Grapes tolerate drought well, however, for a large crop and longevity of a plant, it is necessary not only to water it regularly, but also to fertilize it, constantly adding various top dressings to the soil. With each irrigation of the vineyards, a sharp increase in the quantity, quality and size of the fruit, as well as increased plant growth can be seen. There are many factors that influence grapes. Watering how often? It depends on the age of the plant and the time of year.
A large number of novice gardeners make a significant number of errors in the irrigation of plants, which can adversely affect flowering and fruiting not only in a particular season, but also in subsequent years. Attention must be paid to this aspect in order to preserve the grapes. Watering how often is needed? This parameter can be determined after familiarization with common mistakes of novice gardeners:
- The top of the water supply hose is watered every day or every other day, and is also combined with caring for other seedlings or flowers.
- Irrigation occurs immediately from the wells.
Such methods of irrigation do not bring good grapes, but only significant harm that impedes growth and development. It is necessary to know the classification of irrigation and to understand their meaning in order to carry out this procedure according to all the rules.
Types of irrigation
- Charging moisture for a long time. This applies to the spring and autumn seasons.
- Landing. It is carried out in the first days after transplantation or initial penetration of the plant into the ground, which makes it possible to grow excellent grapes.
- Irrigation seedling. This applies to all irrigation cycles during the first year of a particular seedling.
- Vegetation irrigation.
If there is a question about how to water the grapes, remember that the fluid is directed along the trenches and holes for the wells. This irrigation is one of the most important stages of filling the earth with water. Especially carefully it should be carried out in arid autumn. We must not allow the ground to be dry upon the onset of cold weather. If you do not add the proper amount of water, cold can penetrate deep into the soil. This is because the soil becomes loose, additional holes and pores are formed that can harm the roots of the plant. Cold air freely enters the cracks formed, which leads to complete or partial deterioration of the entire root system.
Water recharge autumn irrigation is designed to saturate the soil with water until the next growing season. It should be remembered that if the water is poured into the bush, then even with a rich and strong stream, it can penetrate no further than 30-40 cm deep, which helps preserve the grapes. Watering in the fall ensures that the moisture will fall quite slowly. It takes about a month for the liquid to advance by 20 cm. When summer comes, the water is at a depth not exceeding 1.5 m. This depth is a mark at which the soil does not dry out even in the driest years. The grapes, which are watered less in the summer, grow better, because they do not harm the plant.
Other features of autumn watering
When there is a severe drought, the bush will be able to consume this moisture. The earth, well filled with water, does not undergo freezing, which means that it is more fertile than the soil without an adequate amount of moisture. It constantly supports the processes of fermentation, which predetermines the formation of nutrient juices for plants. When autumn is very rainy, and the owners of the site were able to dig the whole earth, that is, the moisture was absorbed to a sufficient depth, strong watering is not necessary.
Such a grape is poured in trenches and edges of wells in the same way as autumn soil is filled with water. It is necessary only if the winter was characterized by severe frosts and was rather dry, that is, there was a small amount of precipitation in the form of snow. It is necessary to have time to carry out watering before the eyes bloom on the plants. If you irrigate the soil with cold water, you can prevent the early appearance of eyes, which often becomes a decisive factor in the process of protecting plants from late frosts. If you need to quickly awaken the bushes for their speedy blooming, you should use warm water. Remember that it is necessary to preserve grapes in the best possible way; watering in summer is less frequent.
When planting is carried out in the fall, it is necessary to dig a planting hole of proper size and pour about 1-2 buckets of water into it. Ensure that the fluid is completely absorbed. As soon as it begins to stay on the surface for a long time without changing the level, watering should be stopped. Thus, the required amount of water depends on the initial soil moisture. After placing the seedling, fill the hole only half in the winter, and then pour about 1-2 buckets of water back.
Subtleties encountered when planting irrigation
If you decide to plant in the spring, warming up the soil will require pouring 1-2 buckets of warm water into the planting pit. When the seedling will be strengthened in the soil, that is, the hole is filled about half, the soil should be soaked with additional water, amounting to about 1-2 buckets. It is advisable to insist the water in the sun, and not to warm up on their own. To increase the positive effect, it is advisable to regularly loosen the soil in the place where the grapes grow. Watering and fertilizer are very important. Especially prized funds "Master", "Viva", "Kemira." They have a great influence on the growth and development of the plant.
Watering and fertilizing grapes during the first year of the growing season
If there is a question about how often to water the grapes, it should be remembered that in the first year of the plant’s life you are obliged to contribute in every possible way to the development of its root system. Usually, at first, the roots develop at a short distance, which covers the planting pit. To effectively carry out irrigation, it is necessary to make the hole near the root itself and dose metered moisture, watching for its optimal absorption.
To create a well, you must visually present a circle or draw it neatly on the ground. The diameter of the circle is about 25-30 cm. The depth is measured around 20-25 cm. You can also measure a hole during digging by comparing it with the bottom of the spade bayonet. When the hole is dug, it can be cleaned of excess soil and plentifully filled with water. When absorption has occurred, the well should be covered with earth and loosened the surface for better air circulation to the plant. It is desirable to carry out fertilization with irrigation. Many gardeners recommend a mullein tincture in the proportion of 1:10.
It is necessary to approximately calculate the dose of the solution: for 1 l of water it is 0.5 l of solution. Also well suited "Master", "Kemira", "Viva". They should be diluted according to the package instructions. To give the vine a better ripening, you should stop watering when August arrives. It should be remembered that excess moisture can cause more damage to the root system than its deficiency, so do not pour the liquid above the norm.
