Tamariks, or Grebenshchik, or Beads (there are other unofficial names, but this is perhaps the most common). This is a sprawling perennial multi-stemmed tree, beloved by landscape designers.
Its dimensions are not the largest. As a rule, it reaches no more than 1.5 m in height, less often it grows to 3-5 m.
In nature, in some regions there are specimens that grow up to 12 m.
Tamariks: planting and care in the open field
However, growing a shrub in central Russia and in horticultural conditions (for example, in the Moscow region), you should not expect it to stretch to more than 1.5-2 m, because it does not differ in particular winter hardiness and does not live for a long time. But it has excellent drought resistance. The thickness of the stem of the plant - no more than half a meter.
Despite the modest dimensions, the tamarix plant usually looks pretty impressive anyway, as it blooms unusually and has a lot of branches that together form something similar to a big fluffy hat, especially from afar. In general, the spectacle is impressive. Because of its special appearance, the shrub received one of the most accustomed names of the people - “bead”, and under this name it is much more famous than under the scientific, Latin “Tamarix”. And Tamarix was named after the Tamariz River, which flows in the Pyrenees, from where this plant takes its roots.
By sight shrub tamariks it is enough (and even too) elegant, laced and beautiful, and indeed - very much resembles fine bead jewelery, so that it received its popular name for a reason. Especially the plant corresponds to it when it has not yet fully blossomed, but the buds resembling small crumbly beads are already there. At the same time, the plant acquires the most decorative appearance.
Thin long branches are covered with small scaly foliage of emerald green color, about six mm in length. Salt glands are formed on the leaves. These leaves are very much like pine needles, but, nevertheless, they are not. Tamarix flowers often have different pinkish-whitish shades, but lilac and red are also not the most rare for this type of shrub. A tree or shrub blooms from May to September, depending on the particular species.
Types of tamarisk
There are a huge variety of plant species.somewhere around seventy pieces. In the wild, all these species can be found growing in the gap somewhere between India and the southern border of Europe. The most famous of them are:
- tamarix branched
- tamariks elegant
- tamariks four-legged
- tamariks loose
Tamarix branching is a low vertical (that is, growing straight and elongated in length) shrub with thin branches and narrow leaves curved downwards. As a rule, it grows to two meters and stops there. In comparison with other species, it loves water quite strongly and is often found on the banks of reservoirs. Blossoms from June to September.
Tamariks elegant already much larger, reaching a height of up to four meters and with all this, it rushes more in breadth than in height. Its branches are thick and drooping, covered with bark of gray or brown color, and the foliage is lancer or styloid. Blossom begins in May, bright pink flowers. Grows in Siberia, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan.
Chetyrehtychinkovy - the largest comrade of these three, grows to ten m. The branches are arched, the bark on them has a color, usually reddish, the leaves are elongated and thinned in shape, bright green. Blooms in April and May, the flowers are usually white or light pink in color, with round petals and club-shaped stamens. It grows in Russia, Western Transcaucasia, Greece, Crimea.
Last loose, has oval leaves, blooms in June and reaches a height of five meters. Pink inflorescences are collected in panicles, flowering lasts two months. Iran, Afghanistan, China, the lower reaches of the Volga - the natural habitats of this species.
How to care
Care for each of the types is selected with appropriate remarks. But of course, it is possible to single out certain general rules of care.
The plant is quite unpretentious, and special efforts in the process of care and maintenance does not require.
Firstly, it is not necessary to overdo it with a watering of a bush, otherwise it can easily be bent and pick up a fungus. In general, tamarix is strongly inclined to accumulate moisture in its stems. Often it can do without irrigation, especially during rainy periods.
But in arid time it is necessary to follow this, on the contrary, very carefully. And at the first time after planting, it also requires abundant watering, after some time it is better to reduce it.
The next item of care is pruning.. The plant is not at all afraid of circumcision, they prevent the appearance of many different diseases and give the plant a neat shape. Dried inflorescences, when the flowering time of the bush comes to an end, everything must be cut off. All moldy, darkened, frozen branches should immediately be removed. In addition, if there is a desire to achieve greater branching next year, it is worth a little prune shoots.
As a fertilizer for fertilizing plants are ideal mineral - potassium and phosphorus. Without them, care will be incomplete.
That the plant survived the winter, in the end of autumn it will be best to cover it with a film. It is also necessary to mulch the soil to protect the plant from the cold.
Brief description of the plant
Representatives of this genus belong to deciduous or evergreen shrubs. In addition to tamarisk shrubs, there are also trees that reach an average of 3 to 5, and sometimes 12 m in height. At the same time the trunk can be up to 0.5 m in diameter. The crown of the plant consists of many thin and small, as well as coarse and blunt branches. They alternately grow small sessile leaves, resembling scales.
Leaf length does not exceed 7 mm. Small flowers are collected in racemes or white paniculate inflorescences white, less pink. The plant is an excellent honey plant. It during flowering attracts a lot of bees to the garden. The fruit is a pyramidal box with three leaves and contains many small seeds that are distributed by the wind.
Popular types of shrubs
Currently, about 60 species of plants represent this genus. Most of them used in landscape design garden plots, and some specimens are the decoration of the apartment interior. It is worth noting the most famous species:
- Combs chetyrehtychinkovy - large shrub or tree, reaching up to 6 m in height. The curved branches of this plant have a red-brown color. Emerald-green leaves have oblong plates, pointed at the ends. Their length does not exceed 2 mm, and width - 0.5 mm. White or light pink flowers are collected in racemes, located on the side shoots. This species tolerates drought and lives quite a long time. Some instances may exist up to 75 years.
