Grapes are a kind of "berry of life." Its nutritional, dietary and even medicinal properties are widely known throughout the world since ancient times. Grapes contain fructose and glucose, as well as many organic acids. Each berry is 1.5% composed of valuable micronutrients and vitamins. The harmonious combination of sour and sweet taste forever provided the grapes with one of the places at the top of the gastronomic Olympus, and there is no reason to talk about wine connoisseurs. Today we will discuss the care of grapes in the suburbs. Yes, yes, this most valuable product can be obtained almost in the middle zone of our country!
Basic Botanical Information
Included in the family Vinogradovye. "Grape" is not only the vine, but also its fruits - large, fragrant and sweet berries known to everyone. After planting the seeds of this plant in the soil, they quickly germinate and give fairly large shoots, which in the first year are theoretically able to bear fruit. At first, lateral shoots quickly begin to move away from the leaf sinuses, but by the end of the first or second year, almost 90% of the lower processes die off, forming the form of the vine that is familiar to everyone. The vine blooms not too noticeably, the flowers are small and gathered in clusters of inflorescences. The color of the fruit is highly dependent on both the variety and the conditions of the particular area.
General features of growing
What should provide care for grapes in the suburbs? First, be sure to remember the light-loving vines, its tendency to freeze out on the site open to all winds. Simply put, the grapes need a fairly warm, well-lit place, closed from the wind. Strangely enough, but it is these very simple conditions that provide excellent results in growing this plant throughout the entire Moscow Region. Remember that dark berry varieties require more heat than their lighter "cousins".
That is why in our area most often light varieties are cultivated, since they are easier to care for. In the summer in Moscow region, grapes must be constantly watched, sheltering from possible early frosts, so that black species rarely take root.
On soil conditions and location of the vine
In general, despite the myths cultivated by some, the vine is quite tolerant to many soil types, but a couple of conditions must be met: first, the soil layer must be deep enough, and drainage is required. The pH value is in the range of 6.5-7.0. Also, do not plant grapes on purely calcareous soils, as this often affects diseases. It is much more important and difficult to choose the right place in terms of light and protection from the wind.
Ideally, you need a slope facing south or southwest: so, in summer, caring for grapes in the Moscow region will be easier, since you only need to water the vine occasionally. In our conditions, the wall of the house is suitable, directed in the same direction. Never plant a vine in small and enclosed yards, where snow lasts a long time and the soil does not warm up for a long time.
How to prepare a place for landing?
We already talked about drainage. At the slightest chance that the soil in the selected area may become too wet, it is mandatory. Grapes of such conditions can not tolerate in principle. Approximately three weeks before planting the vine into the open ground, it is necessary to dig the ridges into two spade ribs. If the soil is acidic, add lime at the rate of 200 grams per square meter. It is very important to fertilize poor soil: near a pair of garden wheelbarrows of humus to the same area. Especially sensitive to this grape "Isabella." In the Moscow region, planting and care for this variety must necessarily provide good fertilizer, since without this work, nothing will come of it.
Note that the grapes necessarily require the presence of vertical supports. When growing vines near the wall of the house, the rope or wire should be placed at a distance of approximately 30-35 cm from each other. If it is possible to cultivate the grapes in the open area, two-meter-long columns are taken, digging into the ground to a depth of 60 cm. The interval between them should be about two meters (up to three inclusive). Extreme supports are better to put on the metal stepsons or fill. Of course, in the presence of funds, it is better to immediately make the supports “stationary”, since in our conditions the pillars will not stand for long in the soil. Stretch one rope at a height of 40 cm, above it, every 30 cm, transverse "crossbars" are stretched. Place a pole at each future hole: it will be easier to determine the place of digging and fertilizing.
About proper landing
In the southern regions, this crop is planted between October and March. Of course, in our conditions it is somewhat unacceptable. And therefore we will plant grapes in early spring, before bud break. In any case, the earth at the depth of landing should warm up to a temperature of 10-11 ° C. Note that the vine is desirable to withstand the entire winter in a cold frame, isolated from the frost with a layer of snow. So it adapts better when landing in open ground. This condition is extremely important if you plan to grow Isabella grapes. In the suburbs, planting and caring for this variety is quite complicated, and therefore it is worthwhile to take care of getting stable and strong plants.
When planting near the wall, move away from it at a distance of 40 cm, and plant the grapes every 1.3 m. In the open, the distance between the vine should be at least one and a half meters. In the presence of rows between them also maintain a gap of one and a half to two meters. Be sure to ensure that the graft bushes have a vaccination site that is necessarily above the level of the soil. Do not forget to tie the grapes to the support. After planting, the vine is thoroughly watered and mulched with rotted humus.
Top dressing and watering
The grapes care calendar in the Moscow region begins in early spring. At this time, it is necessary to make a complex mineral fertilizer. In the same period, mulch the soil rotting foliage. The thickness of the mulch layer should be at least three centimeters. You should know that the grapes are extremely sensitive to a small amount of magnesium in the soil. With its lack of a vine, not only can it not give a crop at all, but also perish, since in this case the plant is very quickly affected by various pests and diseases. To prevent this, take 250 grams of magnesium sulphate, dissolve in a bucket of water and spray the vine. After two weeks you need to repeat.
Remember that the care of grapes in the spring in the suburbs involves weekly dressing with liquid mineral fertilizers, performed before the berries start ripening. If you grow a vine near the wall of your house, do not forget to water it regularly. However, you should not get carried away and swamp the soil, as in this case the plants quickly begin to rot the roots and it dies.
How and when to harvest correctly?
Remember that even with the full color of the berries they are not fully mature. Fruits need to accumulate a certain amount of sugars, as a result of which they acquire the delicate taste and aroma familiar to everyone. For early varieties, this period is about five weeks, but late varieties can ripen up to two months. Keep in mind that when grape harvesting with bare hands, you destroy the protective wax film, which leads to rapid deterioration of the product. So, be sure to work in gloves, try to hold the bunches behind the stalk, and cut them off with a shears.