If the question arises as to how often water the grapes, you need to remember that this should be done during the growing season several times. The frequency of irrigation and the amount of moisture should be determined independently, properly assessing the condition of the plant. Attention should be paid not only to the stem, but also to the leaves, their shape, size and integrity.
Usually the plant is watered in the late afternoon with pre-heated water under the rays of the sun. Enough 5-20 liters of fluid for each bush. The exact amount of water is determined not only by the size and condition of each bush, but also the frequency of irrigation, which the owners of the site have the ability to implement.
Watering the grapes, which were recently planted, is preferably carried out about once a week with heated water. Gardeners usually add fertilizer made from microscopic crystals to a liquid. For these purposes, the "Kemira Kombi" or "Master" is perfect. It is desirable to dilute them in a tablespoon for every 10 liters of water. You should also pay attention to foliar feedings. It is recommended to carry them out in the evening.
When a month passes after the grapes are planted, watering and feeding is reduced by 2 times. Usually they are carried out 2 times a month. At the onset of August, watering the grapes is temporarily canceled, which helps to preserve health and promotes the maturation of the vine. Watering is carried out only with warm water strictly on the holes with the preliminary removal of boles. Approximately 40-60 liters of water should be distributed per square meter of food. Together with vegetation irrigation, it is desirable to conduct foliar feeding, as in this case, the effectiveness of each method increases several times.
How often should the grapes be watered?
Watering through the pipe is often, as this plant is especially sensitive and requires a high moisture content in the soil in the following periods:
- The period at which the plant and the subsequent blooming of the plant buds take place.
- The time after flowering, that is, at the moment when the ovary of the fruit is fully formed and is in the period of development, the plant requires a large amount of nutrients to be able to endow it with fruits. It should take care of grapes. Watering during flowering is harmful, so you should add moisture to the soil immediately after it.
- Growing berries and pouring them. From the abundance of watering depends not only the size of the berries, but their color, as well as the benefits for all consumers.
You can not moisten the grapes too much. Watering should be dosed, and not carried out immediately before the formation of flowers, as well as during the active phase of flowering. This will cause massive shedding of flowers, and thus significantly reduce the harvest. Do not water the plant immediately before harvesting, as this will not only slow down the development of the berries, but may also lead to their cracking.
Does moisture like grapes?
Grapes are a rather moisture-loving cultivated plant that needs a lot of water when watering, but excessive moisture has an even more negative effect than lack of water. Just if the grapes do not get the necessary amount of water during irrigation, in this case, the roots of the vines begin to delve into the ground in search of the necessary moisture. If your backyard does not have a clay layer that does not allow the roots to go deeper, you can not worry that in particularly hot months the grapes will dry out.
From the deepening of the roots will depend not only the stability of the grapes, but also the level of protection. If the vine receives the required amount of water with regular watering, then in this case the plant starts to develop a surface root system, it freezes immediately in the case of severe frosts, and the grapes die. When, when water shortages cause the root system to sink into the ground a couple of meters away, even severe frosts will not be able to cause the grapes to die.
Thus, there is a certain dilemma: to give the plant the necessary amount of moisture and get a big crop, once again without risking vineyards, or make a strength test that will protect the crop from freezing rhizomes.
Is it necessary to water grapes in spring?
Watering grapes in the spring is a rather crucial moment during the whole period of crop growth. It is at this time that the vine is required to receive food from the ground in order for the number of berries to be maximum. The aroma and taste of the fruit will also depend on the amount of moisture produced in the spring season.
But often it happensthat the earth is already sufficiently hydrated. How to determine that spring grapes need to be watered?
- The winter was very frosty
- In winter there was little rainfall.
- Weak growth of the grape bush
- The plant itself does not seek to form buds.
The first watering in spring must be done before the buds begin to swell. It is after their appearance. In the spring all over water will need at least 300 liters of water per bush.
Watering is necessary once a week for 25 liters for one bush, if it does not rain. With rare rainfall, the plant can feed once every 2 weeks. When torrential spring rains rage in your area, you can safely refuse to water.
Watering grapes during flowering
Attention must be paid to the condition of the grape blossoms. When flowering, the plant must be dosed out and very carefully. Divide the rate of 25 liters for each grape bush for several days, so that the flowers do not crumble.
Experienced winegrowers in the flower period in their vineyards conducted experiments. Some plants were watered in the usual mode of watering the grapes in the spring, others did the spring watering dosed. The latter had a much richer harvest, despite the fact that the departure after planting was the same.
Attention! Select the water temperature subject to upcoming weather conditions. Warm water accelerates the vegetative development of plants, cold, on the contrary, slows down. If frosts are possible, then it is better not to water with warm water.
Watering grapes in the summer after planting
Since grapes are planted in spring, like most fruit-bearing crops, gardeners often puzzle about the intensity of watering the vines in the very first summer season. How not to destroy the grapes? The vegetation process is quite subtle.
In fact, the differences are almost non-existent, be it a young grape bush or an old one. For the new plantations, they invented a method of a circular hole, which makes it possible to nourish the grapes, without causing any stress to the vegetative system:
- from the bush measure 40 centimeters,
- draw a circle
- on this circle it is necessary to dig a circular trench, the depth of which is about 25 centimeters,
- need to pour evenly into the trench about 15 liters of water (during the drought, more),
- fill the ground with a trench.
This method has certain advantages:
- there is no excess water in the soil,
- the stem of the plant does not become bare,
- evenly feeds the root system of young grapes.