- Tamarix branched It is a shrub or tree, reaching up to 3 m in height. This representative has straight branches that have a greenish or bluish color. Small leaves, having an ovoid or oval shape, grow to 5 mm in length and 2 mm in width. At the ends of the shoots bloom flowers forming paniculate inflorescences. Flowering lasts from May to September, and then there are trihedral pyramidal fruits.
- Africana - This variety belongs to chetyrehtychinkovomu form. It is an open and spreading shrub. Leaves dissected, resembling needles. Flowering begins in the spring before the leaves bloom. Bright pink flowers are gathered in a panicle, reaching up to 30 cm in length. Afrikana is resistant to smoke and gassed air, so it feels great in the city.
- Comb slender or tamariks elegant listed in the Red Book of some subjects of Russia and Ukraine. It is a shrub in height from 1 to 3 m with thick branches covered with brownish-brown bark. The leaves are oval-shaped, pointed at the ends and have a bluish-green color. The bush is considered to be frost-resistant and is successfully used in landscape design.
It is also possible to note the following types of hawker: Aral, Chinese, elongated, small-flowered, etc.
Growing seedlings at home
Planting seeds begin in late winter or early spring. Pre-gardeners acquire soil for seedlings and planting material in a specialized store. A drainage layer of expanded clay or small stones is laid in prepared containers. The container should also have drainage holes. The soil is laid out in containers and moistened abundantly.
Seeds are planted at a distance of 3-4 cm between themselves and to a depth of 1 cm. You can once again spray the soil with water with a spray gun. The containers are covered with plastic wrap and cleaned in a bright, warm place. As soon as the sprouts reach 5-6 cm, they are seated in separate pots. Saplings are grown for two years, and in the third year they are planted in open ground.
Methods of cutting and layering
Growing tamaris from cuttings is considered the most effective method of reproduction. You can begin this procedure in the spring, but it is best in the fall. From the shoots cut blanks with a length of 10-15 cm and a thickness of 1 cm. For faster rooting, cuttings for several days are placed in a growth stimulator "Kornevin". Then they are planted in containers with fertile soil. For the first time, planting is necessary to cover the film. Rooting cuttings is determined by the appearance of green leaves. Planting seedlings in open ground start in late spring or early summer.
Bead reproduction by layering is carried out in early spring. To do this, near the selected bush, dig a small groove about 20 cm deep. The long branch of the plant is lowered into the groove and fixed with the help of a wire.
Having sprinkled the shoot with fertile soil, water it abundantly. Toward the end of the summer, the layers are separated and transplanted to a permanent place.
Bead planting in open ground
Pre-gardeners choose the right place. The site should be moderately lit and with well-drained soil. Having chosen a place, they start preparing the soil cover. To do this, prepare a mixture of humus, sand and peat. Pre-dig the hole in 1.5 times the root system of the seedling. At the bottom of the pits lay out a drainage layer of broken brick or rubble.
A part of the soil mixture is poured onto it and the seedling is carefully lowered. Pour it with the remaining mixture and water it abundantly. Mulch can be poured around the bush. If several bushes are planted, then a distance of 2-3 m is maintained between them. The neck of the seedling root must be at ground level.
Some types of tamarix after planting do not require additional interventions. However, a number of activities should be carried out. These include:
Regular watering is made only to young plants. As soon as the bush grows, go to moderate watering. If the weather is rainy, then you can only loosen the soil. Tamarix has the ability to accumulate moisture inside the trunk, so its excess in the soil cover can only harm. For the season it will be enough for the plant to conduct two supplements.
The first is made when planting a sapling, and the second is carried out in the summer. To do this, make fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus. It should be remembered that an excess of fertilizers can lead to a decrease in plant immunity. In the spring gardeners carry out sanitary pruning of bushes, removing dried and damaged branches. And also carried a haircut, forming a crown.
In conclusion, you should read a few reviews about tamarisk gardeners near Moscow.
I have been growing tamariks in Moscow for 5 years. True, he immediately put him on the wrong place. He did not want to grow. I didn’t really know how it should be until I saw the old tamariks trees. It was an unforgettable sight. And now they grow in the country and delight with its beauty.
I have a cottage located in the suburbs. In the first year my tamarix was graceful and became extinct and started growing from the root. Before the second winter, as soon as the snow fell, we covered the plant for them. What was preserved under the snow, but those parts that were not covered were frozen. The tamarix stem dried up and had to be cut. This year he again became green. We are thinking how to shelter him for the upcoming winter. Perhaps we will bend it down and cover it with a spandob, and then we will sleep with snow.
In the spring I spend my tamarisk big haircut. I cut out all the excess, that is, what grows inside the bush. Immediately cut it, giving it the desired shape. Planting roses look beautiful against this plant. Before the onset of cold weather, I do not harbor tamarix, but simply spud it. He perfectly endures the winter.
Tamariks - beaded shrubs with a controversial reputation
One of the most elegant shrubs, tamariks, is considered a representative of the group of flowering species and in recent years has become a very fashionable plant. Flowering is the most noticeable feature of tamarisk, although the shrub retains its attractiveness for a very long time. Tamariks are often called beaded shrubs or beadworkthan their botanical name. And this is not surprising: such an epithet best describes their appearance. Tamarixes got their name in their homeland, in the Pyrenees, in honor of the river Timbra, which in ancient times was called Tamariz. These plants belong to the family Tamariksovyh (Tamaricaceae).
