The appeal of blackberry cultivation - high and stable yield. The rich chemical composition of the fruits of shrubs make them particularly important for human diet. It is a worthy alternative to garden raspberries. and the ability to diversify culinary preparations. With proper fit and care with all biological features blackberries will bear fruit for at least 10 years.
When is it better to plant a garden blackberry - in the summer, autumn or spring? Timing choice
The yield potential and benefits of blackberry fruit are much wider than those of its closest relative raspberry. However, gardeners do not want to plant and grow this magnificent shrub on their land.
This is due to the fact that plant varieties cultivated from southern forms have been cultivated for a long time. They are difficult to take root in the planting region and led to a massive disappointment gardeners.
The situation changed after new relatively winter-hardy varieties have appearedthat can withstand temperatures as low as -30 C.
Therefore, for growing in the middle lane or more northern regions (in Siberia and the Urals), it is important to acquire varieties of modern breeding.
For the cultivation of blackberries in the middle lane or more northern regions, you need to acquire varieties of modern breeding
In spite of this, Blackberry cultivation is somewhat limited in the northern regions.. This is due to uneven fruiting, the final period of which often coincides with the first frost and some of the fruits do not have time to ripen.
In addition, insufficient lighting leads to a loss of quality in ripe fruit.
Autumn planting blackberry has more benefits and most optimal in the middle and southern regions. After planting shrubs followed by a period with a stable and cool temperature, high humidity will contribute to the development of the roots, while the temperature of the soil does not fall to -4 ° C.
The blackberry leaves the state of relative dormancy very early and the bushes that have taken root in the fall will immediately begin to develop a vegetative mass.
In the fall, the choice of varieties and seedlings with a fresh root system is much more, and they cost less than the planting material sold in the spring.
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When spring planting plant does not have time to take root due to too rapid warming and the beginning of sap flow, after which the active growth of shoots begins.
Weak root system is not able to provide the necessary nutrition, increasing vegetative mass. This greatly weakens the shrub and affects the overall development.
Spring planting preferred in the northern regions and if the blackberry variety is characterized by poor winter hardiness.
In the autumn, the plant should be planted at least 20-30 days before the first frost, in the spring before bud breaks, when the air temperature rises to + 15 ° С.
For cultivation in the garden planting material must be purchased in reputable nurseries. The best survival rate differ annual seedlings with two stems, the thickness of which is not less than 0.5 cm in diameter.
An important criterion is a formed kidney on the roots.. The optimal length of core roots is not less than 10 cm.
Preparing a place for planting seedlings: where is it better to plant, in the sun or in the shade?
For growing blackberries you need to choose a place well lit by the sun and protected from the north winds. In the shade, young shoots of plants will grow poorly, stretch out, the fruits become shallow and lose taste.
A good option - landing along the fence, where the bush will be protected from the winds, and the stems from damage. In this case, you need to retreat from the fence at 1 m, so that the plant is not much shaded. Shrub is better located on the south or southwest side of the site.
To spread blackberries, breathable and well-drained soil is needed. Ideal loam with a humus layer of at least 25 cm.
For planting blackberries, choose well-lit areas, loamy, well-drained soils.
Groundwater deposition at the site should be no higher than 1.5 meters. If these indicators are violated, the roots of the plant will be in dampness and cold, which significantly affects the hardiness and yields.
To plant a thorny shrub, land for planting must be prepared in advance. All weeds are removed, plant waste is destroyed, preventive spraying from pathogens and pests is carried out.
For growing blackberries saline, rocky, sandy and marshy areas are not suitable.
Heavily depleted soils need to be fed with the necessary macro elements. For this, the plot is dug up to a depth of 30-35 cm, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied.
How to plant in open ground
Landing pits and substrate are prepared in 15-20 days before planting seedlings in open ground.
Blackberry root system is more powerful and penetrates deeper than other berry crops. Therefore, the pits need to do more voluminous. The best way - stick to the parameters 40x40x40 cm.
Organic matter and minerals should be added to each hole:
- compost or humus 5 kg
- superphosphate 120 g,
- potassium sulfate 40 g
Nutrient components are mixed with fertile soil and the resulting substrate is covered with a hole 2/3 of its volume.
Shrub planted vertically with root penetration 1.5-2 cm. In light sandy soils, buried up to 3 cm.
Blackberries are planted vertically with a root collar buried 1.5-3 cm, covered with substrate and watered
Blackberry roots are placed in the fossa, straightened and covered with substrate. In this case, the pit is not completely filled, leaving a distance of 1-2 cm to the level of the soil.
In this way, under each bush there will be a notchwhich will contribute to the rational wetting of the blackberry.
Then the surface of the substrate must be compacted and pour a seedling 5-6 liters of water. After the spring planting of the blackberry plant for 40-50 days you need to ensure regular watering. After soil compaction, the trunk circle is mulched with sawdust, peat or straw.
How can and should care for a bush in the garden - tips agrotechnologists
Blackberries are more drought-resistant and unpretentious to care than raspberries. The only lack of culture - relatively low winter hardiness and cold resistance. Therefore, you need to care for the plant with regard to its biological characteristics.
With proper care and preparation for winter, blackberries will grow and delight in high yieldsin terms of which among the berry crops, it is second only to grapes.
The golden rule of care - pruning
A lifelong blackberry you need to control the density of the bush and make forming trimming.
These activities include:
- Removal of inflorescences in the first year of growth. This is done to stimulate the development of the root system.
- In the second year after planting, the stems should be shortened., leaving a height of 1.5-1.8 m. The procedure is carried out in the spring before bud break. Sections should be made above the kidney.
- After each winter, you need to cut the frozen areas stalks to live buds.
- In summer, in early June, the shrub is thinned. At the same time young shoots are removed, leaving an average of 6-8 strong stems for creeping varieties and 4-5 for erect. Tops of young shoots are cut by 5-8 cm.
Blackberry bush - shrub with a two-year fruiting cycle. The first year the stalks of the plant develop, grow wood and form fruit buds. The next year they bear fruit and only in rare cases can they form new fruit buds.
