Among the indoor flowers there is a very beautiful plant, which is called the Rose of the Mediterranean - oleander. Care and growing it at home is not easy. But it pays off a hundredfold with abundant flowering and delicate aroma that fills the apartment. In this article you will find everything you need to know about growing oleander.
Oleander refers to evergreen shrubs. In nature it grows in the subtropics, at home it prefers sunny rooms. Under natural conditions it reaches 2 meters in height. The Greek name is Nerium. In the people it is more known, as an oleander.
The leaves are similar in shape to willow - leathery, narrow, with a clearly pronounced center in the vein, up to 15 cm in length. On the stem are arranged in pairs. They are evenly green or variegated. There are many varieties, but ordinary oleander is usually grown in an apartment.
Blossoming is plentiful, lasting from June to September. Flowers bloom one by one or gather in inflorescences. Characteristic colors are white, pink, orange, yellow and purple. Depending on the variety, the flowers are simple or terry. Oleander flowers are valued not only for their decorativeness, but also for their pleasant, rather strong smell. A flowering shrub is not recommended to be left in the bedroom for the night - its smell sometimes causes headache and indisposition.
Important! Oleander is a poisonous plant! When caring for him, be careful - wear gloves and wash your hands after touching them. It is not recommended to keep it in an apartment where there are small children and pets.
Subtleties of care
As a houseplant, oleander is considered capricious. For full growth and flowering requires the creation of comfortable conditions.
- Temperature. Optimum performance for spring and summer - 20-28 ° C. If the temperature is higher, the room is ventilated daily. In winter, the rest temperature is reduced to 8-15 ° C. During the heating period, the oleander feels uncomfortable, so it is better to keep it on the glazed insulated loggia. Keep the temperature below +5 ° C!
- Lighting. They put on the southern windows - the plant loves bright sunlight. The lack of light leads to stretching, loss of decoration, lack of flowering. If possible, in the summer the flower pot is rearranged to a balcony or to the street. The need for light does not decrease even in winter. Dim light leads to fall of the leaves and the absence of flowering next year.
- Watering. In the warm season, water it abundantly, not allowing the soil to dry completely. In the heat of the pot put on a tray with pebbles and pour water into it. Starting in the fall, the entire dormant period is carried out as needed, when the top layer of the soil dries out. For watering take warm water. Pre it defend.
- Air humidity. In summer, a pallet with pebbles and water is used to increase the humidity. In winter, the plant is periodically sprayed with warm water. Without spraying, the tips of the leaves dry out.
- Feeding. During the period of rapid growth, feeding is carried out twice a month. Use organic fertilizers or mineral complexes for flowering plants. Half an hour before feeding, oleander is poured over ordinary water.
- Pruning oleander. The abundance of flowering is directly related to pruning. Buds are formed on annual shoots. Shrub formation is carried out after flowering, cutting branches in the middle of the length.
- The soil. Soil for landing is prepared independently. For 2 parts of turf take one part of sand, humus, peat and leafy ground. A prerequisite for harmonious development is drainage. Claydite, pebbles or broken bricks are poured into the bottom of the tank with a thick layer.
- Transfer. Up to the age of three, young bushes are replanted every year. As they grow older, the frequency of transplants is reduced. Large adult specimens do without replanting. Instead, they change the top layer of soil. The optimal period is the beginning of summer. When transplanting the root system is slightly pruned. Pots use small - oleander blooms profusely only when the root system is constrained. The first time after transplantation requires enhanced care for oleander.
Tip! It is better to buy the plant in the summer during the flowering period to select the color you like. Inspect the plant for the presence of pests - oleander is often affected by a mealy worm.
Oleander is easy to reproduce. Use two main ways:
You can grow oleander from seed. It is better to buy them in the store. Plants from seeds collected from their flower will differ from the mother bush. Guess the appearance of the future plant is difficult. Sowing seeds are resorted to if you need to get a plant of a certain variety.
For sowing a substrate is prepared consisting of vermiculite, sand and charcoal. Seeds are laid out on its surface and sprinkled with a layer of up to 3 mm of the same mixture. For seed germination, the temperature is artificially increased to 33-35 ° C. Lower temperatures lead to their decay. After the emergence of the first shoots provide additional illumination with fluorescent lamps, the temperature is reduced to 18-20 ° C. At stage 4 of these sheets are seated in pots.