Berries collected in this way can be stored for a very long time, simultaneously ripening. The latter is extremely important in the conditions of the Moscow region and the whole of the Central Band, since grapes do not ripen everywhere. Planting and care (in the suburbs) is very important to perform correctly, but if you can make a mistake during cultivation, a bad pruning will put an end to the vine!
Pruning is an extremely important moment in the care of grapes. Remember that shoots left on the vine must meet several important requirements at once:
- They should not be any mechanical damage, signs of disease and pests. In addition, it is recommended to leave only shoots of normal length, with a uniform green color.
- New sprouts are desirable to leave, if their diameter is 6-12 mm. Of course, the young vine they may be thinner. If the stem is too thin, then he simply did not have time to accumulate the necessary amount of nutrients, and therefore is weak and may die at any time. In the case of overly thick shoots, there is also nothing good: they are badly bent, have interstices that are too short and are getting old.
- Very important! When pruning and other activities (especially when harvesting), we strongly recommend that you protect the stems from damage, cuts and chips with all your strength, since such defects on the vine do not overgrow and are not tightened with resin.
If you really matter the yield and taste of the berries, we advise you to leave no more than 10-12 eyes per square meter of the space that takes up one vine. Try not to confuse the bushes and cut the vine completely. In the case when one of the vines over-winterized and weakened badly for some reason, it is necessary to reduce the number of shoots left on it, but on the neighboring bushes their number can be increased. What else can care for grapes in the Moscow region?
Pruning after freezing (unsuccessful wintering)
Damage to grapes by winter frosts - the situation in our area is not uncommon. Before eliminating the effects of the elements, it is necessary to at least assess the extent of the damage.
If there was a freezing of eyes, how to care for grapes? In Moscow, pruning is the only way to save the situation. At the same time trying to leave more eyes on young shoots. Of course, you should not get carried away especially, because otherwise, multiple sprouts simply stretch out all the juice from the damaged bush. In the case when the entire upper part of the vine has suffered due to frost, it is cut, trying to form more shoots from the remaining hemp. If enough wolf shoots are formed, there will be no particular difficulties with this.
By the way, is there a grape that is as resistant to frostbite as possible for the Moscow region? Varieties that are not covered with care are possible: “Alpha”, “Fox Berry”, “Kay Gray”.
How to cut grapes?
Remember one important thing: a successful pruning can be done only if you use a new and sharpest pruner, which gives an even and clean cut. The older the shoot, the more straight the trimming angle should be. This will minimize the area of damage to the plant, which will positively affect its survival in the winter period. If we talk about young shoots, they are usually cut strictly above the eye, departing from it by three centimeters. So you get a great grapes: planting and care in the suburbs, pruning and fertilizer - quite hard work, but they are worth it!
Major plant diseases and pests
Note that grape diseases are difficult to diagnose, since different pathologies may show similar symptoms. So, in order to accurately determine the misfortune, you need to carefully observe the pathological process and notice the most characteristic signs. All diseases of the vine can be divided into two types:
- Chronic variety.
- Seasonal type.
The “chronicles” pathogens include: esque, excoriosis, eutipiasis, as well as diseases of a bacterial and viral nature. All of them are extremely dangerous in that they are practically unaffected by standard pesticides and can remain completely unnoticed for a long time, being in a latent state. Most often, the infection spreads with care, with the help of tools. We should not disregard insects, and in some cases the disease can quickly cover the entire vineyard, falling along with the pollen of the plants on the grapes. Planting and care in the suburbs (there is a photo in the article), all this hard work, can disappear in vain, if at least one pest rooted on the vine!
For seasonal diseases include mildew, oidium, gray mold, anthracnose. Rubella and white rot are also classified in this category. Such pathologies are called seasonal because they appear at the very beginning of the vegetative season. Their appearance is predetermined by the wrong farming practices and the carelessness of the grower, when the latter is not engaged in high-quality autumn harvesting of the vineyard, leaving a lot of garbage. In it pathogens of diseases of a vine, and also larvae of pests perfectly winter. Thus, the care of grapes in the fall in the Moscow region provides for the mandatory cleaning of the area and subsequent burning of garbage.
Mildew (downy mildew). Dangerous because it develops throughout the vegetative season, and affects almost all the green parts of the plant. Infection occurs very quickly in wet and rainy weather, at an ambient temperature not higher than 13 degrees Celsius. A sign of onset of the disease is the appearance of oily spots of various shapes on the leaf blades. Gradually, they are covered with a well-marked mycelium, resembling white threads. The Lydia grapes are especially sensitive to this pathogen: planting and caring for this variety are relatively simple in the Moscow region, but you should never forget about this fact!
As soon as such a raid appears, it can be considered that the entire bush is affected. At the site of the lesion, the leaf tissue quickly crumbles, dries out, and with a strong lesion, the entire leaf blade simply disappears. The same fate befalls young shoots, berries and buds. Older shoots are far behind in growth. Practice shows that at the first outbreak of downy powdery mildew, up to 80% of the entire crop is lost, many bushes die. In wet and wet weather, the development of the disease occurs almost instantly, killing almost all the grapes. Growing and caring in the suburbs for him are complicated by the very unstable climate!
Information about the pathogen
The disease has a fungal nature. Peculiar "capsules" containing many spores of the pathogen are formed at the end of autumn, being attached to the lower leaf plate. They are perfectly preserved not only in the upper layer of soil, but also on its surface. In spring, these formations germinate and give rise to mycelium falling on young leaves during heavy rains, which “throw” soil particles into the vine. Note that the disputes at the first stage are completely unaffected by the action of antifungal drugs, as they are covered with a thick and very dense shell. As a rule, the duration of the incubation period does not exceed a couple of weeks, after which all the same spots appear on the leaves.
Note that infections are recorded only during wet, rainy weather. Since in some areas of the suburbs there are often fogs, downy mildew produces real havoc, "knocking out" the whole planting of grapes. To prevent such a sad outcome, it is necessary to create the best conditions for airing the bushes, without narrowing the gaps between rows and individual vines. Once again, we remind you that the Isabella grapes are particularly sensitive to this. In the Moscow region care for him involves the double treatment of the plant Bordeaux mixture or its substitutes. This should be done at least two times. If it is not possible to purchase or manufacture Bordeaux liquid yourself, you can use its substitutes, the range of which in modern gardening shops is extremely wide.