Grebenshchiki, or Tamariksy (Tamarix) - representatives of large shrubs, which sometimes turn into multi-stemmed trees with age. The height of beads in the natural environment, in regions with milder winters can reach more than 3 m, but in garden culture they are often limited to a one and a half meter height and certainly very rarely grow higher in regions with severe winters. But even with such limited parameters, the tamarix is still perceived as a large, massive and variegated, spreading plant, and at the same time - light, transparent, light. Picturesque bead seems almost unbridled - and yet fabulously beautiful. The ability of tamariks to create light thickets and arrays can only be envied by all of its competitors.
Tamarisk branches are very unusual. Prutevidnye, straight and thin, they stand out beautiful curving lines, almost hidden under a dense mass of leaves. Miniature, scale-like, with a unique bluish tint of green and reminiscent of hvoyniki, they give the whole plant filigree and delicate. Among the tamarisk there are species and varieties with both gray and bright, rich greens.
The blooming of all tamarisk is fascinating. But the greatest decorativeness is characteristic of this shrub at the budding stage: when all the inflorescences consist only of round buds, it seems as if the twigs are covered with small beads. Large clusters of inflorescences with thin branches also resemble bunches of twig-shaped “sticks”, and these almost geometric lines only emphasize the filigree of the buds. When the flowers bloom, this impression is slightly weakened. Small, simple, whitish, or various soft shades of pink, the flowers turn the shrubs into fluffy openwork clouds. From a distance, the blooming of tamarisk seems to be a haze, slightly reminding of a similar translucent effect in skumpy. But the line of shoots, their underlined arcs are more similar to spireas.
The period of flowering of tamarisk covers spring and summer, and many species are able to bloom in waves. The flowering of different types of tamarisk replaces each other, plants can be selected for a continuous flowering relay.
These magnificent shrubs have a rather controversial reputation. They are considered plants of low-resistant or demanding very difficult care crops that are unsuitable for regions with severe winters. Such a reputation is due, primarily, to the fact that in nature, tamariks are found in a much milder climate. But in fact, many species of tamariks can be successfully grown in the middle lane. Most of them need minimal preparation for the winter.
Bush Grebenshchik, or Tamariks (Tamarix)
These shrubs have more than seven dozen species. In nature, tamariks are found mainly in regions with a mild climate of Eurasia, from the south of Europe to India. For cultivation in regions with harsh winters, mainly 4 types of beads are used:
- Combs loose, or Tamariks loose (Tamarix laxa) - spring flowering, low and dense shrub. This bead is good for hedges. With a natural height of 5 m, in the garden it is usually limited to 1 m. Spreading arcuate branches are unusually elegant, introducing geometric accents into the garden. The leaves are oval, erect. Thick brush inflorescences cover shoots uniform fluffy veil, gathering in an unusual fringed panicles. Flowering loose tamarisk lasts about 2 months and starts on the eve of summer.
- Combs chetyrehtychinkovy, or Tamarix chetyrehtychinkovy (Tamarix tetrandra) – весеннецветущий вид, который отлично смотрится в живых изгородях благодаря плотности и невысокому росту. В природе вырастает до 10 м, но в средней полосе он куда компактнее. The shoots are arcuate, reddish, with small lanceolate leaves of the brightest emerald color. Loose brush inflorescences on the side shoots seem fluffy. The color of the flowers is almost always white or pinkish-white.
- Combs graceful, or slim, or Tamariks elegant (Tamarix gracilis) - tall and powerful shrub, in nature capable of reaching 4 m in height. Thick, gray-brown shoots with light spots and large lanceolate leaves create a feeling of massive foliage. Young branches flaunt different sized leaves and differ in color. Brush inflorescences up to 5-7 cm in length are collected in large panicles, adorn bright pink color of flowers. In adulthood, the plant blooms from spring to summer. This type of tamarisk is considered the most frost-resistant.
- Combing, or Comb Multiple Branch, also known as Tamarix branched (Tamarix ramosissima) - shrub with straight and almost straight, very thin, bluish shoots, the maximum height of which, in regions with harsh winters, is limited to 2 m. In regions with a mild climate can reach a height of 6-8 m. It seems that this bead is constantly in movement. Leaves only up to 2 mm in length, awl-shaped, bent upwards. Pink bloom, during which thick branched brushes up to 5 cm in length are collected in half-meter-high complex panicles and color the crown with openwork accents, lasting all summer and September. This species has a number of ornamental varieties, of which the best is considered to be the blooming pink “Pink Cascade”, the bright purple “Rubra” and the raspberry variety “Summer Glow”.
You can often find the mention of Tamarix pentandra (Tamarix pentandra), as a synonym for Tamarix branchy (Tamarix ramosissima). However, from the botanical point of view, Tamarix five-stag is synonymous with another type of Grebenschik - Chinese Comb, or Chinese Tamarix (Tamarix chinensis) and using it as a synonym for Tamarix branchy is incorrect.
When choosing the type and variety of tamarix, make sure that the plant is local - has been adapted in local centers or grown by local gardeners. Acclimatization, adaptation to a specific climate in tamariks is much more important than the stated resistance to frost.