More common practice reproduction of oleander cuttings. They are cut in the spring. Sometimes use the branches remaining from pruning. The stems are divided into segments up to 14 cm in length. Fresh sections are powdered with crushed coal and dried. A good rooting substrate is a mixture of sand and charcoal. Cuttings at an angle stick into the mixture, maintain a stable humidity and temperature not lower than 20 ° C. Do not allow waterlogging - this will lead to decay of the cuttings.
Another way of rooting - in the water. To prevent the roots from rotting, a piece of charcoal is dipped into the water. Cuttings take root in 3-4 weeks. Immediately after the roots appear, the cuttings are planted in small pots with soil for adult plants. With spring cutting, the first flowers appear already this year.
Oleander is a demanding flower. In case of violation of agricultural technology, he is affected by pests and begins to hurt.
- Leaves droop and dry. Says about the lack of moisture. Plant "cast" - watered often and regularly.
- Falling leaves. This happens at low temperatures in the apartment. The shrub pot is moved to heat.
- The leaves turn yellow. Disturbance of the feeding schedule or excessive watering.
- Lack of flowering. A combination of factors affects - lack of light, heat, poor air ventilation, and a large pot.
- Bud fall. Low temperature in the room or use of cold water for irrigation.
- Black dots on the leaves. Sign of a fungal disease. Antifungal preparations are treated.
- White and brown spots on the leaves. The defeat of the pests - shield, mealybug, spider mite. The plant is treated with a solution of insecticides.
- White spots on the leaves, growths on the stem. The characteristic disease is oleander cancer. It is useless to fight - the flower can only be reanimated by removing the affected leaves and branches.
Oleander requires more care than many indoor flowers. But the time spent fully pays off beautiful and long flowering.
Features flowering and pruning room oleander
The room oleander, in the photo, belongs to the long-blooming ornamental cultures.
If the plant receives enough water, food and care, the flowers on the shrubs open from June to mid-autumn, and often on the inflorescence ovaries form at the same time, and new corolla immediately open.
At home, in the care of oleander necessarily include regular pruning. Stems are not afraid of a strong shortening, sleeping axillary buds in the spring will compensate for the loss of crown, which, thanks to this care, will become much more attractive and thicker.
The optimal time for pruning oleander is autumn, when mass flowering ends. If, at home, the care of oleander, in the photo, is done correctly, by the spring the plant has time to lay new flower buds and prepare for the summer lush fragrant inflorescences. Because of this feature of the shrub spring pruning is not carried out, with the exception of sanitary removal of the dead, sick or weakened shoots.
But spring is the best time for transplanting the oleander flower depicted in the photo.
Oleander transplantation and reproduction
Young bush can be transshipped into new, large pots each year. In this case, the root system is not disturbed, and the voids between the walls of the container and the earthy clod are filled with fresh substrate. Adult bushes are best replanted no more than 1 time in 3-4 years. As a soil for plants take a fertile loose mixture of turf land, half the volume of sheet soil, as well as humus and sand. For the structuring of the substrate and as a prevention of bacterial infections, a little crushed charcoal is mixed in.
When a large bush is transplanted, it is sometimes divided, which makes it possible to reproduce oleander quickly.
But most often they do not use this method, but grafting. But before you breed oleander, you need to get planting material. To do this, young cuttings are cut from a healthy plant of the sort that you like so that they have a growing point and several unfolded green leaves. Harvesting and rooting of seedlings intended for reproduction of oleander is carried out in the summer.
The lower leaves are removed, and the cuttings are added to the wet mixture of sand, perlite and peat. It is better to cover the container with landings with a film or to put in a hothouse. When roots with a length of 3-5 cm appear on the seedlings, young oleanders sit on their own pots.
It is even easier and clearer to root oleander in ordinary water, where you can add crushed charcoal. After transplanting in pots, young plants easily acclimatize, and next autumn they can be carefully cut to give rise to a bushy lush crown.
Varieties and types
Oleander ordinary found wild in Italy and Algeria. It grows near the reservoirs. In height, this species reaches four meters. Leaves with short legs, linear, elongated, about 15 cm in length and about two centimeters in width. The upper part of the sheet is saturated - green, and the inner side is a light shade.
When flowering begins, the shrub is covered with abundant large inflorescences that emit a pleasant aroma. The color in natural conditions in this species is either pink or reddish. Flowering is long all summer season, including autumn.