Also called "Oidium." As in the past case, it can in the shortest possible time hit all the green parts of the vine. Primary infection occurs long before flowering, as the pathogen "sits" in last year's shoots. It is very simple to determine their harmful nature: infected sprouts quickly become covered with a whitish, mealy bloom. As for the leaves, the mycelium, as a rule, develops on the upper part of the leaf blade. If the degree of damage is very strong, the whole leaf is involved in the process, which very quickly falls. Almost all of the affected shoots do not have time to accumulate the required amount of nutrients, and therefore in winter they freeze out.
Affected berries literally breaks from the inside so that the seeds become easily distinguishable. A characteristic sign of this disease is the disgusting smell of rotten fish, which at the same time is clearly noticeable near the affected bushes. The disease not only leads to a significant percentage of the freezing of the vineyards, but also to a very low commercial quality of the berries, which are becoming small and sour. В отличие от предыдущей болезни, оидиум лучше всего развивается без осадков, но повышенная влажность окружающего воздуха нравится и этому возбудителю. Время инкубации составляет всего пять-семь дней, причем за этот период безвозвратно теряется более 80 % всего урожая.
Как противодействовать инфекции?
As in the past case, try to create conditions that best favor airing between the rows and between the bushes. In order to reliably destroy the pathogen, all the foci detected on plants twice (about a week) are treated with Bordeaux liquid. Two more treatments - before flowering and immediately after it. During the growing season it is necessary to carefully observe the bushes of grapes. If the symptoms of the infection reappear, they spray the vine again. We can recommend the use of specialized formulations that are available in gardening stores.
If you follow our advice, which you could read about in this article, the vine will always delight you and your guests, bringing a bountiful harvest of juicy, fragrant and sweet berries! This is how the care of grapes is carried out in the Moscow region.
Grapes on the site
Vine has the ability to form more shoots and fruits than can feed. Without pruning, it quickly grows, and the leaves and berries shrink from year to year. In addition, thickening reduces resistance to viral and bacterial diseases. A properly formed shrub not only increases the yield, but also improves the quality of the berries. Clusters become larger, sweeter, less sick.
After planting the vine in a sunny, windproof place, the very next year they start pruning it to properly form a bush. About when it is better to cut the grapes, they argue a lot. Some say that it is better to do this in the spring, others prefer autumn pruning. Both are permissible. It all depends on the climate of the area. The grapes in the Moscow region are cut when it is convenient, but if the procedure is carried out in the fall, then the vine must be covered for the winter, otherwise it will have to be cut again in the spring due to freezing of the kidneys.
Spring Vine Care
In early spring, as soon as the snow melts, begins to care for the grapes. Shelter is removed if there are no more severe frosts at night, and the average daily temperature reaches +5 ˚С. With prolonged chills, this is done gradually: first, vents are cut through, and when the threat of freezing is over, they are opened completely.
The first spring watering of grapes has one of two specific goals:
- Awaken the vine from hibernation and speed up the start of sap flow. To do this, use warm water.
- Delay the start of the awakening. This is done if there is a danger of return frost.
Both that and other watering - moisture-loading. One adult bush takes about 200 liters of water. It will be enough for several months. Subsequently, the amount of water is reduced to 20-30 liters per bush and watered with an interval of 7-10 days in hot weather early in the morning.
The second water-charging irrigation is carried out before flowering, about 20 days before it starts. This will accelerate the ripening of the berries and make them larger. During flowering abundant watering can cause the flowers to fall off.
Water is poured into the holes, made around the trunks, or into the trench between them. Watering in drainage holes is more efficient so that moisture reaches deep roots. To do this, holes are made up to 1 m deep around the bushes at a distance of about 80 cm with a drill. 4 holes are enough.
You can build an irrigation system: install a barrel with water, a hose and four nozzles inserted into the drainage holes on a small hill. The soil is loosened twice: after removing the cover and before flowering. It improves the permeability and aeration of the soil. When digging make the necessary fertilizers:
- cow or horse manure,
- chicken or pigeon droppings,
- ready complex fertilizers.
After loosening the soil necessarily mulch. Liquid solutions can be poured into the drainage holes, solid scattered around the bushes and embedded in the soil.
Pruning grapes in spring
In Moscow, pruning grapes in spring is almost the same as in the southern regions. After the cover has been removed, the vine is inspected and all broken and dead parts removed. After that, proceed to the formation of the bush.
Advantages of the correct spring pruning:
- Productivity increases by 60-80%. Nutrients do not go to support the growth of excess branches.
- Vine is given a convenient form of care.
- Increased resistance to cold, which is very important for the Moscow region.
- Illumination improves, which accelerates the ripening of berries and improves their taste.
- Good ventilation prevents the appearance of various diseases.
- Harvesting is facilitated as the bush becomes more compact.
For spring pruning to be successful, you need to start it early, before the sap flow begins. If you do this later, the grapes "cry out" all the juices and may die. At a minimum, it will weaken and give a very small crop.
When pruning, you must follow a number of rules:
- All manipulations are made only with a sharp instrument. Secateurs are sharpened so that it cuts a piece of paper. The cuts on the branches should be at a right angle, flat and smooth.
- All damaged, broken and frozen branches are removed.
- On the shoots leave from 10 to 12 eyes.
- For replacement, 2–3 shoots are left uncircumcised closer to the stem.
In the suburbs, where the grapes need to cover for the winter, it is better not to use the stab pruning - the formation of a tree. Much more practical pruning "under the bush." This form is more convenient for bending down to the ground.
Bezshtambovy trim sequence:
- First year. All shoots are shortened, leaving two eyes. If there is only one vine, 4 buds are left.
- Second year. Leave only strong shoots that shorten as well - with two peepholes.
- Third year. The knot of substitution - the lower vine - is shortened, leaving 2 peepholes. On the fruit arrow leave from 7 to 14 holes. This will be a properly shaped sleeve.
