The plant is considered compact in size and can be easily grown even in small spaces. For this ficus characteristic is a wide, beautiful crown. And the leaves have a length of not more than 15 centimeters. The leaves themselves are located on the stems rather densely, which makes the plant very beautiful.
If you look at the ficus Melanie photos in detail, you can see that the leaves are slightly glossy, and the skin is dense and rather rough. The reverse side of the leaves is more opaque, has greenish and reddish streaks.
What is characteristic of this ficus is the fact that it can be grown in any form. If you want to get a high ficus with long and large branches, you do not need to cut it. But if you want a small plant on your windowsill, it is enough to cut the branches at the crown and give the plant a certain shape.
Features of the plant
Young plant is often grown at home. This is very convenient, since everyone can take care of the plant. If you observe good conditions, during the vegetative period, you can get 1 piece for every 7 days. Bloom plant at home will not.
In general, the plant has been known for a long time, but for many years it was simply forgotten. But, once the Dutch flower growers showed an adult plant at one of the exhibitions, which attracted a lot of attention. Since then, the plant is very popular both in Russia and in Europe.
Ficus Melanie is considered quite simple in care, and often forgives some inaccuracies. But it is very important to care for the plant and therefore there are certain rules that should be followed:
- Special microclimate. For any ficus, including ficus Melanie, the maximum temperature should not go beyond the mark of 30 degrees. Such a hot climate can completely destroy the plant. It is necessary to monitor the minimum temperature, it should not be below 5 degrees. The ficus reacts very badly to drafts and too wet soil, which can cause a large number of diseases. The ficus can grow well on the window sill and around it. The plant responds very well to spraying. Also, gardeners recommend in the hot period to do for the plant shower,
- Watering and fertilizer use. The ficus constantly needs moistening, it can be spraying, wiping leaves with a damp sponge. It is possible to remove dust from the leaves in time, and thereby improve plant growth. But, it is not necessary to moisten the soil too much. It is the use of too much water that causes the root system to rot.
Watering is best carried out with warm water, which was previously settled. Watering is necessary only at the moment when the top ball of the ground has become dry. Best of all during the cultivation of this type of ficus, use the rule: the soil will be over dried rather than too moist.
Top dressing. Ficus is in need of feeding. For this, universal fertilizers for indoor plants are best suited. They can be bought at any garden store. In spring and summer, fertilizer should be applied every two weeks. In winter, especially in frosty periods, it is worth limiting the feeding, and it should not be given more often than once a month,
- Repotting There are certain transplant rules that are used for all types of ficus. Following these rules, you need to replant the ficus once a year if the plant is young. The best time for a transplant is spring, the beginning of summer. Adult plants can be transplanted every three years. To transplant was simple, you should simply place the plant with an earthy clod in a new soil. This method is the safest for the plant and it is such a transplant that takes place quickly and efficiently. It is very important to pay attention to the plant after the transplantation, because it is a huge stress. Careful attitude and quality care will help the Ficus to germinate faster in the new soil,
- Crop. Since the ficus grows fast enough, it affects the rapid aging and dying off of the lower leaves. To preserve the beauty of the plant, you need to do a formative pruning at the end of winter. If you want to form a beautiful bush, you should cut about 5 internodes on top of the plant.
To get beautiful side shoots, you can fix the ficus to the height of the maximum slope. This allows the lower bud to be dominant, and in this case, the plant grows better to the side, not up.
If you do not have experience in pruning ficus, you can see a large number of articles and photos on various sites on the Internet. Where the cropping manual is described in detail and there are photos,
- Reproduction. Many who have been caring for the ficus for a long time, faced the question of how to reproduce it properly. After all, this is a great way to get a few plants without spending a lot of money on it.
Important! It is worth remembering that the ficus is not possible to fully reproduce using a piece of paper. And even after pruning and long-term keeping in water, the leaf will root, the plants will not grow from it.