White oleander unpretentious care. Often grown in office space. In height can reach up to 2 meters. But you can use the trim to form the desired height and shape of the plant. Flowering is prolonged from summer to frost. Inflorescences have a pleasant aroma.
Oleander Pink Terry This is a green shrub with oblong leaves like a willow. The shape of the bush neat, compact. During flowering, the entire bush is covered with terry inflorescences of soft pink color.
Oleander room loves good lighting. If he does not support such conditions, he will refuse to flower and stop growing. The optimum temperature for it is where 20 degrees. In summer, needs fresh air. And in winter, the home oleander enters a state of rest. He needs to provide dark conditions where he will throw off all foliage.
Oleander yellow it blooms brightly, the flowers resemble bells in shape. The seeds of the plant are similar to chestnut seed. Inflorescence throws in the form of brushes. Hue they gently - peach. Duration of flowering all summer season and autumn. The amazing property of an oleander from one seed can grow several plants.
Poisonous oleander, therefore, all manipulations with a flower must be made with gloves. It contains oleanin poison. And at the end of any work with him should wash your hands with soap and water. If there are small children in the house, then you should give up growing oleander. Or leave the plant at a height not accessible to children.
Oleander care at home
Lighting the plant requires full and airing, too. It prefers the southern side. In the summer it is better to make a loggia. In winter, the plant needs additional lamp lighting, otherwise it will shed all the leaves.
The temperature in the warm season will be optimal up to 27 degrees. And in the winter should be slightly reduced to 15 degrees, but not less, and not a sharp drop.
Moistening the plant does not require constant, only in hot summer weather should spray the plant. In winter, it is necessary to periodically spray the plant, otherwise in winter, when the heating season begins, the plant has the probability of drying the tips of the leaves.
Watering prefers constant, but not overwet. Vodichka for moistening requires a soft, warm and settled day. In the cold season, the plant is moistened every three days. But it is worth paying attention that the earth was not sour and the root system did not rot.
In the care and cultivation of plants such as oleander, fertilizer is necessary. Suitable for this complex fertilizer for indoor plants. Feed during the growing season once every 14 days. To do this in the evening after watering.
The plant needs pruning and the formation of a bush in the shape that you prefer. Trimming oleander at home is not difficult. The plant must be cut more than half. Since the buds appear only on new shoots. Those branches that are cut, you can multiply.
Soil and transplant
The composition of the soil should include hardwood, turf, humus, peat and sand, all in equal parts.
Home flower oleander transplant requires as needed. As soon as the roots are covered with an earthen clod, oleander needs a transplant.
A favorable period for transplantation is the second half of spring. During transplantation it is necessary to cut the roots, it is necessary for abundant flowering. An adult individual who has reached the age of five must replace part of the soil annually. Cut off the roots must be sprinkled with flour charcoal.
The plant can be propagated by cutting and seeds.
Plant reproduction oleander cuttings
It is possible to produce cuttings both in spring and autumn. It is necessary to cut the stalk about 15 cm in length, with a well-formed bush and having several buds.
The cut-off place is treated with broken charcoal and dried a little. After the stalk must be planted in a prepared mixture of charcoal and sand. Maintaining a rooting temperature of about 21 degrees.
Not forgetting to ensure that the soil is not subjected to stagnant moisture. With proper reproduction manipulations, the roots begin to appear in about a month. After rooting and a period of adaptation, the plant is transplanted into a prepared container with soil.
Homemade oleander seeds
Seeds should be planted immediately after ripening, because they have a small shelf life. But before sowing, they must be soaked in a solution of manganese for one hour. After manganese it is necessary to treat them with a growth stimulator. Then sow in the soil of sand and small charcoal, lightly sprinkled with earth.
After that, cover with foil and place in a well-lit place with a temperature of about 30 degrees. The first shoots begin in a week and a half. Seedlings need to be sprayed, and when a pair of leaves appears, they need to be transplanted into separate containers.
Diseases and pests
Diseases of oleander at home can be triggered by improper care. Also, the plant is subject to fungal and bacterial diseases. To do this, remove the diseased leaves.
- Of the pests, the plant infects spider mites, aphids and mealybugs.. To control pests need to be treated with insecticides.