In the future, pruning will be in the abandonment of fruiting shoots with 10-14 eyes and 2-3 substitution knots.
Why is it worth planting grapes in the suburbs in the spring
In landing in the suburbs in the spring, of course, it makes sense. However, before planting, it is necessary to weigh the pros and cons. If the owner of the backyard plot in the Moscow region can provide sort "Isabella" proper care, plant a vine must be. But if the gardener realizes that he will not be able to pay much attention to the care of the vine, it is better to postpone the planting until the time for leaving appears.
A few reasons to plant grapes in the Moscow region in spring:
- The vine, thanks to its spectacular appearance, is actively used in landscape design. For example, with the help of a climbing vine, you can make a wonderful “hedge”,
- Berries are very healthy and have a pleasant taste. Of these, you can make grape juice, marshmallow and marmalade, as well as a wonderful homemade wine,
- Far from all summer residents grow a vine, therefore the presence of this fruit is a cause for pride,
- The berries ripen amicably, and varieties suitable for cultivation in the climatic conditions of the Russian Central zone, have good yields,
- Growing and caring for them is a very interesting activity.
Useful properties of grapes
It has many useful properties.. Mature berries contain:
- Vitamin C,
- Useful organic acids (for example, grape acid) that have a positive effect on the body,
- Natural sugars
Homemade wine also brings great benefits to the body with moderate consumption. Dried grapes (raisins), as well as marshmallow and marmalade, cooked without added sugar, can be eaten even by diabetics.
However, it is not recommended to give grapes and grape juice to children under one year old. It has the property of enhancing the formation of intestinal gases and often causes flatulence. For the same reason, do not use it to those who are breastfeeding.
Varieties of varieties suitable for cultivation in the Moscow region, has a very good taste. Its sweet taste is pleasant and slightly sour. like both children and adults. Regular use of it helps to rejuvenate the body and improve skin condition. Thanks to their beneficial properties, grape acid and essential oil are widely used in the manufacture of cosmetics.
Grapes: planting and care in the Moscow region
Caring for a plant in the Moscow region has its own characteristics.
Before landing in the Moscow region, you need to keep in mind the following:
- He is very afraid of the cold
- Also, this culture is afraid of the wind, so the place intended for planting should be closed from the wind. Ideal - the blank wall of the house,
- He loves soils rich in magnesium. If there is an insufficient concentration of this trace element in the soil, it is necessary to use mineral fertilizers containing magnesium, when feeding,
- It is advisable that the vine grows in a well-lit place,
- It is necessary to carefully consider the drainage system of the liquid, as the Isabella grape does not tolerate stagnant water in the soil.
Landing is most often carried out in the spring. Most gardeners buy grapes saplings in nurseries and specialized stores. However, some winegrowers grow seedlings all winter for outdoor planting at home or in a greenhouse. Before planting it is necessary to fertilize the ground. It is best to use complex mineral fertilizers for this purpose. Also excellent are manure, peat and humus..
Of course. You can plant grapes in autumn, but only if winter is expected to be warm and snowy.
The main features of grape care in the spring
Spring is the hottest time for the gardener. The spring calendar of works should be started with a visual inspection of overwintered grapes. It happens that the whole vine, unable to endure the winter, dies. In this case, it has to be burned, because there is no alternative. But it also happens that only a few shoots died from the bitter cold. These shoots should be cut with sharp shears. Thanks to pruning, he begins to spend his energy not on the rapid growth of shoots, but on flowering and fruiting.
Spring - it's time to take care of the prevention of dangerous fungal diseases and pests. Winegrowers of several generations successfully use Bordeaux liquid for this purpose. Vineyard processing produced by spraying. Regular use of Bordeaux liquid for the prevention of diseases and pests helps to completely get rid of these problems. Of course, nowadays there are more modern antibacterial agents for berry bushes on the market, but no one can guarantee their harmlessness and ecological purity. It is best to use time-tested recipes. If in the spring to take care of the fight against diseases and pests, in the summer these problems will not be.
Grapes "Isabella" and other grapes in the Moscow region: practical recommendations
Grapes - climbing plant, so the growing vine will need support very soon. For support, you can use ordinary vertically stuck wooden or metal sticks. It will curl on the support and develop rapidly. The main thing is that the support should be firmly fixed in the ground, not wobbling and not fluctuating at the slightest breeze of the wind.
It is best to choose for planting in the suburbs of the variety, possessing a strong immunity to downy mildew, powdery mildew and white rot. Of particular relevance are such varieties in the event that the plot on which the grapes are growing is in a lowland or marshland. The greater the humidity of the air and the soil, the greater the likelihood that the grapes will become sick with powdery mildew. In the Moscow regionwhen summer is sometimes wet, rainy and overcast, and in the fall there is often fog, the prevention of powdery mildew is of particular importance.
In order for the cuttings to settle down faster and develop better, you should choose a warm sunny day for planting. After planting, the side shoots begin to actively grow in the cutting, and soon the cutting becomes like a small bush. Usually inexperienced gardeners, having seen these metamorphoses, think that they made a mistake when choosing seedlings. In fact, there is no mistake here. For young grape cuttings, a quick and abundant formation of lateral shoots is characteristic. However, soon they begin to die off gradually, and the plant takes on the appearance of a real vine.
Of course, grapes in the suburbs do not take root at all. However, if an amateur gardener is willing to pay a lot of attention to a plant and overcome the difficulties that have arisen, it is necessary to plant a vine. If you choose the right grade, he will surely please the summer resident with a good harvest. Young homemade wine from grapes "Isabella" will not leave anyone indifferent. To grow a vine of this variety is possible not only in the Moscow region, but also in the Vladimir region. Of course, in the case of a frosty winter, grapes may die, but more often winters in the Middle Belt are quite warm and snowy.
Pick up a place for grapes should be in facing the south and south-west places, sunny and protected from the wind. This may be the southern wall of a house or another building, a high fence. Grapes grow well near the bushes of gooseberry or currant.
To plant the grapes should be in early autumn. A deep pit is dug, in which the roots of a plant are freely placed. After this, it is necessary to sprinkle the roots with earth, pour out a bucket of water and only after that fill the pit completely.