Reproduction can be carried out in such ways:
- grafting A prominent element from the plant should be carefully cut and put in a glass of water. It is necessary to wait until the juice completely stops flowing. After that, the stalk should be left for 2 weeks in water with a special stimulant. After the branches of the roots, the plant can be planted in a pot. It is very important to make high-quality drainage. Above you need to place a part of peat and sand. If the room in which you grow ficus is cool, you can close the plant with a film and make a greenhouse. It will help the plant to take root and grow confidently,
- air layouts as a method of breeding ficus. In order for this method of reproduction to become successful, it is necessary to fence off any segment of the stem with a package that needs to be securely fixed with scotch tape. An incision is made on the process and sprinkled with sand to prevent the plant from healing in this place. Above you need to place wet peat and also close the package. If the roots begin to break through the peat, it means that you can cut the stem below and plant in a separate pot.
The second breeding method can be successful with professionals in their field. Such a process takes more time and requires good knowledge. And if we compare this method with cutting, then it is still less successful.
Diseases and possible pests
Like the rest of the plants, the ficus Melanie is susceptible to various diseases and pests. The main danger for the ficus is the appearance of: scutes, ticks, thrips. To get rid of such insects you need to use not only mechanical methods of cleaning, but also spray them with special solutions. All means better to buy in specialized stores. Among the most popular means to eliminate pests from ficus, became the drug Fitoverm.
Sometimes due to lack of moisture, the plant may have a slightly muddy color. Slight leaf dropping can occur due to frequent drafts and low temperatures.
Many who grow ficus, noticed that the plant appeared dark brown spots. This may occur due to the bright sun. Simply, the plant has sunburned. In this case, you need to review the conditions where the plant is located and move it to a darker place.
If the ficus began to lose leaves
There are cases when the ficus begins to lose leaves. And this is a direct signal that care is not of high quality or is not enough. Most likely, the plant received a large amount of moisture for a very long time, or vice versa - it was too dry.
It is very important to improve the quality of the drainage system. There are also certain reasons that can cause the loss of leaves in the ficus Melanie. It may be:
- The natural process of leaf fall. For any type of ficus, the loss of sheets in the winter is a normal phenomenon. If you have seen such a process in the summer or spring time, it is best to adjust the irrigation process and carefully look after the plant,
- Not enough nutrients. If the reason for the loss of leaves in this, then it is better to transplant the ficus and additionally fertilize with high-quality feeding,
- Changes in the microclimate. The plant will be strongly influenced by the change in humidity, temperature, degree of light. If conditions change often - it will negatively affect the plant,
- The presence of diseases and parasites. To cope with this problem, it is enough to use high-quality chemicals for processing plants.
Ficus Melanie - can be a great plant, even in the smallest apartment. Such a plant will always be a great addition to any interior. In addition, the ficus is very easy to clean. The main thing is to water in time and observe a certain temperature regime. If you follow these rules, the plant will delight you for many years.
Read more about this type and care of it here:
Ficus rubber grows in a tropical part of Asia from India to Indonesia.
In nature, these are big tall trees with aerial roots, 30-40 meters high.
The ficus elastica Melanie is the most compact type of rubber-bearing rubber plants.
It was found in the greenhouse of one of the cities of Holland and is a mutation from another type of ficus elastica - Decor.
From the cuttings taken from it, new plants were grown that completely preserved the properties of their ancestor, which made it possible to isolate Melanie into a new variety.
This makes it possible to experiment with its crown, while maintaining a small occupied size.
Video about the ficus variety "Melanie":
Care after purchase
Plants are usually sold in small shipping pots that are filled with a temporary substrate.
Ficus Melanie replant best after 1 week after purchase.
The new pot is selected in size larger by 2-3 centimeters, than the previous one.
It is possible to fill it with a universal ground for ornamental plants, but it is best to take a special one for ficuses.
Watering in the first days should be done in small portions. In the future, go to a regular schedule with moderate watering.
The ficus is drought-resistant, and watering should be done only after the earth has dried by 2-4 centimeters.
The average frequency - 2 times per week. In winter, you can water weekly for 1 time.
These plants are more likely to suffer from excessive watering than from lack of water. If after the procedure the liquid remains in the pan, it must be drained.
The house practically does not bloom.
In order for the plant to give the necessary shape and avoid pulling the branches, it must be cut.
The optimal time is the end of winter or the beginning of spring.
This should be done correctly - if you just cut off the top of the head, new leaves will start to develop nearby, but the flower itself will continue to grow upwards.
To stimulate branching, it is necessary to cut at least 4-6 sheets down.
The shoots that appear in this way can be rooted.
Soil and soil
Best suited specialized soil for ficuses.