Agrotechnics advise to remove the outgrown biennial shoots, thereby stimulating the development of new growth and thinning the bramble's crown, it will only look better from this.
Garter of a prickly bush
For creeping types of shrub need a tapestry with 3-4 rows of wire with a distance of 50 cm between them.
In the first year of development, 2-3 shoots are fan-tied to the bottom wires. Annual shoots are directed to the center of the shrub, tying to the topmost wire.
Before the onset of cold weather, young shoots are removed from the support and make shelter for the winter.
Stalks of upright blackberry varieties tied to a trellis with a slight bias to one side. With the growth of new shoots during the growing season, they also need to tie up. This time the bias is made in the opposite direction from the fruit-bearing branches.
Fertilizer and feeding - the key to a good harvest
Every spring blackberry need additional feeding nitrogen fertilizers that will stimulate the growth of annual shoots is another golden rule. To do this, 50 g of ammonium nitrate are introduced under each bush, sealing it to a depth of 10-15 cm.
Every 3-4 years the shrub in the garden needs to be fed and other macronutrients. This procedure is carried out after harvest. Based on 1 m2 in the soil under the plant contribute:
- compost or humus 10 kg,
- superphosphate 100 g,
- potassium sulphate 30 g
Should remember that nitrogen fertilizers are applied only in spring. Also, this mineral is found in large quantities in pig manure and chicken manure.
Blackberry Fertilizer Events can be combined by spraying 1% Bordeaux liquid, which will inhibit the development of microorganisms. For additional prevention of diseases, the area under the bushes should be cleaned of fallen leaves.
When to water, is it necessary to loosen?
Deep lying, compared to other berry bushes, blackberry root system makes the plant drought-resistant. But this does not mean that the plant should be left without irrigation and not watered.
Especially needed watering during the filling of the fruit and when setting hot weather. At this time, the wide leafy plates of the plant evaporate a large amount of moisture.
Several times during the growing season need to loosen the soil under the bushes to a depth of 10 cm, simultaneously removing weeds.
It is especially important to carry out the procedure in the fall, at the end of August, in September. The looser the soil, the less will freeze through the soil in the root layers.
Before the winter season bushes need shelter. For this plant stems bend down to the ground. This is important to do until the air temperature drops to -1 ° C. Otherwise they will lose elasticity and will break.
For this, the branches are tied up in bunches, bending down to the ground and fastening with hooks. Erect blackberry varieties are quite difficult to bend down without breaking the stems.
Many gardeners have found a way out at the end of the growing season, weights are tied to the tops of the stemsunder the weight of which they gradually bend down to the ground.
Regardless of the frost resistance characteristics, all blackberry varieties need shelter for the winter. To do this, you can apply:
- hay or vegetable tops,
- peat or humus.
Blackberry shelter for the winter:
The most dangerous time for a blackberry is a snowless beginning of winter.. Therefore, it is necessary to cover the plant before the onset of the first cold weather, and in winter to pull snow to it. Blackberry stalks are not prone to heating, so the plant can be covered with polyethylene.
Foliage of fruit trees is not suitable as a covering material. It often hides pathogenic microorganisms, which in the spring can begin active development on the shrub.
Blackberry fruiting uneven and may cover a whole month. The fruits of the shrub have good transportability and long shelf life at low temperatures.
Leaves and roots of plants possess bactericidal, sedative properties and will occupy a worthy place in the home phyto-means collection.
Brief Description of Bearing BlackBerry
This type of blackberry is picky, and with competent and attentive care will give the owner a solid crop of large healthy berries.
Bilberry blackberry is the closest relative of raspberry, both berries belong to the genus "raspberry". However, the yield of blackberry surpasses its relative in two or even three times. The bush has very beautiful, decorative leaves of light green color. The leaves are three-, five- or seven-fold, pubescent underneath, with jagged edges, very decorative.
The roots of the plant are powerful, reaching a depth of up to 1.5 m, which makes the culture resistant to drought, especially if you compare the blackberry with the relative raspberry.
Conventionally, the plant can be divided into:
- Cumanicas are varieties suitable for growing on a trellis. Cumanica are characterized by high, up to two meters, upright shoots. The varieties are called Orkan, Polar, Apache,
- Rossyans have long, up to six meters or more powerful shoots spreading along the ground. These are Black Satin, Loch Ness.
There are still bryzshupny blackberry half-spreading. This means that up to 60-70 cm shoots grow upward, and at this turn begin to lean to the ground.
Borschtny blackberry has been developing for two years. First, that is, in the first year of growth, buds are formed on the shoot. In the second year the bush bears fruit. After the berries have ripened, the shoot slowly dies off.
Choosing a landing site
Blackberry besshupnaya sensitive to winter cold and spring frosts. A landing site should, if possible, be protected from cold winds - somewhere behind a building or behind a fence, etc.
Attention! Besshipnaya blackberry does not tolerate cold, so for the winter bushes are covered with old warm clothes, a thick layer of sawdust, peat, humus.
Covering thoroughness depends on the climate of the region where the blackberry grows.
The plant loves fertile soil, but is suitable for it, for erect grades of loam, heavy loams are suitable for climbing bushes. Blackberry grows well in sandy soil. However, waterlogging, temporary flooding, wet land affect the plant in the most negative way.
To blackberry gave a rich harvest in the country, you need to do an analysis of the soil. On carbonate soils, the plant will lack magnesium and iron.
Attention! Laying a plantation of blackberry bushes, do not forget about the previous crops that grew in this place. Beetroots, carrots, zucchini, cucumbers, legumes are considered successful predecessors.
Planting blackberry bushes
Before planting, first set up the area designated for the berry - destroy weeds, harmful insects, if necessary, fertilize the soil with organic matter, superphosphate, etc.
You can count on future harvests if you have purchased quality seedlings. The main quality parameter of planting material in the case of blackberries is the diameter of the seedling, it must be at least 0.5 cm in diameter.