- Oleander drops leaves, what to do - This usually happens when the plant does not have enough lighting in the cold season. It is necessary to provide the plant with additional artificial lighting.
- Why do oleander dry and fall leaves - this happens because of a lack of light and dryness of the soil.
- Why does not oleander bloom at home - The reason may be weak poor lighting, improper pruning and lack of fertilizer.
Description, area of distribution, properties
Oleander, a representative of the kutrov family, has more than 5 species. He feels well in a temperate and hot climate. In the wild, oleander grows in the subtropics. Novice flower growers should be aware that this home plant is poisonous. It contains toxins that cause migraine with prolonged inhalation.
Despite its toxicity, oleander is used in traditional medicine. Its extract is added to drugs that restore the function of the heart. Oleander is grown at home. Depending on the variety, flowers can be:
Features of growing
If the plant is in favorable conditions, within a few months it reaches a height of 2 m. This decorative culture needs a bright light. If you grow it in the northern part of the house, add more fluorescent lamps.
Flower oleander, located in the dark, quickly sheds leaves. Чтобы растение благоприятно развивалось в домашних условиях, надо проветривать помещение, но не допускать сквозняков. Летом рекомендую держать цветок в светлом месте. Советую постепенно приучать растение к свету.
Remember that it fully develops in a ventilated room.
- In spring, photosynthesis improves at temperatures from + 22 to + 26 degrees.
- In the autumn it is better to reduce the temperature to + 17 degrees.
- In winter, you can keep a flower on an unheated veranda at a temperature of + 10 to + 12 degrees.
For irrigation use distilled or boiled water, bring it as the soil dries. If summer is hot, do not drain water from the pan. In winter and autumn it is necessary to water the flower 1 time in 2 days.
Waterlogging is harmful, as it can lead to rotting of the root system. At the same time, care must be taken that the soil does not dry out. Decorative culture reacts positively to spraying. If the room temperature rises sharply, determine the plant on a pallet filled with water.
Spraying is necessary during the winter season. Thanks to this procedure, the leaves get moisture and do not dry. I advise you to fertilize oleander in spring and summer 3 times a month. Well, if you alternate between organic and minerals. Fertilize half an hour after watering and only on cloudy days!
I advise you to adjust the oleander. Pruning helps to maintain the decorative. The plant is adjusted by half. If desired, use cut branches for reproduction.
Decorative culture forms vegetative shoots that need to be plucked. If this is not done, it will be stunted. Remember that home care should be timely.
Transplant or pick
It is necessary to transplant both young and adult plants. Young dive every year, adults - 1 time in 2.5 years. I recommend performing a transplant at the end of April. As the shrub grows, it becomes cramped in the same pot. If the roots make their way through the ground, during transplantation, you need to correct them, and cut the sections with coal.
If you reduce the earthen room, the plant will delight a large number of flowers. I recommend planting oleander in fertile soil mixture. It is prepared as follows: take 1 part of the sheet soil, peat, humus and combine with 2 parts of the sheet soil.
I recommend using the seeds immediately after harvest. If stored for a long time, they will lose their germination. For soaking, you should use a fungicide or a weakly concentrated solution of potassium permanganate. To quickly get the shoots, you need to use a solution of Zircon.
Put the seeds on the surface of the soil mixture and sprinkle. Shoots will appear in 2 weeks. Saplings fully develop, if the air temperature fluctuates within + 32 degrees. At lower temperatures, oleander seedlings grow longer.
After you see the seedlings, begin to lighten the flower with fluorescent lamps. Make sure that the air temperature is kept within + 19 degrees.
I also recommend to make water from the spray. When the miniature plants will form 4 fully consolidated leaves, it will be necessary to plant them in separate containers. For reproduction, you can use seeds or cuttings. In the first case, there is a high probability that the flower will lose its varietal quality.
Reproduction by cuttings
The cuttings are carried out in early spring or mid-autumn. Use shoots of 15 - 17 cm in size. Before planting in the ground they are sprinkled with crushed coal. After drying, the cuttings are placed in the soil mixture of coal, sand and perlite.
To stem did not start to rot, it is necessary to pour sand near the root collar. Mix for cutting should always be slightly wet. I advise you to keep planting material at a temperature of + 21 degrees. It quickly turns into a full-fledged plant, if it is under bright light.