But you can also use any subacidic or neutral earth, or you can make the substrate yourself.
To do this, mix one part of the leaf, sod land, humus, and half of the sand.
Be sure to down with a thick layer of expanded clay filled with drainage.
The ficus belongs to fast-growing plants and needs regular transplantation in more spacious capacity.
The best time for this is the beginning of spring.
The procedure must be performed when the roots have completely filled the space in the previous pot or sprouted into the drainage holes.
New is selected on 2-3 centimeters larger in size than previously, from any material.
5-6 summer plants can not completely replant, but only to replace about 3 centimeters of topsoil.
In the photo ficus "Melanie":
Occurs by cuttings that are cut in the spring of 10-15 centimeters in length from the top or stem fragments with 2-3 leaflets.
After cutting, it should be placed in a glass of water for some time to drain the milky juice.
Root the stalk can be sticking to the substrate, or by placing in a glass of water.
In the first case, the pot must be closed with a film to create favorable conditions. You can also dip the bottom tip into a root growth stimulator.
The best temperature for the maintenance of the ficus elastic Melanie is + 18-25 degrees.
If the plant is in warmer air, the leaves should be periodically sprayed with separated water, treated with a damp sponge, or bathing in the shower.
In winter, the best temperature will be + 16-18 degrees.
It is not advisable to allow it to fall below +12 degrees, because the root system can freeze, and the plant in response to this will drop the leaves.
Diseases and pests
Melanie's ficus elastica is susceptible to infection with thrips, spider mites and shields.
To combat them, it is necessary to wash the leaves of the plant with a damp sponge with a mild soap solution, and then treat with chemicals.
In addition, the plant may experience the following problems associated with improper conditions:
- the leaves sagged - it is hot in the room, the air is dry. It is necessary to regularly spray the flower,
- leaf dropping - this can be due to two reasons: low air temperature or improper watering.
In the first case it is necessary to move the pot to a warmer place, remove it from the draft.
In the second - normalize watering. It is worth checking the condition of the soil and the root system, it may be necessary to transplant with the removal of rotted roots.
Brown spots on the leaves - burns from direct rays. It is necessary to create a shadow in the daytime.
Ficus elastica melanie - one of the popular types of ficus.
It grows a bush, and therefore gives a great opportunity to experiment on the crown.
The plant does not require any special conditions for itself, and therefore it can be recommended to those who are just starting to grow room flowers.
In the video, the appearance of the ficus elastic "Melanie":
Useful video about watering and care at home for the ficus "Melanie":
Ficus melanie: care
Care at home does not cause trouble even novice florist. The plant does not like exposure to direct sunlight and dry air.
The flower is usually sold in a small temporary container. A week after buying it need to transplant into the pot 2 cm more than the previous one.
Ficus Melanie prefers to grow in a lighted place, but without direct sunlight. Scorching sun can cause burns on the leaves.
With a lack of lighting leaves fall.
In the natural habitat of ficus daylight lasts 12-14 hours, so in the winter period you need to turn on the backlight of the fluorescent lamps.
In order for the crown to be evenly distributed, it is necessary to regularly turn the flower pot relative to the light source.
Fertilizer and soil composition
Soil get ready for ficuses or prepare their own.
The soil should consist of the listed components mixed in equal proportions:
- turfy (deciduous) ground,
- washed and steamed in the oven river sand
To avoid rotting of the roots, a drainage layer of expanded clay or pebbles is placed on the bottom.
As fertilizers use:
- ready feeding,
- wood ash
- Nettle decoction.
The ficus grows quite quickly, so young plants are transplanted once a year into a more spacious container.
Adult flowers are transplanted every three years.when the root system completely fills the tank and starts to grow into the drainage holes.
In the spring, the flower is transplanted by waddling along with a clod of earth into a wider pot.
Free space is filled with fertile soil, bought in a store or cooked with your own hands.
Pruning is carried out to form a beautiful flower shape. Gradually, the lower leaves fall, the appearance of the plant is lost. In February-March, the upper part is cut off with 4-6 internodes.. A small plant is cut off the top. Cut off the stem put in the water for further reproduction.
Description and appearance of the plant
Ficus Melanie small size. Stems do not grow up, but to the side of a bush. Because of this feature, the tree can be given an interesting decorative look, forming a crown. Because of its small size, it is easy to place on the windowsill or small platforms.