To plant blackberries in two ways:
- Kustov, i.e. in one hole lay several seedlings,
- Belt when young plants are planted in the ground consistently, for example, along the prepared trellis. In this case, the distance between the seedlings is about one meter, and between the trellis is two and a half.
Placing the seedling in the planting hole, the roots need to be diluted in different directions, and the first bud to be covered under the ground for a few centimeters. After planting, the soil around the seedling is compacted, watered abundantly, then mulched with improvised material.
The best time to plant a blackberry is spring, more precisely the month of April, but in principle this period depends on the climate of the region and the weather conditions in spring.
Blackberries are well propagated by seeds, and with this method, 99% signs of mother bushes are preserved. But to propagate by seeds a plant is an occupation that requires tremendous patience. To this it is necessary to add that bushes grown from seeds yield only the 3rd, 4th and even 5th year.
Such types of plant reproduction are popular among summer residents:
Apical discharge, the essence of which is to cover the top of a climbing escape with earth. In this operation, the top, the top of which is pinch off, gives roots. Enjoy this technique of reproduction in the spring,
Layer horizontal, in which the escape is completely covered with earth. After some time, young bushes form from buds. Then the shoot is cut between new bushes and planted them in a permanent place,
Root sprouts that grow around the bush, and they can be separated and transferred to another place. Suitable for this 10-centimeter scions.
The Pros and Cons of Blackberry Blessing
When deciding to breed a blessing blackberry in your summer cottage, you need to know its characteristics. Both positive and negative. Positive qualities include:
- The fruiting period of two months,
- Bilberry-less blackberry produces larger fruits than its prickly relative,
- With a bearless plant it is easy to harvest,
- Unpretentiousness, the ability to survive drought,
- The care is simple, because when pruning you need to cut off all the shoots at the root, without knowing where to cut,
- Bearded BlackBerry is not afraid of diseases and harmful insects,
- Throughout the growing season, berries are harvested every two days.
The disadvantages of plants are only low frost resistance, which means covering the bushes for the cold winter and the relative high cost of planting material.
This variety of blackberry also belongs to cumanic, it is convenient to grow it on the trellis, used as a hedge. Early variety, berries are ready to eat in July, fruiting lasts one month.
Large, up to 10 g berries, yield from one plant to 4 kg. Arapaho, compared to other non-bearing blackberries, is a rather cold-resistant variety, it is not afraid of frosts down to -25 0 C.
With good care, a fruitful dewberry can produce 17 or more kilograms of berries weighing 8–9 g. The stems are not distinguished by their length, a little more than 2 meters. Ripens in July. It requires reliable shelter for the winter, as it belongs to the middle class in frost resistance.
In addition to the listed varieties, fruitful (up to 12 kg) Lough Tey, medium-late Lough Ness, frost-resistant Navajo, large-fruited Natchez, late-ripe Osage, early June Ouchita and some others are popular among Russian gardeners.
Blackberry is an unpretentious plant, but it still requires attention in order to give its owner a bountiful harvest of exceptionally healthy berries. All ball bearings need support, regardless of the length of the branches. To do this, you need to arrange for plants trellis.
To achieve a good harvest, blackberries are fed with fertilizers - superphosphate, ash in the fall, ammonium nitrate and compost in the spring. However, for a person who loves to poke around in the ground, such worries are not a burden.
The main types of blackberry
Blackberry shrubs come in several varieties that simple gardeners like me didn't even know about. Here is a list of them: elongated, giant, bushy, ordinary, split, early, gray, folded. In our area it is divided into two types: small prickly and large non-prickly.
Last with proper care and abundant watering gives a fabulous harvest of large up to 5 centimeters long amazingly fragrant and sweet berries, which can be enjoyed fresh or stored for free, frozen in the freezer, rubbed with sugar and stored in the refrigerator, you can cook compote and jam, make delicious syrups and even dry them.
Many gardeners cultivate on their plot and thorny and thornless varieties of blackberries. Prickly Blackberries are usually bred to create a robust green hedge around the site, but there is plenty of trouble with such a fence, because during the growing season, its branches with a full “package” of the future rhizomes, striving to continue their own kind, extend to new bushes.
Considering that you need to walk along such a hedge, and you are “grabbed” by tenacious and sharp spikes that can scratch the skin to blood and even tear clothes, to cut such an aggressive plant periodically during the summer. Nekolyuchaya Blackberry breeds just as actively, and also needs constant pruning, threatening unwanted rooting in your area.
Diluting a Blackberry or not is a private matter for gardeners, but everyone should know the prospect of not quite simple care, especially about the hedge, which can create a problem for passers-by if you cannot cut it at some time, even if it is not thorny.
Features of growing blackberries
The blackberry is a shrub, and the flexible stem-stalk branches that creep along without support are usually seated with sharp inward-curved spines. Blackberry has detrimental (Rubus caesius) trifoliate leaves, and the bottom - with five leaves. Bushy blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) is distinguished by a combination of 5 and 7 leaflets.
At the very beginning of spring, the Blackberry actively throws out new shoots and revives last year’s, but dead branches also appear, which need to be cut along with other dried shoots, and afterwards its blooming begins with white or pinkish rather large flowers that insects and bees willingly visit including
A berry ovary is formed from flowers in the form of bunches. Gradually Zelentsy acquire a brownish color, then - brown-red, and by the time of full maturation - black and purple. If the berry easily comes off - it shows that it is in full ripeness.
The fruits of Blackberry are gray-black with a bluish bloom, in some places they are called turquoise. Blackberry fruits do not have a bushy gray raid. The taste of ripe berries is sweet and sour with a delicate aroma, slightly resinous. The further the blackberry grows and even the more it receives hot summer lighting, the sweeter it is. Blackberry berry juice is dark red, resistant to heat treatment. For this reason, blackberries are advisable for brightness to add to all fruit compotes.
Shrub formation and blackberry trimming
For a more comfortable relationship with this plant, plant on your site blackberry variety without thorns such as Merton Thornless, Oreqon Thornless, late-ripening Loch Ness. If you prefer the option: two in one - then Waldo, a brand of blackberry braiding nekolichy blackberry, will perfectly cope with this task: in July-August it will give a rich harvest and will beautifully braid pergola or garden arch.
