plant with a comfortable condition for the beginning of the formation of teeth. It is carried out in 2-2.5 weeks after the first. For dressing use nitrophoska or nitroammofosku at the rate of 2 tablespoons (2 matchboxes) in a bucket of water. Consumption of the solution is the same as in the first feeding.
The third, the last dressing is carried out in the summer, in the beginning or in the middle of June. Its task is to provide fertilizers with forming heads. It is carried out with superphosphates and potash fertilizers, preparing a solution at the rate of 2 tablespoons of superphosphate and a tablespoon of calcium sulfate per bucket of water, and watering is done at the rate of 4-5 liters per square meter. m
For those who can not or do not want to independently prepare a solution for dressing garlic, special liquid mixtures are sold today. But they must be diluted in water according to the instructions attached to the preparations.
Garlic will give a harvest, even if the bed will be in weeds. But on a clean bed his head will be much larger. This is natural - weeds take nutrients from the soil necessary for growth and the formation of heads.
In the spring, due to the frequent loosening of the surface layer, there are practically no weeds on the garlic beds sprouting from the seeds. Even kornerastuschie weeds - wheat grass, sow thistle and others. In the spring on the beds of garlic do not particularly bother. A regular cutting of their ground parts leads to the fact that the roots die. Therefore, garlic can even be considered a phytosanitary bed.
Garlic Care Tips
The superpopular hero at the time was joking: “I would have such a job to work less.” Oddly enough, but this pun is quite applicable to spring care for planting garlic.
The first thing that can and should be done is to use mulch to water less and loosen the soil on the garlic bed. After the first feeding, the aisles are covered with a layer of peat or rotted manure - and the need for further watering and loosening is reduced by 1.5-2 times. In addition, such mulch, rotting under the action of rainwater and irrigation water, will gradually mix with the soil, enriching it with useful substances.
The second trick - feeding is easier to carry out simultaneously with watering. You not only do two jobs in one run, but you will also loosen the ground once instead of two.
Another trick relates to the conduct of the first feeding. If spring gives out rain, then early watering at this time is not very necessary, and you can’t lag behind with additional feeding. In such a situation, it is better to use for feeding not an aqueous solution of urea, but its granules.
Sideways at a distance of 4-5 cm from the planted row of garlic make a shallow (2-3 cm) groove along its entire length. Urea granules are thinly poured into this groove. Again, I use the matchbox as a yardstick, dividing its contents by approximately 2.5 meters in a row. Having scattered the fertilizer, the groove is covered with earth, and further under the action of moisture, the granules will gradually "melt", enriching the soil with nitrogen.
Another agrotechnical device, the arrowhead, is performed as they appear. This is usually the beginning and middle of June. You need to take grazing on a serious way: a delay of 5-7 days is just a quarter, or even a third of the next harvest.
Growing garlic is relatively not troublesome, but very profitable. Firstly, they plant it long before the peak of garden works, therefore it doesn’t cause much stress. The same applies to his cleaning. Caring for them is not difficult to name, and the yield with respect to agricultural engineering is from 1 to 1.5 cent. The price for 1 kg of garlic rarely drops below 2 dollars at the market rate, on average fluctuating around 3 dollars. Conclusions everyone is free to do.
Top dressing of winter varieties in spring
Winter garlic, planted in the fall, usually springs up very early, its young sprouts easily tolerate cold, so they are not afraid of lowering the temperature to -2 or -3 degrees. Garlic with enviable resistance endures cold and drought, but in order to actively grow, it needs moisture, which is usually abundant after snow melt, and nitrogen supplements.
Most often, the soil is prepared for planting - they dig it up, adjust its structure if necessary, and saturate it with useful substances. But even if the plot was fertilized in the fall, garlic needs a lot of nitrogen to actively grow greenery, which is what happens in early spring. Therefore, most experienced gardeners immediately after the snowfall in a hurry to make nitrogen supplements.