In the wild, rubbery rubber plants Melanie reach a size of up to 30 meters in height. At first, the tree consists only of a stiff trunk, then the root system starts aerial roots, in connection with which the plant is called the "serpentine tree". In India, these aerial roots are used to create suspension bridges. They are able to withstand up to 50 people at the same time and can last 600 years, constantly renewing themselves.
At home, Melanie does not bloom. When buying it you need to take into account that the ficus is suitable for lovers of greenery, not flowers.
If you follow the simple rules of plant care, it is able to produce one leaf per week, while maintaining lower foliage.
Its leaves are rather dense, oblong with tips curved downwards. В длину бывают до 15 см при ширине в 5−6 см.The upper surface is glossy, dark green with light streaks. Below the leaves are olive-colored, dull, rough to the touch, originally dissected by red streaks.
In nature, it grows in Indonesia and in the east of India. It is distributed worldwide as an ornamental shrub by the Dutch.
When purchasing a pet in a specialty flower shop you need to follow certain rules:
- It is necessary to give preference to a young plant. Over time, the ficus reduces its ability to adapt. A mature tree may simply not take root in a new place.
- The best time to buy is spring or early summer. It is at this time that it is easiest for plants to adapt in the new microclimate.
- Be sure to examine the leaves for the absence of any spots. They can be a sign of disease.
- If you shake a tree or hold your hand against the leaves, they should remain in place. If the leaves fall, take such a plant is not worth it.
For a new tenant, you need to arrange a quarantine for 2−3 weeks. During this time, you must carefully monitor that it does not appear pests or signs of disease.
Suitable growing conditions
The main feature of the ficus Melanie - unpretentiousness. It requires simple conditions of detention.
To grow it you need to define a bright place, but direct sunlight should not fall on the leaves of the shrub. In addition, he does not like drafts. A light day for a plant should last 12 hours. In winter, you will have to organize additional lighting. The ficus will reach for the light, so for the smooth formation of the crown, it must be periodically rotated. In case of insufficient lighting, the tree throws off the leaves.
Melanie can withstand temperatures ranging from +16 to +30 degrees. Ideal for its growth are indicators in + 20−25 degrees. In summer, it is worthwhile to provide the shrub with additional spraying.
In winter, care for ficus Melanie (Elastic) at home occurs at a temperature of + 16−18 degrees. When the ambient temperature drops to +12 degrees, the roots freeze, the foliage falls and the plant dies.
Soil wood prefers nutritious, with good breathability and drainage. Ph level should be neutral or slightly sour.
It is necessary to take into account that the soil for a young plant should differ in composition from the soil for a mature shrub. At first, the ficus prefers loose soil, in which, after two years, it is necessary to pour sod soil.
In flower shops special mix for ficuses is on sale. If desired, you can prepare the soil composition on their own. For him, take the same amount of peat, humus and sand.
Drainage from expanded clay, coarse sand or rubble is required.
Caring for ficus Melanie at home consists of regular watering, annual pruning, feeding and transplanting.
There is no special watering schedule for ficus. You need to focus on the humidity of the room and the air temperature. The soil in the pot should dry completely, but not be cracked and dry.
In the summer, water is poured into the pot until it begins to flow into the pan. In winter, watering is moderate, especially if the plant is contained at low temperatures.
Spraying is carried out in the period of heating the apartment or on hot summer days. Use water at room temperature.
Feed the rubber moth ficus Melanie need once a month. Fertilizers are added on the day of watering or the next, while the soil is wet. The preference is given to liquid mineral compositions.
Pruning to form a crown is carried out in early spring. 5 internodes are cut from the top of the stem. Thanks to this procedure, the tree begins to bush, it becomes lush and branchy.
It is recommended to pruning with gloves, because Melanie leaf juice is poisonous and can cause allergies and irritation on the skin.
It should be replanted annually at the end of winter, each time choosing a pot 2–3 cm larger than the previous one. If a young plant is planted in a large pot from the very beginning, its roots will grow excessively when the land part lags behind in development.
For a sufficiently mature tree, it is possible to transplant every 3 years, changing annually only the top layer of the earth, 3–5 cm thick.
The ficus should not be transplanted, but literally reloaded without separating the ground from the roots in the process of changing the pot.
Reproduction of ficus Melanie occurs in two ways: apical shoots or air layering.