As a rule, blackberries are cultivated either on support-stakes, or on a trellis - here everyone is an agronomist and brigadier. I like the trellis support, because the bush develops compactly and is very convenient to harvest, which does not ripen at the same time and should be done periodically. Formation of the bush on the trellis can be done in two ways.
At the first of them, branches and shoots are divided in half and fastened on the trellis in a fan way. Over the summer, the bush, naturally, will grow - new shoots will appear from its center - these are the things that need to be started up vertically, gently gathering and wrapping something loose and loose. After the harvest is taken, the branches that have left the seed should be cut to the ground. A bunch of young shoots to unleash and in the same fan-shaped way to fix on the trellis - they will give the next year a new crop.
The second method is considered less time consuming and seems to some more acceptable. In the spring last year's shoots are distributed and tied up on one side (left or right), the new ones grow up on the other. As soon as the fruiting half is free from harvest, it, as in the first method, is cut to the ground. Next season, the remaining branches will bear fruit, and on the site of the empty side you will distribute new shoots.
Watering fertilizing and fertilizer
Like her closest relative raspberry, blackberry is very demanding for regular and sufficient watering, of course, taking into account the normal drainage, natural or artificial. This is especially important during the ripening period of the fruit, the quality of which is directly related to the abundant watering, in which the berries will be full in all respects: in shape and size, in uniform color, in sugar content and flavor, and even in the number of fruits in the cluster.
Blackberry very gratefully responds to the timely fertilizing both organic and in permissible dosage with mineral fertilizers.
In the fall It is advisable to thicken the place where it grows with hop kernels (dry fertilizer from brewing waste), crib manure or compost.
In the springStarting from April, as a basal top dressing, add the following to the tree trunks: 30 grams per square meter - potassium sulfate and only once every three years - superphosphate: 60 grams per square meter.
Those are few, but the raspberry beetle (common raspberry) attacks the blackberry as well. His attack can be seen by browning the berries at their base. It is necessary to fight with its larvae, for which at once, as soon as the bushes ottsvetut, spray them with fenitrothion or karbofos (according to the instructions) and always in the evening, taking care of bees and other beneficial pollinating insects.
How to prepare blackberries for winter
Blackberry bushes are quite cold-resistant, but prolonged winter frosts can be detrimental to it. Each variety has its own relationship with cold weather - some can withstand temperatures ranging from -7 to -12 degrees Celsius, while frost-resistant will survive even -23 ° C.
In regions with severe winters in mid-autumn, all branches are removed from the support, gently bundle them together and line the trellis along the bottom row. Sufficient cover for them will be a layer of snow. Spring bundle of branches untie and distribute, tying, on the trellis.
Interesting about the blackberry - many people know that by the end of the summer, a period when the still looking and beautiful blackberry bruises look soft and tasteless. The popular belief is connected with this, that on Mikhailov the day the blackberry is denounced by the devil and after that it cannot be collected. Some argue that he spits on her even on October 10. Scientists explain this by a completely realistic situation: by this time, the fallen and house flies, having multiplied strongly, begin to feast on ripe blackberries. They lick them, soaking their digestive juice, which spoils the appearance and taste of still attractive fruit.
Blackberries are very useful, as it is a real storehouse of vitamins. Ripe berries contain carotene and such vitamins as C, K, P and E. The fruit contains barium, copper, iron, phosphorus, sodium and calcium minerals. The plant is rich in fructose, glucose, fiber and organic acids. All of these components have a positive effect on the human immune system. The juice of the berries taken during bronchitis, sore throats and colitis. As an external remedy, the juice is used to treat wounds, diseases of the gums, trophic ulcers and eczema.
Blackberry has no contraindications. However, one should not forget about the individual intolerance of these berries, which can provoke an allergic reaction. Symptoms of allergy include vomiting, swelling of the mucous membranes, nausea, and digestive problems.
Total known about 40 species of blackberry. The most popular are the following varieties:
- Agave. This is an American variety, which is characterized by good frost resistance. Such a plant has powerful shoots that form the arch. The berries have a sweet-sour taste, the average weight of one berry is 3 g. The fruits ripen in August. The variety has good yield and resistance to diseases such as anthracnose, rust and stem cancer.
- Darrow. The plant has good yield and frost resistance. The shrub is strong and has upright shoots. The rind of the berries is glossy, the taste is sour. The shape of the berries is elongated.
- Loganberry. This is a hybrid, which is obtained as a result of the crossing of large red raspberries and garden blackberries. Despite the fact that this variety is decorative, the berries have a good taste. This shrub can grow up to 2 meters in height. Ripening berries goes gradually and lasts from August to the beginning of the first frosts.
- Taylor. This variety is characterized by long periods of flowering and fruiting. The bush has ribbed shoots of red color with a large number of prickles. The plant does not tolerate winter, so it needs to be warmed.
Blackberries can be planted in shady or in sunny areas. The only difference is that in the shade the shoots of the plants are drawn out. Experienced Gardeners recommend planting a shrub along the fence - Blackberry will have support and protection from the wind.
Blackberries should be planted on medium loamy soil, which has low acidity and good drainage.
Planting sprouts is best done in the spring, so you save the plant from frostbite. Root cuttings should be laid to a depth of 5−8 cm. If the scion is green, then the hole should be 10–15 cm deep. At the bottom of the landing pit should be laid compost or humus. It is recommended to add superphosphate or potassium sulphide.
Growth bud (it is located at the base of the stem) should be buried in the ground for a maximum of 3 cm. It is necessary to fill the hole with a mixture of soil, humus and fertilizer. After planting, the plant should be watered well and make a hole.
The distance between the holes depends on the variety., as different shrubs grow in different ways. The optimal distance between rows is from 1.8 to 2 meters.
There are several stages of trimming plants:
- The first pruning is carried out one year after disembarkation. This is to ensure that the plant is well rooted,
- The second pruning is carried out in the spring of the second year after planting. This is necessary in order to improve the yield.