In the design of the garden tamariks use:
- as single accents,
- in flowering and contrasting groups,
- to create arrays,
- in hedges (low spring flowering species),
- for the edge and undergrowth along the front sunny edge,
- to strengthen the slopes and slopes,
- for giving volume and as a background for flower beds and mixborders,
- to fill the space and improve the vertical structure of flower beds.
Tamarix branches stand perfectly in the cut. They can decorate both small bouquets and high floor vases. Cutting at different stages of flowering allows you to get different decorative and texture effects.
The best partners for beaded shrubs are large-leaved shrubs and large perennials such as the grassroot, camelie, astilba, echinacea, ferns.
Comby chetyrekhtychinkovy, or Tamariks chetyrehtychinkovy (Tamarix tetrandra)
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. How to plant
- 4. Care
- 4.1. How to grow
- 4.2. Pruning
- 4.3. Pests and diseases
- 5. Reproduction
- 6. Types and varieties
- 7. Tamariks in landscape design
Planting and care for tamarix (in short)
- Bloom: depending on the species, but usually in April-May.
- Landing: Better in early spring, but you can also in the period of leaf fall.
- Lighting: bright light or partial shade.
- The soil: any well drained soil.
- Watering: The first 2-3 weeks after planting are plentiful and frequent. Mature plants require moisture only during a long drought.
- Top dressing: in early spring, with a solution of organic fertilizer, and in the summer, foliar dressing is carried out with potassium-phosphorus fertilizer and solutions of microelements.
- Trimming: sanitary, thinning and rejuvenating - in early spring, before the start of sap flow, or after completion of flowering.
- Reproduction: seeds and cuttings.
- Pests: practically not affected.
- Diseases: resistant, but may due to excessive moisture, root rot.
Tamarix Shrub - description
Tamarixes are elegant deciduous or evergreen shrubs. Often among them there are also trees growing in the shape of trees from 1.5 to 12 m in height with a trunk thickness of up to 50 cm. The crown of tamarix is formed by twig-shaped shoots, densely dotted with scale-like regular miniature leaves of bluish-green, emerald or dark-green shade. Small pink or white flowers of tamarix form large brushes or panicles. Before the flowers open, the bud-covered plant looks as if it has been beaded with beads. During the flowering period, tamarix attracts bees, as it is an excellent honey plant. The tamarisk fruit is a pentahedral-pyramidal multi-seeded box with small seeds.
The plant tamariks differs in drought resistance and extraordinary survivability. It perfectly adapts to the gas content of large cities, and planting and caring for tamarisk will not cause trouble even to a lazy gardener.
When planting tamarix in the ground.
Tamarix seedlings are planted in early spring or during the fall, but spring planting is preferable. A tamarisk needs a well-drained soil, but the plant does not impose any special requirements on its composition: it grows even in heavy clay, provided that peat and humus are introduced into the pit during planting. By lighting tamarisk too undemanding, but grows better in well-lit areas.
Choosing a place for tamarix, think carefully about everything, because its thin long roots very poorly tolerate transplant.
How to plant tamarix in the garden.
A tamarix excavation pit is dug 60x60x60 cm in size. A layer of drainage material (claydite, broken brick, pebbles or rubble) 20 cm thick is laid on its bottom, a layer of wood ash with humus is placed on the drainage, and then 2/3 of the hole is filled with fertile mixture soil, sand and peat in a ratio of 2: 1: 1.
The shoots of the seedling before planting are cut, leaving no more than 3-5 cm from each, after which the seedling is lowered into the planting hole, straightened its roots and fill the remaining space with a mixture of the composition described above. The surface around the seedling is compacted and watered abundantly. The neck after planting and watering should be at ground level.
How to grow tamarisk.
The first 2-3 weeks after planting tamarix sapling should be protected from the sun and regularly watered. When leaves appear on the plant, shading is removed, and watering is not made so frequent. To keep moisture in the soil as long as possible, the stem of the plant must be mulched with some organic material. Adult tamarisks water only in a prolonged drought, but if it rains in summer, do not moisten the soil around the plant at all. After watering or rain, remove the weeds appearing in the circle and slightly loosen the soil.
In the early spring, at the beginning of the growing season, tamarix is fed with organic matter, and in the summer it is treated for leaves with potash and phosphate fertilizers.
The winter hardiness of the plant makes it possible to grow it in areas with a rather cool climate, therefore tamarix in the Moscow region or in the Urals is no longer a rarity. However, if weather forecasters say that in winter the temperature can drop to -28 ºC, even the most cold-resistant plants need to be covered: the trunk of tamariks is wrapped in a plastic film or thick cloth, and the root zone is warmed with a spruce fur splinter or a thick layer of sawdust.
Care for tamarisk includes the formation of the crown. Pruning plant tolerates easily. It is best to hold it in early spring, before the buds begin to swell. The old tamarisk branches with short increments are cut off to the ring, but in a month they will give young shoots, and the crown of the bush will again turn into a magnificent hat. The rejuvenating pruning of tamarisk is done on a strong branch located as close as possible to the base of the bush. Take care that the growth of tamarix shoots does not weaken, since this will be followed by a reduction in the number and a decrease in the length of the inflorescences. When the growing season begins and the degree of frosting of the branches and shoots becomes visible, cut them to healthy wood.