The soil should be fertilized and loose, not saline and not swampy. It is necessary to make annual mulching of the soil with compost, wood chips or chopped straw.
You should not plant grapes near the trees, as their roots greatly dry the soil.
How does the formation of the vine
During the first year after planting, all shoots except the main one are removed.
In the early spring of the second year you need to remove the top of the main shoot. The rest of the shoots are directed along the guide wire.
Further fruit vines are formed, removing the excess side shoots.
In the same period, it is necessary to ensure that there were not too many grapes on each fruit sprout. Extra clusters should be removed.
How to feed and protect grapes
Magnesium sulfate is added to the soil each year in spring for better development of the fruit. Starting from the moment of flowering and growth until the ripening of the grapes, it is necessary to fertilize the grapes every week.
For grapes in the suburbs there are not many pests. First of all it is phylloxera. The root system is affected, the bush begins to wither and dies after a while. Save the plant is unlikely to succeed. It is better to immediately remove the infected bushes. As a preventive measure from phylloxera they plant parsley in between rows.
In winter, the grapes are covered with leaves or just an old film. In case of severe frosts without snow cover, it is better to additionally cover with straw and on top again with a film.
If there is a lot of snow, you can simply lay the grapes on the ground. From rodents it is better to put some deterrent.
The difficulties of growing grapes in the Moscow region
Long since grapes were grown on the southern slopes in countries with a warm climate. Enthusiasts gradually spread the vine to the north. However, in Moscow latitudes, the culture could not give a full harvest. There were not enough sunny days, a warm period for the ripening of the bunch. As a decorative culture for arches, arbors, grapes used for a long time, but now there are varieties of very early and early selection, allowing you to get ripe clusters and prepared for wintering wood.
The grape is given a place protected from the cold winds, open to sunlight. The grape bush is particularly undemanding to the soil, but fertilizing accelerates the development of the vine and the ripening of the berry. Whether a lover gets a grape harvest in the Moscow region depends on many factors:
- choosing a landing site
- choice of grade or shape,
- correct fit
- care of the plant.
The grape bush is endowed with “smart” roots that will adapt to any soil, except for marsh. Under the conditions of the Moscow region, a sapling is planted with a slope to the ground, so that after covering it for the winter.
Place for landing may be the southern wall of the building. And the landing pits do at a distance of 1 meter from the wall. Each bush is designed to be planted with the best lighting during the day. It is necessary to choose grapes for the Moscow region. Varieties are divided in many ways. For the Moscow region, the choice of varieties with the characteristic ultra early, super early and early will be relevant. The remaining grapes in the suburbs do not ripen.
Determining for the suburbs will be a measure of frost resistance. It is necessary to choose seedlings belonging to the first group of resistance, which can transfer frosts up to 35 degrees and above. However, for the Moscow region, non-covered grape varieties are recommended for winterizing.
The landing pit is prepared depth depending on the nature of the soil. The depth of the pit is prepared depending on the density of the soil, from 20 to 50 cm. After planting, the hole is compacted and watered with warm water. In the filling mixture you need to add organic fertilizers, superphosphate, wood ash, potassium nitrate.
Before the material is planted, it must be prepared. It is necessary to remove the non-preserved roots of the sapling and dip the roots in a small talker from one part of the fermented mullein and two volumes of clay. Верхнюю часть ствола подрезать по побегам на две почки и опустить в расплавленный парафин или воск. Подготовленный саженец следует устроить наклонно, чтобы в дальнейшем, опуская лозу для прикрытия на зиму, не обломить её. Молодые растения следует поливать до укоренения и позволить им начать формировать только две лозы.
Caring for a vineyard in the Moscow region
Young shoots of grapes freeze slightly, even with slight cooling characteristic of the region. Therefore, to guarantee the safety of even winter-hardy varieties for safety, you need to cover for the winter. Here it is necessary to comply with the measure, as the wrong cover can cause putrefactive diseases of the stems, which also lead to death. Shelter grapes in the suburbs is done when the temperature is set below zero.
Spring efforts begin with the release of the vine from the shelter. At the same time, the branches are freed from the load gradually. First, a layer of earth is removed, then gradually in the daytime the bush is aired, then it is covered again at night. Open completely early, may damage frost. Overexposing a plant under cover is to get a dead plant that has fallen out. Care for the vineyard in the suburbs after opening the bushes is made in the following areas:
- the formation of a grape bush,
- top dressing and watering plants,
- treatment against pests and diseases
All operations carried out on the green bush, and a lesson on how to care for grapes, the video at the end of the article is clearly presented with a detailed explanation.
Only the experience gained in the process of growing a vine will help to work with understanding, and therefore creatively. Pruning of bushes is needed in order to prevent shoots that are not working for the harvest. Each leaf of the plant should be covered as much as possible during the day. Shoots that will not bear fruit should be harvested and regulated on the bush. If many brushes are tied, they will not have time to ripen, the berries will be small and tasteless. A young bush is formed by such an operation. Mature, help to leave the right amount of brushes.
From the very beginning of spring growth a trellis is needed to the bush, to which it is tied up or it is attached by a mustache. It can be any sustainable structures, and even frames for architectural forms. It is only necessary to provide a method for autumn laying of the vine under the shelter. Tapestries are installed with a single row of wire or double.
Green summer operations for growing grapes in the Moscow region include:
Watering the grapes produced by the grooves at a distance from the trunk. Roots do not like drastic changes in nutrition and humidity conditions.
Watering the vineyard produced by the grooves between the bushes. If the plant is one, then the groove needs to be done at a distance from the trunk, since direct moistening will break the root mode. Watering is needed at the beginning of the growing season, when there is a build-up of green mass and pouring berries. In August, watering is not necessary, the berries must gain flavor.
Feed for grapes in the suburbs during the summer are needed. Use organic matter in early summer for the development of the bush. Later, phosphorus and potash fertilizers are required, preferably in the form of a potassium salt without nitrogen. Top dressings combine with watering on grooves. Sheet-fed plant support during the growing season, combining them with fungicidal treatments. Compatible forms of microelements are selected.