Before the appearance of the first spring buds, all dead branches should be cut. In the period from May to June, the bush should be a little thin, cut out very young shoots. In June, it is also recommended to prune weak shoots.
Site selection and soil preparation
Plant care includes regular watering, loosening the soil, weeding, feeding and carrying out preventive measures.
Blackberries can be planted in a well-lit area of the garden and placed on a wire trellis.
Blackberries can be planted in a well-lit area of the garden and placed on a wire trellis. A good option is to plant a shrub (creeper) near a building with a well warmed wall and protected from the wind. It can be not only brickwork, but also a usual arbor in a garden.
Preference is given to moist fertile soils, deeply drained. It is possible to use loam or sandy soils for the landing. The best forerunners of the blackberry on the site are: beans, cereals, field.
The soil before planting blackberries need to be cleared of all weeds. As new weeds appear, they must be removed, and the soil between the rows should be loosened about 5-6 times in one season. Around the bushes, it is desirable to slightly loosen the soil to a depth of 6-7 cm about 3 times during the flowering period of the plant.
It is possible to use loam or sandy soils for the landing.
If you carry out mulching with rotted manure, you can protect the bush from weeds and prevent the formation of a dry peel around the root zone. For these mulching, a peat compost with a layer of about 5 cm is also suitable, which will become a source of nutrition for blackberries. A layer of peat will reliably retain moisture, which will reduce the conduct of watering.
The plant is considered very sensitive to light: it needs large amounts of sunlight. However, during the period of fruit ripening it is necessary to shade the bush so that the sun does not burn the leaves and spoil the presentation of future fruits. If it is not possible to place a bush in such a zone of a plot, it is possible to tighten the shading nets, which are perfectly breathable.
Young seedlings need to be watered regularly for one and a half - two months. In dry weather, watering is desirable to increase.
During the fruiting period, watering should be further strengthened.
During the fruiting period, watering should be further strengthened. For watering the soil is not recommended to use water from the well, as it is too cold and can harm the bush. The best way is to collect rainwater or tap water in some large capacity, and to stand for two days in the sun.
If you are faced with the question of how to grow a blackberry in the country, you should heed the recommendations regarding its planting. To reduce the likelihood of failure when planting, it is better to purchase seedlings in nurseries. They must have a fully formed root system and two branches with a thickness of at least half a centimeter.
To reduce the likelihood of failure when planting, it is better to purchase seedlings in nurseries.
Unlike many rosaceous horticultural crops, this berry must be planted in the spring months, and not in the fall. The best period is considered the end of April - the beginning of May.
It is important that the soil is warmed up by the time of landing.
Before planting crops need to bring the soil into compliance with the requirements of agricultural engineering. When digging holes you need to mix the folded soil with organic and mineral fertilizers and cover blackberry seedlings with this soil..
Between the bushes leave depending on the type of plant:
- In the bush method of cultivating blackberries, two seedlings are put in one well and placed 1.8 meters apart from each other.
- When the ribbon method of cultivation, characteristic of varieties with pancake shoots, sprouts are planted in a long hole continuously in a chain. The distance between planting seedlings should be about one meter. If more than one row is planned, it is boring to leave a distance of about 2 meters between them.
When digging holes you need to mix the folded soil with organic and mineral fertilizers and cover blackberry seedlings with this soil.
Blackberry seedling is lowered into the pit, the roots are straightened and the stem is covered with soil mixed with fertilizer so that the first bud is about 2-3 cm above the ground.
After planting, it is necessary to install a trellis, to which the plants will later be tied up.
If a blackberry has settled in the garden, the care and cultivation of the plant requires additional manipulations on top dressing. Berry needs large amounts of nutrients.
If a blackberry has settled in the garden, the care and cultivation of the plant requires additional manipulations on top dressing.
Systematic fertilizing - the key to a good harvest and the emergence of new growth.
Since the root system of the berry is close to the soil, all procedures should be carried out as carefully as possible. The frequency of fertilization depends on the type of soil. For feeding, the following formulations are necessary:
- Organic fertilizers with a nitrogen content should be used in moderate quantities, since they tend to delay the ripening of fruits and reduce the resistance of plants to low temperatures. Ammonium nitrate has proven itself well.
- Калиевые удобрения можно вносить каждый год, но избегать применения хлорсодержащих подкормок во избежание повреждения стебля и листа.
- Хорошей заменой фосфорных удобрений считается ежегодное внесение навоза. При отсутствии вбрасывания навоза фосфорные подкормки необходимо проводить каждые три года. Это восполнит недостаток полезных веществ.
- На кислых почвах необходимо проводить известкование. A lack of magnesium and iron leads to yellowing of the leaves, and further death of the tops of the stems.
Blackberries require regular pruning. This procedure is quite troublesome, but it is necessary for ease of care and harvesting, as well as for the health of the shrub. The treatment is carried out using a pruner. In the spring, it is necessary to remove dry and broken branches, frostbitten tops to the first bud (healthy).
Shrubs of the first year should be cut twice: at the end of spring, the tops are usually shortened by about 7 cm, and in the middle of summer, 10 cm of the tops of those shoots that have grown to half a meter are cut. Of them leave only strong branches (up to 10 pieces).
Blackberries require regular pruning.
Throughout the summer, it is necessary to remove the emerging shoots of the roots, leaving only those that appeared in the spring. They need to be shortened at a height of 1.5 - 2 meters.
Diseases and pests of the bush
How to grow a blackberry to avoid crop loss due to disease and insects? To do this, be sure to regularly inspect the bushes and note any changes in their condition. If you find a lesion in time, you can save the garden culture. Blackberries are prone to diseases peculiar to strawberries and raspberries. Among the most common the following lesions:
- Anthracnose that affects the shrub in late May or early summer. Manifested by purple spots, which increase over time and reach the bark of the tree, forming gray ulcers with a burgundy border. The same purple spots are formed on the foliage. Affected shoots may die already in the near winter. To avoid damage, you need to fertilize the bushes with peat and make sure that the weeds do not clog the plant.