How to water adult grapes in the summer?
A perennial plant that bears fruit and has been growing for more than one year, you can water it from a regular bucket. The root system he has long been formed, to destroy these grapes is almost impossible.
To do everything correctly, watering it is sufficient with a certain frequency, taking into account the temperature and weather.
Possible consequences of improper irrigation
Grape bushes, watering which is required at almost all times of the year, have rather capricious leaves. They are fragile and very susceptible to temperature..
Beginning gardeners who are unfamiliar with the characteristics of growing grapes, it is watered in the same way as other garden crops. As you already understood, there are mandatory rules that must be carefully followed. The winegrower in each plant is obliged for himself to discover the correct algorithm, which is very important for obtaining as a result of a bountiful harvest.
Spraying from a hose is not the best way to:
- watering a grapevine is like washing a tank out of a plastic bottle. The fact that grapes require more water than cucumbers or carrots is completely ignored.
- if the grapes are sprayed on top, the drops of water will first fall on the leaves, they often break from this, then dry,
- from the abundant watering on the leaves may appear sores,
- the trunk from the lack of water in the ground begins to dry,
- leaves from excessive moisture begin to rot.
Even if the gardener knows when and how to water the grapes, with the arrival of spring, most people do not do this, referring to a significant amount of moisture from the melted snow. As you already understood, this is not a very correct approach. It is necessary to analyze all the time.Whether precipitation was sufficient in winter
Watering young bushes is different from watering adult grapes. Proper watering of a young plant, as already described above - the method of a circular hole. Again, there are gardeners who flood a thin sapling with liters of water and then cannot understand why the bush died before the arrival of autumn.
Also a common mistake is the desire “I want everything at once”. Beginning winegrowers are trying for a short time to get the maximum result. Do not forget that the bay bushes with an excessive amount of water, you will not get a more abundant crop, a complex of various dressings will not make grapes more tasty.
Basal bait: when and what to do?
That the vine was strong, the berries were poured with sugar and juice, actively growing green mass watering alone is not enough, phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen are needed.
Во время посадки куста в посадочную яму, как правило, добавляют 25-40 грамм суперфосфата и ведро перегноя. Таких подкормок развивающемуся молодому растению, которое активно наращивает корневую систему, хватает на 2 года. And additional feeding is required if the rules were not followed during planting.
Adult plants actively absorb all the substances required for development from the ground, because each year they need to be fed with various types of fertilizers.
Fertilizers that contain nitrogen are used during the first bait of grapes, it is performed one week before flowering. This substance will contribute active growth of foliage and shoots.
Radical bait is performed in drainage pits or trenches. Some gardeners combine watering at the same time as bait.
In the role of nitrogen bait using mineral or organic fertilizers. A large amount of nitrogen is distinguished by bird droppings and mullein. Perform bait infusion, taking into account the selected fertilizer. One adult bush takes 100 grams of bird droppings or 2 kg of manure per 10 liters of water, thoroughly mixed and watered. Mineral dressings are used for fertilizing grapes in this way: 7 grams of boric acid and 70 grams of nitrophoska are taken on a bucket of water.
The second bait is necessary both for the formation of large berries, and for the growth of foliage. Therefore, the main substances of solutions for bait are potassium and nitrogen. Perform two weeks before the appearance of the fruit. On the grape bush apply top dressing: dissolve 25 grams of ammonium nitrate and 15 grams of potassium magnesia in 10 liters of water. Feed again in a week.
Two weeks before harvest, the fourth bait is produced, it actively acts to increase the level of sugar content and increase the mass of berries. The main elements are phosphorus and potassium. To prepare it, take 25 grams of potash fertilizer and 25 grams of superphosphate, dissolve in 10 liters of water and water the plant.
How to produce foliar bait grapes?
Vine grape perfectly responds to foliar bait. Leaves easily absorb all the beneficial substances that fall on their plate with drops of water. The main advantage of this method is the quick response of the grapes to prikormku, since the absorption occurs in minutes. However, there is a disadvantage spraying - the effect of bait short-term, just a few weeks.
The foliar bait is produced in several stages and mineral readily soluble fertilizers are used. Prepared solutions with a sprayer applied to the foliage. Using spraying makes it possible to save a lot of water and preparations.
Three days before the beginning of flowering, the grapes produce the first foliar bait of the plant. The main task of its implementation (as the root) is the preservation of flowers and the active development of foliage.
Nitrogenous fertilizers are used to prepare the composition. In addition, the first bait combined with the processing of grapes fungicides against pests. Assimilation of nutrients takes place over several days.
The second dressing is produced one week after flowering. The main task is to obtain phosphorus and potassium by the plant.. These substances are responsible for the set of berries berries and the proper formation of bunches. Phosphoric, potash and mineral fertilizers are used for preparation of the composition, taking into account the instructions, or wood ash, it also fights with front sights, slugs and aphids. This bait must be repeated in two weeks.
The fourth bait perform two weeks before harvest. To ensure that the fruits meet the indicated varietal characteristics, phosphate and potash fertilizers are used. This treatment does not use nitrogen-containing compounds, since the development of foliage will harm the plant before preparing for the winter.
It is good to perform foliar feeding during the appearance of visual signs of a lack of some element on the grapes. So, small clusters with unformed fruits appear due to a lack of potassium, and the presence of small yellowed leaves indicates a lack of nitrogen.
Compliance with the norms and mode of irrigationThe correct bait, which gives the grape the required trace element at some stage of its formation, makes it possible to harvest large yields of tasty and high-quality berries. Scourge and roots of plants that have a supply of moisture and trace elements, perfectly tolerate the winter period and enter into fruiting.