During the season, 4 complex feeding is carried out and, if necessary, they are treated when diseases and pests appear.
Grape varieties for the Moscow region
Of the many varieties that are currently zoned in the suburbs, the variety attracts attention for beginners. The variety of American selection Alpha is created as if for them. Withstands cold at 40 0, productive, early. Berries are black, tasty. Vine has time to ripen. The disadvantage is that the berries are sour, but they are good in culinary processing.
The Amur variety, on the contrary, is very sweet, ultra early, withstands frost up to 42. On a ten-point scale of taste he has 8.7 points, which is very good. The bush is resistant to diseases, it matures well, it is suitable for decoration of light architectural forms, winters under a piece of roofing material.
Of the light amber varieties, you should pay attention to the Kay Gray variety. The hybrid is very powerful, productive and resistant to all known diseases of vineyards.
The grape varieties described for the Moscow region are uncovered, and, therefore, there will be less trouble with preparing the garden for winter.
Pruning vines in autumn
The grapes are removed from the trellis, the remains of leaves and whiskers are removed. All stepchildren and unripe shoots cut out. Thin shoots (less than 5 mm in diameter), diseased and broken are also removed. Cut out all otplodonosivshie arrows and part of the annual shoots, unnecessary for fruiting, - grown from the ground or on the trunk. The remaining vines are pruned, leaving 15 eyes each.
After all procedures, the grapes are treated with a means of rodents and sprayed with 3% solution of ferrous sulfate. This will prevent microbes from entering the slices. This treatment is carried out in dry, windless weather, using protective equipment.
Shelter for the winter
Having finished pruning and processing the vine, it is bent as low as possible to the ground and secured with studs. There are several ways to securely shelter grapes:
- Ground This is the easiest method. The bush is covered with ordinary soil. Covering layer - 25-30 cm. It protects the vine from frost up to 20 degrees.
- Sawdust or straw. A layer of such a "blanket" is 30-40 cm. It is immediately trampled down so that the wind does not spread throughout the area. You can put pieces of slate or other material on top. In the spring such shelter will serve as a good mulch.
- Spruce spruce branches. It is not very fond of rodents, it does not contain putrefactive bacteria. A layer of shelter - 30-40 cm. In spring, dried needles will be an excellent organic fertilizer.
Layers can be combined, alternating in random order. Snow can serve as an additional layer - it is simply thrown on the vine with a shovel. Cover the grapes begin when the frost increases, and the temperature reaches -8 C. Prior to that, he undergoes a kind of hardening, and the wood matures, acquiring a light brown color.
Simple sequential actions for the care of the vineyard will provide a good harvest and a strong gain of strong shoots. And this is not only a tasty and healthy berry, but also wine, compotes and liqueurs for everyday and festive table.
Features of cultivation in the Moscow region
In the region there is no such abundance of heat, which is present in the southern territories, the problem is solved by:
- fencing site, where it grows grapes from the cold wind. The landing site should be as open as possible to the sun, in the shade it is not recommended to plant it.
- It should, and pick up special varieties, designed for the climate of the Moscow region.
Without doing this, the harvest in the form of berries does not get. If grapes are used as decorations, everything is much simpler.
What varieties are suitable for the Moscow region?
There are several varieties suitable for planting in the middle lane, they ripen quickly, they are classified as early ripening, which is quite convenient for areas where the weather is cool for most of the year.
- KishmishThere are several varieties. Its berries are medium sized, sweet, yellowish berries do not contain seeds, it is easier to eat. Kind of used in cooking sweets, in particular, raisins. Crop is removed in September.
- «Lydia“Quite suitable for food, it is used in the production of white wine, the color of berries is dark red with a green or lilac shade. It is resistant to fungal diseases, easily curls on trees or metal structures, has a high fertility.
The list is not exhaustive and there are other varieties that are quite suitable for breeding in the Moscow region.
When to plant?
They plant grapes either in spring or autumn, experts say that the only difference is in the need to provide seedlings with insulation so that they do not die and develop normally.
In spring, the planting period lasts the second half of April, in the fall from October until the moment when the frost comes, then it is risky to plant, the seedling can die.
Choosing a landing site
The site for planting is determined by the quality of the soil. Best used plot with forest soil or black soil. Sandy soils require intensive fertilizer, they quickly heat up and cool down quickly, and their use is less desirable.
The soil should be loose, if it is dense, the plant is harder both to feed and grow. Be sure to engage in fertilizer soil, especially before planting.
The scheme of planting grapes with a pipe for watering
The plot of soil for grapes should be cleared from weeds with strong roots - wheatgrass, wild black horseradish, etc.
In addition, the grapes are affected by which plants are located next to it, some stimulate its growth, others do not have any effect, still others act negatively and inhibit the grapes.
Phosphates, magnesium are suitable for fertilizing grapes, it helps the plant not to get sick, and manure. Manure is the main, but not the only element in the part of fertilizer.
Some experts advise to dig in the pipe near the seedling and pour in the materials for additional feeding; you can also water the plants through it in conditions of strong heat when the soil dries out.
Somewhere within 1 m there should be free space from other plants.
Serious point is the "haircut". The peculiarity of grapes in its curling "body". The owner himself chooses the direction of growth, trimming the antennae. Growth should be uniform so that the bushes are not overloaded subsequently from the grapes.
How to water the grapes?
In the spring, watering is advised to do only with insufficient soil moisture, but if there was a lot of precipitation, on average, watering is done 1 time per week, in the period June-July - 2 times a month.
In August, it is better to exclude watering, resuming it in September, October. Wet soil helps to endure the winter, it is not so susceptible to freezing.
How and when to harvest?
Crop harvested after reaching the berries maturity, for dining and technical varieties, it varies. If we take on the terms, then in the period August-September. Some varieties go beyond that.
What are common signs of maturity?
It is better to put the grapes in containers covered from the inside with burlap or cloth. During the assembly process and until the packaging, it is best to keep the clusters in the shade, in a dry place.