Cuttings can be rooted in water. So that they do not rot, you should add a small amount of charcoal. With proper care, the cuttings will take root in a month. At this time it will be necessary to plant them in fertile soil.
More about poisonousness
As we have said, the oleander is poisonous. If there are children in the house, elderly people or allergy sufferers, you should refuse to breed this culture. After contact with oleander, be sure to wash your hands with soap and water.
If you constantly inhale the scent of a flower, a migraine will occur. Fruits, flowers and other parts of the mini-shrub are unsuitable for human consumption, as they can cause respiratory arrest. I do not advise contact with poisonous perennials, if the skin has wounds.
Problems with growing, possible pests
It happens that the indoor mini-bush does not bloom. In this case, you need to adjust the lighting. Home culture feels bad if it constantly receives bright light. Lack of lighting is also harmful: oleander can lose foliage. Causes of poor flowering:
- excess or lack of water
- wrong lighting,
- lack of dressings.
Mini-shrub attacks spider mite if the air in the room is too dry. We found out whether oleander is poisonous or not and examined its beneficial properties. Care and cultivation is not difficult even for a novice grower, the main thing is to follow simple rules. Add water as needed and light up your decorative culture.
Location, lighting and temperature
Enough light is one of the main requirements. By completing his plant will be able to fully grow and bloom magnificently. The ideal option would be the windows of the east and south-east direction. You should not put the vessel on the north window or in the depth of the room. But the deficit of ultraviolet corrected, if we use artificial lighting. With the onset of sustainable heat, the owners arrange a “summer vacation” for the pet and transfer it to a glazed balcony or terrace. It is important to provide this place with reliable protection from precipitation, drafts and the scorching rays of the sun. The minimum daylight hours should be 8 hours.. With the onset of autumn, a phyto lamp is installed next to the oleander.
The period of active growth and flowering require sufficient heat. The thermometer should not fall below +20 and rise above +27. In the "hibernation" of the plant falls, if the temperature in the room is below +10. But the rates below +4 are dangerous - the exotic can die.
Avoid sudden drops and drafts.
Humidity and watering
She adores conditions that are close to natural for him. To create the desired moisture values regular spraying required. This is especially true in the summer heat and with the onset of the heating season. A signal of a lack of moisture are the dried tips of the foliage. Next to the bush, the installed pallet with expanded clay or sphagnum moss will become superfluous. If the air temperature is below +15, the irrigation stops. In spring and autumn it occurs twice a day, in the summer 4-5 times, and in winter the schedule is determined individually.
It is allowed to use an electric humidifier or to place the pot on a tray with porous raw materials. As it evaporates, water is poured onto it. But it is important to ensure that the root system does not come into contact with fluid.
Watering requires moderate and competent. There is no general schedule. Much depends on the individual conditions of maintenance, size and age of the flower. The main criterion for a new irrigation is the complete drying of the upper layer of soil.. Excessive moisture - the right way to stagnant fluid and root decay. Water should be used exclusively clean, separated and warm. A high content of chlorine and other harmful chemical elements leads to diseases, and a general weakening of the plant. All excess drops that have drained into the pan, you need to pour. With the onset of cold days, the schedule is significantly reduced. It is enough to “water” the pink laurel once in 8-10 days.
Soil and fertilizers
The main requirements are nutrition, friability and excellent throughput of moisture and oxygen.
You can cook it yourself from the following components:
- turf and leaf soil,
All ingredients are required to take in equal parts and mix thoroughly. If there is no time or desire, then a ready-made substrate for flowering houseplants can be purchased at the store. Making it easy can add expanded clay, sand. It does not tolerate heavy loamy soils.
As for fertilizers, special attention should be paid during the growing season. At this time, the best choice will be complex feeding. It is important to alternate between mineral and organic, and strictly follow the instructions on the package. For lush flowering, mullein is added to the soil, and oleander is watered abundantly beforehand. In no case can not overfeed, otherwise it will increase the green mass to the detriment of flowering.
It is held in the summertime so that there is enough time for adaptation before wintering. From the molding and removal of excess shoots depends on the pomp and duration of flowering. After the buds have completed their decorative functions and fell off, proceed to the procedure. Stalks are shortened by two thirds. Do not worry, the flower will easily recover and “thank” a beautiful appearance. If you regularly skip pruning, the buds will become smaller, until flowering does not subside.
Cropped stems are used as planting material for culture.