When to water?
Grapes need watering at different stages of their seasonal development.
At the beginning of the growing season there is an active growth of roots, shoots and leaves. At this time, the bush should get enough water.
The first watering is carried out before the revival of the eyes. It is important to charge the ground with water in March, if the winter was of little snow. Dry spring is a reason to wet the ground in April. From the temperature of the water will depend on the time of awakening of the vine. Cold liquid slows down the process, and warm - accelerates the opening of the kidneys. This nuance should be taken into account if there is a risk of recurrent frosts.
A second watering is needed about twenty days before flowering. On average, in springtime, moisturizing is carried out three times.
It is better to shed the soil well 2-3 times, than to carry out frequent but scant moisture.
In the summer, vegetation irrigations are carried out mainly, the main task of which is to maintain optimal humidity in the territory of the vineyard.
Watering during flowering and directly in front of him is not carried out, it can lead to shedding of the ovary and poor pollination. The most active period of moisture consumption is during the filling of berries. At this time, the bush should get half the required water for the season. Humidification is carried out until the berries soften.
Irrigation immediately before ripening of the grapes can lead to their cracking and poor sugar accumulation. From the moment when the fruits begin to color according to their variety, and they do not water during the ripening of the berries.
Improper watering during the hot summer period can damage the vine. If you water the heated soil with cold water from a well or a well, the plant will receive a thermal shock due to the difference in water and air temperatures. Watering with such water should be carried out in the wee hours when the earth has cooled to the maximum. The second option is the wrong time for work - irrigation in the summer in strong heat under high pressure, if the hose is well heated water. In this case, the grapes can also get stressful.
With the help of watering the grapes in the autumn, you will ensure a successful wintering bush. Dry land in the winter time leads to freezing of the root system, it cracks from frost, which causes damage to the roots. If autumn is rainy, then the vineyard is not moistened.
In areas with undeveloped vineyards, irrigation is carried out when all the leaves on the bushes have fallen. In covering areas, moistening is performed after the “insulation” of the vine. The approximate period is the second half of October or the beginning of November, before the first frosts.
Watering of late varieties, the clusters of which will be used for long-term storage, is stopped in the autumn, one month before harvesting.
How much should you water?
There are no exact norms of irrigation time and the amount of water used. The scope and timing of these works is affected by a whole range of factors.
- Climate features. In arid areas with seasonal droughts, irrigation is more frequent.
- The composition of the soil. On light sandy soils, the intervals between watering are shorter and the portions are smaller. Chernozem and clay earth irrigate more abundant, but less.
- Weather. Even in one region in different years, the amount and volume of irrigation differ depending on temperature indicators and the amount of precipitation.
- Grape sort. For plants with a late ripening, the amount of watering is usually greater.
- Age and size of the vine, the number of clusters. For example, adult bushes in the summer, during the ripening of berries, need more irrigation than biennial seedlings in the same period.
- Watering method.
After a snowless winter during spring irrigation, each bush may need about 250 liters of water. Approximately the same amount of moisture is needed if dry weather persists for a long time, during the main summer irrigation. The bush consumes a lot of water when the berries are poured.
During vegetative irrigation, on average, vineyards need about 50 liters of water per square meter, usually in the range of 40 to 70 liters. On sandy and sandy soils, the rate is increased by approximately one and a half times.
Watering depth should be at least 40 cm so that the plant does not form a surface root system, which is prone to freezing and does not provide the grapes with the necessary moisture and useful nutrients.
Signs of waterlogging, the appearance of which should reduce watering:
- increased growth of shoots and a large number of stepsons,
- poor aging of the vine
- watery berries with low sugar content,
- atypical color in dark grape varieties.
Experienced gardeners test the soil under a bush to determine whether to water the plant. The soil is compressed in a fist - a sufficiently moist soil will not crumble after you unclench your hand.
Watering young seedlings
Young plants of the first years of life need regular hydration. Immediately after planting, a young grape bush is irrigated about once a week. About 15 liters of water are poured into a round well up to 25 cm deep during each irrigation. The width is about 60 cm. The large size of the hole is not needed, because the roots of the plant are not yet branched.
From mid-summer, grown grapes are watered about twice a month. Watering is adjusted depending on weather conditions and the size of the seedling. For good vines ripening, irrigation is stopped in August, it is not carried out in the autumn months.
Methods for watering grapes
There are two ways to moisten the vines:
Irrigation according to the first method is carried out in single watering pits or in the grooves made at the base of several plants. The depth of the grooves make about 20 cm. This option is not effective enough for large bushes with deep root system. To the roots, located at a depth of more than half a meter, the moisture simply does not fall. Drip irrigation is a better option. The tape is placed at a distance of about 20 cm from the grape stem, providing each bush with the optimal amount of water.
The best irrigation option is properly organized underground watering. It provides high-quality soil moistening at depth, prevents damage to the bushes during severe frosts due to the active growth of deep roots, reduces the risk of fungal diseases due to the dry surface near the bush. To organize drainage irrigation along the grape row, metal pipes with a diameter of 10–15 cm to a depth of about 50 cm are dropped in, leaving a portion of the pipe above the soil at a height of about 15 cm. 20-30 cm of pipe. At the bottom, under the pipe, it is recommended to create a drainage layer of broken bricks or rubble. In order to prevent debris from entering the pipe, the upper part is kept closed. The method of watering through the drainage tube is very economical - with this system less water is consumed, and the area of moisture increases.