The purpose of pruning is to turn a liana into a shrub, to save it from unnecessary load, because even a dry branch slows down the development, taking away resources from the plant. The correctness of the trim depends on when it is done and why? In spring or autumn, or whether the cause of pruning is damage, such as frostbite.
First, in 10 days the leaves break off, nutrients at this time go to the root system. Haste is harmful, besides any cut, the damage makes the plant weaker.
The extra thread of the vine is cut in the fall or spring, but in the spring you can see what will happen to one branch or another, and it is easier to decide what to cut and what not.
An incision should not be made at the border along the kidney itself; it is better to remove the remaining part of the branch next year; before removal, it will protect the kidney from death. The incision is always made diagonally.
Scheme of fan pruning grapes
Frost-eyed eyes, when cut after several days in the room, gradually darken, and when cut, a brown color is seen, the plant will show a green color.
- If half the vines died (noticeably by notches), pruning done in the spring. If the upper part of the vine is heavily damaged, removing the damaged part, the tendril coming up is better not to cut or make a minimal incision. Also come in case of damage to the lower part of the bush, long healthy branches do not touch. Underdeveloped parts, double shoots better cut.
- With the death of 80% and above, cut in 2 stages, first undeveloped shoots and thin antennae, then those that are not needed to direct the development of the bush. The second pruning is done about 10 days before flowering.
The subtleties of the procedure are determined by the characteristics of the variety, each of them is cut differently.
Diseases and pests: how to fight?
Grapes can get sick for 3 reasons:
- Fungal diseases.
In addition, pests have a negative impact. To determine the fact of the disease is quite simple:
- The color of the berries changes,
- The color and shape of the leaves changes, sometimes they are directly affected by parasites,
- Berries begin to rot, not ripening.
For example, "black spot", The berries are covered with black spots, especially noticeable with a strong degree of damage.
How is the disease treated?
- Affected parts are trimmed,
- Processing is done where there is copper - in the autumn,
- Treatment with fungicides is done in spring, leaves are processed. Of the drugs used "Bordeaux mixture", "Antrakol."
Gray rot. Occurs mainly in wet weather due to the lack of normal air circulation. The berries are brown in color, burst.
How is the disease treated?
- Treat the plant with blue vitriol,
- Remove affected leaves and bunches,
- The load on the branches should be optimal.
Special preparations are not provided.
There are many pests, for example, aphid miteThere are others with outlandish names.
Louse clean with a solution of laundry soap, sprinkle 2 times per season, or use drugs, for example, "Nero".
Pliers mainly settle on the leaves, they are either removed by hand or the leaves are processed with “Omaytom” 3 times in 10 weeks.
Grapes grow in the suburbs in the selection of varieties living in the conditions of the region, the grower will be able to get crops. The plant is preferably planted in forest land or black soil. Fertilizer and watering carried out with different intensity.
Care is different, depending on the variety, also applies to trim. If we talk about diseases and pests, good care is not enough, be sure to remove the damaged parts of the plant and treat with drugs. The results are affected by the peculiarity of the variety and the conditions in which the grapes grow.
Features of growing grapes in the Moscow region
Growing grapes in the suburbs today has become quite common. It has some special features. For climatic conditions of central Russia, early-ripe varieties resistant to severe frosts with the ability to ripen vines before the onset of cold weather.
It is important not to forget that grapes with dark fruits require more heat than those whose berries are light. For cultivation in the suburbs, summer residents most often choose light varieties, which are easier to care for at times. Black varieties will have to provide special care and compulsory shelter from early frost.
In Moscow there are no quarantine pests and diseases of grapes, so it is not very difficult to grow it. Shelter bushes for the winter facilitates stable snow cover.
The grapes in the Moscow region is most preferable to plant in early spring or autumn, before the onset of frost. In the spring, you can plant green annual seedlings or lignified cuttings. Annual seedlings need to be planted very carefully, since the roots of the plant at this time are very fragile. When removing them from the container, they should be carefully unraveled and straightened.
Rooted cuttings are planted after warming the soil at a depth of planting up to +10 degrees. Tightening with planting can not be: seedlings in late periods develop slowly.
In autumn, annual grape seedlings are planted. Autumn planting in the suburbs optimally carried out in mid-October. Before the onset of frost it must be finished.
Variety selection and seedling preparation
To get a good harvest in the suburbs, it is better to plant frost resistant uncovered grape varieties:
- Rusven. The vigorous cultivar with a maturity of 110 days, rounded large pink berries have a matte finish.
- Amur. Ultra early variety with excellent (8.7 points out of 10) sweet taste, can withstand temperatures down to -42 degrees. It matures well, it is resistant to diseases, it is often used to design light architectural forms.
- Alpha. An early productive grade of the American selection which maintains frosts to-40 degrees. The vine has time to ripen, the berries are tasty, black, sour, but very good in culinary processing.
- Isabel. The vigorous variety with a maturity of 120-130 days and large wax-coated berries. The weight of one bunch is about 140 grams.
- Denisovsky. Variety of wine destination, early ripening. Bushes vigorous, black fruit are of average size.
- Kay Gray The fruitful and very powerful hybrid of light amber varieties, is highly resistant to all diseases.
- Kishmish. An early grape variety, the fruits of which are stored for a very long time. The average weight of clusters is 300-500 grams; larger ones weighing about 800 grams are also found. For mature berries characteristic amber color.
Most summer residents of the Moscow region prefer Kishmish grapes. This popular variety attracts them with a lack of seeds and high frost resistance, which reaches -26 degrees. This variety is resistant to fungal diseases.
A grape sapling is required to prepare for planting: remove the non-preserved roots and dip the roots in a small talker of two parts of clay and one part of fermented mullein.
The upper part of the stem is dipped in melted wax or paraffin, after cutting the buds on the 2 buds. Arrange the prepared seedling should be inclined so that, lowering the vine to cover for the winter, do not break it in the future.
How to prepare the soil?
Практически невозможно успешно выращивать виноград в Подмосковье, не подготовив почву. For the preparation of loose air and water permeable composition, clay or loamy soil is mixed in equal parts with sand, humus, crushed brick or gravel, about 500 grams of ash and 50-60 grams of superphosphate are added to 1 square meter.
How to plant?