In the first case, the shoot is cut from the top with 2-3 leaves and put it in the water. Cover package until the roots. Then transplanted into the finished soil.
The second method is more complicated and is made only by experienced growers. They slit the stem diagonally 1/3 of the width and insert a match or a toothpick inside so that it does not grow back together. Put peat on top and wrap with cellophane. After some time, roots appear at the site of the incision. The shoot with roots is cut completely and transplanted into the pot.
For the first time ficus Elastik Melanie was bred by one breeder in Holland. His seedlings do not grow up, as many of his brothers, and grow in all directions. Ficus grows small, but compact in size, due to which it is very much appreciated in decoration. Most often, this variety is grown on the windowsill in private homes and apartments.
However, if you plant a ficus on the plot, it can grow quite large - up to 40 meters. But the room flower Melanie grows only up to 40-50 centimeters, but it looks like a bushy and magnificent flower. In common people it is called the snake tree. This is due to the fact that initially the ficus has only a stiff trunk, a little later, after planting, aerial roots appear, resembling many snakes hanging from a small tree.
However, if a novice florist wants to start a flowering plant in the house, then you should not take Melanie into account, this ficus is only suitable for landscaping the apartment and does not bloom when grown at home. But at the tree new young leaves grow quite quickly, 1 leaf per week, and the lower ones usually do not fall off, but continue to grow with everyone.
Foliage has a dense texture and oblong shape. Their edges are slightly bent downwards, and their length is 15 centimeters in length, and the width is not more than 8 centimeters. From above, the leaves are painted green with a light streak, and the bottom has a light olive shade, on which is a rich red vein. Because of the unusual color of the leaves, ficus Melanie is considered variegated. Each stem is richly covered with these wonderful leaves, the distance between them is equal to just a few centimeters. According to experienced gardeners, every 10 centimeters of the stem has about 8 sheets.
In India, residents are engaged in arbosculpture. Namely, a certain number of ficus bushes are grown for 10-15 years, and then they are used to build a bridge of plants. And since the stalk of the ficus is quite durable, it can withstand about 50 people of medium build at a time. Such a bridge is durable and can last about 600 years. Buddhists believe that it is the ficus that contributes to the appearance of love, happiness and well-being in the house.
The ficus prefers to grow in soil with low acidity, there should be drainage in the pot, and the soil should be chosen more easily so that moisture and air pass to the root system without any obstacles. Land for planting is different, young shoots are planted in loose soil, and older with the addition of sod and humus. The soil can be made independently or purchased in the store. However, there is a recipe for finished soil for ficus, which consists of the following ingredients:
- Humus, peat and sand. Components take on 1 part and mixed with the soil, the mixture is used only for young shoots.
- Peat, sand, sod and dry leaves of trees. Also take on 1 part and mixed, it is recommended for plants older than 2-3 years.
- For adult bushes, you can take several pieces of sand, sod land and humus, mix and use during planting.
At the bottom of the pot is placed drainage, which consists of expanded clay or small stones and sand. However, the best option would be to use only expanded clay, because of its composition, it perfectly absorbs excess moisture and fertilizing, and after a while gives it back to the soil.
In no case should clay be added to the soil prepared for planting, since this material does not let moisture in well and impairs drainage, and this, in turn, has a negative effect on the root system of the plant as a whole.
Melanie is recommended to put in a house in a place where the plant will be well lit. However, direct sunlight should be avoided, otherwise the foliage will suffer from burns. Draft for ficus is also not allowed. Light day for this variety should be about 14 hours. In winter, the day is short, so the plant will lack ultraviolet light. In this regard, you can buy additional lighting in the store - the plant will fully grow and develop.
As you know, the plant always pulls the leaves to the light, so its symmetry is broken, but in order to avoid this, it is recommended to turn the pot with a bush periodically. In the house the seedlings are placed both on the north and on the south side of the dwelling. But if the ficus suddenly suffers from a lack of light, this will lead to the falling of the foliage and slowing its growth in the future.
Watering and hygiene procedures
Watering the plant is also necessary, but they do it only after an external inspection of the soil in a bitter and checking for humidity. Watering depends on many factors, for example:
- The temperature in the room.
- The property and composition of the soil.
- Age category shrub.