Sprayers are not recommended for use in the vineyard. They create high humidity near the bushes, which can lead to fungal diseases.
Features watering grapes
It should take into account some of the nuances of watering the vine.
- Grapes - moisture-loving plant, but it is better to underfill than re-moisten the vine. Excessive watering leads to the development of a shallow root system. Such roots are prone to freezing during low winter temperatures, and in summer they suffer from a lack of moisture, because the upper layers of the soil quickly dry out.
- If the interval between watering is too long, and the earth has time to dry up, it leads to a deterioration in the quality of the berries and their cracking.
- With increased growth of green shoots, watering is reduced, and if they have stopped development, you need to water and fertilize the bushes with nitrogen fertilizers.
- During the dry period, additional watering may be necessary during softening and coloring of the berries.
- The soil is optimally moistened and the plant develops well if the ends of the grape shoots are curved.
- In the absence of rain and severe droughts, watering is carried out more often, and water volumes increase.
- The best time for irrigation is evening hours, and the temperature of water, air and soil should not be too different. It is useful to moisten with rain or separated water, which is pre-poured into large two-liter barrels.
- The next day after watering, it is imperative to loosen the soil under the grape bush to ensure air flow to the roots and to stop the rapid drying of the soil. This improves the nourishment of the bush and prevents the roots from rotting.
Watering and fertilizing
For early entry into fruiting and regular high yields, it is necessary to properly combine the watering with the dressings of the grapes.
In the spring, you can make mineral fertilizers and organics. It is useful to use zinc, nitrogen and phosphorus. They are combined with compost, manure or bird droppings for maximum effect. In the summer, they also combine watering with a bush fertilizer, excluding nitrogen.
Natural organic food - the best option for grapes. Last meal can be made no later than two weeks before harvest.
Regular watering is one of the important conditions for growing grapes. Timely and properly carried out moisture increases the plant's immunity and ensures its long life. Irrigation helps to grow a rich harvest and regularly enjoy juicy and sweet clusters.
Watering grapes in spring
Ways to feed and water the grapes. Watering the grapes is carried out in two ways: surface, underground.
Surface watering of grapes. In the furrows or trenches. At a distance of 1/2 meters from the shtambov dig a trench with a depth of 20 to 30 cm, through which watering is carried out and fertilizer is applied.
After the water is fully absorbed into the soil, the trench is poured with earth with the addition of dry humus, and then loosened. With this method of watering much water is consumed, the soil is moistened superficially, in the absence of ventilation, possibly the development of pathogenic fungi.
Drip irrigation. It is used for heavy soils, badly passing air. A system of pipes and hoses is pulled along hinged wire or on the ground, through which the soil is moistened.
Watering in single pits. Suitable for small landings. This is not the most economical option, but each bush receives the required rate of moisture.
Underground watering of grapes
Through vertical pits. This method of irrigation is convenient because the water and fertilizers go directly to the root system of the plant. Drainage holes are prepared once during landing as follows:
- Departing by 1 meter from the shtamb, between the landings, a hole is drilled 90–100 cm deep and 20–30 cm in diameter.
- In the hole lay in layers: 300 grams of mineral fertilizers, a bucket of humus and a bucket of drainage, for example, expanded clay, broken brick.
- In the pit, the pipe is installed vertically with a section from 4 to 15 cm so that its upper part rises 10-15 cm above the soil surface. Instead of a pipe, you can install a five-liter plastic container with a cut-off bottom. A tube is inserted into it 30 cm long and with a diameter of 20 mm so that its end rises 10–15 cm above the ground and closed with a lid.
- A hose system of 200-liter drums located on a dais can be attached to the tubes. With this method of irrigation, top dressing and watering are made individually for each bush, depending on the needs of the variety.
Through horizontal pipes. This is the most common way in which water and liquid fertilizers are delivered to each vine. It lies in the fact that between the landings at a depth of 60–70 cm they lay a pipe with holes drilled at a distance of 1 meter from each other.
The pipe joins the tank into which water and a mixture of fertilizers are poured. When the liquid warms up, open the valve and the nutrient mixture through the pipes goes to the plants.
When to water grapes in spring
There are moisture and vegetative irrigation. Spring water-charging irrigation is carried out before bud break, before the start of sap flow. It is carried out when moisture in the soil is not enough. The volume of water per plant is 200-300 liters. With an excess of moisture, watering is strictly prohibited.
The first spring irrigation watering grapes spend in March or April. If frosts are expected and it is necessary to delay the disbursement of the kidneys, pour it with cold water, and to accelerate growth - with warm water. In the dry spring water is watered every 7–10 days, 2-3 buckets per bush.
The second (vegetative) watering is carried out 20 days before flowering (middle or second half of May). Depending on soil moisture, up to three spring irrigations may be needed. Optimum soil moisture should be such that a handful of earth clenched into a fist does not crumble. Note that watering immediately before flowering or during it can cause shedding of flowers.
Too plentiful watering also harms the plants: moisture removes air from the soil, which contributes to the decay of the roots. Кроме того, когда орошение регулярное и обильное, корням винограда не нужно в поисках влаги углубляться на несколько метров, и они поднимаются ближе к поверхности почвы.
В жаркое лето или морозную зиму корневая система лозы может засохнуть или замёрзнуть. Для полива используйте только дождевую или отстоянную подогретую на солнце воду.
Spring feeding grapes
For active development and good fruiting grapes need regular feeding. Watering the vines can be combined with their fertilizer. The following mineral fertilizers are the most necessary for plants in spring:
- Nitrogen - provides growth and development of shoots and leaves. Especially needed after a long winter.