- Rust, which is manifested by the appearance of orange-brown spots, which lead to the appearance of pads on the bottom of the sheet. If not treated, it can more than double the yield. As a preventive measure, Bordeaux treatment is used. You can repeat the procedure after picking berries. If the plant has already undergone a disease, you can use sulfur preparations.
- Septoria (white spot) spreads everywhere, infecting leaves and shoots. It is expressed in the appearance of light brown spots, which eventually turn pale.
- Purple spotting (didimella) damages the kidneys and leaves fall. The stem can also dry out. The disease begins with the appearance of brownish-purple spots.
- Botrytis (gray mold) develops in wet weather. To avoid such a development of events, the bushes must be planted so that they are well ventilated.
- The powdery mildew covers the fruit and the plant itself with a loose patina of white color. It must be fought in the same way as with rust.
Purple spot Botrytis Mealy dew
The main blackberry pests are:
- ticks of various types (spiderweb, raspberry and hairy),
- raspberry bud moth,
- raspberry beetle
Insecticides are used to fight insects. Well proved Aktellik and Karbofos, which sprayed bushes. As a preventive measure, they should be used in the spring before the first buds appear or in the autumn after the end of the harvest.
To grow blackberry garden was effective, it is necessary to select varieties that best match the climatic conditions. The following types have proven themselves well in our lane:
- Agave - American variety, characterized by high winter hardiness. Productivity of a plant reaches 4 kg from one bush. It is believed that this variety is resistant to some diseases.
- Tornfrey - hybrid variety of blackberries without thorns. Differs in early ripening and high yield. Unpretentious care and winter hardy. Combines signs of climbing and upright species.
- Karaka Black is one of the new varieties of early ripe blackberry. It has a high taste, sugar content and juiciness. The disadvantage is not too high resistance to low temperatures.
- Natchez is a blackberry with a cherry flavor. The variety ripens early and does not need winter shelter.
- Polar is another frost-resistant variety that does not need to create shelter during the frosty period. Bushes are compact and productive.
- Valdo is a winter-hardy miniature shrub that does not require forming.
Terms of planting blackberries in open ground
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Blackberry bushes can not withstand such strong frosts as raspberries. It is for this reason that gardeners refuse to grow blackberries. However, fears are in vain. If you follow all the rules of agricultural technology, the culture will delight you with a rich harvest of tasty and juicy berries.
Currently, in Russia, blackberries are not grown so often. In some moments of agrotechnology gardeners disagree. For example, there is a lot of debate about the timing of planting blackberry seedlings. Experienced Americans believe that blackberries can be planted in spring and autumn. More accurate dates depend on weather conditions of a particular area.
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For spring planting need to focus on climatic conditions. The air should be kept at 15–16 ° C, and the ground should be heated for about 20 centimeters. Shrubs should be planted before buds bloom.
Blackberry planting time in spring:
- The middle lane is April 25-May 5,
- Southern regions - April 5-15,
- Siberia and the Far East - May 1-10.
If you plant a crop on such dates, the risk of freezing of seedlings will be excluded. Bushes will take root well and will have time to take root before autumn frosts.
Planting bushes in the fall is risky. This landing is suitable for those regions in which warm weather lasts until about mid-November. The only condition for many climatic regions is that the culture should be planted about a month before the onset of cold weather. This period is enough for the shrub caught on and was able to winter. In winter, shrubs must be covered.
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Terms of planting blackberries in the fall:
- The middle lane is mid-September.
- For the southern regions - the beginning or middle of October,
- For the Far East and Siberia - the first half of September.
Types of blackberry for growing on the site
In the wild, blackberry feels comfortable and does not require additional care. Grows bush in the marshy ground. The bushes are stunted, and the berries are small. After the cultivation and selection of plants, the order of blackberry varieties was derived. Most of these plants are hybrids, which were obtained in the process of crossing with raspberries.
Three main types of garden blackberry and their differences:
- Cumanica looks like raspberries,
- Rosanyan, shoots lianoobraznye
- Transient, includes signs of the first and second.
Types of blackberry on the photo
There are many varieties, among them:
- Varieties of berries without thorns,
- Ordinary varieties
- Remontnye varieties.
Normal variety retained all the signs that are characteristic of wild berries, namely:
- spikes on the branches,
- pubescence on the leaves,
- the main difference is the absence spikes on plants,
- plants are high-yielding,
- make it easy to harvest a great harvest of berries.
The very first non-bearing variety was introduced to Russia in the 60s of the 20th century from America. This is a variety called Thornfrey, which is still very popular.
Remontny grades - were bred in the selection process
- allow you to harvest two times per season,
- frost resistant crops that are recommended to grow in regions with a harsh climate,
- bear fruit 2 times a year. The first maturation of the crop coincides with the ripening of ordinary varieties. The second time the berries ripen around mid-July in the southern regions and in mid-August in the middle lane.
After the end of winter, it is customary to install trellis, to which it will soon be necessary to tie blackberry fruit-bearing shoots. Two-meter posts need to be dug in at both ends of the row, as well as every ten meters, in order to stretch the wire in three rows at a height of fifty centimeters, one hundred and twenty-five and one hundred and eighty.
When cultivating straight-growing blackberries in the first season there will be practically no fruits, so that they are in the second season, make a pinching of young shoots from a meter tall to a meter twenty centimeters, with the tops cut off by ten centimeters.
Behind blackberry bushes that have just been planted should be closely monitored and in the first forty-five days we should regularly do weeding and do not forget to water if there is a drought. It is necessary to know that the well, as well as cold water is not suitable for irrigation. It is best suited to rain or running, in other words, water, which stood a couple of days in the sun. It is also extremely important to monitor the condition of the soil and not to forget about recharge.
As a rule, blackberry dressing is produced when it is raspberry, raspberry or gooseberry. Nitrogen fertilizer or organic fertilizer with a high nitrogen content is best suited for feeding.