As soon as you notice the uninvited guests, feel free to remove them with warm water or a cloth moistened with soapy water. If the colony was insignificant in size, then most often this is enough. But, if the time of occurrence of pests was missed, then it is necessary to resort to special chemical means.
As a rule, this phenomenon is accompanied by a painful appearance, lethargy, weak or complete lack of flowering. The reason - the wrong care. If we determine in time exactly which requirements are violated, then it is possible to restore the flourishing healthy appearance without any problems.
Among the most common causes may be: lack of light, additional fertilizing, untimely pruning, excessive watering.
Reproduction and transplanting
Changing the capacity for young representatives occurs often - every 12 months. It is better not to disturb grown plants more than once every 3 years. For them, the best solution would be to replace the topsoil. This will help saturate the earth with nutrients. During transplantation, the main role is played by drainage and soil looseness. Without them, to grow a beautiful and healthy flower is impossible. When changing the pot, the new vessel is slightly different in size (no more than 2-3 cm in diameter).
Culture is bred with four methods, but the most popular are two of them.
Favorable time is autumn and spring. Planting material - trimmed processes about 8-11 cm long. They are separated by disinfected sharp garden tools. Place the slice as a prevention of viruses sprinkled with charcoal. Cuttings dried day and rooted in a mixture of coal and sand, or in perlite. One month is enough to form the root system. But for this it is necessary to create favorable conditions: humidity, good lighting and high air temperature.
You can speed up the process by creating greenhouse conditions - covering the vessel with film or glass. It is possible to replant in a permanent pot after the appearance of 2 leaves.
To obtain them, you must remove the ring of bark (approximately 2-3 cm). Then this stem is placed in wet sand or a special tube made of glass, watered abundantly and covered with a cap. It must be systematically removed for airing and spraying.
As soon as the roots appear, the branch is removed from the parent plant and planted in a pot.
How to choose a healthy plant in the store
When buying, note that the culture is suitable for large spacious rooms, without small children. In appearance, the seedling must be completely healthy. If you notice the slightest defects, it is better to refuse to buy. Otherwise, there is no guarantee that he will survive and become a full-fledged decoration of the room. After the purchase is required transplant. It is not necessary to save the earth lump, it is carefully washed off under a stream of warm water.
Definitely - as much as possible! Oleander plant is very light-loving. It does not even fear direct sunlight. The location of the windows of the south orientation, the most optimal solution. The oleander reacts to a lack of lighting very painfully. The shoots are drawn out, the leaves become faded, or even completely flushes them off, not even flowering. In winter, the bright light of oleander is needed no less than in summer. Artificial highlighting is recommended.
During flowering, oleander needs a pretty high temperature. Not below +20 degrees. The optimum is from +20 to +27 degrees. But it can be higher. The best place for oleander during this period, and it falls on summer time, will be in the fresh air. In a well-lit place, but at the same time and protected from heavy rainfall. It will be great to feel himself and prikopannym with a pot near any artificial reservoir. But wherever you keep it, oleander requires, if not constant, then at least a regular inflow of fresh air. This is one of the main rules for the care of oleander. In winter, arrange him a cool winter. During this period, a temperature in the range of +8 to +15 degrees is desirable. While the plant is small, the desired temperature can be obtained on the windowsill or insulated loggia (balcony).
Watering and humidity
On hot summer days, oleander should be watered regularly and abundantly. Water that is drained into the pan through the drainage holes should not be drained. Moreover, on such days the water in the pan must be constantly. In the rest of the time, watering oleander depends on the temperature in which it is contained. Usually after drying the top layer of soil. In the cold season, watering oleander is significantly reduced. Water about 3-4 days after the topsoil has dried. But be careful, oleander is very sensitive to overdried soil.
Spraying it in the summer is not necessary, but it does not hurt. But in the winter, if you did not manage to provide a cold wintering for oleander, you must spray it. From the dry air of the oleander, the tips of the leaves dry.
Once in 7 days fertilize it with a usual complex fertilizer for flowering plants. When the oleander comes out of dormancy and active development begins, once give it a mullein infusion (part of a dry mullein, infused for one or two days in nine parts water).
Oleander is transplanted, like most of the indoor plants - in the spring. While the flower is young, and it actively grows the root system, it is transplanted every year. In the future, one transplant once every two to three years will suffice. For very large plants, the transfer of which is fraught with difficulties, the upper layer of the earth is replaced every year.