Pruning can also be done after the tamariks have faded: in order to give the crown a well-groomed, neat look, all faded buds and strongly stretched shoots are removed. With the help of trimming try to give the bush greater stability so that you do not have to tie up the branches to the supports.
Tamarix crown easily thickens, so it must be regularly thinned, removing some of the branches.
Tamarix pests and diseases.
Pests tamarisk almost no bother. There have been cases when they moved to a bush from a nearby plant, but in order to get rid of them, one treatment of a tamarisk with an insecticide solution is sufficient.
The situation is worse with fungal diseases: they easily hit the plant in the rainy season. Affected shoots and branches must be cut mercilessly, and the plant and the soil around it must be treated with a solution of fungicide.
Tamarix breeding in the garden
Tamarisk is propagated by cuttings and seeds, but experts recommend not to waste time on experiments with generative reproduction, since the vegetative method gives more reliable and fast results.
The cuttings are carried out in early spring: from the shoots, semi-lignified cuttings of 7–10 length and 1 cm thick are cut, the lower section is dipped into the root-forming solution and planted under a slope in a box with a light substrate (garden soil and sand in equal parts). A transparent dome is put on top of the box or each stem is covered with a glass jar. The fact that bruising was successful, you will know when the young leaves appear on the cuttings. The rooted cuttings are planted in open ground in May, but they need to be covered for the winter. The following spring, who have been hibernating in the garden and the strengthened seedlings can be planted in a permanent place.
For reliability, you can first hold the cuttings in the water, and as soon as they form roots, the cuttings are planted in the ground and covered with banks.
If you still decide to grow tamarix from seeds, keep in mind that the seed of this plant loses its germination very quickly, and in the middle lane the seeds rarely ripen at all. Sowing carried out without prior stratification on the surface of the substrate. Seed is not necessary. Capacity with crops establish on the pallet with water. When the seedlings grow up and get stronger, they are planted in shkolku to grow. For the winter they are necessarily covered. Seedlings of tamarisk are transplanted to a permanent place in a year or two.
Tamarix chetyrehtychinkovy (Tamarix tetrandra)
grows in the Crimea, Greece, Asia Minor and in the south-east of the European part of Russia. This is a large shrub in height from 5 to 10 m with brownish-red arcuately curved branches. The leaves on the branches are emerald-green, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, narrowed to the base, with a coraciform pointed apex. Flowers from white to light pink are collected on the side shoots in the brush. Flowering begins in April-May. The species is drought tolerant and durable (lives up to 75 years).
Tamarix loose (Tamarix laxa)
grows wild in Mongolia, Northwestern China, Afghanistan, Northern Iran and in the lower reaches of the Volga. It can be a large and branchy shrub or a tree up to 5 m high with spreading bare branches, green or gray-gray. The leaves of this species are directly spaced, ovate or oval-rhombic, pointed to the apex and tapered towards the base. Pink flowers are collected in thick brushes, which in turn form apical panicles. Flowering of this species lasts about 2 months. It is frost-resistant, drought-resistant, unpretentious to the composition of the soil and tolerates its salinization.
Tamarix graceful (Tamarix gracilis)
grows naturally in Kazakhstan, China, Siberia, in the west of Mongolia, in Ukraine and in the south of the European part of Russia. In height, the shrub reaches 4 m, it has thick, run-down branches, covered with brownish-chestnut or gray-green bark and light-yellow spots of cork along the shoot and in the leaf axils. On the green shoots, the pointed leaves are located tiled; on the one-year-old branches, the leaves are larger, fawn, and lanceolate. Spring simple brush of bright pink flowers reach a length of 5 cm. Summer flower brushes, collected in large paniculate inflorescences, slightly longer - 7 cm. Tamariks elegant - flowering and frost-resistant shrub of interest to landscape designers.
Tamarix ramified (Tamarix ramosissima),
or Tamarix pentandra grows on pebble banks, rivers, on the terraces of the river valleys of China, Iran, the Balkans, Mongolia, Central Asia, Moldova and Ukraine. This is a straight-growing shrub up to 2 m in height with thin greenish or bluish branches and annual reddish shoots. Its leaves are narrow, awl-shaped, with curved ends. Pink flowers are collected in thick complex brush lengths up to 5 cm. Flowering begins in June and ends in September. The species is distinguished by its unpretentiousness to the composition of the soil, it is easily adapted to urban conditions, it is quickly restored after frosting, but requires shelter for the winter. The most popular varieties are:
- – Pink Cascade - a plant characterized by abundant and lush flowering,
- – Rubra - variety with flowers of violet-red shade,
- – Sammar Glow - shrub with bright crimson buds.
Tamariks in landscape design
Tamarisks are used in landscaping for group compositions, live clipped hedges and as tapeworms, for example, as a blossoming “fountain” in the center of a green lawn. Low bushes and trees of tamarix are well combined with coniferous plants - juniper, thuja, dwarf firs. Harmonizes tamarix with barberry, lilac and jasmine.
Some evergreen species of the genus can be grown even in room culture. Tamarisks are used in forest plantations, on saline soils, in the zone of semi-deserts and deserts, and for securing creeping shores and moving sands.
Description of tamariks tree (with photo)
Tamariks family. About 100 species of tamarix tree are known in the countries of the Mediterranean and Central Asia. In Ukraine, it grows wild in the Crimea. In desert conditions, the comberer grows up to 8 meters high and 1 meter in diameter. The comb is found in steppes, semi-deserts, and deserts in Africa, in the south of Europe and Asia.