In order to check the humidity of the earth, you should put a finger on a few centimeters of the earth and, if particles of soil stick to it, then it is too early to think about moistening. But if it is harder and falls away from the finger, then the time for watering has come.
In summer, the ficus is recommended to be watered until water seeps into the pan. And after an hour from the pallet the water needs to be poured In winter, you need to water less abundantly, otherwise an excess of moisture can destroy your green pet, especially if you do it in a room with low air temperature. Water before irrigation is better to defend and slightly warm to room temperature. As a hygiene procedure, it is recommended to periodically wipe the leaves with a damp cloth.
Top dressing and fertilizers
In the summer, you need to feed the ficus 2 times a month, and in the winter, the input of fertilizers decreases to 1 time in 30 days. The main thing is to remember that it is recommended to introduce fertilizers on the previously moistened soil or right on the day of irrigation, but not in any case on dry soil.
However, after the purchase and transplant within 30 days exclude any feeding. And this is due to the fact that the rhizome of a seedling can burn, and there is nothing to it, because the flower will absorb the nutritive components from the prepared soil. Experienced gardeners recommend choosing a fertilizer better in liquid form.
Cropping and crown formation
Pruning for this plant is recommended with the onset of spring, but you can do it at the end of the winter period. To do this, cut to 5 internodes, which are located on the top of the ficus. This is necessary in order to make the plant thrive, as well as for its pomp.
But this effect can be achieved only if the plant is tilted for a while. At this moment, the lateral bud will begin to form and grow and the plant will acquire treasured pomp. There are simply no other ways to force branched shoots.
It is worth remembering that the ficus contains poisonous juice, which is manifested on the skin in the form of irritation or an allergic reaction. Therefore, cut it must be directly in gloves.
Transplant plants after purchase
The seedling is sold in special shipping pots, which are filled with a temporary substrate. Immediately transplanting the plant is not recommended, from now on it should take about 7 days.
Capacity for planting should be a few centimeters more than the purchase. In the pot pour out a special soil for ficus or replace it with another for non-flowering varieties. On the first day after planting, water is watered frequently, but in small portions, and after a few more weeks they switch to a moderate irrigation schedule.
Fight against diseases and pests
Like almost all plants, the ficus Melanie can also be attacked by pests or disease. The most common are:
- Falling leaves. This may be due to poor lighting or too frequent watering. To prevent this, you need to identify the cause and eliminate it.
- Yellowing leaves. Typically, this process begins before dropping off, but it may be due to an overabundance of top dressing. Such a tree needs to be transplanted into another soil and watered with salted water.
- Slow growth and development. Occurs due to insufficient lighting, excess fertilizer in the soil.
- The appearance of brown spots on Melanie. It happens with burns and excess fertilizing.
In addition, the plant is sometimes attacked by the following insects and pests:
- Shchitovka. Insects settle on the leaves of plants and feed on its juice until the very death of the seedling. To get rid of them, sponge moistened in soapy water and wipe the plant. If the foliage is badly damaged, it is cut.
- Spider mite You can determine its invasion by the presence of a white web on the plant. It starts up from too dry air in the room. To combat it, it is recommended to water the sapling more often with water and wipe the foliage.
- Thrips. When attacking these pests ficus must be thoroughly washed and transplanted into another pot. Spray the solution "Fitoverm" and cover with cellophane for 24 hours.
This method of reproduction is done directly with the onset of spring. The process goes like this:
- To begin with, prepare 15 centimeter cuttings with an oblique cut.
- At each cut leave the third part of the sheet.
- Ficus juice is thoroughly washed with water.
- The cuttings are dried for some time, the cut is treated with a special solution.
- The pot is filled with peat, sand and soil, the cutting is placed in it.
- Capacity covered with cellophane.
- After rooting and the formation of the first leaves, the plants are seated in different pots.
This method is also often used for breeding ficus. From the outside it looks like this:
- Part of the shoot bare and incise in a circle.
- Cut the slice with moss and fix with scotch tape.
- The moss part should always be in a well-moistened place.
- Only after the formation of aerial roots, shoots are separated from the main stem and planted in separate pots.
Thus, the care of the ficus is minimal, the plant is compact, such advantages will certainly be appreciated by beginners in floriculture. The simplicity in the content of this plant will give them even more desire to engage in floriculture.