Planting grapes in the suburbs has its own characteristics. The gardener needs to take care of getting a strong stable culture. The soil in central Russia warms up shallowly (about 40 centimeters), so it is not worthwhile to deepen the plant.
Plants are planted to a depth of about 25 centimeters, gently straightening the roots so that they do not break. When planting, the seedling should be placed with a slight slope to the north.
Plants with a closed root system are planted in open ground in the summer, in May-June. The optimal period for planting seedlings with an open root system in the spring comes in April and early May, and in autumn - in October.
When planting grapes in an open area, you need to keep a distance of 1.5 meters between the vines. If the seedlings are arranged in rows, the gap between them should be at least 1.5-2 meters. Choosing a place for planting grapes near a fence or a building, 40-80 centimeters should be removed from the construction. Vine required to tie to the support. Grape seedlings after planting should be watered well.
Growing grapes in the suburbs, it should provide proper care to the culture brought a rich harvest. To care for grapes usually begin in early spring with the introduction of complex mineral fertilizers. The soil around the bushes mulch rotted foliage layer of at least 3 centimeters.
Growing grapes in the suburbs, do not forget that it is very sensitive to the lack of magnesium in the soil. With its deficit there is a high probability of not getting a crop and even losing the vine.
In this case, plants often and actively infect various pests and diseases. To avoid this, the grapes must be sprayed with a special tool that is prepared very simply: 250 grams of magnesium sulphate is dissolved in a bucket of water.
The treatment is carried out twice with an interval of 2 weeks.
For spring care, weekly supplementation with liquid mineral fertilizers is required. Such work is recommended before the start of ripening.
Based on the type of soil, choose top dressing: acidic fertilizers (for example, ammonium sulphate) are used for alkaline primers, alkalizing fertilizers are used for acidic. In summer, ammonium nitrate is often used - fertilizer, which gives a quick effect. Feeding should be carried out simultaneously with irrigation.
During the growing season, the plant is supported by leaf dressings, combining them with fungicide treatment. It is important to select compatible forms of microelements. During the season it is recommended to carry out 4 complex feeding, and when pests and diseases appear, the treatment is carried out if necessary.
Regular watering of the grapes is very important, but it is impossible to prevent the soil from bogging, otherwise the root system will rot and the grapes will die. It takes so much water to soak the soil to a depth of 50 centimeters. Water the grapes once a week, using about 10 liters of water per bush.
Vineyard watered in the grooves between the bushes. For one plant at a distance from the trunk, it is necessary to make a groove, so as not to disturb the radical mode by direct moistening. The plant needs watering at the beginning of the growing season, when the green mass grows and berries are poured. In August, it stops, as the berries are gaining taste.
For the winter period, the plants begin to cook in the fall. In the Moscow region, the preparation of grapes for winter is carried out when the permanent chills are established: the temperature drops to -2 degrees and stays at this point for a long time.
For the winter grapes in the suburbs must be properly covered. For this purpose, it is recommended to use land or peat. The head of the shrub sprinkled with a layer thickness of 10-15 centimeters.
After pruning, the vines are laid on the ground and, if necessary, are pinned to the soil, if necessary. The sleeves of the plant are then covered with several layers of fir spruce branches. It is necessary to take care of the culture, located near the wall of the building. So that water does not fall on the bush with the onset of spring, for this purpose it is necessary to put boards on top of it.
Vineyard need to cover abundantly fallen snow. In the winter with little snow will have to collect snow from the entire suburban area. Such a shelter of grapes for the winter, as a rule, is reliable and quite sufficient for a successful wintering in the Moscow region.
Do not use plastic wrap. Shoots under it are often thrown out during the spring thaw. In the absence of spruce branches, the vine is covered in a ditch covered with leaves and straw. Having covered the vineyard with a layer of organic covering material, they are all covered with earth.
After the appearance of snow they carefully cover the shelter. With proper and timely conduct of all events, the southern culture with minimal losses will survive the harsh winter near Moscow.
In the spring the vine is gradually freed from the shelter. First, remove the land layer, then gradually spend airing the bush in the daytime (cover overnight again). It is still too early to fully open the plant so that frost does not damage it. Overexposure of grapes under cover can lead to decay and death.
Pruning bushes is designed to prevent shoots that do not work on the crop. To adjust the harvest on the bush should be removed non-bearing shoots. If there are a lot of brushes, they do not have time to ripen, the berries will be tasteless and small. Such an operation forms a young bush and helps to leave the required number of brushes mature.
Autumnal pruning of grapes for beginner gardeners sometimes seems like a very difficult task. In fact, there is nothing complicated. The main thing - the implementation of the basic rules.
In the suburbs, the formation of grapes is carried out in the second year after planting the seedling. Experts advise not to touch the plant at all in the first season. If the shrub falls to the ground, it must be carefully tied to a peg. The plant for the year should increase the green mass and get stronger. To do this, it must be fertilized and watered.
From the second year pruning is carried out regularly. It is performed in 2 stages:
- Autumn pruning, which removes two to three volumes intended to be removed. It is not recommended to remove too much before hibernation, otherwise the plant may freeze.
- Spring molding, in which all dried, frozen, sick and weak shoots are cut.
It is necessary to regulate the growth of shoots from the very beginning of their appearance, otherwise the vine will develop incorrectly, and its yield will drop significantly.
There are many ways of forming a vine. All of them can be divided into 2 groups: covering and non-covering. To neukravnymi include standard and arbor, which are used in growing frost-resistant varieties. Some cordons and fan covers are covered.
The method is chosen depending on the region of growth and the characteristics of the grapes. For the suburbs when growing a covering culture, the stemless form is more suitable.
For beginners it is easier and more convenient to master pruning according to the classical Guyot scheme. On the vine in the first year there is a strong shoot, which is pruned in the fall, leaving 2 eyes from ground level. Of them in the second year 2 annual shoots grow, one of which is shortened to 3 buds.
By the fall of bitches grow back. On a well-formed bush for the first year grows up to 4 powerful shoots, which become the sleeves of the vineyard. Their thickness is normally from 4 to 7 millimeters.