Other names of this plant are “comby, bead”. The bead got its name because in the spring before flowering its thin twig-shaped branches are literally hung with pink beads of rounded bright pink small flower buds, and it is in spring that the bead looks especially elegant.
Judging by the description of tamarisk, it is shrubs or small trees with small, scaly leaves, thin graceful shoots. Leaf layouts are next, their length is 1-7 mm. The flowers are bisexual, up to 5 mm long, pink or purple, form large paniculate inflorescences. The comb dresser blooms once a year: in spring, summer or autumn. Blooms profusely within two weeks and retains decorative all summer thanks to the elegant openwork foliage. The fruit of this plant is a multi-seeded box, the seeds are small. Presented on this page description of tamarix with a photo allows you to make the right choice of this crop for landscaping the site.
Comb the hardy tree, hardy and not whimsical. Due to the branches partially immersed in the sludge or sprinkled with sand, the root system of the comb-dresser expands well. It prefers light, but it also grows quite well in the shade.
This species is undemanding to the soil and resistant to high temperatures and drought. It is amenable to cutting and is used to create hedges.
Popular types of tamarix
The following are the most popular types of tamarix used in landscape design.
Tamarix graceful - Tamarix gracilis
It grows in the south of Ukraine, the European part of Russia, in Siberia, Kazakhstan, China, in the west of Mongolia. It is the northernmost species of the genus. Shrub up to 4 m tall, with thick, runaway branches, covered with gray-green or brownish-chestnut bark, with light fawn patches of cork in the axils of the leaves and on the shoot. The leaves of the one-year-old branches are larger, lanceolate, fawn, and in the green shoots they are of different lengths, pointed, and tiled. Floral brushes that appear in spring on annual branches, simple, up to 5 cm long, in summer floral brushes up to 7 cm long, in large paniculate inflorescences at the ends of growing shoots. The flowers are bright pink. Adult plants bloom in spring and continue to bloom all summer. It is of interest as a flowering, original, most frost-resistant shrub in a single and ryhgruppovoy planting.
Tamarix mnogovetvisty - Tamarix ramosissima
Low shrub with thin, bluish or greenish branches and reddish annual shoots. The leaves are narrow, awl-shaped, up to 1.5 mm long, with the ends bent to escape. The flowers are pink, in dense, complex racemes, up to 5 cm long. It blooms from June to September.
Tamariks Odessa - Tamarix odessana
Naturally grows in the Crimea and the southern regions in the Black Sea. Shrub with pink flowers in dense inflorescences, blooms from June to September.
Growing tamariks plants: planting and care in the open field
Уход за растением тамарикс при выращивании прост, поскольку он очень неприхотлив. Любит свет, поэтому место для него надо отводить открытое. Мирится с любыми почвами, даже засоленными, предпочитая насыщенные кальцием. Mechanically, it responds better to medium loam. Does not tolerate stagnant water, as well as the close standing of groundwater. Will not grow on clay and clay soils, needs open space and a sunny place. For lush flowering, tamarix can be fertilized with organic matter. To increase the frost resistance in the second half of the summer, it is advisable to give mineral supplements from superphosphate (up to 40 g per bush) and potash salt 20–25 g.
When planning planting tamarix and caring for it in the open field, you need to expect that the shrub will be in the same place for many years. Developing a powerful root system, tamariks does not need periodic watering, but watering is needed with additional feedings. In autumn, the base of the bush should be covered with fallen leaves.
Reproduction tamarix cuttings
Tamarix propagates by dividing the bush, seeds, cuttings, offspring, and at any time. The easiest way of reproduction - cuttings.
During reproduction of tamarix, rooting is almost one hundred percent rooting. Better root lignified cuttings in early spring. On the cuttings use normally developed last year's shoots, not very thin. They are cut at 2-4 internodes, planting, leaving one kidney above the ground. Tamariks also reproduce well with green cuttings that are cut in the first half of summer. In favorable growth conditions, the bush gives offsprings that can be sown. Seeds have a weak germination energy and rapidly disappearing germination, therefore the seed method of reproduction is less popular.
The cuttings are usually grown for one year. In the second year, pruning is done. After pruning grow several strong shoots.
It should be planted in spring, but in August it can also be in well-drained, any garden, fairly fertile soil. The plant is drought resistant. The permissible acidity of the soil is from pH 5 to pH 6. Tamarix is not susceptible to diseases, and the pests practically do not attack either, except for the bronze that feeds on flowers.
Under the conditions in the North-West, it can freeze in severe winters with little snow in terms of snow cover, and therefore plant small-sized species in places where a large snowdrift is marked in winter.
In single landings, for example, at the corners of a lawn or at the intersections of paths, low-growing Japanese spireas are suitable for rockeries (rocky hills).
Tamarix grows well in windy places, and since some species can reach a height of 3 m, it serves as an excellent backstage from cold winds for the more effeminate inhabitants of the garden. Usually it is a low shrub up to 1.5 m tall.
See how tamariks looks on the video, where agrotechnical techniques and application in landscape design are shown:
Tamarix is a perennial evergreen or deciduous plant with strong roots. Like a thick vine, they rush underground in different directions in search of water and nutrients. The average plant height is 3-5 m, sometimes there are trees up to 12 m in height. The form of vegetation is tree or shrub. The trunk diameter does not exceed 50 cm. From the main shoot and lateral skeletal branches a multitude of thin processes are formed.