Ficus care at home:
Description and features
The plant has elliptical leaves, the tip of which is pointed, they are slightly tilted down.
Ficus leaves are quite small and reach a length of 15 cm, and 7 cm in width. Their outer side is glossy, dense, juicy and dark green. Inner - light green, matte, has reddish streaks. Due to the compactness of the crown has a short internode about 2 cm in length. Plant growth is vertical, with a tendency to branching.
Melanie can not bloom in room conditions without proper care.Under natural conditions, any ficuses look inconspicuous, have faded flowers that are pollinated only due to certain types of insects. Correctly pinching and cutting the branches of trees, you can get shapes for every taste.
This is a fruit bearing plant. The fruits are small, about 1 cm in diameter. They look like small figs and are completely inedible.
Home Growth and Care Conditions
In order for a healthy, well-leafy beautiful plant to grow, appropriate care will be required, especially a sufficient amount of light and good air moisture. At the same time, it is necessary to avoid exposure to sunlight, since they can burn ficus leaves in minutes. In the apartment, this plant is desirable to place on the window sills of windows of any side other than the south.
Also ficus Melanie easily transfers temperatures of 12-32 degrees.
In winter, it is necessary to provide him with a temperature regime in the range between 16 and 18 degrees, and the humidity should not be below 50%, which, unfortunately, is quite difficult to do in average apartments in the winter with central heating. It is important to humidify the air for plants using regular spraying or using a humidifier. Regular weekly wiping of the leaves and even a shower once in 30 days can also help.
Water the ficus should be carefully, having previously checked that the earth has dried deep into 1-2 fingers. Before watering, water must be defended. В зимнее время полив осуществляется намного реже, когда куб грунта просохнет примерно наполовину. Для фикуса крайне важно соблюдение режима поливов, особенно в зимнее время.If excessive moistening is allowed, then the ficus quickly loses its leaves, they lose their healthy color, begin to cover at the edges with brown spots and soon fall off completely. This will indicate that root rot occurs. And this, of course, leads to the death of the plant.
As a rule, the plant is brought to our country from Holland. After the ficus is purchased, it must be removed from the pot and removed from the roots as soon as possible from the industrial substrate in which the plant is immersed. After that, rinse the roots with cool water. After that, it should be transplanted into a vessel of a larger size than it had before, filled it with fertile light soil with a neutral or weakly acid reaction.
Ficus transplant rules
At the bottom should be put a layer of drainage, the thickness of which should be within 2 or 3 cm.
During planting, carefully straighten the roots of the plant. Further transplant of ficus will need to be carried out every 1-3 years, depending on the nature and speed of its development.
In the period of active growth, which is observed from April to the end of September, it is necessary to feed the ficus once in 1-4 days with special universal fertilizers.
If the plant is too stretched, it can be cut to improve appearance. Pruning should be carried out at the beginning of spring or at the end of winter, immediately before the onset of a period of active growth. For this, 3-6 internodes are cut off simultaneously on some branches. This gives the home tree a particularly beautiful shape. In order to formulate a young plant, its shoots are simply pinched, no more procedures can be performed.
In some cases, apply reproduction through air layouts. For its implementation, the ficus stalk is vertically incised directly under the leaf. Then in the resulting gap is placed a match moistened with a root. From the outer part is wrapped with a film to preserve moisture. After a few months, we can expect the appearance of roots, after which the layers can be cut and transplanted into a pot.
Ficus Melanie: diseases and pests
Invalid and illiterate care of this plant may lead to its disease. In order for pest and disease control to be effective, one must always begin by examining indoor plants.
There are several major problems that can prevent a plant from growing and developing normally.
- Yellow and fall leaves. This often happens with ficuses during the heating season in modern homes. It should be remembered that the ficus originated in the tropics and subtropics. Therefore, the high temperature and dry air at a time when he has a period of rest, always lead to yellowing and falling leaves. This slender tree quickly loses its attractiveness and as a result may finally die. In order to avoid such problems, it is recommended to take out all types of ficus in the winter period in a cool room. If for some reason it is difficult to do this, then you should at least take the vessels with ficus as far as possible from the battery bursting with heat and turn on the air humidifier in the room. If there is no humidifier, then wet sheets can be put on the battery.
- Gray rot. You can not overdo it with moisture, because moldy gray spots can occur on the leaves and stalk of ficus. If this happens, the affected areas of the plant should be removed and the room moisture should be reduced.