- Phosphorus - promotes the active formation of inflorescences, berries and ripening clusters. Superphosphates are fed in early May and in June.
- Zinc - is responsible for the yield, make it to flowering.
Fertilizing fertilizer should combine with organic. Otherwise, the plants will lack different substances.
It is useful to make organic fertilizers: compost, manure, bird droppings, peat. They contribute to the aeration of the soil and provide an active vital activity of microorganisms, thanks to which the root system of plants better absorbs nutrients. When you make only organic matter the need for any mineral fertilizers does not occur.
Distinguish basal and foliar feeding.
Spring basal dressing of grapes
For the first time, root dressing of the vine is carried out a week before flowering to enhance the growth of shoots and leaves with nitrogen-containing mineral or organic fertilizers.
From organic fertilizers apply manure or bird droppings. On the ten-liter bucket of water take the following components:
- 65 grams of nitrophosphate and 5 grams of boric acid,
- or 50 grams of bird droppings,
- or 2 kg of manure.
The following root dressing is necessary for the continued active growth of leaves and the formation of berries, that is, it must contain potassium and nitrogen. It is made a fortnight before the formation of berries. In a ten-liter bucket of water, 10 grams of potassium magnesia and 20 grams of ammonium nitrate are diluted. After a week, carry out additional feeding.
Spring foliar dressing
Plants quickly respond to foliar feeding, as minerals, falling on the leaves, instantly absorbed. They are introduced through drip irrigation or irrigation from a sprinkler or spray bottle. It should be noted that foliar top dressing can not replace the root.
The first time foliar dressing is carried out three days before flowering. It is necessary to increase the green mass and strengthen flower buds. It is supplemented with nitrogen fertilizers and is usually combined with fungicide treatment against pests. Nutrients are absorbed in one to two days.
The following foliar top dressing of grapes is carried out by potassium and phosphorus for the formation of bunches. Fertilize a week after flowering by spraying with solutions of mineral potash and phosphate fertilizers, which are prepared in accordance with the attached instructions.
Can be used wood ash, which is not only a fertilizer, but also effective against aphids, flies and slugs. Feeding is carried out again after a fortnight.
When to start
With the irrigation of vineyards in spring, everything is not so clear. The fact is that if the ground is not sufficiently wet after wintering (winters with little snow), then watering irrigation should be carried out. This is not just moisturizing the upper part of the ground, but “supplying” moisture to the depth.
Water should be poured in trenches and drainage holes in the amount of 200-300 liters per bush. Such an abundance of water will moisturize the dry land and allow the vineyards to quickly wake up after the winter.
Does grapes like moisture?
Grapes are quite moisture-loving plants, which requires a huge amount of water during irrigation, but an overabundance of moisture has a more negative effect than its lack.
The fact is that if the vine does not receive enough moisture when watering, then its roots begin to go deep into the soil in search of water. If there is no clay layer in your region that will not allow the roots to go deeper, then you need not worry that the grapes will dry in particularly hot weeks.
It turns out a kind of dilemma: to give the grapes the right amount of water and get a good harvest without risking the vineyards once more, or to test the strength, which will protect the crop from freezing rhizomes.
There are two main ways to irrigate grapes:
Surface irrigation method is divided into the following variations:
- drip irrigation,
- water supply to common ditches,
- irrigation of single pits, which are located near each bush.
Drip irrigation suitable for craftsmen who have enough time and knowledge to build such a system. Pipes for watering can be pulled both on a hanging wire and on the ground. This option is best suited for heavy soils that do not allow air to pass through.
Watering through a common ditch. Suitable for large grape plantations, when it is practically impossible to water each bush separately. This option does not require equipment costs, but the use of water for irrigation can not be called rational.
Now let's discuss underground moistening, which is also very popular and has several options for implementation:
- vertical holes,
- horizontal pipes.
Vertical tube. The point is that near each bush (indented 1 m from the trunk) a hole is dug into which a plastic pipe is inserted. Throughout the length of the pipe, holes are made through which moisture will seep into the soil. To prevent the holes from clogging, pits of rubble or gravel are piled around the pits. The water supply is carried out with a hose or manually pouring water.
Horizontal tube. The most popular method that has recently been used everywhere. The popularity is due to the fact that not only water but also various liquid fertilizers can be supplied through an underground horizontal pipe.
The pipe is placed at a depth of 60-70 cm. A hole is made through each meter into which liquid will flow. All openings are closed with agrofibre or fine mesh to protect against clogging. A sufficient capacity is connected to the system, into which water or a mixture of fertilizers is poured, then the liquid is heated in the sun and enters through pipes.
Mineral fertilizers and organic
Let's start with the fact that the fertilizer, planted when planting a young bush, lasts only for 3-4 years, then mineral starvation begins, and the plant is simply not able to produce the desired crop without additional fertilizer.
The main fertilizers are applied once every 2-3 years. Sealing is carried out in early spring or autumn. Fertilize with a mixture of organic and mineral water. Additional fertilizers are rather a kind of insurance against adverse weather conditions and pathogenic organisms. The most commonly used liquid options.
What is better: organic or "mineral water"?
For grapes, natural organic supplements are preferred, which are carried out by applying manure, compost, peat or bird droppings. This type of fertilizer not only gives the vine all the necessary minerals and nutrients, but also adjusts the consistency of the soil, making it more crumbly and breathable.