Leaflets resembling small scales, in length are 1-7 mm. They are painted in dark green, emerald green or bluish green and fit snugly to the stem. The foliage contains saline glands.
The period of flowering in different types of tamarisk comes at different times. The first flowers appear in May at tamarisk chetyrehtychinkovyh. The last in August-September tamariks blooms friable. Flowers on very short pedicels collected in paniculate or racemes on shoots 1-2 years of age. Even unblown buds are highly decorative. Like the smallest beads of pastel shades they stick round branches.
Bisexual flowers 1.5-5 mm long consist of blunt-shaped ovoid or linear bracts. Below them are 4-7 rounded petals, painted in pink, purple, scarlet or white. In the center there are 4-6 filiform, thickened stamens with heart-shaped anthers at the base and an oblong ovary with a trihedral column.
After pollination, the branches are covered with small fruits - multifaceted pyramidal boxes with a lot of seeds. Each seed has a crest. After ripening, the boxes open, and the wind spreads the smallest seeds over long distances.
The undemanding nature of tamarics to soils, inherited from wild ancestors by modern cultural forms is their great advantage. These are not only dry soil, but also shrubs well developed in saline soils. Tamarix can be planted in any, even infertile, soil, but the beadworks still achieve the greatest decorative effect on sandstone sandwort with lime reaction. In climates with harsh winters, plants cannot be planted in moist soils.
Tamariksam not afraid of urban conditions, they are well endure even the air on the streets with active movement of transport.
Much more stringent requirements tamariksy impose to the lighting. These are light-loving shrubs, accustomed to the brightest solar sites. Even light shading adversely affects plants, and strong shading is destructive. Sunny southern areas for beadwork are most comfortable. Please note that tamarisks do not like high humidity and air stagnation, they need well-ventilated, open places.
The plant makes a great transplant even in adulthood, which makes it easy to change decorative compositions and plant large enough specimens to achieve a quick design effect.
One of the best features of tamarisk is its drought resistance, thanks to which the care of a plant is greatly simplified. Only in an exceptional, extreme drought, tamariks will not give up on watering, and in normal weather there is no need for moisturizing procedures. Top dressing for this shrub can be avoided, but early spring dressing with full mineral fertilizers and organic has a positive effect on the abundance of flowering.
This shrub responds very well to haircuts and trimming, you can form on its crown. Regular haircuts allow you to create dense fences, but tamarixes are also good in multi-row landscape fences without pruning, especially along the perimeter of the site. After hibernation, tamaris require sanitary cleaning, removal of dry and damaged shoots and frozen tips of the branches.
Different types of tamarix are characterized by different resistance to negative temperatures.
Tamarix branching in the middle lane is frozen up to the level of snow, for protection in snow-free winters and stabilization of conditions, it is better to cover it with mulching and hilling with protection with spruce branches. But even when frosting, he is perfectly restored and already in the current season pleases with its beauty.
Tamariks is graceful and loose does not need shelter, but the mulching of the tree trunk will benefit the plants.
If you have got a tamarix with low frost resistance or you are not sure about its ability to spend the winter, it is safest to shelter a bush for the winter:
- grumble near-stem circle
- spud the base of the bush
- tie and bend the shoots
- cover the plant with nonwovens and spruce.
Tamarixes are considered easy-breeding shrubs. Even their rapid germination of seeds, which lose their ability to germinate more often within 1-2 months and are very rarely able to ascend a year after harvest, does not affect their status.
Seed propagation of bead is complicated by the fact that in the middle band the seeds ripen rarely, and it is not easy to get fresh purchased ones. Sowing of seeds is carried out in containers and pots, not covering the soil, with a preliminary abundant irrigation of the soil. While maintaining constant humidity in bright light and at room temperature, shoots appear quickly. Seedlings spread on ridges in open soil and grow to the second year, when transferred to a permanent place.
Tamarix can be propagated vegetatively. A shrub can be free to separate root shoots, and offspring usually grow quickly and strong plants are obtained from them. You can use the method of grafting. When cutting green cuttings, the shoots root simply in the water with an almost 100% guarantee. The cuttings can be cut even in late autumn and winter (lignified cuttings about 20 cm long with twigs about 1 cm thick), and they are rooted also in water or substrate.
Features tamariks bush
An elegant tamarisk shrub can be deciduous or evergreen. In addition to shrubs, there are often trees that grow in a bushy way, they have a height of 1.5–12 meters, and their trunk is not thicker than half a meter. The crown consists of twig stems, on which there is a huge number of alternately arranged small leaf plates similar to the scales, their color may be emerald, greenish blue or dark green. Large panicle or racemes consist of small flowers of white or pink color. Before flowering, when the bush is covered with a lot of unopened buds, it may seem as if it was decorated with beads. This plant is an excellent honey plant, so during the flowering period it attracts bees to the garden. The fruit is a pentahedral-pyramidal box, which is multi-seeded, inside it has small seeds.
Tamarisk is a very hardy plant that is highly resistant to drought. This shrub can be grown even in a large city, because it is resistant to gas pollution. Growing such a plant is not troublesome and very pleasant.
What time to land
It is recommended that tamarix seedlings be planted in open soil in the fall during the fall of the leaves, but it is better to do this at the very beginning of spring. Soil for such a shrub requires a well-drained, while its composition can be anything. It can be grown even in heavy clay soil, but only in this case it is necessary to add humus and peat during planting in the ground. You can grow tamarisk in the shade, but it is better to pick a well-lit area for its landing.