Important! When transplanting, be sure to cut the roots, and thoroughly. It is possible for a third. It stimulates flowering.
For transplantation, you can use the usual neutral or slightly acidic garden soil. But you can make a more fertile mixture of four parts of turf land, two parts of leaf earth, two parts of humus and part of sand or perlite .
Oleander after flowering necessarily clipped. And the point is not only to give it a more compact size and neat shape. Although this too. But the future flowers of oleander will bloom only on the shoots of last year. That is, those that grow before wintering (oleander pruning usually occurs at the end of summer). And you can cut off radically, without fear of cutting off the excess (but certainly not at the root ...).
Oleander can be propagated by seed, cuttings and layering. But the first and last methods for novice florist complicated and time consuming. And reproduction by layouts also requires some experience. Therefore, most often the oleander is propagated by cuttings (not only beginning flower growers, but also experienced growers). This is the easiest and most affordable way. It is enough in the spring - in the summer to cut a young, non-lignified cutting and plant it in sand, vermiculite or perlite. Maintain a constant moisture content (but not dampness, otherwise the cutting will rot). For successful rooting, you need good lighting and the temperature is not below +18 degrees. And you can not fool your head and just put an oleander cutting in a glass of water, following the example of Benjamin or hibiscus cuttings of ficus. The stubs should appear maximum in a month. You can give them a little more to grow, and you can, and immediately planted in a light mixture based on peat and leaf soil. Suitable "Universal" soil for flowers.
If all the rules are followed and if the care of the oleander is thorough, then there should be no problems. But a weakened plant can be attacked by aphids, worm, scareweed, spider mite.
Good luck in growing and abundant flowering!
Oleander: growing and care at home
This shrub loves the sun very much, so with the onset of summer it is recommended to take it out to the balcony, loggia or terrace. Acceptable temperature for the maintenance of the plant in the summer - 23..28 ° C, in the winter - + 5..6 ° C.
It should be borne in mind that even a small oleander, bought at a flower shop, will eventually turn into a lush bush, reaching 2 meters in height. To make the plant feel comfortable, stock up in advance with a voluminous pot or even a tub.
Роза Средиземноморья цветёт белыми, жёлтыми, розовыми соцветиями, имеет кожистые продолговатые листья, чем-то похожие на ивовые.
Несмотря на то, что данное растение используется в медицине для производства лекарств от заболеваний сердца, все его части (кора, лист, цветок, сок) ядовиты для человека и животных.
The houseplant oleander prefers fertile soil, especially a mixture of humus, sand, turf and leaf earth. If you decide to collect land from your plot, then make sure that it has a neutral level of acidity. The access of the sun's rays is the main factor of lush flowering and brightness of colors, if the plant lacks light, the foliage will be faded and the buds may not open at all. If you have a small reservoir in the country, then for the summer period you can prikopat oleander (right with the pot) next to it, the plant will only benefit.
Watering is equally important for the well-being of a flower; its frequency directly depends on the level of the column on the thermometer. If the heat reigns, and oleander is in direct sunlight, then it should be watered regularly and abundantly - the water in the pan must be constantly present.
Oleander loves frequent irrigation, in summer you can safely take a pot, put it in a bath and arrange a full shower for the plant. If your oleander is just beginning to develop, then it will be useful to pamper it with fertilizer from a mullein infusion (1:10 diluted with water, insist 24 hours). Water for irrigation should be at room temperature. With the onset of autumn, watering becomes moderate.
Closer to August is recommended to prune shoots. And if your plant is already blooming, then you need to wait until it fades. During pruning, the shrub is not only attached to a neat harmonious shape, but also lays a strong foundation for subsequent favorable flowering. Remember, only wintered branches will bloom with the onset of summer. When pruning the branches are shortened by about half. So you will have cuttings for reproduction of oleander.
Photos of oleander cuttings:
With the onset of winter, the oleander is still left in the brightest place, but the air temperature should be somewhere around +9 .. + 12 ° C. If you leave the plant in the shade, it will start dropping foliage, and with the arrival of summer it may not give flowers. In winter, watering is done much less frequently; all that is needed is that the earthen ball should not be too dry. If you use heaters or the room is well heated, do not be lazy to regularly irrigate the oleander with water from a spray bottle.