It is possible to take slurry, dilute it tenfold (that is, take 1 liter of slurry into ten liters of distilled water), and then water the plot, even if the ground is not completely thawed. You can use chicken manure, but it is bred even more - 1 liter of fermented litter is stirred in 20 liters of distilled water. Many gardeners prefer to make compost or rotted manure into the soil.
Urea is used from mineral fertilizers in early spring, it is also applied to the soil in two ways - dilute 1 tablespoon in a bucket of water and pour garlic or sprinkle dry fertilizer, lightly sprinkling it with earth and then with moisture, gradually dissolving, it goes to the roots.
Someone prefers to buy ready-made fertilizer "Agricola", to breed it according to the instructions.
The second spring dressing is carried out in two weeks. Some growers recommend repeating the same means - slurry, urea or rotted manure. But others believe that the second time winter garlic can be fed in the spring with nitrophosphate or nitroammofoska (2 tablespoons dissolved in 10 liters of water). You can use purchased in the store "Agricola" or "Fertility", "Effekton".
Spring garlic fertilizer in spring
Spring garlic is planted in spring when the soil is already warm. Before planting, it is advisable to fill the soil with fertilizers, and at the same time as planting many vegetable growers put mineral fertilizers or even wood ash in the wells. Nevertheless, as soon as garlic begins to germinate, it is desirable to satisfy its increased need for nitrogen fertilizers, so that the greens grow strong, the green mass grows as soon as possible.
Experienced gardeners plant in 10 liters of distilled water 1 tablespoonful of urea, 1 liter of slurry and pour over their beds with this solution. Approximately 3 liters of this fertilizer is enough for watering 1 square meter of garlic beds. Some gardeners lay out compost or rotted manure between rows of leaflets, so that food comes after each rain or watering.
After 10 days, usually top dressing is repeated, then you can scatter the wood ash between the plants - this will be the last nitrogen dressing and at the same time a prophylactic against pests and diseases. Later, the garlic will increase the onion, it will need phosphate and potash fertilizers, nitrogen supplements are made only in the spring so as not to prolong the growth of greenery, taking away the forces (and time too) from the formation of the onion.
General rules of care
Care for any garlic in the spring is to implement common activities for most vegetable crops. It is watered, fertilized, free from weeds. We can not allow the earth to crust, timely loosening should help the roots get the right amount of air.
Garlic belongs to drought-resistant crops, it will not die if it is not watered at all. But only with sufficient watering can you learn a rich harvest. Especially this vegetable needs a lot of moisture in the first few weeks after the start of growth.
Winter garlic usually gets a lot of moisture after melting snow, its greens begin to grow very early, but in the spring, when there is no rain, it is still watered abundantly several times. Spring water is watered immediately after planting, and then you need to ensure that the top layer of the earth does not dry out. In April, May, if necessary, in summer the growing vegetables are watered, if there is no rain at all, and the air temperature rises, then it is necessary to water frequently, 2 - 3 times a week.
Usually, watering is recommended to be done every 8 to 10 days, combined with top dressing with watering. It is necessary to stop watering 2-4 weeks before the planned maturation of the heads, the abundance of moisture during this period reduces the storage time of the future crop.
In order to water less often, planting garlic is mulched with hay, compost, humus, mowed grass or sawdust, this will allow moisture to be retained.
Care of seedlings
From the very emergence of shoots, it is necessary to loosen the land between the plants, remove weeds, water and feed them. In the spring, as soon as the earth thaws, the bed must be loosened so that the wet earth does not clump, and its surface does not come from the crust. It is enough to loosen to a depth of 3 - 4 cm from the surface. Then this procedure will have to be done after each watering (or rain), if the garden has been watered in the evening, then after one day it must be loosened.
Mulching can save time for a gardener - if you irrigate a garden bed after irrigation, the moisture will not erode, the crust will not form on the soil surface, and weeds will simply have nowhere to grow. Hay or sawdust, and even more so compost or humus, will gradually overheat with each irrigation, move deeper, become fertilizer.