- Root rot. Too abundant watering, especially in the winter time, often leads to decay of the roots. Then brown spots appear on the leaves and trunks, the plant begins to fade. As soon as the first signs of such a disease appear, measures should be taken immediately. For this plant you need to transplant to a new substrate. Accordingly, it will be necessary to cut off the rotten areas and treat them with a disinfector.
- Fungal diseases. Occur due to improper care. Often on the leaves of the variety Melanie appears rusty, brown, dark gray patina. It speaks of a fungal disease. If you find a problem in a timely manner, then you can limit yourself only to taking off the raid. If the lesions are serious, then it is necessary to remove the diseased leaves and treat them with a fungicide.
- Spider mite. This is the most frequent pest for ficus. Spider mite - the most real disaster for ficuses. This is a very small insect. It can be seen only through a magnifying glass. However, flower growers often recognize mite damage to plants by the appearance of a fine spiderweb. It is located, as a rule, on the lower sides of the leaves and strikes them in a characteristic way. Mites stick to the plant and consume juice from them. In connection with these, the whole sheet is covered with small punctures. The occurrence of ticks can provoke excessive dry dry premises. To avoid this, you need to spray the ficus more often and wash its leaves with water and soap. It is also good to spray it with various solutions, for example pyrethrum, which can be added only 2-3 g per liter. water. You can repeat the spraying in a week.
- Shchitovka. This parasite, as well as the tick, sucks the juice from the stems and leaves of ficus. The shield can be removed with a sponge, pre-moistened with soapy water or with a wet toothbrush. After that you need to wash the ficus under the shower and spray with soapy water. If you properly care and regularly wipe the plants, you can prevent the appearance of any pests.
- Thrips. This is one of the most unpleasant pests. They do not care poisons and various chemical treatments. At the same time, they not only suck the sap from the plant, but also are carriers of diseases dangerous for it. They are also very mobile and very quickly jump to the next landing. To find out that thrips hit the ficus, you can by the appearance of white sheets and black dots on it. It is possible to fight thrips through the use of any insecticides. Treatment should be carried out once a week. Prevention of thrips infection is to control air drying.
- Mealybug. This is another driver who loves to drink ficus juice. These are visible insects, reaching a length of 5 mm, which are covered with down. The method of dealing with the mealybug is exactly the same as with the shield.
Of course, with this plant there can be many problems during its cultivation. But nevertheless the ficus Melanie is a rather unpretentious plant and at the same time beautiful. If you are a caring owner and love your green pet, you are ready to provide up-to-date care for your Ficus Melanie at home, he will answer you with all his beauty and will quickly decorate your house or apartment.
With the care, the fulfillment of all the conditions for the maintenance of ficus at home can even handle a novice grower.
Optimum conditions for growing
To create optimal conditions for the maintenance of ficus in the room, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the flower and its requirements.
For the formation of a thick and beautiful crown, which will decorate the interior, Ficus requires a fertile, loose soil mixture. Substrate with suitable characteristics is sold in specialized stores. You can prepare it yourself, connecting sheet, turf soil, sand and peat in equal parts.
Ficus Melanie loves a large amount of diffused light that windows of east or west can provide him. Since the ficus is a plant of long daylight, in the winter time it is recommended to arrange the additional lighting with the help of fluorescent lamps.
Regardless of the reasons, the transplant is performed as follows:
1. Choose a pot with a diameter of 2-3 cm more than the previous one.
2. At the bottom is placed a good drainage.
3. The ficus with an earthy clod rolls over into a new container.
4. The remaining space is filled with prepared nutrient substrate.
5. The soil is compacted and moistened.
In late spring-early summer, the procedure is as follows:
1. Cuttings are harvested with a length of 15 cm and an oblique cut.
2. The sheet above the cut is cut by ⅓.
3. Milky juice, characteristic of ficuses, is washed off with water.
4. The cuttings are dried for 2-3 hours, and then the slices are processed by root formers.
5. The decontaminated tank is filled with a mixture of peat and sand, in which cuttings are placed until the second internode.
6. The container is covered with polyethylene to create the necessary indicators of humidity and temperature.
7. When the cuttings take root, which will be evidenced by the newly formed leaves, the plants are seated in separate pots.