Plant transplantation is also an integral part of home care. It is best to do this at the beginning of spring (March or April); in the process of transplantation, it is recommended to trim the roots slightly. If you have a young oleander, the transplant should be done every year, a more mature flower - once in 3 years. If the shrub has already reached a very large size, you will have to restrict yourself to replacing the top layer of soil.
White oleander flower on photo:
A pot of oleander in the summer garden
As for fertilizers, this plant responds well to organic and mineral supplements. You can alternate each week with one or another type of supplement, which is recommended to be made 30 minutes after watering, preferably in the evening.
Before the onset of flowering period, inspect carefully the branches of the shrub; oleander has growth branches (bearing only leaves) under the flower (generative) buds. These shoots need to be removed, since they will subsequently draw the vital forces from the flowers and thereby hinder their normal development.
Oleander reproduction by cuttings
Cutting is best done in spring or autumn. As mentioned above, when molding pruning shoots, there are enough branches that can give good roots. Anyway, the length of the cut stalk should be about 10-15 cm, it should be placed in a container with water, into which it is recommended to throw a couple of pieces of charcoal (or pharmacy, activated) to prevent rotting. Water should be changed weekly.
Also a widespread method of rooting oleander in clean sand, mixed with coal, or in perlite. Such a mixture should be constantly moist, but not too much, since the stagnation of moisture can also provoke the rotting of the roots.
Rooting for rooting, photo:
After you deepen the cuttings into the mixture, additionally place small pieces of coal around the root collar. At this stage, the air temperature should vary within +17 .. + 20 ° С, good lighting (but not the direct rays of the sun) and regular airing are obligatory.
After about a month, roots appear on the cuttings of oleander, when they develop well, the plants can be placed in pots with an earthen mixture, which includes peat, humus, sand, turf. When the seedlings begin to grow, they need to be periodically taken out into the sun (accustom).
Such oleanders may bloom in the first year of life.
Cutting is the most convenient way to reproduce oleander at home, but the seed method is also worth mentioning. To do this, it is better to use freshly ripe material, which has good germination, but you need to be prepared for the fact that the seeds do not proklyutsya at the same time.
Before digging into the soil, they must be kept in a solution of potassium permanganate (about half an hour), and systemic fungicide can also be used for this. After this treatment, the seeds are soaked in warm water for 3-4 hours, you can add a solution of zircon.
Vermiculite or a mixture of sand and coal is an ideal substrate for sowing, seeds are sown in the prepared soil, sprinkled on top of it a little, then put in a warm place where the air temperature is + 33..35 ° C. With this approach, shoots appear after a week or 10 days.
Oleander from seeds, photo:
If the temperature is lower, then the waiting time for germination will continue, there will be a probability of rotting of the seed. After the appearance of sprouts, additional daylight lighting may be required. Control of the humidity level, regular airing of the room with seedlings, picking after the appearance of the first pair of leaves - the nuances of the painstaking and long process of growing oleander.
Thus, according to most gardeners and summer residents, growing a plant by cutting is the most acceptable, convenient option.
Oleander transplant at home
Oleander, the cultivation and care of which I described above, also needs to be transplanted. Young bushes need to be transplanted annually, each time choosing a pot that should be about 3 cm larger than the previous one. You should not take too much capacity - you will not see flowers for a long time, because vegetative growth will take all the power from the bush.
This process should be done very carefully, pre-generously watering the plant. After which it is necessary to extract the oleander along with the earthy ball. This method is called transshipment. Further, the roots of the bush are carefully cleaned of the old soil, it is installed in the middle of the new tank and covered with earth. After that, the plant must be placed in the dark and not watered for three days - this is necessary for active rooting in a new place.
Adult oleanders are transplanted about once every three years, by which time the pot becomes cramped for them, which can be determined by the roots sticking out of the drainage holes. As mentioned above, the roots of mature plants are slightly shortened during such a transplant. They can be sprinkled with crushed chalk - this technique has a positive effect not only on the future flowering, but also on its pomp.
It is extremely rare cases that oleander does not get accustomed or the stalk does not take root.
This plant can be recommended to beginners, as it is not capricious in the care and very decorative.
Let the oleander decorate your home and please the eye, care at home that does not amount to much difficulty. Light, moderate watering, fresh air - all that is needed for this plant.