Blackberry breeds in all seasons, with the exception of only autumn. There are three breeding methods:
- Apical otvodka. The easiest breeding method, in which you need a climbing escape to bend to the ground and sprinkle the top of the earth, and it will give roots. It is best to use this method in the spring.
- Horizontal slips. The whole blackberry shoot needs to be put on the ground and sprinkled in order to form new shoots of the bushes. Then this escape is divided between bushes and planted in a new place.
- Root Scions. They appear around the bush, they can be separated to plant in a new place. Best of all are those offsprings that have reached ten centimeters.
In the autumn blackberries need to be prepared for wintering. First, you need to cut the bushes, zamulchirovat soil peat or sawdust. It is also necessary to spray the bushes for preventive purposes. At the end of the autumn, the blackberry should be covered, thus protecting it from the winter frosts.
We wish you success and good harvests!
In the second year after planting, the plant should be tied to a support. Arches, fan-shaped structures can be used as a support. - it all depends on the gardener's imagination. If a branch bends poorly, then you do not need to use force, since it can be easily broken.
Recommended varieties of blackberry for different regions
Among the variety of varieties of blackberry there are those that are recommended for cultivation in different regions of Russia. Shrubs of such varieties quickly acclimatize and give a stable harvest.
For Siberia and the Far East:
For the Leningrad region:
For Moscow and Moscow region:
- Wilson Earley,
- Triple crown
- Black Satin.
- Black Prince,
- Apache ZKS,
- Triple crown
- Triple Crow
- Boysberry Thornless,
- German uncovered.
Watch the video! Meet new high-yielding varieties
Conditions for planting
Competent choice of a place for planting crops - a pledge of high yield. It is important to take into account all the nuances. For a comfortable growth of plants need space. Blackberries have the same long raspberry branches. The roots of the plants are quite branched, they can go two meters deep. The territory for planting should be selected based on the number of shrubs. The optimal distance between the bushes should be about 1-2 m, so that the plants do not interfere with each other. For different varieties There may be individual recommendations regarding the distance between plants.
One of the important conditions for growing is the degree of illumination. Culture needs solar and windproof places.
The soil should be moderately wet and breathable. The most fastidious to the quality of the soil are bush varieties. Cumanica needs fertile, loamy soil or sandy loam. Rossyanik is less whimsical, it gives an excellent harvest on more heavy soils, however, the culture feels bad in conditions of stagnant moisture.
If the soil will contain few nutrients that are necessary for the growth and development of shrubs, it will affect the level of yield and taste of berries. That is why when growing blackberries it is important to pay due attention to fertilizers.
In planting a culture, it is important to consider proximity to other cultures. Blackberry is considered a nitrogen fixer. This means that the plant can saturate the soil with oxygen. The best neighbor for blackberry is considered to be an apple tree.
Planting berries along with raspberries, strawberries or strawberries is not worth it. Since these crops have common diseases and pests. And growing plants together leads to the rapid reproduction of these parasites.
Tip! Blackberry comfortably feels in moderately acidic soils.
If moss, horsetail or sorrel grow well on soil, then liming the area should be done before planting. It is recommended to use dolomite flour for this. For 1 m2 should be about 350-500 grams of a substance.
Landing: step by step instructions
Before planting the plant you need to prepare a fertile mixture, which must be laid on the bottom of the planting pit. Mixture preparation:
- 300 grams of superphosphate,
- 4 manure buckets
- 500-800 grams of wood ash (or 8 grams of potash without chlorine),
- 8 buckets of garden soil.
Recommended planting patterns are similar to raspberry planting patterns:
- Planting blackberries in rows should be in a prepared trench or pit. The gap between shrubs should be about 1 m - for bush varieties. For creeping plants - 1.5-2 m. The distance between the rows should be made approximately 1.8 m,
- To land a chess scheme. The gaps between the bushes should be similar to the first scheme.
If it is necessary to form the crown of plants one-way or two-way by weaving, then the distance between the bushes should be about 2.5 m. Nearby it is necessary to install trellis, consisting of three rows of wire. The wire must be tensioned between the two supports approximately at a height of 90, 120 and 150 centimeters above the ground.
To exclude the defeat of the seedling diseases, it is necessary to carefully examine its roots. If signs of decay, mold or other diseases are found, the entire infected part should be cut off and burned.
Before planting, plant roots should be sprinkled with damp earth or sawdust. If we are talking about transportation, the root system must be wrapped with polyethylene.
Blackberry landing scheme:
- It is necessary to dig a hole 50x50x50 cm in size
- The bottom is filled with the prepared planting mixture, about 1-2 buckets. The mound should be at the level of the soil,
- Place the plant at the top of the hill, straighten the root system,
- Next you need to make another layer of the substrate. It is important not to fall asleep to the root neck,
- Pour water with a watering can to make the substrate a little donkey,
- Cover the pit with soil, thicken,
- Water the plant with plenty of water.
- Cut the shoots, leaving 3-4 buds on the branches.
The culture can be planted from seeds and cuttings. The method of growing seeds is quite difficult and suitable for nurseries. However, some gardeners grow blackberries on their plots with this method.
The scheme of growing blackberries from seeds:
- Soak the seeds for 3-4 hours in rainwater,
- Let it dry in the sun
- In equal proportions mix with sand,
- Spread evenly over container with earth,
- Sprinkle with earth, a layer of covering earth should be about 5 mm,
- Spray out the sprayer,
- Cover with polyethylene. Every day, the film should be lifted to let in air. Air temperature should be at + 20 + 22 ° С,
- Constantly maintain optimum soil moisture.
After the seedlings appear 2 separate leaves should be transplanted seedlings in open ground or greenhouse. The distance between the plants should be about 15 centimeters. Once the seedlings are rooted, they must be transplanted to a permanent place.
Cuttings need to prepare from the apical shoots of the current season in about the first half of July. Each stalk must be with leaves (at least one) and buds (1-3 pieces). Preparation of planting soil:
All ingredients must be mixed in equal parts. Planted cuttings need a depth of 3-4 centimeters. Next, the container should be covered with polyethylene or put it in the greenhouse. The air temperature should not be below +20 ° C. Every day produce watering. It is important that the air humidity is high. After 30 days, the cuttings should be transplanted to the garden, keeping a gap of 15-20 centimeters between the plants.