The selection of a site for planting such a shrub needs to be done very carefully, because, because of its long, thin roots that are easily damaged, the transplant is rather painful.
How to plant
The size of the landing pit should be 0.6x0.6x0.6 meters. At the bottom of the finished pit you need to make a good drainage layer, the thickness of which should be about 20 centimeters, for this you can use broken brick, crushed stone, expanded clay or pebbles. On top of the drainage should be put a mixture consisting of humus and wood ash. Then it is necessary to fill the pit with 2/3 with soil mixture, which contains sand (1 part), fertile soil (2 parts) and peat (1 part).
Before planting, the seedling stalks should be trimmed, while the remaining segments should not exceed 30–50 mm in length. Then the plant should be placed in the pit, which should be filled with soil mixture (composition described above), but only after the seedling roots are carefully folded. Ram the surface of the soil around the planted plant, and then pour it well. When planting should take into account that after the seedling is watered, its root neck should be at the level of the surface of the site.
Care for tamarisk in the garden
A tamarix sapling planted in open soil during the first 15–20 days needs protection from direct sunlight and regular watering. After the leaves appear on the plant, they stop protecting it from the sun's rays, and also reduce the number of waterings. In order that water from the soil does not evaporate so quickly, its surface must be covered with a layer of mulch, for this you can use any organic material. Adult shrubs need watering only in a long dry period, but if it rains regularly in the summer, then it is not necessary to water tamariks at all. After it rains or is watered, it is necessary to loosen the surface of the trunk circle slightly, while pulling out all the weeds.
Top dressing of a bush is made in the spring as soon as the vegetative period begins, for this purpose use organic fertilizer. In the summer, it should be sprayed on the foliage with a solution of phosphate and potash fertilizers.
Tamarix is distinguished by its high winter hardiness; therefore, it can be cultivated in regions with a not very warm climate. So, in the Urals and in the Moscow region, this plant today is fairly widespread. This shrub without shelter is able to withstand a drop in temperature to minus 28 degrees. If the winters are very cold, then such a shrub simply needs shelter. To do this, the root zone should be filled up with a thick layer of sawdust or cast with fir spruce branches, the trunk should be wrapped with a thick cloth or plastic film.
Diseases and pests
This shrub is highly resistant to pests. On it, they can live only if they infect any of the neighboring plants. To get rid of pests, it will be enough just to spray the plant with a solution of insecticide.
In the rainy season, a tamarix can easily become infected with a fungal disease. Infected stems and branches should be cut and destroyed, and the bush itself and the ground around it should be sprayed with a solution of fungicide.
Tamarisk in landscape design
Tamarisk is used in landscaping for group compositions and trimmed hedges. This plant is also used as a tapeworm, for example, as a blooming “fountain” in the center of a green lawn. Not very tall trees and shrubs of this genus are recommended to be combined with coniferous plants, namely: with thuja, juniper and dwarf spruce. Also, this plant is in harmony with lilac, barberry and jasmine.
Separate evergreen species of tamarisk cultivated at home. Tamarix is also grown on saline soils, in forest plantations, in deserts and semi-deserts, and is also used to anchor mobile sands and creeping shores.
Tamarix propagated by seed and vegetative methods. Growing a healthy and strong seedling from seeds is quite difficult, it requires great effort, greenhouse conditions and a long period of time. Seeds lose their germination after 4 months after ripening, so they need to sow as early as possible. To do this, prepare containers with loose, fertile soil, mixed with a lot of sand. Plants are grown at room temperature and moderate humidity for the first two years. In the spring and summer, the pots are brought out into the street, and for the winter they must be brought into heat. In the open ground with a clod of earth, tamarisk are planted from the third year.
The vegetative reproduction of tamarix was much more popular. It is best to cut the cuttings in the fall. Use young branches with a length of 10-15 cm. Immediately after cutting, the cuttings are placed in a container with warm water until the germs of the first roots appear. Then the plants are planted in the sandy-peat land at an angle. They are kept in a warm, well-lit room. Planting in the open ground is planned for May-June. Before the first wintering, it is necessary to carefully mulch the soil near tamariks with peat and fallen leaves.
Reproduction is well done with layering. To do this, the matured lignified branch is added dropwise to the ground to a depth of 20 cm and carefully fixed. If this procedure is carried out in spring, strong roots will appear before the end of summer. Escape can be separated and transplanted to a permanent place.
Use of tamarix
Fabulous lace thickets of tamarix are ideal for landscaping the site. Plants are planted alone near the recreation area, or loose groups. From tamarisk, you can create an excellent hedge or a lush, bright fountain of flowering branches in the center of the lawn. Bushes and low trees are well combined with juniper and other coniferous species. Also tamariks can be planted near the barberry, lilac or jasmine. Landing shrubs on the slopes, you can prevent landslides and strengthen the soil. During the flowering period, the plant is an excellent honey plant.
Known tamariks and its healing properties. Its bark and leaves contain tannins, polyphenols, tannins and coloring pigments. Leaves, young twigs and buds are harvested in summer. They make broths and alcohol tinctures, which are used as diuretic, diaphoretic, analgesic, hemostatic and astringent. They can also help relieve symptoms of inflammation of the stomach, an attack of rheumatism, diarrhea and stop the bleeding.