Mineral fertilizers also have considerable benefits, so they can be used together with organic matter. “Mineral water”, which incorporates the NPK group (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), is best suited, since this complex solves all the problems of vines at any stage of development.
It is worth remembering that if you use only organic fertilizers, then there is no special need for mineral fertilizers. However, if you feed the plants only with mineral fertilizers, then they will experience a shortage of various substances.
Terms of making dressings
Top dressing for grapes in the spring is made in certain terms about which you need to know and adhere to them.
After winter, before removing the film or any other shelter from the vineyards, you need to feed the bushes with a mixture of superphosphate, ammonium nitrate and potash salt (or use a complex fertilizer). In 1 liter we dilute 2 g of superphosphate, 1 g of nitrate and 0.5 g of potassium salt. For watering a bush, you must use about 10 liters of this solution.
The following application of fertilizing is carried out 15 days before the start of flowering. Use the same mixture with the same concentration (2: 1: 0.5 per 1 liter).
Ways to make
Standard use root dressing, which involves the application of fertilizers in pristvolny circle. Both single pits and a continuous trench can be excavated. The seeding depth is 40-50 cm. It is better to use this method in the fall, before sheltering for the winter.
Another option for fertilizer application is foliar dressing, which, although not able to replace the basic variant, however, helps plants at different stages. Extra root top dressings are brought in by drip irrigation or irrigation from sprinklers or a spray bottle. For these purposes, not only 3 standard mineral elements are used, but also additional compounds, which include bromine, cobalt, manganese, copper, and others. It is worth saying that root dressing is basic: without it, the plant will lack basic minerals and nutrients, since fertilizers embedded in the soil are best absorbed by the root system.
This concludes the discussion of spring watering and feeding vineyards on your site. Use the suggested instructions to provide your plantings with the right amount of moisture and nutrients for optimal growth and fruit formation.
The requirement of grapes to moisture
If moisture is not enough, the vine is prone to slower development and poor growth, and the shoots mature extremely badly. Also for this reason, a weakened grape bush may freeze in winter. Diseases and pests more often affect such a plant.
In the case when moisture is more than required, the root system of the crop develops worse, and the shoots of grapes can continue to grow until the onset of winter, the berries, as a rule, rot.
For the growth of a grape bush to be correct, it requires up to 700 mm of precipitation per year. It also includes rains, especially necessary and useful in the spring, when the plant has not yet bloomed, as well as towards the end of autumn, with the growing season ended. In winter, precipitation is also very necessary, and gardeners even contribute to the abundance of snow and its accumulation around the bushes so that the soil during this period is well moistened.
Watering grapes for growth
When close to the surface of the groundwater, the plant is less dependent on the precipitation. It can fully develop and grow without them, but only if the waters are very close, up to 5 m.
Not the last role is played by the humidity of the air, with the lack of which the formation of organic matter and evaporation of leaves is much worse. Also at the same time flowers are pollinated worse. When the humidity of the air changes unexpectedly, it is very dangerous for the culture.
Depending on the season
Watering grapes at different times of the year serves to achieve specific goals. In order to make the plant easier and more comfortable to endure the winter season, take care of a sufficient set of moisture and water it in the fall. The same accumulative watering of grapes in spring and fertilizing are necessary. In summer, it is important that the land near the bush always remains wet.
Summer moisture 1 year
After planting the seedlings, it is necessary that they take root, at this time the root system of the young plant especially needs a lot of water. In the first period of the growing season, you need to carefully monitor the timely watering of the seedling.
Near each bush a fossa is made, or an ordinary plastic bottle with a notch is buried. This is done in order to be able to control, periodically pouring water, then at what speed the water is absorbed into the ground. After each irrigation, this place is covered with dry soil to keep the soil moist for longer.
Grapes, like many other plants, it is preferable to water in the evening, and not during the day in sunlight. Water before irrigation is heated during the day and immediately before irrigation, bait containing potassium, zinc and boron is added to it. It can also be chicken dung or dung. Young bushes are watered at the rate of 15 liters per plant. Rationing irrigation is applied later, by the end of the summer. Between them increase the time intervals.
Due to the high summer temperatures, the air humidity greatly decreases, inside the culture for the same reason the temperature becomes high. The plant is rapidly evaporated, the metabolism is normalized only with irrigation at this time. This watering is called vegetative.
Hot summer watering is used to cool the plant. Irrigation ends when the bunches become a varietal distinctive color.
Watering grapes need to be controlled
How often to water the grapes? There are no clearly defined rules for watering grapes. To determine them, it is necessary to take into account a certain number of factors, such as the cultivation region, features of the local temperature regime, nature and condition of the soil, the number of sunny and warm days per year, as well as the distance to groundwater. Less grapes will need less moisture if black soil dominates the planting area. On lighter lands or sandy water you need more.
Abundant watering is used on very hot days, especially at a time when precipitation is not expected. Drought is a direct enemy for ripening a full-fledged harvest. Lack of humidity together with high temperatures often happens in the summer. Gardeners use options based on the difference in conditions when growing:
- Each bush plants dig a few holes, having a small size. Watering is done directly in them, but not under the culture itself,
- When intertwining vines or staying at close proximity to each other, watering is used with the help of narrow recesses. Through such furrows in the ground, the culture gets much more the right amount of fluid,
- You can also apply moisture supply systems that are adjustable. Drip irrigation in many ways facilitates the work of the gardener, because a dropper is installed under each plant, and all the bushes evenly receive fluid, almost without human intervention.