Caring for garden blackberries after planting
For the proper development of blackberry care should be literate. Shrubs need pruning, feeding, watering and garter.
All varieties of crops require regular watering. We can not allow the earth to dry. After planting, the plants should be irrigated with the frequency that allows you to maintain optimal soil moisture. During the rainy season, watering should be rare, and in drought - with a frequency of 2-3 days. Land near the trunk must be mulched.
It should regularly loosen the soil around the bushes to a depth of 5-10 centimeters. This will increase the breathability of the soil. It is worth removing weeds.We can not allow the weeds to grow next to the bushes - this can provoke the appearance of pests.
Trimming and shaping
Blackberries have easy agrotechnics, but with special features. All types of blackberries can produce a crop on the shoots of two years of age. After the crop is harvested, shoots should be cut with a secateur and burned. The procedure is called autumn pruning. It includes the cutting of two-year shoots under the root, as well as the removal of damaged and weak branches.
The following year, the harvest will be collected from the shoots of the current season. In order to stimulate their growth, autumn annual shoots should be shortened.
Important to remember! Pruning upright and creeping varieties is different. Upright varieties need to be shortened to a height of 1.6-1.8 m. About 12 shoots should remain on the shrub. Creeping varieties need to be cut shorter - to 1.4 -1.5 m.
It is worth remembering pinch fruit shrubs. It involves trimming the tops of the branches. As soon as the shoots grow to 8-10 centimeters, they must be cut.
How to make a pin:
- In the first year after planting, all branches that have reached 90-120 centimeters should be trimmed,
- On the second and the remaining years, only the tops should be pruned, they should be shortened to 40-50 centimeters.
Watch the video! How to prune blackberry fruit bearing in spring
Garter is similar to the formation of a bush. The procedure is necessary in order to keep the plants upright. To do this, you need to build a tapestry, pulling the wire along the supports.
The best way to grow blackberries is to make a crown. The garter gives the well-groomed territory and allows you to efficiently use the area. Often used fan tying plants in one or two sides. The first option is suitable for slow-growing varieties, and the second - for vigorous. For shrub and creeping plants, both are applicable.
Stages of fan formation of shrubs:
- In the first year after planting, the shoots of the seedling should be bent in one direction and tied to the scrappers,
- New branches are tied in the opposite direction,
- All side branches cut off.
Spring feeding is carried out before buds bloom. Need to take:
- Convex or compost - 1.5-3 kilograms,
- Superphosphate - 10 grams,
- Potash fertilizer - 4-5 grams,
- Garden soil - 5 -7 kilograms.
Make a mixture at the rate of 1.5-3 kilograms per 1 m2. Repeated fertilizer is applied in 2-3 years. It is also recommended to add 200-250 grams of ammonium nitrate in the spring and 100 grams of urea for every 10 m 2. After the growing season is over, it is worth making about 6 kilograms of humus or compost for each plant.
Important! Can not be used for fertilizing chlorine-based fertilizer.
Pest and disease control
Blackberry is resistant to many diseases. Fruits are considered to be environmentally friendly and healing. Blackberry's most famous disease is rust.
Rust covers leaves with sticky dark orange spores. To fight, you need to remove the affected part of the shrub and burn, then process the crown with garlic solution. Bordeaux mixture is considered quite effective.
Bordeaux mixture recipe: in 10 liters of water dilute 40 grams of lime and 400 grams of copper sulfate.
The most well-known pests for culture - shoots aphid and raspberry beetle. For prophylaxis, plants can be treated with "Fitoverm" or "Kinmiks". At the rate of 2 ml per 10 liters of water.
Watering and feeding
Blackberries tolerate drought well, but care should be taken to ensure that the soil does not dry out. During the ripening of berries the bush needs additional watering. It is recommended to apply fertilizers directly under the bush once a year. Ammonium nitrate is used for fertilizing. In the fourth year after planting, compost or humus can be applied.
Propagate the creeping blackberry can be taps. The easiest way is reproduction by apical layering. This procedure is carried out in the spring. To obtain a new plant, you can use any strong escape. He is bent down to the ground and dropped in.. After the appearance of the first buds, a new plant can be separated from the parent one.
Propagation by horizontal retraction involves burying the side shoot along the entire length. It is best to carry out such a procedure in the spring. Reproduction by root parts is also possible. However, some varieties have very small rhizomes. Siblings should be planted from May to June. Planting a plant in such a period, you will definitely be sure that the plant will take root in a new place before the onset of cold weather.
Raspberries and blackberries are subject to the same pests and diseases. The most common diseases are:
- Powdery mildew,
- White spot
- Gray rot
- Purple blotch.
RustA plant that affects can be of several forms: toe-shaped and columnar. The first form of suffering plants that grow near cedars and pines. Pillar rust is characteristic of very weak plants.
Often, the disease occurs at the beginning of summer and manifests itself as points of orange-brown color. If the plant is not cured in time, then you can lose up to 60% of the crop. For the treatment of drugs used, which in its composition contain sulfur.
Anthracnose It occurs when rainy weather lasts a very long time. You can see this disease on oval purple spots. Over time, the leaves acquire a reddish border. To combat the disease using the same drugs as for the treatment of rust.
White spot occurs very often. The leaves and shoots of the plant are covered with pale brown spots.
Purple spot detrimental effect on the buds of the plant, the leaves begin to dry and fall off over time.
Gray rot begins to develop actively in wet weather. The first affected berries. To this disease does not occur, the bush should be planted in a spacious area.
The main enemy of the blackberry - powdery mildewwhich covers the whole shrub with white bloom. Disease prevention is the full implementation of the agrotechnical rules for growing this crop.
Blackberries can be affected by the following insects:
- Butterfly caterpillars,
- Raspberry bud moth.
Pest control involves spraying karbofos or aktellikom. In the spring should be preventive treatment of shrubs.