After the completion of the irrigation procedure, it is very important not to allow the soil to dry too quickly. To avoid this, mulching is used, necessarily organic. In this role there may be sawdust, hay or bark.
Knowledge of the main stages and dates at which the formation of grapes occurs, determines the understanding of all the advantages of watering in the summer.
Grape buds tend to bloom already at 12 degrees above zero, when only the grapes are discovered, with weather that cannot be called hot and at the same time cold. When the ambient air warms up to more than 20 degrees Celsius, a very rapid growth of shoots begins. At the same temperature, flowering will occur, albeit a little later.
To ripen clusters, you need about 30 degrees. It was then that it was necessary to water in order for the vine to gain as much strength as possible, and the harvest was abundant and large.
Need to be watered properly to harvest a bountiful crop
Seriously dangerous weather for grapes is a strong heat when the temperature reaches about 40 degrees. If the plant is grown in such regions, the water supply should be carried out regularly. It is very important that there are no burns on the leaves and berries. As a result, the leaves usually just fall off earlier than necessary, and the crop spoils.
In regions with a predominantly temperate climate, water for grapes is much less. Here the culture is watered when it becomes necessary, but you should not forget about moisturizing. A small drought plant can tolerate without special losses, but not quite rational use of water can occur: more moisture will flow into the foliage rather than into the stem.
In any case, you should not save on watering, if you can not do this. It should be borne in mind that the moisture evaporates in the summer pretty quickly.
Open ground and greenhouse
Watering in greenhouses or partially covered places should be carried out only at the end of the insulation, and in open ground it is carried out when the leaves fall. Last time in the fall watered necessarily before the frosts come. If late-ripening varieties grow on the site, watering is stopped about a month before harvesting.
If you have any doubts about whether to water the grapes, it is possible to check the humidity of the earth with a device called a tensiometer. Apply it mainly in closed areas or in open large areas. Для использования в него заливается вода, и по цвету имеющейся шкалы определяют степень увлажненности грунта:
- Красный цвет сигнализирует об очень сильной засухе, необходимо немедленно провести хороший полив с увлажнением листвы,
- При желтом цвете определяется нехватка воды. Почва увлажнена, но требуется добавка,
- Зеленый цвет показывает, что увлажненность почвы нормальная, и пока полив не нужен,
- The blue color makes it clear that there is more water than necessary, and watering should be postponed for a while.
How much water is needed
For a single grape bush, 1.5 l of water is considered normal daily. In the absence of watering, the clusters may become shriveled and stop further development.
1.5 liters daily
Determine that the grapes do not have enough water, you can by the absence of leaves. The spread of grape vines on the plot is also a signal of a serious lack of moisture.
When creating a schedule of irrigation of grapes take into account the following factors:
- What is the soil on the site. On sandstones they are watered often, but with less, black soil and clay require abundant, but rare watering,
- Weather conditions directly affect how many times to water and with what frequency. When wet soil after recent rainfall is not worth watering the grapes,
- Different varieties. Late grapes are watered more abundantly and more so that it is easier to endure winter,
- Parameters that include age and size. Old culture requires more abundant watering. This includes the number of clusters, as well as the number of inflorescences. The more of them, the more and water,
- In those days when it is very sunny, the plant is given more water than usual.
After a snowless winter or a severe drought at the beginning of the growing season, in April, it is necessary to pour about 250 liters of water under the bush.
The simplest of the known methods of irrigation and, at the same time, it is considered to be quite common to water the surface. The root system of grapes is 30-40 cm from the surface of the earth, it is necessary to use a very large amount of water when watering, which causes the gardener a loss. Some of the moisture destined for the plant manages to evaporate from the ground before it reaches the target, and this further increases the amount of moisture consumed. Humidity next to the bush increases significantly, and there is a risk of fungus development.
Watering trenches and pits
The scheme of irrigation using drainage wells is as follows:
- Apply the most common spade or auger. In the ground are made recesses about half a meter and the same diameter. Deepening should be from the grape bush 60-90 cm,
- Rubble is filled up with more than half the volume,
- To a small depth insert pieces of plastic pipes, 50 cm long and from 7 to 15 cm in diameter,
- Roofing material is laid on top so that the rubble is not silted. You can use linoleum or something else,
- The pipe should be above the ground from 15 to 20 cm.
Through this pipe in the future will be carried out watering, as well as plant nutrition.
Important! Delivery of water and nutrients will be carried out directly to the root system of the culture. Physical costs with this method requires much less.
This method is most preferable for the beginner grower. Water is consumed economically, the development of weeds in the bush is much less, and most importantly the bushes are saved in the winter.
This method, many gardeners and gardeners, not without reason, consider the most economical and most effective. Equipment for such irrigation is usually purchased in stores.
Also, everything can be done by hand with improvised means at low cost. This will require:
- Hose with a diameter of up to 15 mm
- Plastic bottles as dispensers,
- Droppers by the number of available vines,
- Foam filter (can be ready),
- Device to switch.
Hose lay on the grape row and mark the place where there are bushes. After this, an awl is used to make holes at the appropriate places, into which the acquired droppers are then inserted.
Next you need to install dispensers from plastic bottles, so that the bushes are not heavily flooded with good pressure. First, the bottle is filled with liquid, from which water goes into the hose, and only then it goes into droppers.
If you purchase equipment for drip irrigation, then it is effective for farms, for fans this method is not profitable, except, perhaps, for independent production.
There are quite a few ways to water the grapes that gardeners use. Each grower chooses his own, given the convenience and economic aspects. With properly selected watering gardeners get very good results in the form of a full crop.